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Petzetakis manufactures an extensive range of PVC-U and PVC-A, Pressure,


Sewer, Soil, Vent, Drain, Cable Pipes and Fittings for the Mining, Irrigation, Civil,
Building, Telecommunication and Industrial markets.

Pipes are manufactured in Rosslyn, Pretoria. International alliances have enabled


Petzetakis to utilise the latest technology in the manufacture of PVC-U and
PVC-A piping systems.

Piping systems are manufactured in ISO 9001 factories and to the following SABS
and International specifications
SABS 966 Part 1,
SABS 966 Part 2,
SABS 967,
SABS 791,
SABS 1283 Edition 1. 2
SABS 1601.
And
En 1453-1 specification
JASWIC

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TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S

PRODUCT RANGE: PAGE NO’S


• Supratuff PVC-U Pressure Pipe 4

• Ultratuff PVC-A Pressure Pipe 5

• Supramyn PVC-U Victalic Ended Pressure Pipes 6

• Maincore PVC-U Multilayer Sewer Pipes 7

• Supradur & Mainvent PVC-U Multilayer Soil and Vent Pipes 8

• Supradur PVC-U Sewer Pipes 9

• Supradrain PVC-U Cable Pipes 10

• Slotted PVC-U Subsoil Drainage 11

• Maincase PVC-U Borehole Casing and Screens 12

• Sewer and Drain Fittings 13

• Supradur Soil and Vent fittings 18

• Cast Iron Fittings 21

DESIGNING WITH PVC:


• Inherent Properties 25
• Properties of PVC Pipes 27
• Calculation Flow 28
• Hydraulic Design 30
• Waterhammer 32
• Pressure / Temperature Relationship 33
• Loads on Buried Pipes 34
• Pipe Laying 39
• Jointing 43
• Pressure Testing Procedure 50
• Chemical Resistance Tables 51
• Conversion Factors 59

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PR E S S U R E PI PE – P VC - U PI PE S
SUPRATUFF PVC-U PIPES

Supratuff PVC-U Pipes are manufactured as follows:

• To SABS 966 Part 1 specifications.


• Size range 20 – 500mm outside diameter.
• Pressure range – PN 4 - PN 25.
• Plain ended in 20mm – 40mm sizes.
• With integral socket in 50 – 500mm sizes.
• Design stress - 10 MPA in sizes up to 90mm and PN 4 to PN 20.
• Design stress –10 MPA in sizes 110mm to 500mm in PN 4.
• Design stress –12.5 MPA in sizes from 110mm to 500mm in PN 6 to PN25.
• Light blue in colour.
• Lengths normally 6 metres

PI PE D I M E N S I O N S A N D M A S S

Wall thickness (mm) and mass (kg/m)

Size PN 4 PN 6 PN 9 PN 12 PN 16 PN 20 PN 25
od mm Kg/m mm Kg/m mm Kg/m mm Kg/m mm Kg/m mm Kg/m mm Kg/m
20 1.5 0.15 2.0 0.17
25 0.15 0.19 1.9 0.23 2.5 0.27
32 1.5 0.24 1.9 0.29 2.4 0.36 3.1 0.43
40 1.5 0.30 1.8 0.36 2.3 0.45 3.0 0.56 3.0 0.68
50 1.5 0.38 1.5 0.38 2.2 0.54 2.9 0.69 3.7 0.86 4.9 1.06
63 1.5 0.49 1.9 0.60 2.8 0.85 3.6 1.08 4.7 1.37 6.1 1.67
75 1.5 0.58 2.2 0.83 3.3 1.20 4.3 1.53 5.6 1.94 7.3 2.37
90 1.8 0.82 2.7 1.20 3.9 1.68 5.1. 2.17 6.7 2.77 8.7 3.40
110 2.2 1.23 2.8 1.33 4.15 1.94 5.45 2.53 7.1 3.27 8.7 3.97 10.60 4.8
125 2.5 1.57 3.25 1.71 4.7 2.51 6.15 3.27 8.05 4.22 9.85 5.13 12.10 6.26
140 2.8 1.95 3.55 2.15 5.2 3.14 6.9 4.1 9 5.3 11 6.43 13.50 7.82
160 3.2 2.56 4.05 2.8 5.95 4.11 7.85 5.35 10.25 6.92 12.55 8.40 15.40 10.19
200 4.0 3.93 5.0 4.38 7.45 6.42 9.75 8.36 12.8 10.82 15.7 13.12 19.2 15.89
250 4.9 6.0 6.25 6.84 9.2 10.03 12.15 13.06 15.95 16.9 19.6 20.5 24.0 24.87
315 6.9 9.57 7.85 10.86 11.6 15.92 15.3 20.74 20.1 26.83
355 7.0 12.09 8.95 13.8 13.7 20.22 17.2 26.34 22.55 34.08
400 7.9 15.36 9.95 17.52 14.8 25.67 19.45 33.45 25.40 43.26
450 9.4 19.93 11.2 20.95 16.55 30.51 21.8 39.63
500 10.0 23.11 12.45 27.37 18.35 40.11 23.47 52.53

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PR E S S U R E PI PE – PVC - A PI PE S
ULTRATUFF PVC-A PIPES

Ultratuff PVC-A Pipes are manufactured as follows:

• To SABS 966 Part II specifications.


• Size range 50 – 500mm outside diameter.
• Pressure range PN 6 - PN 25.
• With integral sockets.
• Design stress 18.5Mpa.
• Dark blue in colour.
• Lengths normally 6 metres.

PI PE D I M E N S I O N S A N D M A S S
Wall thickness (mm) and mass (kg/m)

Size PN 6 PN 9 PN 12 PN 16 PN 20 PN 25
OD mm Kg mm Kg mm Kg mm Kg mm Kg mm Kg
50 1.5 0.35 1.6 0.36 1.7 0.39 2.2 0.50 2.77 0.61 3.38 0.74
63 1.6 0.46 1.6 0.65 2.1 0.85 2.8 1.08 3.49 0.97 4.2 1.16
75 1.7 0.63 1.9 0.92 2.5 1.2 3.2 1.55 4.1 1.37 0.05 2.38
90 1.86 0.76 2.2 0.92 3.1 1.72 3.9 2.2 4.92 1.97 7.38 3.56
110 2.4 0.96 2.76 1.42 3.65 1.8 4.81 2.42 5.95 2.91 8.2 4.38
122 2.46 1.38 3.07 1.72 4.1 2.27 5.30 2.92 6.66 3.61 8.41 4.6
125 2.5 1.24 3.13 1.83 4.14 2.42 5.46 3.12 6.77 3.76 9.33 5.72
140 2.8 1.55 3.51 2.99 4.64 3.0 6.12 3.92 7.49 4.72 10.66 7.48
160 3.2 2.03 4.01 3.01 5.3 3.92 6.99 5.12 8.71 6.19 11.99 9.15
177 3.58 2.92 4.51 3.65 5.95 4.78 7.89 6.27 9.64 7.57 13.32 11.68
200 3.9 3.18 5.01 4.77 6.63 6.13 8.74 8.0 10.87 9.65 16.71 18.31
250 5.0 4.98 6.27 7.31 8.29 9.58 10.93 12.50 13.53 15.03 17.2 18.30
315 6.2 7.86 7.9 11.6 10.44 15.21 13.77 19.84 17.5 23.81
355 7.2 9.99 8.9 14.73 11.77 19.32 15.52 25.20 19.7 30.23
400 7.8 12 68 10.13 18.71 13.26 24.53 17.49 31.99 22.3 38.43
450 9.4 20.76 11.6 21.49 15.4 28.57 24.95 39.97 24.95 51.0
500 9.8 19.81 12.53 29.23 16.57 38.33

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PR E S S U R E PI PE – PVC -U PIPES

SUPRATUFF PVC-U PIPES

Supramyn High Impact Mining pipes are manufactured as follows:

• To SABS 1283 Edition 1.2


• Size range 50 – 315mm
• Pressure range – PN 6 – PN 25
• With pressed on SG iron victualic shoulders and flanges (Flanges from 55mm to 250mm)
• Design stress of 10MPa in sizes from 50mm to 90mm and 12.5MPa in sizes 105mm to 315mm
• Dark blue in colour for water
• Yellow in colour for air
• Green in colour for drainage

PI PE D I M E N S I O N S A N D M A S S

SUPRAMYN 10MPA DESIGN STRESS PIPE

Wall thickness (mm) and mass (kg/m)

Size PN7 air PN6 water PN 9 water PN 12 water PN 16 water


OD mm Kg/m mm Kg/m mm Kg/m mm Kg/m mm Kg/m
55 3.28 0.8 1.5 0.41 2.46 0.61 3.28 0.81 4.2 1
90 5.1 2.2 1.8 1.2 3.9 1.68 5.1 2.2 6.7 2.77

