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A

DISSERTATION REPORT

ON

ELECTRONIC POWER STEERING SYSTEM

(ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT)

BY

AYUSH GHOSH
(121033013)

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Mrs. VANITA AGARWAL

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree

Of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY

in

ELECTRONICS

(DIGITAL SYSTEMS)

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, PUNE – 411005.

2011-12.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The success of any work depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many
others. So I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to my Academic Supervisor, Mrs.
Vanita Agrawal, for her concern, encouragement and support towards this work.

I would also like to thank Mr. Jayanta Kumar Deb, Vice-President, Engineering and
Design (E&D), Mr. Hiren Trivedi, Divisional Manager, Electrical & Engineering, E&D and
Mr. Pruthvish Patel, Manager, Electrical & Engineering, E&D, FIAL, for giving me an
opportunity to carry out this work under their guidance and sharing their immense experience
and expertise in the automotive industry.

I also thank all the staff members of Engineering and Design Department who played
an important role in successful completion of this work. I also thank the mechanics and
technicians in the Electrical & Engineering Department who played an integral role in
completion of this work.

I take this opportunity to thank Prof. M. S. Sutaone, Head of E&TC Department of


College of Engineering, Pune, for providing the lab facilities and the resources from time to time.

Finally, I would like to thank my seniors, colleagues, lab assistants and my family
members, without whose constant support and inspiration this thesis would ever have been
possible.

The various values that I learned from above all and my own experiences during each and
every juncture of this dissertation shall remain a source of inspiration for me.

Thank You All!

Ayush Ghosh

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “ELECTRONIC POWER STEERING


SYSTEM(ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT)” is submitted by AYUSH GHOSH bearing the
Roll No: 121033013. He has been recorded to carry out the required work under my guidance, in
partial fulfillment for the award of degree of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
(ELECTRONICS) with specialization in DIGITAL SYSTEMS at COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING, PUNE, during the academic year 2011-12.

Prof. M. S. SUTAONE Mrs. VANITA AGARWAL

Head of the Department, Project Guide,

E&TC Department, E&TC Department

College of Engineering, College of Engineering,

Pune-411005 Pune-411005

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Certificate

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ABSTRACT

The effects of global warming are becoming increasingly apparent. As a result, engineers are
developing products that are friendlier to the earth’s environment. Electric power steering (EPS)
is such a product. By using power only when the steering wheel is turned by the driver, it
consumes approximately one-twentieth the energy of conventional hydraulic power steering
systems and, as it does not contain any oil, it does not pollute the environment both when it is
produced and discarded. While offering these environmental benefits now, in the future EPS is
expected to facilitate automatic steering—user-friendly technology that should ultimately reduce
traffic accidents. Because of these advantages, EPS is being widely used. For development of
EPS Lab-View is being used as a controller which takes input signals their after processing the
input and a desired output is obtained which drives the DC motor, the sensing and limiting of the
current is done in the driver circuitry, Lab-View is a latest trend as it reduces developing time
also analysis can be done, acquiring and generating of data is an amazing feature of Lab-View.
Further the hardware is made where we have used the ATmega-16 series microcontroller and a
MOSFET driver IC which in all makes a representative model the board is made and is tested on
bench.

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 ....................................................................................................................................................... 10
1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................... 10

1.1 SCOPE .................................................................................................................................................. 10


1.2 CHALLENGES ....................................................................................................................................... 10
1.3 ORGANIZATION OF REPORT ................................................................................................................... 11
CHAPTER 2 ....................................................................................................................................................... 12
2 LITERATURE SURVEY.................................................................................................................................... 12
2.1 INTRODUCTION TO CAR STEERING ......................................................................................................... 12
2.1.1 How Steering helps to turn a Car ..................................................................................................... 12
2.2 POWER STEERING – .............................................................................................................................. 13
2.3 TYPES OF POWER STEERING SYSTEMS-.................................................................................................. 13
2.3.1 Hydraulic Power Steering................................................................................................................ 13
2.3.2 Electronic Power Steering ............................................................................................................... 14
CHAPTER 3 ....................................................................................................................................................... 22

