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# IGCSE Physics Paper 6 tips!

🔴Lenses Precautions:

## •Carry out experiment in a dark room.

•Use a set square to make sure the screen is vertical.
•Measure the distance between the lens and the object by drawing a vertical line in the
middle of the lens’ holder, and •measure the distance from there.
•Move the lens back and forth until you have a focused image.
•The centers of the lens, object, and screen must have the same height from the bench.
•Lens, object and screen must be perpendicular to the bench.
•Clamp rule or place on the bench.
Pins precautions.
•Place pins as far away from each other as possible.
•View pins with one eye such that they appear as one.
•View pins from their bases in case one of them isn’t vertical.

## •Repeat experiment several times and take average.

•Check for zero error before starting
Switch off circuit between readings TO REDUCE THE HEATING EFFECT.
•Avoid parallax error by looking perpendicular to the scale.
•Tapping the meter only if an analogue meter is used.
• Limit current-voltage-power so temperature isn’t increased.

## 🔴Possible cause of inaccuracy while measuring angles of reflection:

•Thickness of lines.
•Thickness of pins or pin holes.
•The protractor gives the reading nearest to one degree.
•Bases of pins might be tilted.
•Positions of pins might not be exact as ray.
•Thickness of mirror.

## 🔴Precautions to take care of while taking readings from thermometer: (heating

experiment)
•Insulate beaker to reduce amount of heat loss.
•Repeat and take average.
•Stir to ensure water temperature is the same throughout the whole beaker.
•Use a lid to reduce amount of heat loss.

## 🔴 Problems when measuring distances in pivot experiments with masses:

•Rule is unlikely to balance.
•Rule could slide on pivot.
•Mass could slide on rule.
•Rule isn’t uniform so centre of mass of rule is not on the 50cm mark.

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🔴 Experiment steps:
• We strongly recommend drawing a labelled diagram even if he does not REQUIRE you
to.
•State the variables you’re changing (usually only one) and state the variables that you
will keep constant, and which variable will change in effect.
•If he doesn’t tell you to write a precaution, I strongly suggest you do so as it allows you
“Repeat and take average.”
•Plot a graph and table, with THE LABELS, but you should not fill it in.
•Deduction (NOT CONCLUSION) (do not predict what will happen, but you should say
how you interpret your results (measurements)).

🔴 Graphs:
•Do not extend the line to the origin if he didn’t ask.
•Use more than 50% of the space.
•Use the graph to get the gradient, not the table.
•Do not draw broken lines.
•LABEL THE AXES.
•Unit for gradient must be written when its required.

🔴 Measurements: (FYI)

⭕ Mass:
Metre rule: 100g.
Protractor: 5g.

⭕ Volume:
Test tube: 10cm3.
Measuring cylinder: 100cm3.

⭕ Current:
Filament bulb: 1 A.
Air conditioner: 20 A.