SUPRAMYN 10MPA FOR AIR AND 12.5 MPA DESIGN STRESS PIPE

Size PN7 air PN6 water PN 9 water PN 12 water PN 16 water PN 20 water


105 6.4 2.8 2.7 1.33 3.9 1.8 5.1 2.31 6.8 3.03 8.3 3.7
110 6.75 3.7 2.8 1.89 4.2 1.99 5.4 2.5 6.89 3.33 8.7 4
155 9.35 6.1 3.8 2.86 5.8 4.01 7.6 5 9.92 6.4 12.5 7.9
160 9.7 6.78 4 3 6 4.16 7.3 5.3 9.5 6.7 11.85 6.7
200 12.1 10.62 5 4.69 7.4 6.49 9.2 8.2 11.9 10.6 15.7 10.05
210 12.6 11.3 5.3 4.96 7.7 6.77 10.3 9.27 10.3 9.27 16.5 15.5
250 15.05 15.6 6.3 7.39 9.2 10.01 11.45 13.06 15.04 16.9 18.52 20.5
315 19 26.13 6 7.8 11.53 11.6 16.08 14.43 20.74 18.95 26.83

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S E W E R PI PE S – P VC - U PI PE S

MAINCORE PVC-U SEWER PIPES

Maincore multi-layer sewer pipes are manufactured as follows:

• To SABS 1601.
• With foamed core in a multi-layer configuration.
• In sizes 110 – 250mm.
• With pipe stiffness of 100 KPA, 200 KPA and 400 KPA.
• With plain ends in 110mm.
• With integral sockets – 110-250mm.
• Beige in colour.

PI PE D I M E N S I O N S A N D M A S S
Wall thickness (mm) and mass (kg/m) Pipe stiffness (KPA)

Size 100 KPA 200 KPA 400 KPA


OD mm Kg/m mm Kg/m mm Kg/m
110 2 0.75 2.75 0.91 3.2 1.22
160 4.2 2.27 4.8 2.41
200 5.0 3.38 6.0 3.76
250 6.3 5.56 7.3 5.96

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S U PR A DU R SO I L , WA STE & V E NT PI PE
• To SABS 967
• Size Range 40 -110 mm
• Plain ended
• UV Stabilitized
• White in colour

PI PE D I M E N S I O N S A N D M A S S
SUPRADUR PCV-U SOIL AND VENT PIPE

Wall thickness (mm) and mass (kg/m)

Size mm Kg/m
40 2.3 0.41
50 2.4 0.57
110 3.6 1.80

M A IN V E NT PVC - U M U LTI L AY E R
• To JASWIC and EN 1453-1
• Size range 110 mm
• Plain ended
• UV Stabilized
• White in color

PI PE D I M E N S I O N S A N D M A S S
MAINVENT PVC-U MULTILAYER SOIL AND VENT PIPE

Wall thickness (mm) and mass (kg/m)

Size mm Kg/m
110 3.2 1.22

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S E W E R PI PE S – P VC - U PI PE S

SUPRADUR PVC-U SOLID WALL SEWER PIPES

Supradur sewer pipes are manufactured as follows:

• To SABS 791 specifications


• Size range 110 – 500mm.
• Pipe stiffness 100kPa (Class 51)
• Pipe stiffness 300kPa (Class 34)
• Plain ended 110mm
• With integral sockets 110 – 500mm
• Beige in colour

PI PE D I M E N S I O N S A N D M A S S
Wall thickness (mm) and mass (kg/m) Stiffness (KPA)

Size Class 51 - 100 KPA Class 34 - 300 KPA


OD mm Kg/m mm Kg/m
110 2.2 1.23 3.2 1.74
160 3.2 2.56 4.7 3.65
200 3.9 3.93 5.9 5.7
250 4.9 6 7.3 8.82
315 6.2 9.57 9.2 13.96
355 7.0 12 .00 10.6 17.74
400 7.8 15.36 11.7 22.44
500 10 23.11 15.45 34.09

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C A B LE PI PE S – P VC - U PI PE S

SUPRADRAIN PVC-U CABLE PIPES

Supradrain PVC-U cable pipes are manufactured as follows:

• To SABS 966 part 1 dimensions for PN 4 pipe.


• Using 100 percent regrind material .
• Coloured black for easy identification.

PI PE D I M E N S I O N S A N D M A S S

Wall thickness (mm) and mass (kg/m)

Size OD mm Kg/m
50 1.5 0.38
63 1.5 0.49
75 1.8 0.82
90 1.8 0.82
110 2.2 1.23
125 2.5 1.57
140 2.8 1.95
160 3.2 2.56
200 4.0 3.93
250 4.9 6.0
315 6.9 9.57

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Slotted PVC-U subsoil drainage pipes are manufactured as follows:

• Using 100 % reground material.


• To SABS 966 part 1 dimentions for PN 4 pipe.
• Complete with integral sockets
• Black in colour
• In 6 metre lengths
• Size range 50 to 200mm O.D.

PI PE D I M E N S I O N S
Average Number of
Pipe size Length of Width of Distance of rows
slots slots between clots
50 26 2.1 67.4 3
63 31 2.1 67.4 3
75 35 2.1 67.4 3
90 42 2.1 67.4 3
110 56 2.1 67.4 3
160 74 2.1 67.4 3
200 84 2.1 67.4 3

Mass - same as Supradrain Cable Pipe


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M A I N C A S E PVC – U C A S I N G
A N D SC R E E N S
PRESSURE PIPING PVC-U

Maincase PVC-U borehole casings are fabricated


using Supratuff pressure pipes as follows :-

• To SABS 966 part I specifications


• Size range 110mm to 315mm
• Threaded both ends to ASTM F 480 2 TPI and DIN 4925
specifications
• Slotted in sizes 0.5mm to 3mm
• Light blue in colour
• Lengths normally of 2.9m and 5.8 metres.

PI PE D I M E N S I O N S A N D M A S S
Wall thickness (mm) and mass (Kg/m)

Size OD Size ID Wall thickness Mass


110 100 5.04 2.57
110 97 66.2 3.32
114 103 5.60 2.87
125 114 5.73 3.32
125 110 7.52 4.29
140 127 6.41 4.17
140 123 8.42 5.37
160 145 7.33 5.43
160 141 9.62 7.01
168 151 8.50 6.52
186 168 8.75 7.25
200 181 9.16 8.44
200 176 12.03 10.93
228 210 9.20 9.48
250 227 11.46 13.19
250 220 15.04 17.05
315 293 10.95 16.08
315 286 14.43 20.95

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S U PR A DU R P VC - U S E W E R
A N D DR A I N FIT TI N G S

Supradur PVC-U sewer and drain


fittings are manufactured as follows:

• To SABS 791 specifications


• Size range 110 and 160mm
• With integral socket
• Beige in colour for sewer and drain

SINGLE SOCKETS

Size A B C
110 109 45 127
160 140 52

PLAIN 90 DEGREE BENDS

Size A B
110 138 127

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PLAIN JUNCTIONS

Size A B C
110 305 200 127
160 435 280 183

INSPECTION JUNCTIONS

Size A B C D E
110 305 200 127 178 89

PLAIN CAPS

Size A B
110 118 35
160 173 40

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DOUBLE AND KIMBERLEY SOCKETS

Size A B
110 120 127
160 183

PLAIN 45 DEGREE BENDS

Size A B
110 106 127

45 DEGREE INPECTION BENDS

Size A B C D
110 105 127 178 89

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FABRICATED LONG RADIUS BENDS

Size Radius 11.25 22.5 45 90


OD R T T T T
110 293 605 605 605 705
160 581 680 680 780 780
200 601 750 750 750 1000
250 932 1125 1125 1325 1475

PLAIN REDUCING JUNCTION

Size A B C D
160 435 240 127 183

PAN CONNECTOR

Size A B C
160 108 147 117

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GULLY HEAD AND GRATE

Size A B C
110 211 111 116

RODDING EYE

Size A B C
110 127

GULLY TRAP

Size A B C
110 224 400 127

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S U PR A DU R SO I L A N D
V E NT FIT TI N G S

Supradur PVC-U soil and vent


fittings are manufactured as follows:

