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Fig. A.1 Absolute viscosity of com- mon fluids at 1 atm.

Appendix A Physical Properties of Fluids

fluids at 1 atm. Appendix A Physical Properties of Fluids 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 Castor oil
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 Castor oil SAE 10 oil 0.1 0.06 Glycerin 0.04 0.03 SAE
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
Castor oil
SAE 10 oil
0.1
0.06
Glycerin
0.04
0.03
SAE 30 oil
Crude oil (SG 0.86)
0.02
0.01
Carbon tetrachloride
6
4
Kerosine
3
Aniline
2
Mercury
1 ×
10 – 3
6
Ethyl
alcohol
4
Benzene
3
Water
2
Gasoline (SG 0.68)
1 ×
10 – 4
6
4
3
Helium
2
Carbon dioxide
Air
1 × 10 –5
Hydrogen
5
– 20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Temperature, °C
769
Absolute viscosity µ, N ⋅ s/m 2

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770 Appendix A

Fig. A.2 Kinematic viscosity of common fluids at 1 atm.

1 × 10 –3 8 6 4 Glycerin 3 Helium 2 SAE 10 oil Hydrogen
1 ×
10 –3
8
6
4
Glycerin
3
Helium
2
SAE 10 oil
Hydrogen
1 ×
10 – 4
8
6
SAE 30 oil
4
3
Air and
oxygen
2
Carbon
dioxide
1 ×
10 –5
8
6
Crude oil (SG 0.86)
4
3
2
Kerosine
Benzene
1 ×
10 –6
8
Ethyl alcohol
6
4
Water
3
Gasoline (SG 0.68)
Carbon
2
tetrachloride
Mercury
1 × 10 –7
–20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Kinematic viscosity ν, m 2 /s

Temperature, °C

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Table A.1 Viscosity and Density of Water at 1 atm

Table A.2 Viscosity and Density of Air at 1 atm

Physical Properties of Fluids

771

T, °C

, kg/m 3

, N s/m 2

, m 2 /s

T, °F

, slug/ft 3

, lb s/ft 2

, ft 2 /s

 

0

1000

1.788 E-3

1.788 E-6

 

32

1.940

3.73

E-5

1.925 E-5

10

1000

1.307 E-3

1.307 E-6

50

1.940

2.73

E-5

1.407 E-5

20

998

1.003 E-3

1.005 E-6

68

1.937

2.09

E-5

1.082 E-5

30

996

0.799 E-3

0.802 E-6

86

1.932

1.67

E-5

0.864 E-5

40

992

0.657 E-3

0.662 E-6

104

1.925

1.37

E-5

0.713 E-5

50

988

0.548 E-3

0.555 E-6

122

1.917

1.14

E-5

0.597 E-5

60

983

0.467 E-3

0.475 E-6

140

1.908

0.975 E-5

0.511 E-5

70

978

0.405 E-3

0.414 E-6

158

1.897

0.846 E-5

0.446 E-5

80

972

0.355 E-3

0.365 E-6

176

1.886

0.741 E-5

0.393 E-5

90

965

0.316 E-3

0.327 E-6

194

1.873

0.660 E-5

0.352 E-5

100

958

0.283 E-3

0.295 E-6

212

1.859

0.591 E-5

0.318 E-5

Suggested curve fits for water in the range 0 T 100°C:

 
 

(kg/m 3 ) 1000 0.0178T°C 4°C1.7 0.2%

 

ln 1.704 5.306z 7.003z 2

 

0

2

73 K

z T K

0 1.788 E-3

kg/(m s)