3 STRICTURES USED................................................................................................................................. 22
3.1 DC MOTORS ........................................................................................................................................ 22
3.2 MOSFETS........................................................................................................................................... 22
3.2.1 Control Quadrants........................................................................................................................... 23
3.2.2 MOSFET Characteristics................................................................................................................. 24
3.2.3 Current Sensing and Current Limiting ............................................................................................. 25
3.2.4 A Design Example for Heat Sink ...................................................................................................... 26
3.3 H-BRIDGE ............................................................................................................................................ 27
3.3.1 Operation of H Bridge ..................................................................................................................... 28
CHAPTER 4 ....................................................................................................................................................... 29

4 TESTING OF EPS SYSTEM .................................................................................................................... 29


4.1 ON-VEHICLE TESTING.......................................................................................................................... 30
4.1.1 Comparison between Various Assistances ........................................................................................ 30
4.2 LAB VIEW SIMULATION: .................................................................................................................... 32
4.2.1 Algorithm Steps ............................................................................................................................... 33
CHAPTER 5 ....................................................................................................................................................... 35
5 HARDWARE APPROACH....................................................................................................................... 35
5.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR THE HARDWARE ................................................................................................. 35
5.1.1 Torque Sensor: ................................................................................................................................ 35
5.1.2 Micro Controller Used: ................................................................................................................... 36
5.1.3 The ADC: ........................................................................................................................................ 37
5.1.4 Pulse Width Modulation .................................................................................................................. 38

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5.1.5 Regulated Power Supply-................................................................................................................. 38
5.1.6 MOSFET Driver-............................................................................................................................. 40
5.1.7 DC MOTOR- ................................................................................................................................... 42
5.1.8 H Bridge ......................................................................................................................................... 43
5.1.9 Current Sensing and Limiting .......................................................................................................... 46
5.1.10 Cooling System- .......................................................................................................................... 47
5.1.11 Component used for HIP4081 driver............................................................................................ 48
CHAPTER 6 ....................................................................................................................................................... 51

6 WORKING OF ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT ................................................................................. 51


6.1 THE ALGORITHM FOR THE CIRCUIT ....................................................................................................... 51
6.2 PROTEUS SIMULATION FOR THE CIRCUIT ............................................................................................... 52
6.3 PCB LAYOUT FOR THE CIRCUIT ............................................................................................................ 54
6.4 WORKING OF ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT ........................................................................................... 55
CHAPTER 7 ...................................................................................................................................................... 56
7 FUTURE ASPECTS & CONCLUSION.................................................................................................... 56
7.1 FUTURE ASPECTS ................................................................................................................................. 56
7.2 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................. 56
REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................................... 57