• To SABS 967 specifications


• Size Range 40, 50, 110 mm
• White in colour
• UV Resistant

SINGLE SOCKETS

Size A B
40 46 22
50 52 25
110 109 45

BENDS 45 DEG ACCESS

Size A B
40 8 8
50 10 10
110 25 25

JUNCTION 45 DEG ACCESS

Size A B C
40 8 47 47
50 10 59 59
110 20 130 130

Note: Dimensions do not include depth of sockets


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BENDS 95 DEG ACCESS

Size A B
40 19 19
50 24 24
110 77 77

JUNCTION 95 DEG ACCESS

Size A B C
40 18 21 21
50 22 26 26
110 77 77 45

JUNCTION 45 DEG PLAIN

Size A B C
40 8 47 47
50 10 59 59
110 20 130 130

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BENDS 45 DEG PLAIN

Size A B C
40 8 47 47
50 10 59 59
110 20 130 130

BENDS 95 DEG PLAIN

Size A B
40 19 19
50 24 24
110 77 77

JUNCTION 95 DEG PLAIN

Size A B C
40 18 21 21
50 22 26 26
110 77 77 45

BENDS 95 DEG ACCESS VENT HORN

Size A B
110 77 77

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C A ST I RO N FIT TI N G S

SCOUR TEES

Size A B C D
110 347 150 100 220
160 384 160 100 220
200 427 205 100 220
250 447 230 100 220

B C
63 50
75 50
75 63
90 50
90 75
90 63
110 50
110 63
110 75
110 90
125 110
140 110
140 125
160 90
160 110
160 125
160 140
200 110
200 160
250 160
250 200

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Size A B C D
75 307 150 75 200
90 327 150 75 200
110 347 160 75 200
160 387 185 75 200
200 427 205 75 200
250 230 230 75 200

REDUCING TEES

A B C D
75 50 290 126
75 63 290 128
90 63 313 134
90 75 325 154
110 63 345 123
110 75 345 163
110 90 360 173
160 63 402 123
160 90 402 196
160 110 422 206
200 90 422 215
200 110 462 225
200 160 512 245
250 200 574 291

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REPAIR COUPLINGS

ID A
63 190
75 230
90 250
110 270
160 310
200 350
250 370

FLANGE ADAPTORS

ID A
50 160
63 165
75 165
90 200
110 200
125 220
140 285
160 340
200 405
250 460

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EQUAL TEES

ID A B
50 250 110
63 253 123
75 305 48
90 340 164
110 380 183
125 400 205
140 451 212
160 472 226
200 552 265
250 624 301

REDUCING COUPLING

A B C
75 63 214
90 75 247
110 90 260
160 110 330
200 160 360
250 160 360
250 200 400

END CAPS

ID A
50 100
63 104
75 146
90 175
110 224
125 245
140 290
160 365
200 488
250 572

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DE SI GNI NG WITH
DESIGNING
d e s i g n i n g WI
w iTH
t h PVC
p v c

INHERENT
p r PROPERTIES
i n h e r e n t o p e r t i e s oOF
f PVC-U
p v c - u PIPE
p i p e s

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE

PVC-U pipe is unaffected by water, domestic sewage


or soil. It is affected very little by acids, aliphic
hydrocarbons, alkalis, alcohols, reducing or oxidising
agents. If hydrochloric or sulphuric acids are being
conveyed in the pipes, the standard working pressures
can be used even when the acids are concentrated,
but in the case of concentrated nitric acid, it is
necessary to go to one class higher than that indicated,
LOW HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE and for an alcohol or 10% sodium hydroxide, two
classes higher than that indicated. While designing
The smooth bore of PVC-U pipes means that a 30% pipelines to carry corrosive chemicals care should be
reduction in loss of head can frequently be obtained taken in ensuring that the natural rubber seal is also
due to the lower co-efficient of friction of PVC– U resistant to the chemical.
0,00001 compared with CI and Asbestos Cement
0.010 and 0.001 respectively. PVC-U is not suitable for use in contact with
aromatic or chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones,
The improved flow characteristics are maintained nitrocompounds, esters, cyclic ethers, bromide or
indefinitely due to non-corrodibility. No encrustation fluorine.
of the bore, means pumping efficiencies are
maintained over the years, and no reduction in flow
occurs.

HIGH CORROSION RESISTANCE

Unlike metal pipe, all Petzetakis PVC-U pipes are


inherently immune to corrosion in most types of
natural soils. No protection of any kind is needed.
This corrosion resistance is particularly useful for
pipeline projects, which involve salt waste or saline
soil conditions.

Hazen Williams coefficient “C” for various 100mm


diameter pipes

Pipe New 50 years old

PVC-U 150 140


Asbestos cement 150 110
Steel 140 40
Cast iron 130 40

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FREEDOM FROM CONTAMINATION

In the chemical industry, where potential


contamination often poses a serious problem, the
inherent chemical stability of PVC-U piping has
proved to be most valuable.

LOW WEIGHT
The low specific gravity of PVC-U means that
lighter weight pipes than those of the traditional
materials can be produced. Installation costs are
reduced as cranes are not required as is the case
with installation of traditional materials like steel or
Asbestos cement.

LOW THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY


Taking the thermal conductivity of PVC-U as 1.0
comparative values are as follows:

Copper 3014.0
Steel 386.0
Grey iron 429.0

It can be seen that the need for insulation is vastly


reduced.

HIGH CO-EFFICIENT OF THERMAL


EXPANSION
PVC’s-U co-efficient of thermal expansion is
(c) if both the ambient and liquid temperature exceeds
0.07 to 0.08 mm/m/ C change in temperature
20° C, the reduction in working pressure is cumulative
(calculated from approximately 20° C )
and the advice of our technical service department
Eg. 100m of pipe will expand by 280mm when
should be sought.
subjected to 60° C.
(0.07 X 100(m) = 7
If corrosive liquids are conveyed! In this instance, espe-
60 –20 = 40 (difference between 20° and 60° C )
cially where the pipe is liable to mechanical abuse, a
7X40 =280
thicker walled pipe should be selected than would be
demanded by pressure requirements alone.
Allowances should be made in design for the
changes in length, which may occur during
As a general recommendation no pipe up to 63mm,
installation of, buried lines or when an over ground
having a wall thickness less than 3mm or less than 5mm
pipeline is in service.
for larger sizes should be used for conveying dangerous
liquids.
If non-corrosive liquids are being conveyed…

(a) where the ambient temperature is above 20°


C, but the liquid temperature is not, the working
pressures should be reduced by 2% for each
degree C by which the ambient temperatures
exceeds 20° C.

(b) where the liquid temperature is above 20° C,


but the ambient temperature is not, the maximum
working pressures should be reduced by 1,5%
for each degree centigrade by which the liquid
temperature exceeds 20° C.

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PROPERTIES ON
p r o p e r t i e s o n UNPLASTICISED
u n p l a s t i c i s e d

p POLYVINYL
o l y v i n y l cCHLORIDE
h l o r i d e (PVC)
( p v c )

GENERAL PROPERTIES
Specific Gravity 1,42
Flammability Will not support combustion (self extinguishing)
Opacity Transmittance less than 0,2%
Heat Reversion Less than 2,5% SABS 966
Extraction of toxic elements Complies with SABS 966

THERMAL PROPERTIES
Specific Heat 1,05 k J/g/ * C
Thermal conductivity 0,14 w/m/ * C
Co-efficient of linear expansion 5 X 10 per * C
Vicat softening point 80° C SABS 966
Fabricating temperature Temperature suitable for fabricating through deformation.
110° C to 140° C Minimum working through deformation.
Welding temperature 180° C to 185° C Becomes slightly viscous and colours into brown
Decomposition point 205° C to 210° C Scorching by carbonisation and dehydration. At higher
temperatures, the pipe closes.

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
Breakdown voltage 35 000 volts minimum on 1,8mm
Volume resistivity 10 OHM CM *
Surface resistivity 10 to 10 OHM *

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Tensile strength at 20° C 56 Mpa (at yield)
Modules of elasticity Approx 3,3 Gpa

PROPERTY TEST METHOD PVC-U


Yield stress Mpa at 28° C BS2782-201E 55
Tensile Modulus 100 S BS 4618 2.7-3.0
1% strain Gpa at 23° C
IZOD impact BA2782.306P 2(unmodified) 10-15
(impact modified)
Relative density 1.38-1.45
Maximum continuous service 60° C
temperature
Co-efficient of thermal expansion BS4618.3.1 0.07-0.08 mm/m/degree rise

Flammability (oxygen index) ASTMD2863-74 (Fenmore Martin Test)

27
c a C lA cL Cu Ul La A tT Ii Oo Nn O oF f F L O
f lWo w

FLOW

The smooth bores of PVC-U pipes


have better flow characteristics than
those of pipes made from traditional materials.
The flow data can be obtained from
the charts in this publication.
Blasius Smooth Pipe Formulae.
For those who prefer to work from
other formulae, the friction co-efficient
of PVC-U pipes are:

Absolute roughness for calculating


friction coefficient

Formula Up to and including Over size 315 mm


size 315 mm
Hazen Williams 135 - 150 150
Colebrook 0,00001 m 0,00001 m
Darcy Weisbach 0,0300 - 0,0600

BLASIUS FORMULA

V2
s= = f(Re)
2gd
Where

s = Head Loss (m/km)


= Head Loss Coefficient
V = Speed (m/sec)
g = Acceleration due to Gravity
d = Inside pipe diameter (mm)
VXd
Re = Reynolds number =

= Kinematic Fluid Viscosity (m2/sec)


Q = Rate of Flow ( /s)

28
Flow Nomogram

NOTE: For sizes not covered by Nomogram, please contact Technical Sales Service Department 29
HYDRAULIC DESIGN, PROPORTIONAL
DEPTHS, VELOCITIES AND
DISCHARGE

The proportional flow information contained on this


page is based on the Colebook-White Formula for full
bore discharge and velocity calculations:

The Colebook-White Formula:

(Formula)

V = mean velocity in m/s


D = internal pipe diameter in metres
g = Gravitational acceleration 9.8m/s
S = Hydraulic Gradient
k = Pipe wall roughness in mm
v = Kinematic viscosity of water at 15°C
= 1.146 x 10 m /sec.