T, °C

, kg/m 3

, N s/m 2

, m 2 /s

T, °F

, slug/ft 3

, lb s/ft 2

, ft 2 /s

40

1.520

1.51 E-5

0.99 E-5

40

2.94 E-3

3.16 E-7

1.07 E-4

0

1.290

1.71 E-5

1.33 E-5

32

2.51 E-3

3.58 E-7

1.43 E-4

20

1.200

1.80 E-5

1.50 E-5

68

2.34 E-3

3.76 E-7

1.61 E-4

50

1.090

1.95 E-5

1.79 E-5

122

2.12 E-3

4.08 E-7

1.93 E-4

100

0.946

2.17 E-5

2.30 E-5

212

1.84 E-3

4.54 E-7

2.47 E-4

150

0.835

2.38 E-5

2.85 E-5

302

1.62 E-3

4.97 E-7

3.07 E-4

200

0.746

2.57 E-5

3.45 E-5

392

1.45 E-3

5.37 E-7

3.71 E-4

250

0.675

2.75 E-5

4.08 E-5

482

1.31 E-3

5.75 E-7

4.39 E-4

300

0.616

2.93 E-5

4.75 E-5

572

1.20 E-3

6.11 E-7

5.12 E-4

400

0.525

3.25 E-5

6.20 E-5

752

1.02 E-3

6.79 E-7

6.67 E-4

500

0.457

3.55 E-5

7.77 E-5

932

0.89 E-3

7.41 E-7

8.37 E-4

Suggested curve fits for air:

Power law:

Sutherland law:

p

R

T

R air 287 J/(kg K)

0

T

0

0.7

T

0

T

3/2

T

0

T

0

S

T S

S air 110.4 K

with T 0 273 K, 0 1.71 E-5 kg/(m s), and T in kelvins.

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772 Appendix A

Table A.3

Liquids at 1 atm and 20°C (68°F)

Properties of Common

 

Bulk modulus,

Viscosity parameter C

Liquid

, kg/m 3

, kg/(m s)

, N/m*

p , N/m 2

N/m 2

 

Ammonia Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Ethanol Ethylene glycol Freon 12 Gasoline Glycerin Kerosine Mercury Methanol SAE 10W oil SAE 10W30 oil SAE 30W oil SAE 50W oil Water Seawater (30%)

13,608

2.20 E-4

2.13 E-2

9.10 E 5 1.01 E 4 1.20 E 4 5.73 E 3

1.43 E 9 9.65 E 8 9.03 E 8 — — 9.58 E 80 4.34 E 90 1.63 E 90 2.55 E 10 8.33 E 80 1.31 E 90

1.05

13,881

6.51 E-4

2.88 E-2

4.34

31,590

9.67 E-4

2.70 E-2

4.45

13,789

1.20 E-3

2.28 E-2

5.72

31,117

2.14 E-2

4.84 E-2

1.23 E 1

11.7

31,327

2.62 E-4

——

1.76

13,680

2.92 E-4

2.16 E-2

5.51 E 4 1.43 E-2 3.11 E 3 1.13 E-3 1.34 E 4

3.68

31,260

1.49

6.33 E-2

28.0

13,804

1.92 E-3 1.56 E-3 5.98 E-4 1.04 E-1 1.7 E-1 2.9 E-1 8.6 E-1 1.00 E-3 1.07 E-3

2.83 E-2

5.56

13,550

4.84 E-1

1.07

13,791

2.25 E-2

4.63

13,870

3.63 E-2

15.7

13,876

——

1.38 E 90

14.0

13,891

3.53 E-2

18.3

13,902

——

20.2

13,998

7.28 E-2

2.34 E 3 2.34 E 3

2.19

E

90

Table A.1

31,025

7.28 E-2

2.33 E 90

7.28

* In contact with air. The viscosity-temperature variation of these liquids may be fitted to the empirical expression

2 0°C exp C 1

2

93 K

T K

with accuracy of 6 percent in the range 0 T 100°C. Representative values. The SAE oil classifications allow a viscosity variation of up to 50 percent, especially at lower temperatures.

Table A.4 Properties of Common Gases at 1 atm and 20°C (68°F)

Molecular

Specific-heat

Power-law exponent n

Gas

weight

R, m 2 /(s 2 K)

g, N/m 3

, N s/m 2

ratio

H 2 He H 2 O Ar Dry air CO 2 CO N O NO N 2 O Cl 2 CH 4

2

2

2.016

4124

00.822

9.05 E-6

1.41

0.68

4.003

2077

01.630

1.97 E-5

1.66

0.67

18.020

0461

07.350

1.02 E-5

1.33

1.15

39.944

0208

16.300

2.24 E-5

1.67

0.72

28.960

0287

11.800

1.80 E-5

1.40

0.67

44.010

0189

17.900

1.48 E-5

1.30

0.79

28.010

0297

11.400

1.82 E-5

1.40

0.71

28.020

0297

11.400

1.76 E-5

1.40

0.67

32.000

0260

13.100

2.00 E-5

1.40

0.69

30.010

0277

12.100

1.90 E-5

1.40

0.78

44.020

0189

17.900

1.45 E-5

1.31

0.89

70.910

0117

28.900

1.03 E-5

1.34

1.00

16.040

0518

06.540

1.34 E-5

1.32

0.87

The power-law curve fit, Eq. (1.27), / 293K (T/293) n , fits these gases to within 4 percent in the range 250 T 1000 K. The temperature must be in kelvins.