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIG 2.1 HOW A CAR TAKES A TURN [1] .......................................................................................................... 12
FIG 2.2 ON CAR HPS [2] ...................................................................................................................................... 13
FIG 2.3 COMPOSITION AND WORKING PRINCIPLE OF EPS SYSTEM [3] .................................................... 15
FIG 2.4 DIFFERENT ELECTRONIC POWER STEERING ASSISTS SYSTEMS [4]............................................ 15
FIG 2.5 COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT ASSIST SYSTEMS [4] ........................................................... 16
FIG 2.6 EPS COMPONENTS [5] .......................................................................................................................... 17
FIG 2.7 STEERING TORQUE SENSOR [6] ......................................................................................................... 17
FIG 2.8 EPS STEERING DESCRIPTION [7] ........................................................................................................ 18
FIG 2.9 INSIDE THE STEERING [7] ................................................................................................................... 18
FIG 2.10 INSIDE THE STEERING [7] .................................................................................................................. 18
FIG 2.11 STEERING SYSTEM [7] ....................................................................................................................... 19
FIG 2.12 WIRING OF HALL SENSOR [8] ............................................................................................................ 19
FIG 2.13 ON CAR HALL EFFECT SENSOR WIRING ......................................................................................... 20
FIG 2.14 RPM AND SPEED SENSOR [9] ............................................................................................................. 20
FIG 2.15 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF DC MOTOR [10] .................................................................................... 20
FIG 2.16 WORKING OF ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT OF EPS [11] ............................................................. 21
FIG 3.1 EPS DC MOTOR [7]................................................................................................................................. 22
FIG 3.2 MOSFET .................................................................................................................................................. 23
FIG 3.3 MOSFET QUADRANTS [13]................................................................................................................... 23
FIG 3.4 MOSFET TYPES [13] .............................................................................................................................. 24
FIG 3.5 CURRENT SENSING [14] ...................................................................................................................... 25
FIG 3.6 CURRENT LIMITING [14] ...................................................................................................................... 26
FIG 3.7 H BRIDGE [15] ....................................................................................................................................... 28
FIG 3.8 H BRIDGE OPERATION [15] ................................................................................................................. 28
FIG 4.1 EPS TEST BENCH ................................................................................................................................... 29
FIG 4.2 NO ASSISTANCE SYSTEM .................................................................................................................... 30
FIG 4.3 HYDRAULIC POWER STEERING ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS ............................................................... 31
FIG 4.4 ELECTRONIC POWER STEERING ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS............................................................... 31
FIG 4.5 COMPARISON BETWEEN VARIOUS ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS ......................................................... 32
FIG 4.6 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF EPS ECU IN LABVIEW .................................................................................... 32
FIG 4.7 INTEGRATION OF MOSFET DRIVER WITH SCB-68 ........................................................................... 33
FIG 4.8 INTEGRATION OF LAB VIEW PROGRAM WITH SCB-68 ................................................................... 34
FIG 4.9 SCB-68 TAKING INPUT FROM THE CAR ............................................................................................ 34
FIG 5.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE EPS CONTROLLER .................................................................................. 35
FIG 5.2 PIN CONFIGURATION OF ATMEGA-16 [16] ........................................................................................ 36
FIG 5.3 ADC CONVERSION [17] ........................................................................................................................ 37
FIG 5.4 TIMER [18] ................................................................................................................................................ 38
FIG 5.5 PROTEUS DESIGN FOR POWER SUPPLY ............................................................................................ 38
FIG 5.6 DIODE IN A FULL WAVE RECTIFIER FORMAT ................................................................................. 39
FIG 5.7 ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR [19] ....................................................................................................... 39
FIG 5.8 VOLTAGE REGULATOR [20] ................................................................................................................ 40
FIG 5.9 PIN CONFIGURATION OF HIP 4081[21]................................................................................................ 41
FIG 5.10 WORM WHEEL AND WORM GEAR OF A DC MOTOR [22] .............................................................. 42

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FIG 5.11 H BRIDGE [23] ...................................................................................................................................... 43
FIG 5.12 SCHEMATIC OF H BRIDGE [23] .......................................................................................................... 44
FIG 5.13 DRIVER IC SCHEMATIC FOR H BRIDGE [23] ................................................................................... 45
FIG 5.14 FAIL SAFE CONDITION USING A RELAY [23].................................................................................. 46
FIG 5.15 PROTEUS SIMULATION OF CURRENT SENSING AND CURRENT LIMITING................................ 46
FIG 5.16 BYV26 DIODE [24] ............................................................................................................................... 48
FIG 5.17 MBR 150 [25] ........................................................................................................................................ 48
FIG 5.18 P6KE6.8 CA [26] ................................................................................................................................... 49
FIG 5.19 ELECTRICAL SYMBOL OF RELAY[27] .............................................................................................. 50
FIG 6.1 PROTEUS SIMULATION FOR PROPOSED CIRCUIT ........................................................................... 53
FIG 6.2 PCB LAYOUT FOR THE MOSFET DRIVER AND CONTROLLER ....................................................... 54
FIG 6.3 PCB LAYOUT FOR MOSFET ................................................................................................................. 54
FIG 6.4 ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT ............................................................................................................ 55

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1 POWER SUPPLY................................................................................................................................. 40
TABLE 2 TABULAR LOGIC [21] ......................................................................................................................... 42

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Chapter 1

In this chapter we are going to discuss the requirement and scope of the work. It also provides
overview of my work.