PROPORTIONAL FLOW

Although the full bore carrying capacity of the pipe


may be used for surface water drain or sewer systems,
the actual discharge into the pipe will usually be less
than this. The velocity and discharge volume will vary
in relation to the depth of flow of the effluent, and the
relationship between these factors is shown.

It should be noted that the velocities at full and half


bore flow are identical, and that the maximum velocity
and dis-charge occurs at 81% and 94% depths of flow,
respectively.
The hydraulic flow chart included in this document is
for pipes running full bore.

When pipes are designed for less than full capacity, the
proportional velocity and discharge figures related to
the proportional depth, should be derived from the
propor tional velocity and discharge chart. Discharges
into foul water drains and sewers are generally limited
to a depth of flow of 75% of the pipe diameter. This
maintains an air flow in the system at peak discharge
periods.

30
Example

The following example considers a 160mm sewer pipe using a


roughness co-efficient (k) of 0.15.The pipe internal diameter is
149mm .The pipe is to be laid at a gradient of 1:100.
To calculate the full bore flow and the velocity the following
steps are to be followed.
From the Colebrook-White formula mentioned above a
149mm diameter pipe at 1:100 shows a fullbore discharge of
20.46 litres a second and a full bore velocity of 1.17 metres a
second.
If the actual discharge into the sewer has calculated at 15 litres
a second what will be the proportional depth of flow and
velocity in the pipe ?
Calculate as follows:
Discharge = 15 litres / pipe capacity of 20.46 litres
a second = 0.73.
Read from the proportional discharge
curve below .
A proportional discharge of 0.73 gives a proportional depth of
0.63 and a proportional
velocity of 1.11.
The velocity due to a flow 15 litres a second = full bore
velocity (1.17 metres a second ) x 1.11 (proportional
velocity) = 1.298 metres a second.

Measuring the height of the liquid inside the pipe and dividing it
by the ID of the pipe can calculate the proportional depth.

31
w Wa AtT eE Rr H
h A
a M
m Mm E eR r

The phenomenon of water hammer takes place when a


sudden change in flow velocity occurs.This can be caused
when:
- A valve is opened or closed
- A pump is switched on or off
- A pipe failure occurs
- A pipeline if filled
In this article the remarks made regarding water hammer
only serve as an introduction to this complex prob-lem.
For a complete study and solution to any specific problem,
it is suggested that use be made of modern literature and/
or state of the art computer programs.

The basic theory of waterhammer

If the water hammer is neither dampened nor reduced,


the magnitude of the surge pressure caused by rapid
changes in velocity can be calculated using the Joukowsky
equation:

∆h = a∆v
g

= v2 - v1 . a
g

Where:
∆h = pressure surge (m)
∆v = change in flow velocity (m/s)
a = wave celerity in pipe (m/s)

a= K
p(1 + dk
eE )

Where

K = bulk modulus of elasticity of the fluid conveyed


(2,1 x 109 Pa for water)
p = density of fluid (kg/m3)
d = pipe diameter (mm)
e = pipe wall thickness (mm)
E = modulus of elasticity of piping material (25 x 109
Pa for fibre cement)
t = time over which the change in velocity takes place,
sometimes also referred to as the closure time (s)
L = length of pipeline (m)

m T 2 m T
h = 2 (1 - t )) + m + 1 - 2 (1 - t )

Where
Ho + h
h=
32
PRESSURE // TEMPERATURE
t e m p e r a t u r e RELATIONSHIP
p r e s s u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p

In conditions where the ambient temperature does not


exceed 25° C full working pressure can be applied.

Where the ambient temperature is between 25° C and


60° C a reduction of 2% in allowance working pressure
per 1° C rise in ambient temperature is recommended!

DERATING TABLE

Temperature Factor
25 0.95
30 0.9
40 0.7
50 0.4
60 0.3

E.G. 1600kPa pipe operating at 40° C.


Rise in temperature = 15 (40-25 = 15) x 2% = 30%
1600kPa - 480 (1600 X 30%) = 1120kPa

33
l Lo Oa Ad Ds S o On N b BuUr Ri I eE dD Pp Ii Pp E eS s
In the case of low-pressure or thin-wall pipes it is fre
quently not the internal pressure but the external pres-
sure which dictates the wall thickness.A pipe is less resist-
ant to external loads than to internal pressure, as the pipe
wall acts in a different way.
Whereas internal pressure is taken in pure tension in the
pipe walls, external loads may cause circumferential or lon
gitudinal bending, arching and even buckling. External loads
are not symmetrical, the vertical loading due to soil pres-
sure or superimposed loads is greater than the lateral soil
pressure. It is this differential loading which causes bending
in the pipe wall.

POSSIBLE LOADS ON A PIPE INCLUDE:

a. Vertical soil pressure.


b. Superimposed live loads due to vehicles.
c. Crushing or bending by heaving or moving soils.

EXCESSIVE LOADS MAY RESULT IN FAILURE DUE TO EITHER:

a. Crushing or compression of the pipe wall.


b. Tensile failure.
c. Bending of the pipe wall.
d. Longitudinal bending.
e. Excessive deflection.
f. Buckling.
g. A combination of any of the above.

34
l Lo O
a A
d D
s S o O
n N b Bu Ur R
i Ie EdD pP iI P
p Ee Ss

Despite the fact that PVC-U has a relatively low yield strength,
PVC-U pipe is equipped better than many pipe materials to resist fail-
ure.This is due largely to its elasticity and resilience.Thus by deflecting
vertically, the pipe actually sheds some of the vertical load to the sur-
rounding soil. In fact the pipe deflects outwards at the sides at the same
time as deflecting downwards under a solid load.The lateral extension
further consolidates the solid to improve its strength.
To determine that a pipe is suitable to be buried at a specific depth and
in specific soil and load conditions it is necessary to calculate the pipe
deflection under such conditions. A deflection of 5 % is acceptable.
The following formula is used: -

150TPs Kv Wc
∆XV =
l E
TPs + 0.0915 EI

Where

∆XV = Vertical deflection of pipe (metres)

Tps = Time dependant deflection factor


(Tps = 2 for PVC-U)
Kv = A function of pipe loading angle and pipe bedding angle
(Kv = 0.0833 for PVC-U )
Wc = Vertical load on pipe (Kgf /m) (kilogram force per metre)
E = Pipe modulus of elasticity (Kgf / m 2)(Kilogram force per square metre)
(E = 3.06 X 103 ) For PVC-U
Do = Outside diameter of pipe in metres
t = Pipe wall thickness in metres
E 1 = Modulus of soil reaction (Table 2)

Example
160mm Maincore 200 Kpa pipe is to be buried at 4m in a 1metre wide trench .
The soil is clay and 90% compaction will be done.
The pipe will be buried under a road carrying normal traffic.

Step 1

Calculate the Modulus of soil (E 1)

E1 = 9X104 (H + 4)
G

Where
H = Depth of trench
G = 1.5 (Refer table 2)

Calculation 9x 10000 x 8(4metres deep + 4)


= 720000/(1.5) = 480000

Answer number 1 = 48000


35
Step 2

Ps factor (Pipe strength factor)

3 This answer can be obtained from


Do Table 3
-1
t
Answer number 2 = 4780

Step 3

Calculate Wcs ( Pressure due to soil) (Kgf/m2 )Use the following formula.
Wcs = C Y H
Where C must first be calculated using the formula:
C = C1 + C2
2
Y = unit weight of backfill (Refer table 1)
H = Depth of trench
Now calculate C (above)
Where:-
C1 =(Soil pressure coefficient dependant on trench width)
C2 =(Soil pressure coefficient dependant on pipe size)

To obtain this it is necessary to calculate C1 and C2 using the following two formulae:

Formula 1( factor dependant on the relationship between the depth


of the trench the width of the trench and the soil friction coefficient.)