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Table A.5 Surface Tension, Vapor Pressure, and Sound Speed of Water

T, °C

, N/m

p , kPa

a, m/s

0

0.0756

0.611

1402

10

0.0742

1.227

1447

20

0.0728

2.337

1482

30

0.0712

4.242

1509

40

0.0696

7.375

1529

50

0.0679

12.34

1542

60

0.0662

19.92

1551

70

0.0644

31.16

1553

80

0.0626

47.35

1554

90

0.0608

70.11

1550

100

0.0589

101.3

1543

120

0.0550

198.5

1518

140

0.0509

361.3

1483

160

0.0466

617.8

1440

180

0.0422

1,002

1389

200

0.0377

1,554

1334

220

0.0331

2,318

1268

240

0.0284

3,344

1192

260

0.0237

4,688

1110

280

0.0190

6,412

1022

300

0.0144

8,581

920

320

0.0099

11,274

800

340

0.0056

14,586

630

360

0.0019

18,651

370

374*

0.0*19

22,090*

0*

Table A.6 Prop- erties of the Standard Atmosphere

*Critical point.

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Physical Properties of Fluids

773

 

z, m

T, K

p, Pa

, kg/m 3

a, m/s

0

500

291.41

107,508

1.2854

342.2

0,0000

288.16

101,350

1.2255

340.3

0,0500

284.91

095,480

1.1677

338.4

01,000

281.66

089,889

1.1120

336.5

01,500

278.41

084,565

1.0583

334.5

02,000

275.16

079,500

1.0067

332.6

02,500

271.91

074,684

0.9570

330.6

03,000

268.66

070,107

0.9092

328.6

03,500

265.41

065,759

0.8633

326.6

04,000

262.16

061,633

0.8191

324.6

04,500

258.91

057,718

0.7768

322.6

05,000

255.66

054,008

0.7361

320.6

05,500

252.41

050,493

0.6970

318.5

06,000

249.16

047,166

0.6596

316.5

06,500

245.91

044,018

0.6237

314.4

07,000

242.66

041,043

0.5893

312.3

07,500

239.41

038,233

0.5564

310.2

08,000

236.16

035,581

0.5250

308.1

08,500

232.91

033,080

0.4949

306.0

09,000

229.66

030,723

0.4661

303.8

09,500

226.41

028,504

0.4387

301.7

10,000

223.16

026,416

0.4125

299.5

10,500

219.91

024,455

0.3875

297.3

11,000

216.66

022,612

0.3637

295.1

11,500

216.66

020,897

0.3361

295.1

12,000

216.66

019,312

0.3106

295.1

12,500

216.66

017,847

0.2870

295.1

13,000

216.66

016,494

0.2652

295.1

13,500

216.66

015,243

0.2451

295.1

14,000

216.66

014,087

0.2265

295.1

14,500

216.66

013,018

0.2094

295.1

15,000

216.66

012,031

0.1935

295.1

15,500

216.66

011,118

0.1788

295.1

16,000

216.66

010,275

0.1652

295.1

16,500

216.66

009,496

0.1527

295.1

17,000

216.66

008,775

0.1411

295.1

17,500

216.66

008,110

0.1304

295.1

18,000

216.66

007,495

0.1205

295.1

18,500

216.66

006,926

0.1114

295.1

19,000

216.66

006,401

0.1029

295.1

19,500

216.66

005,915

0.0951

295.1

20,000

216.66

005,467

0.0879

295.1

22,000

218.60

004,048

0.0645

296.4

24,000

220.60

002,972

0.0469

297.8

26,000

222.50

002,189

0.0343

299.1

28,000

224.50

001,616

0.0251

300.4

30,000

226.50

001,197

0.0184

301.7

40,000

250.40

000,287

0.0040

317.2

50,000

270.70

000,080

0.0010

329.9

60,000

255.70

000,022

0.0003

320.6

70,000

219.70

000,006

0.0001

297.2

Table B.1 Isentropic Flow of a Perfect Gas, k 1.4

774