1 Introduction
In virtue of the development of power electronics technology, microcomputer control technology
and motor control technology, Electric Power Steering (EPS) can markedly improve the
automotive dynamic performance and static performance, enhance the driver’s comfort and
security, and decreases environmental pollution.

Here Lab-View is being used as a controller which takes input signals their after processing the
input a desired output is obtained which drives the DC motor. Later the hardware is made where
we have used the Atmega-16 series microcontroller and a MOSFET driver IC which in all makes
a representative model the board is made and tested on bench.

1.1 Scope
Scope of the work is to test, analyze, simulate the results for EPS, and finally implementing the
obtained results in development of Hardware. Algorithm is derived for the EPS system using
Lab-View and their after checking the performance of the EPS system, finally developing the
hardware. The hardware will be the representative model of the original hardware further
improvements will be required on the system which will be discussed in the further chapters.

1.2 Challenges
Following are challenges which I faced during the development of Electronic Control Unit.

Power Management-There were different components working on different power so the


designing of the proper power supply was a major challenge. For solving this issue we have used
different power supplies.

Driver IC Selection- There lies the problem. N channel MOSFETS are supposed to conduct to a
ground reference. ie, the Gate voltage must be at least 10V higher than the Source. If we raise the
S-D voltage, we have to apply 10V higher than the Drain voltage to turn the mosfet on.The
solution, is to let a H Bridge MOSFET driver IC do all the work for you.

MOSFET Selection-Because of high current the proper Mosfet should be selected for the
application.
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1.3 Organization of report

Chapter 1 offers a basic introduction to the work. It discusses need and briefs about the work
done. Chapter 2 describes about steering systems and the related components. Chapter 3 explains
in detail the various strictures used. Chapter 4 discusses the testing, algorithm and H Bridge
integration. Chapter 5 discusses in detail the representative model of the system and schematic of
the hardware. Chapter 6 explains the working of the Electronic Power Steering in detail.
Chapter7 provides the conclusion of my work and the future aspects.

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Chapter 2

In this chapter we have discussed about the various assisted steering systems. It also gives an
overview of basic components and basic principles of the electronic power steering systems.

2 Literature Survey
2.1 Introduction to car Steering
A steering system response to drivers input to steer right or left.

2.1.1 How Steering helps to turn a Car

Fig 2.1 HOW A CAR TAKES A TURN [1]

For a car to turn smoothly, each wheel must follow a different circle. Since the inside wheel is
following a circle with a smaller radius, it is actually making a tighter turn than the outside
wheel. If you draw a line perpendicular to each wheel, the lines will intersect at the center point
of the turn. The geometry of the steering linkage makes the inside wheel turn more than the
outside wheel. This can be through direct mechanical contact as in recirculation ball or rack and
pinion steering gears, without or with the assistance of hydraulic power steering, HPS, or as in
some modern production cars with the assistance of computer controlled motors, known as
Electric Power Steering. [1]

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2.2 Power Steering –
The term power steering is usually used to describe a system that provides mechanical steering
assistance to the driver of a land vehicle, for example, a car or truck.

2.3 Types of Power Steering Systems-


2.3.1 Hydraulic Power Steering

Hydraulic power assist means that a hydraulic system is incorporated with mechanical steering.

Components that makes up a hydraulic control system:


Hydraulic system depends on Pascal’s law which states that “Pressure applied to fluid can be
applied in all direction”. Which means the fluid must be in compressible. Hydraulic control
systems are used to control very precise motion. Here pressure is applied on one part and the
same pressure will be applied to every part, when pressure is applied to any body it produces
force & this force will create motion.