Y1 = 2H X Kau
Bd Calculation
Where H = Depth of trench (4m) 2 x 4 x 0.13 / 1 = 1.04
Kau = A friction coefficient of the soil = 0.13 (See table 1)
Bd = Width of trench (lm) Answer Y1 = 1.04
Therefore C 1 = 1–e
Y1 Calculation
1-2.718282 / 1.04
Note: e is a constant (2.718282)
Answer number 3 – C1 = 0.622

Formula 2 (factor dependant on the relationship between the


trench depth and the pipe size and the soil friction coefficient)

Y2 = 2H X Kau Calculation
Do 2 x 4 x 0.13 / 0.160 = 6.50

Where H = Depth of trench (4m) 2 x 4 x 0.13 / 0.160 = 6.50 Answer Y2 = 6.50


Kau = 0.13 (Table 1)
Do = Outside diameter of pipe in metres. Answer Y2 = 6.50
Calculation
Therefore 1-2.718282 / 6.50
C2 = 1- e
Y2 Answer number 4 – C2 = 0.154

36
Therefore Calculation
0.622 + 0.154 /2
C = C1 + C2
2 Answer number 5 – C = 0.388
We can now calculate Wcs as follows
Wcs = CYH Calculation
Where: 0.388 x 1900 x 4 = 2948.80
C = 0.388
Y=1900 (See table 1) Answer number 6 – Wcs = 2948.80kgf/m2
H = (depth of Trench ) 4m

Step 4

Calculate Wct (Pressure due to traffic (Kgf/m2 using the following formula
Wct = P Calculation
(L+H) (B+H) 4 x 7300
(0.08+4) (4.95 =4)
Where = 799.65 Kgf/m2
L = Factor relating to wheel spacing (See table 4)(0.08)
H = depth of trench (4m) Answer number 7 – Wct = 799.65 Kgf/m2
B = factor relating to vehicle width.(See table 4)(4.95)
P = Vehicle load (See table 4) (4 X 7300)

Step 5 Calculation
2498.80 = 799.65 = 3748.45 Kgf/m2
Calculate Wc (Vertical pressure on pipe) using the following formula
Wc = Wcs + Wct Answer number 8 – Wc = 3748.45 Kgf/m2

Wcs =2948.80 kgf / m2 (answer number 6)


Wct = 799.65 Kgf/m2 (answer number 7)

Calculate pipe deflection using the original formula

Calculation
150 x 2 (Tps) x 0.0833(Kv) x 3748.45(Wc) =93673.7655
1/2(Tps) x ( 4780)+( 0.0915 x 480000) = 46310
93673.7655 / 46310 = 2.022 %
Answer number 9 = 2.022 % deflection. (5 % is acceptable )

37
Table 1
Soil description Soil Type Density Kgf/m 2 (Y) Angle of internal Kau
friction (degrees)
Cohesive granular 1 1600 35 0.192
Sand and gravel 2 1900 30 0.165
Loam and sandy clay 3 1700 25 0.15
Clay 4 1900 20 0.13
Saturated clay 5 2100 15 0.11

Table 2

Modified Proctor Compaction G


75% 1.5 (4)
80 % 1.5 (3)
85 % 1.5 (2)
90 % 1.5
95 % 1.0

Table 3

SDR PS Factor
51 2450
41 4780
34 8510
23 28737
17.6 66895
13.4 160493
Maincore 9500
200
Maincore 4780
400

Table 4

Type of vehicle Vehicle load (P) Wheel base (L) Vehicle width (B)
Heavy <1.75m 4x9100 0.08 3.12
Heavy > 1.75m 8x9100 1.91 3.12
Normal <2.35m 2x7300 0.08 1.30
Normal >2.35m 4x7300 0.08 4.95
Light < 2.35m 2x3200 0.08 1.30
Light > 2.35m 4x3200 0.08 4.95

38
p i PpI Pe E lL Aa Yy I aN i Gn g

METHOD OF LAYING SUPRAFLO PVC-U


PRESSURE PIPES
Note: It is very important when laying PVC-U pipes
to ensure that the pipe is laid in accordance with the
recommendations made on the following pages and
in accordance with SABS 1200 specifications. Pipes
must be backfilled immediately after laying, leaving the
joints exposed for testing. Where this is not possible,
cover the pipe with selected backfill prior to the actual Depth of trench
backfilling operation.
Depth of trench is normally determined by the
Trenches Consulting Engineer after extensive investigation of
routes and suitabilility of ground conditions has been
During installation of piping, footing and sand bedding undertaken. Consideration should also be given to pipe
are of vital importance for higher safety of pipelines. The deflection under buried conditions before the pipe is
reasons are as follows: installed under buried conditions before the pipe is
installed.
a) weaken the stresses acting upon the pipe to increase
its safety. Excavation
b) prevent the pipe from moving at the flowing of
water to impede generation of heavy forces which may The width of the trench at the crown of the pipe
rupture the pipe. should be as narrow as practicable but not less than
c) protect the pipe to prevent occurrence of external the outside diameter of the pipe plus 300mm to allow
damage by stone or rock and generation of heavy proper compaction of the side fill. Above the crown of
stresses, and the pipe, the trench may be any convenient width.
d) form a uniform footing for longer retention of piping Excavation of the trench should be carried out in
functions. accordance with the following recommendations or
e) execution of the work in accordance with the S.A.B.S. 058. The trench should not be opened up too
following specifications is therefore imperative. far in advance of pipe laying.

39
p i PpI Pe E lL Aa Yy I aN i Gn g
Width of trench and depth of cover

For most purposes a trench 300mm wider than the diameter of


the pipe allows enough room for jointing. Depth of cover should
be at least 1m from top of pipe to ground surface. (It is wise to
consider in early planning stages how future road widening plans
could affect this depth of cover).
Recommended minimum depth of cover of PVC-U pipe

Position Area Depth of cover


Roads Below road ways 1.2 meters
Pavements Below walkways 0.9 meters
Private roads Below roadway 0.6 meters
Private land Below walkways 0.3 meters

It should be noted that the above recommendations may be changed depending on ground and traffic
conditions.This will be done by the Consulting Engineer.

Recommended trench width for PVC-U pipe

Pipe OD Trench width


MM MM
50 350
63 363
75 375
90 390
110 410
122 422
125 425
140 440
160 460
170 477
200 500
250 550
315 615
355 655
400 700
500 800

40
p i P pI Pe E Ll Aa Yy I aN iG n g

Normal subsoil

On normal subsoil, replace more than 100mm


thickness of the excavated ground with suitably sifted
sand to be used as bedding.
It necessary river sand should be used if the excavated
sand is not suitable.

Pipe Footing on Normal Ground

PIPE

BEDDING

Backfilling around the pipe

Backfill soil should be free of stones and rocks and


filled into both sides of the pipe evenly to prevent
displacement of the pipe. The soil should be filled and
tamped using hand tampers to firmly compact the soil
around the pipe. This operation should be continued
until the backfill has reached a height of 300mm above
the crown of the pipe. Care should be taken not to
strike the pipe with the tampers. SAND

PIPE

BEDDING

41
p i P pI Pe E Ll Aa Yy I aN iG n g

Backfilling to the ground level

The remainder of the trench (but not the pipe joints)


should be filled (in layers of encompassed thickness of
approximately 300mm) over the full width of the trench
with the excavated trench material, each layer being indi-
vidually firmly tamped. If the excavated material is such
that subsequent subsidence may occur selected material
may be required (e.g. in cases where pipelines are laid
under roads). Mechanical tamping may be used on the sec- Cares for backfilling
ond and all subsequent layers.
(a) After assembly of piping check that all joints are cor-
rectly made.
(b) Remove all supports used in assembling the line.
(c) Before backfilling, pump any accumulated water from
the trench.
(d) Backfill evenly ensuring the haunch of the pipe is also
backfilled: Do not tip fill directly into trench from dump
truck.
(e) As a rule, backfill after assembling every few pipes in
a line or, where this is not possible, cover the pipe with
selected backfill prior to the actual backfilling operation.
SAND As PVC-U pipe is flexible, it tends to adapt itself to the
uneven topography of the trench bed thus producing
stresses in the pipe. Backfilling a long pipeline in one oper-
PIPE ation could set up large stresses in the pipe.
(f) When assembly of a pipeline is suspended, do not leave
tools, cement, lubricants etc. inside the piping. Cover the
open ends of the line with fine wire netting to allow the
BEDDING line to breathe and to prevent the ingress of small animals.
(g) Make certain that no miscellaneous objects are buried
in the trench with the backfill.
(h) Backfilling at jointsAfter completion of acceptance
testing, the parts of the trench left unfilled must be
backfilled in exactly the same manner as that used for the
rest of the trench.