Appendix B Compressible-Flow Tables

Gas, k 1.4 774 Appendix B Compressible-Flow Tables Ma p / p 0 / 0 T

Ma

p/p 0

/ 0

T/T 0

A/A*

Ma

p/p 0

/ 0

T/T 0

A/A*

0.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.74

0.6951

0.7712

0.9013

1.0681

0.02

0.9997

0.9998

0.9999

28.9421

0.76

0.6821

0.7609

0.8964

1.0570

0.04

0.9989

0.9992

0.9997

14.4815

0.78

0.6690

0.7505

0.8915

1.0471

0.06

0.9975

0.9982

0.9993

9.6659

0.8

0.6560

0.7400

0.8865

1.0382

0.08

0.9955

0.9968

0.9987

7.2616

0.82

0.6430

0.7295

0.8815

1.0305

0.1

0.9930

0.9950

0.9980

5.8218

0.84

0.6300

0.7189

0.8763

1.0237

0.12

0.9900

0.9928

0.9971

4.8643

0.86

0.6170

0.7083

0.8711

1.0179

0.14

0.9864

0.9903

0.9961

4.1824

0.88

0.6041

0.6977

0.8659

1.0129

0.16

0.9823

0.9873

0.9949

3.6727

0.9

0.5913

0.6870

0.8606

1.0089

0.18

0.9776

0.9840

0.9936

3.2779

0.92

0.5785

0.6764

0.8552

1.0056

0.2

0.9725

0.9803

0.9921

2.9635

0.94

0.5658

0.6658

0.8498

1.0031

0.22

0.9668

0.9762

0.9904

2.7076

0.96

0.5532

0.6551

0.8444

1.0014

0.24

0.9607

0.9718

0.9886

2.4956

0.98

0.5407

0.6445

0.8389

1.0003

0.26

0.9541

0.9670

0.9867

2.3173

1.0

0.5283

0.6339

0.8333

1.0000

0.28

0.9470

0.9619

0.9846

2.1656

1.02

0.5160

0.6234

0.8278

1.0003

0.3

0.9395

0.9564

0.9823

2.0351

1.04

0.5039

0.6129

0.8222

1.0013

0.32

0.9315

0.9506

0.9799

1.9219

1.06

0.4919

0.6024

0.8165

1.0029

0.34

0.9231

0.9445

0.9774

1.8229

1.08

0.4800

0.5920

0.8108

1.0051

0.36

0.9143

0.9380

0.9747

1.7358

1.1

0.4684

0.5817

0.8052

1.0079

0.38

0.9052

0.9313

0.9719

1.6587

1.12

0.4568

0.5714

0.7994

1.0113

0.4

0.8956

0.9243

0.9690

1.5901

1.14

0.4455

0.5612

0.7937

1.0153

0.42

0.8857

0.9170

0.9659

1.5289

1.16

0.4343

0.5511

0.7879

1.0198

0.44

0.8755

0.9094

0.9627

1.4740

1.18

0.4232

0.5411

0.7822

1.0248

0.46

0.8650

0.9016

0.9594

1.4246

1.2

0.4124

0.5311

0.7764

1.0304

0.48

0.8541

0.8935

0.9559

1.3801

1.22

0.4017

0.5213

0.7706

1.0366

0.5

0.8430

0.8852

0.9524

1.3398

1.24

0.3912

0.5115

0.7648

1.0432

0.52

0.8317

0.8766

0.9487

1.3034

1.26

0.3809

0.5019

0.7590

1.0504

0.54

0.8201

0.8679

0.9449

1.2703

1.28

0.3708

0.4923

0.7532

1.0581

0.56

0.8082

0.8589

0.9410

1.2403

1.3

0.3609

0.4829

0.7474

1.0663

0.58

0.7962

0.8498

0.9370

1.2130

1.32

0.3512

0.4736

0.7416

1.0750

0.6

0.7840

0.8405

0.9328

1.1882

1.34

0.3417

0.4644

0.7358

1.0842

0.62

0.7716

0.8310

0.9286

1.1656

1.36

0.3323

0.4553

0.7300

1.0940

0.64

0.7591

0.8213

0.9243

1.1451

1.38

0.3232

0.4463

0.7242

1.1042

0.66

0.7465

0.8115

0.9199

1.1265

1.4

0.3142

0.4374

0.7184

1.1149

0.68

0.7338

0.8016

0.9153

1.1097

1.42

0.3055

0.4287

0.7126

1.1262

0.7

0.7209

0.7916

0.9107

1.0944

1.44

0.2969

0.4201

0.7069

1.1379

0.72

0.7080

0.7814

0.9061

1.0806

1.46

0.2886

0.4116

0.7011

1.1501

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Table B.1 (Cont.) Isentropic Flow of a Perfect Gas, k 1.4