Note:

SABC 1200L installation and backfilling specifications are


normally applied by consulting engineers.

42
j JoO i I Nn Tt I N
i G
n g

JOINTING METHOD FOR SUPRATUFF


AND ULTRATUFF PIPE WITH
INTEGRAL Z – LOK JOINTS

All PVC-U pressure pipes leave our factory with a 15


degree chamfered spigot and the depth of entry marked. It
may however, become necessary to cut a pipe in the field
and should the cut length be required for further jointing, we
recommend the following procedure for the spigot end.

1. Cleaning before jointing

Remove shavings from the cut end of the pipe and smooth
the pipe spigot if necessary. Clean and dry. The chamfer
must be at 15 degrees to the pipe axis. While making the
chamfer, the pipe wall thickness must not be reduced by
more than half the original thickness.

2. Applying Z – Lok lubricant

Lubricate evenly round the spigot and the inside of the


socket, paying attention to the seal with suitably approved
lubricant over half the spigot length. Move the spigot pipe
so that the leading edge is just engaging the socket mouth
before insertion.

3. Aligning the pipes

Make sure that the pipes align correctly in both planes. This
is most important, i.e. do not try to align the spigot at an
angle. The flexibility of pipe in sizes 110mm and below may
prevent correct alignment during assembly and therefore,
the force required to assemble the joint should be applied
as near to the spigot end as possible with the socket held in
position.

43
j JoO i I Nn Tt I N
i G
n g

4. Assembling the joint

Place the tip of the spigot into the mouth of the socket
and make certain both pipes are in alignment. Push the
spigot into the socket, until it touches the seal. Ensure that
contact is kept between spigot and seal and push firmly
past the lip of the seal.
Small bore pipes may be joined by hand but larger sizes
may need an impact to push the spigot past the lip of the
seal. Use a piece of wood or rubber to protect the end of
the pipe being impacted to prevent damage to the pipe.
. Once the spigot has past the lip of the seal the pipe will
move easily into the socket.

5. The completed joint

The spigot must be pushed into the socket up to the depth


of entry mark.

6. Pressure testing

Test the first few joints and then at convenient intervals,


preferably not exceeding every 400 metres.
PVC –U Z – Lok System – Caution
If the pipe enters the socket with undue force being used,
withdraw the pipe, remove the seal, clean, refit and re-
check the points above. Particular attention should be paid
to ring seating and pipe alignment.

44
j Jo O i I N
n Tt I N
i G
n g

PERFORMANCE OF SUPRAFLO
Z – LOK JOINT

Short term hydrostatic test

The joint must withstand an internally induced pressure, sufficient


to create a circumferential stress in the wall of the pipe socket of
42 mPa for at least one hour.
(20 degrees Celcius)
(SABS 966/1966 ISO 4422/1990) (Destructive factory testing only)

The above figures safeguard a 50 year burst stress of at least 25


mPa which allows a working stress of pipe and Z – joint of 10 mPa
with a safety factory of 2,5 (SABS 966/1966) and a working stress of
pipe and Z – joint of
12.5 mPa with a safety factor of 2.0. (ISO 4422/1990).

Site pressure testing

Jointing method for Supratuff solvent welded joints

1. Cut pipe end to the joined, square, deburr and chamfer slightly.

2. Wipe mating parts clean.

45
j Jo Oi I N
n Tt I iN nG g

3. Push pipe into socket to check that the fit is correct, i.e.
interference fit from half way in.

4. Abrade the pipe end and inside of socket lightly with


sand paper.

5. Wipe the inside of the socket and pipe end using ap-
proved Cleaning Fluid.

6.Apply an even thin coat of Solvent Cement to both the


inside of the socket and the pipe end.

7. Quickly insert (within 60 seconds) the pipe end into


the socket to its full depth. Hold in position for 5 minutes,
depending upon pipe size.

46
j Jo O i I N
n Tt I N
i G
n g

8. Wipe off excess cement.

9. The joint is firm after 5 minutes and can be handled


gently after 30 minutes. It must however, be left for
24 hours before it is capable of taking full test pressure.

NOTE: Solvent Cement and Cleaning Fluid are both


extremely volatile and the tins therefore should not be left
open, or exposed to open flame.

NOTE 2 : Solvent cement has a limited shelf life . Please


contact our technical department if you are unsure that
the cement is still fit for purpose.

47
j Jo O i I N
n Tt I N
i G
n g

Vibration
For a trouble free installation, vibration should be eliminated, or if
this is not possible, minimised.

Pressure Testing
Pipe joined by the solvent weld method should not be tested
until 24 hours after the last joint in the section has been made.
Maximum recommended test pressure is 1,5 times working
pressure.

IF IN DOUBT PLEASE CONTACT OUR


PRETORIA TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT.
TEL. (012) 541-1080.

General Notes

(a) As with all pipe jointing, cleanliness is of prime impor tance,


and pipes, especially spigot ends, should be support-ed clear of
the ground to prevent dirt being smeared on with the lubricant.

Placing the pipe on blocks also reduces friction and con-sequently


facilitates the jointing of the Z – Lok. These blocks must be
removed before backfilling and every care must be taken to
ensure that the pipe is not bedded on submerged rock. One
alternative method is to sling the pipe.

(b) The pipeline should be tested initially after a few joints


to ensure that they have been made correctly and subse
quently at convenient intervals, preferably not exceeding
400m.

(c) All changes of direction, valves (including reflux valves),


hydrants, bends and stop ends must be anchored.
Concrete thrust blocks are suitable but a flexible mem
brane should be interposed between the concrete and the
unit, to protect it against damage by abrasion.

(d) Before testing, the line must be backfilled, leaving the


joints exposed. If the joints must be covered, it is useful to
mark their position.

(e) Should there be no depth of entry mark, as will occur


if a pipe is cut, the pipe should be marked so that the spig
ot enters the socket to between within 13mm and 25mm
of the depth of the socket.
The depth of chamfer should be half the wall thickness.
Suitable hand tools for chamfering, smoothing, marking,
etc. are required.

48
j Jo O i I N
n Tt I N
i G
n g

SOLVENT WELD JOINTS

Surpratuff PVC-U pressure pipes can be supplied in


all available diameters with an integral tapered socket
pre-formed in our factory into which plain ended pipe
the out-side diameter of which confirms to S.A.B.S. 966,
may be inserted.

Notes:

1. In spite of this, the operation becomes highly skilled


when pipes larger than 110mm in size are to be jointed.

2. Precautions must be taken when installing a PVC-U


pipeline with the solvent weld method. It is most impor-
tant not to disturb the preceding solvent welded joints
before they have set, when laying the pipeline as this
may result in a failure.
It is therefore, recommended that each pipe be
backfilled immediately after jointing and laying and
leaving the joints exposed for the pressure testing.
This will assist in holding the preceding pipe firm in
the trench whilst the next solvent weld joint is made.
Allowance must also be made when jointing in this
method for the high coefficient of thermal linear expan-
sion of PVC-U pipes (about 6 times that of steel), partic-
ularly on a hot day.
Laying the pipes in the trench well before actual
jointing takes place and backfilling immediately after
each solvent weld joint has been made, will reduce
any excessive pipe expansion or contraction during the Testing
curing process of the solvent weld joint.
When joints are pressure tested to destruction, the pipes
3. In addition to the above precautions, it is advisable almost invariably burst before the joint itself fails.
to check That allowance have been made for expansion
and contraction. Thrust

This joint will sustain the end thrust to which the pipe will
be submitted when under pressure.

Care should be taken that excess adhesive does not flow


into the pipe bore. Wipe off any that has been expelled
from the mouth of the socket. Do not disturb the joint for
at least 30 minutes, although the jointing may continue.
The line should not be tested for 24 hours after the last
joint in the section has been made.

Whilst this type of joint can be made throughout the


range, considerable experience and skill is required to
make joints above 110mm.

49
PR E S SUR E TESTING
PRESSURE
p r e s s u r e TE
t e STI
s t NG
i n g PROCEDURE
PRp OC
r o cE DUR
e d u E
r e

The following is the suggested pressure testing


procedure:

1. Pressure test as short a length of pipeline as possible.


(Between valves or not more than 400m).

2. Ensure that all air release valves are working properly.

3. Open filling valve very slowly and only about 10% of


capacity to ensure gradual filling.

4.Allow pipeline to fill and pressurise to working


pressure only.

5. Allow approximately 2 hours for pipeline to settle


under pressure.

6. Pressurise as necessary back to working pressure as air


escaping out of the water will show a reduction of pressure.

7. Once satisfied that no leaks have occurred increase pres-


sure gradually until test pressure of 1.5 (one and a
half ) times working pressure has been achieved.

8. Maintain test pressure for 1 hour only.

DO NOT PRESSURE PIPELINE TO 1.5 TIMES MORE


THAN ONCE AS THIS WILL REDUCE THE LIFE SPAN
OF THE PIPE.

9) When installing tees such as scour and hydrant tees it


is important that the leg of the tee is
blanked off then pressure tested to allow pipe movement
to take place.

10) Once the pressure test has been completed, the nec
essary thrust blocks must be installed.

All too often the Contractor will place the thrust block
around the leg of the tee before pressurising the pipeline.
The pipe movement under pressure testing may cause the
leg of the restrained fitting to break .

50
c h Ce HmE M
i cI Ca Al L rR E
e Ss I S
i T
s At Na Cn Ec e

Introduction

PVC-U pipe has outstanding resistance to a wide


range of chemical reagents at temperatures up to 60
degree C. Such resistance however, is a function both
of temperature and concentration, and there are many
reagents which can be handled for limited temperature
ranges and concentrations.
In borderline cases, it will be found that there is limited
attack, generally resulting in some swelling due to
absorption.
There are also many cases where some attack will
occur under specific conditions, but for many such
applications the use of PVC-U pipe will still be justified
on economic grounds when considered against
alternative materials. Resistance is often affected
(and frequently reduced) when handling a number of
chemicals or compounds containing impurities.
When specific applications are being considered, it will
often be worth while to carry out site sets using the
actual product to be encountered in service.

Generally speaking PVC-U is suitable with most strong


acids, alkalies and aqueous solutions – (except those
which are strongly oxidising) aliphic hydro-carbons,
fluorides, photographic and plating solutions, brine
and mineral oils. It should not normally be used with
aldehydes and ketones, ethers, esters and aromatic and
chlorinated hydro-carbons.
We detail on the following pages a large number of
reagents and their effect on PVC-U at 20 degree C
and 60 degree C.
The list is by no means complete and the fact that a
reagent is not included should not be taken to indicate
that it will attack this material or vice versa.
The table is based on extensive tests carried out both
in our laboratories and by other authorities, and the
data is given in all good faith.
The data should however, be taken as a guide only, and
users are advised to carry out their own tests when
considering specific application.

51
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE TABLES

• Resistant ( \ )
• Not Resistant ( X )

Chemical Concentration 20°C 60°C

Acetaldehyde 40% aqueous solution \ x


100% x x
Acetic acid 10% aqueous solution \ \
60% aqueous solution \ \
Glacial x x
Acetic anhydride x x
Actone Traces x x
100% x x
Acetonitrile x x
Acetophenone x x
Adipic acid \ ?
Aktivin (Chloramine) 1% aqueous \ \
Alcohol. allyl ? x
Acohol. amyl \ \
Alcohol. benzyl x x
Alcohol. butyl \ ?
Alcohol. ethyl 40% w/w in water \ ?
100% \ ?
Alcohol. furturyl x x
Alcohol. hexyl \ \
Alcohol. isopropyl \ \
Alcohol. methyl 6% aqueous solution \ \
100% \ ?
Alcohol. nonyl \ \
Alcohol. octyl \ \
Alcohol. propargyl \ \
Allyl chloride x x
Aliphatic hydrocarbons \ \
Alum Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Aluminium acetate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Aluminium fluoride Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Aluminium hydroxide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Aluminium nitrate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Aluminium oxalate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Aluminium oxychloride \ \
Aluminium potassium sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Aluminium sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Amber acid aqueous \ \
Ammonia Dry gas \ \
Liquid x x
Ammonium bicarbonate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium bifluoride Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium carbonate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium chloride Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium flupride Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium hydroxide 0.88 S.G. aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium metaphosphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium nitrate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium oxalate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium persilphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium phosphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium sulphide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ammonium thiocyanate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Amyl acetate x x
Amyl chloride x x
Aniline x x
Aniline hydrochloride x x
Aniline sulphate x x
Anisole x x
Anon see cyclohexane
Anthraquinone x x

52
Chemical Concentration 20°C 60°C

Anthraquinone sulphonic acid \ \


Antimony chloride \ \
Antimony Trichloride \ \
Apple acid aqueous \ \
Aqua regia \ x
Arsenic acid Concentrated ? ?
Arylsulphonic acids x x

Barium chloride Saturated aqueous solution \ \


Barium hydroxide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Barium sulphide \ \
Battery acid \ \
Beef tallow emulsion sulphonated usual commercial \ \
Beer \ \
Beeswas \ \
Benzaldehyde Traces x x
100% x x
Benzene x x
Benzoic acid Saturated aqueous solution ? x
Benzoyl chloride x x
Benzyl acetate x x
Benzyl alcohol x x
Bisulphite see Sodium bisulphite
Bismuth carbonate \ \
Bleaching lye \ \
Bone tallow x x
Borax Saturated aqueous solution \ ?
Boric acid Saturated aqueous solution \ ?
Boron trifluoride \
Brandies all types usual commercial \ \
Brine \ \
Bromine Traces, gas ? x
100% (dry gas) x x
Liquid x x
Butadiene \ \
Butane \ \
Butanediol aqueous up to 10 % \ ?
Butanol up to 100% x ?
Butoxyle \
Butyl acetate x x
Butyl chloride x x
Butylraidehyde x x
Butyric acid 20% aqueous solution \ \
Concentrated x x
Calcium chlorate Aqueous solution \ \
Calcium chloride Aqueous solution \ \
20% in methyl alcohol \ \
Calcium hydroxide Aqueous solution \ \
Calcium nitrate Aqueous solution \ \
Calcium phosphate Saturated aqueous solution
Camphor oil \ \
Carbon dioxide \ \
Carbon disulphide x x
Carbonic acid \ \
Carbon monoxide \ \
Carbon tetrachloride x x
Castor oil \ \
Caustic potash lye up to 40% \ \
Chloracetic acid 60% aqueous solution \ ?
Chloric acid 20% aqueous solution \ \
Chlorine Dry gas (traces) \ \
10% (moist gas) ? x
Chlorine trifluoride x x
Chlorine water Saturated solution ? x
Chlorobenzene x x
Chloroform x x
Chlorsulphonic acid technically pure ?
Chrome alum Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Chromic acid 50% aqueous solution \ \
Cider \
Citric acid Saturated aqueous solution \ \

53
Chemical Concentration 20°C 60°C

Clophenes usual commercial \ ?


Coal gas benzene free \ \
Coconut tat alcohol technically pure \ \
Copper chloride Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Copper fluoride Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Copper nitrate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Copper sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Cuprous chloride saturated \ \
Corn oil \ \
Creosote x x
Cresols x x
Crotonaldehyde x x
Cumene technically pure ? ?
Cyanide of potash \ ? tot 10%
Cyclohexanol x x
Cyclohexanone x x

Decahydronaphthalene technically pure \ \


Densodrin W usual commercial \ \
Dextrin Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Dextrose Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Diamyl ether x x
Dibutyl phthalate x x
Dichlorodifluoromethane \
Dichlorethylene x x
Dichlorobenzene x x
Diesel oil \ ?
Diethylene glycol \ \
Diethyl ether x x
Diethyl ketone x x
Diglycolic acid 30% \ ?
Dimethylamine x x
Dinonyl phthalate technically pure x x
Dioctyl phthalate x x
Dioxane x x
Disodium phosphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \

Ethane \ \
Ether x x
Ethyl acetate x x
Ethyl acrylate x x
Ethyl butyrate x x
Ethyl chloride x x
Ethyl formate x x
Ethyl lactate x x
Ethyl sulphate \ ?
Ethylene bromide x x
Ethylene chlorhydrin x x
Ethylene chloride x x
Ethylene dibromide x x
Ethylene dichloride x x
Ethylene glycol \ \
Ethylene oxide x x

Ferric chloride Saturated aqueous solution \ \


Ferric nitrate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ferric sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ferrous ammonium citrate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ferrous chloride Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Ferrous sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Film developer usual commercial \ \
Flourine x x
Fluosilicic acid \ \
Formic acid 50% aqueous solution \ ?
Frigen, 12 (Freon 12) 100% \
Fructose \ \
Fruit pulp \ \
Fuel oil \ \
Furfural x x
Furfuryl alcohol x x

54
Chemical Concentration 20°C 60°C

Gelatine aqueous all \ \


Glucose Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Glycerol \ \
Glycerol monobenzyl ether x x
Glycolic acid \ \
Grape sugar Saturated aqueous solution \ \

Heptane \ \
Hexane \ \
Hollander glue working concentration \ \
Hydrobromic acid 50% aqueous solution \ \
100% aqueous solution \ \
Hydrochloric acid 10% aqueous solution \ \
22% aqueous solution \ \
concentrated \ \
Hydrocyanic acid \ ?
Hydrofluoric acid 4% aqueous solution \ ?
40% aqueous solution \ ?
60% ? x
concentrated x x
Hydrogen \ \
Hydrogen bromide anhydrous \ \
Hydrogen chloride anhydrous \ \
Hydrogen fluoride anhydrous \ \
Hydrogen peroxide 3% (10 volume) \ \
12% (40 volume) \ \
30% (100 volume) \ \
90% and above \ \
Hydrogen phosphide \ \
Hydrogen sulphide \ \
Hydroquinone Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Hydroxylamine sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Hypochiorous acid ? x

Iodine solution in potassium iodide x x


Isophorone x x

Jam usual commercial \ ?