Compressible-Flow Tables

775

Ma

p/p 0

/ 0

T/T 0

A/A*

Ma

p/p 0

/ 0

T/T 0

A/A*

1.48

0.2804

0.4032

0.6954

1.1629

2.56

0.0533

0.1232

0.4328

2.7891

1.5

0.2724

0.3950

0.6897

1.1762

2.58

0.0517

0.1205

0.4289

2.8420

1.52

0.2646

0.3869

0.6840

1.1899

2.6

0.0501

0.1179

0.4252

2.8960

1.54

0.2570

0.3789

0.6783

1.2042

2.62

0.0486

0.1153

0.4214

2.9511

1.56

0.2496

0.3710

0.6726

1.2190

2.64

0.0471

0.1128

0.4177

3.0073

1.58

0.2423

0.3633

0.6670

1.2344

2.66

0.0457

0.1103

0.4141

3.0647

1.6

0.2353

0.3557

0.6614

1.2502

2.68

0.0443

0.1079

0.4104

3.1233

1.62

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0.3483

0.6558

1.2666

2.7

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0.1056

0.4068

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1.64

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0.3409

0.6502

1.2836

2.72

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0.1033

0.4033

3.2440

1.66

0.2151

0.3337

0.6447

1.3010

2.74

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0.1010

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3.3061

1.68

0.2088

0.3266

0.6392

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0.0392

0.0989

0.3963

3.3695

1.7

0.2026

0.3197

0.6337

1.3376

2.78

0.0380

0.0967

0.3928

3.4342

1.72

0.1966

0.3129

0.6283

1.3567

2.8

0.0368

0.0946

0.3894

3.5001

1.74

0.1907

0.3062

0.6229

1.3764

2.82

0.0357

0.0926

0.3860

3.5674

1.76

0.1850

0.2996

0.6175

1.3967

2.84

0.0347

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0.3827

3.6359

1.78

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0.2931

0.6121

1.4175

2.86

0.0336

0.0886

0.3794

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0.2868

0.6068

1.4390

2.88

0.0326

0.0867

0.3761

3.7771

1.82

0.1688

0.2806

0.6015

1.4610

2.9

0.0317

0.0849

0.3729

3.8498

1.84

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0.2745

0.5963

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0.0307

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0.3696

3.9238

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0.2686

0.5910

1.5069

2.94

0.0298

0.0813

0.3665

3.9993

1.88

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0.2627

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1.5308

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0.0289

0.0796

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0.1492

0.2570

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2.98

0.0281

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0.3602

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0.2514

0.5756

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0.0762

0.3571

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0.5705

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0.0264

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0.3541

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0.2352

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0.1278

0.2300

0.5556

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3.08

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0.0700

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0.2250

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0.0685

0.3422

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0.2200

0.5458

1.7451

3.12

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0.5313

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3.18

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0.3309

5.0248

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0.5266

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0.3281

5.1210

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0.5219

1.9018

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0.1925

0.5173

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5.3186

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0.1882

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0.0185

0.0579

0.3199

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0.0935

0.1841

0.5081

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3.28

0.0180

0.0567

0.3173

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2.22

0.0906

0.1800

0.5036

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0.0175

0.0555

0.3147

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0.0878

0.1760

0.4991

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3.32

0.0170

0.0544

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2.26

0.0851

0.1721

0.4947

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3.34

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0.0533

0.3095

5.8448

2.28

0.0825

0.1683

0.4903

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3.36

0.0160

0.0522

0.3069

5.9558

2.3

0.0800

0.1646

0.4859

2.1931

3.38

0.0156

0.0511

0.3044

6.0687

2.32

0.0775

0.1609

0.4816

2.2333

3.4

0.0151

0.0501

0.3019

6.1837

2.34

0.0751

0.1574

0.4773

2.2744

3.42

0.0147

0.0491

0.2995

6.3007

2.36

0.0728

0.1539

0.4731

2.3164

3.44

0.0143

0.0481

0.2970

6.4198

2.38

0.0706

0.1505

0.4688

2.3593

3.46

0.0139