Lactic acid 10% aqueous solution \ \


100% x x
Lanoline \ \
Lauric acid \ \
Lead acetate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Lead nitrate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Leat tetraethyl \ \
Linoleic acid \ \
Linseed oil \ \

Magnesium chloride Saturated aqueous solution \ \


Magnesium nitrate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Magnesium sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Maleic acid 25% aqueous solution \ ?
50% aqueous solution \ ?
concentrated \ ?
Malic acid Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Manganese sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Menthol ? x
Mercuric chloride x x
Mercuric cyanide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Mercurous nitrate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Mercury \ \
Mersol D \ \
Mesityl oxide x x
Methyl acetate x x
Methyl bromide x x
Methyl chloride x x
Methyl cyclohexanone x x
Methyl ethyl ketone x x
Methyl isobutyl ketone x x
Methyl methacrylate x x

55
Chemical Concentration 20°C 60°C

Methyl sulphate \ ?
Methyl sulphuric acid 50% aqueous solution \ \
60% aqueous solution \ \
75% aqueous solution \ \
90% aqueous solution \ \
Methylene chloride x x
Milk \ \
Mineral oils without additives \ \
Mixed acids sulphuric acid/nitric acid/water \ ?
Molasses \ \
Monochlorbenzene x x
Morpholin x x

Naphtha x x
Naphthalene x x
Nekal BX diluted \ ?
Nickel chloride Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Nickel nitrate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Nickel sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Nicotine Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Nicotinic acid Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Nitric acid 5% aqueous solution \ ?
10% aqueous solution \ ?
25% aqueous solution \ ?
50% aqueous solution \ ?
70% aqueous solution ? ?
95% aqueous solution x x
Nitrobenzene x x
Nitropropane x x
Nitrous fumes moist ? x

Octane \ \
Octyl cresol technically pure x x
Oleic acid \ \
Oleum 10% x x
Oxalic acid Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Oxygen \ \
Ozone \ x

Paraffin oil \ \
Pentane \
Perchloric acid x x
Petrol/Benzene mixture 80:20 ratio x x
Phenol Saturated aqueous solution \ ?
Phenylhydrazine x x
Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride ? x
Phosgene gas \
Phosphoric acid 20% aqueous solution \ \
30% aqueous solution \ \
50% aqueous solution \ \
95% aqueous solution \ \
Phosphorus pentoxide decomposed by water \ \
Phosphorous trichloride x x
Phthalic anhydride solution in ethyl alcohol \ \
Picric acid 1% w / w in water \ \
10% w / w in alcohol \ \
Potassium acid sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium bicarbonate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium bisulphite Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium borate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium bromate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium bromide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium carbonate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium chlorate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium chloride Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium chromate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium cuprocyanide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium cyanide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium dichromate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium terricyanide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium terrocyanide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium fluoride Saturated aqueous solution \ \

56
Chemical Concentration 20°C 60°C

Potassium hydroxide 1% aqueous solution \ \


Potassium hypochlorite 10% aqueous solution \ \
Potassium nitrate Concentrated \ \
Potassium perborate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium permanganate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium persulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium phosphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium sulphide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Potassium thiosulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Propane \
Propylene dichloride x x
Propylene glycol \ \
Propylene oxide x x

Saccharose Saturated aqueous solution \ \


Salicylic acid Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sea water \ \
Selenic acid x x
Silicic acid, aqueous All \ \
Silicone oil Technically pure \ x
Silver acetate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Silver nitrate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Silver salts Aqueous diluted \ ?
Smelting, gases, dry Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Soda Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium acetate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium acid sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium aluminate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium antimonate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium benzoate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium bicarbonate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium bisulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium bisulphite Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium carbonate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium chlorate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium chloride Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium Chlorite Aqueous diluted \ ?
Sodium cyanide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium terricyanide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium terrocyanide Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium fluoride Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium hydroxide 1% aqueous solution \ \
10% aqueous solution \ \
40% aqueous solution \ \
Concentrated \ \
Sodium hypochlorite 15% CL \ \
Sodium hypochlorite Aqueous diluted \ \
Sodium hyposulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium metaphosphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium nitrate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium nitrite Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium perborate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium phosphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium pyroborate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium silicate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium sulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium sulphide 25% aqueous solution \ \
Concentrated \ \
Sodium sulphite Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Sodium thiosulphate Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Soft soap Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Spermaceti usual commercial x x
Sperm-oil alcohol usual commercial \ \
Spindle oil \ \
Spinning bath acids cont CSz 100mg / l \ \
Starch soluble Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Starch syrup \ \
Steariic acid Saturated aqueous solution \ \

57
Chemical Concentration 20°C 60°C

Sucrose Saturated aqueous solution \ \


Sugar syrup ?
Sulphur colloidal \ \
Sulphur dioxide dry \ \
Moist \ ?
Liquid ? x
Sulphuric acid 10% aqueous solution \ \
20% aqueous solution \ \
30% aqueous solution \ \
40% aqueous solution \ \
45% aqueous solution \ \
50% aqueous solution \ \
55% aqueous solution \ \
60% aqueous solution \ \
70% aqueous solution \ \
80% aqueous solution \ \
90% aqueous solution \ ?
95% aqueous solution \ ?
98% aqueous solution \ ?
fuming x x
Sulphurous acid 10% aqueous solution \ \
30% aqueous solution \ \

Tallow technically pure \ \


Tannic acid Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Tartaric acid Saturated aqueous solution \ \
Test benzine \ \
Tetraethyl lead \ \
Tetrahydrofuran x x
Tetraphydronaphthalene x x
Thionyl chloride x x
Tin (11) chloride, aqueous Aqueous \ ?
Toluene x x
Transformer oil non-aromatic \ \
Tributyl phosphate x x
Trichloroacetic acid \ x
Trichlorethylene x x
Trichlorobenzene x x
Tricresyl phosphate x x
Triethylene glycol \ \
Trimethylpropane \ ?
Trioctyl phosphate x x
Turpentine \ \

Urea \ \
Urine \ \

Vaseline x x
Vegetable oils \ \
Vinegar \ \
Vinyl acetate x x

Water \ \
Wax alcohol \ \
Wines and spirits \ \

Xylene x x

Zinc chloride \ \

58
c C
o O
n N
v V
e Er Rs S i I O
o N
n Ff A aC cT tO oR rS s

Length

Volume (litres, cubic feet, gallons) Volume (m3, cubic yards, gallons)

Volume (m3, acre feet, morgen feet, gallons) Flow

Force

Pressure

59
Exports & Projects 012 541 1080 012 541 8048 Swaziland 09268 416 2101 09268 416 2101
Welkom 057 396 1131 057 355 4417
Sales Outlets Windhoek 09264 6121 7824 09264 6121 7849
Botswana 09267 2414 593 09267 2414 596 or 6123 6933
Cape Town 021 980 2500 021 981 0613/14 Witbank 013 692 6872 013 692 6874
Carletonville 018 788 6424 018 787 2550
Dundee 034 218 1627 034 212 1436 Petzetakis Equity Partners
Durban 031 791 0025 031 791 0020 City Plastics 031 304 9050 031 304 9077
East London 043 731 2188 043 731 2049
Klerksdorp (Mining) 018 462 2655 018 462 2500 Sekunjalo Piping Systems
Kuruman 053 712 1185 053 712 1312 Rosslyn 012 521 7429/7426 012 521 7333/7341
Mozambique 011 679 3072 011 679 3072 Jet Park 011 823 1160 011 826 4152
Oudtshoorn 044 272 6068 044 279 2343 Isando 011 923 6600 011 923 6616
Phalaborwa 015 781 6178 015 781 6446 Bloemfontein 051 432 8112 051 432 8021
Port Elizabeth 041 486 2290 041 486 2507 Klerksdorp (Civils) 018 462 6415 018 462 6416
Port Elizabeth (flex) 041 585 8792 041 585 8760 Nelspruit 013 758 1341 013 758 1188/1199
Richards Bay 031 791 0025 031 791 0020 Polokwane 015 293 2780 015 293 2788
Rustenburg 014 597 0611/2 014 597 0610

60