P=F/A ….. 2.1


ON Car HPS System-

The electronically controlled hydraulic cooling fan system consists of a belt-driven hydraulic
pump, a pump solenoid valve, a hydraulic fan motor and an electronic system controller (ECU.
The cooling fan processor (controller) determines hydraulic pressure by monitoring engine and
air conditioner operation. A processor-controlled solenoid valve regulates oil flow from the
integrated power steering/hydraulic pump to the fan motor. After leaving the fan motor, heated
oil is then cooled by an oil cooler before returning to the power steering pump reservoir.

Fig 2.2 ON CAR HPS [2]

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Advantages and Disadvantage of HPS-
Advantages
• Simpler design. In most cases, a few pre-engineered components will replace
complicated mechanical linkages.
• Flexibility. Hydraulic components can be located with considerable flexibility. Pipes and
hoses instead of mechanical elements virtually eliminate location problems.
• Smoothness. Hydraulic systems are smooth and quiet in operation. Vibration is kept to a
minimum.
• Control. Control of a wide range of speed and forces is easily possible.
• Cost. High efficiency with minimum friction loss keeps the cost of a power transmission
at a minimum.
• Overload protection. Automatic valves guard the system against a breakdown from
overloading.

Disadvantages
• Oil deterioration
• Efficiency decreases
• Complex architecture
• Environmental pollution

The main disadvantage of a hydraulic system is maintaining the precision parts when they are
exposed to bad climates and dirty atmospheres. Protection against rust, corrosion, dirt, oil
deterioration, and other adverse environmental conditions is very important.

2.3.2 Electronic Power Steering


Electric Power Steering systems use electric components with no hydraulic systems at all.
Sensors detect the motion and torque of the steering column and a computer module applies
assistive power via an electric motor coupled directly to either the steering gear or steering
column. This allows varying amounts of assistance to be applied depending on driving
conditions. In the event of component failure, a mechanical linkage such as a rack and pinion
serves as a back-up in a manner similar to that of hydraulic systems. Electric systems have an
advantage in fuel efficiency because there is no hydraulic pump constantly running.

Electrically powered steering uses an electric motor to drive either the power steering hydraulic
pump or the steering linkage directly. The power steering function is therefore independent of
engine speed, resulting in significant energy savings.

Basic principle and operation-


EPS system is mainly composed of speed sensors, steering wheel rotation sensors (including
torque sensor and speed sensor), electronic control unit (ECU), power drive circuit, clutch, DC

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motor and so on [1]. ECU decides the rotational direction and suitable assistant torque of motor
according to the sensors output signals, sending control signals to motor, and then controlling
motor’s rotation through power drive circuit. The output of motor from the gearbox drives rack-
and-pinion mechanism to produce the corresponding steering power.

Fig 2.3 COMPOSITION AND WORKING PRINCIPLE OF EPS SYSTEM [3]

Different types of EPS configurations

Fig 2.4 DIFFERENT ELECTRONIC POWER STEERING ASSISTS SYSTEMS [4]

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Type of EPS will be used depends on the steering rack force. The column drive is used for small
and lower mid-sized cars. The motor is located in the passenger compartment. Its advantage is its
better performance at reduced temperatures, and sealing. The pinion drive is used for mid-sized
cars, and the dual pinion drive is used for upper mid-sized cars. Both of these drives are located
in the engine compartment. Another possibility is the rack drive. This type is appropriate for
large vehicles such as Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) and trucks.

Comparison Between different types of EPS configuration

Fig 2.5 COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT ASSIST SYSTEMS [4]

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Components of EPS
An electrically assisted power steering is composed of several parts such as torque sensor, engine
speed sensor, vehicle speed sensor, steering column, torsion bar and electronic control unit.[5]

Fig 2.6 EPS COMPONENTS [5]

Some main components:-


Torque sensor-
A torque sensor is basically a non-contact Hall Effect sensor which detects the twist of the
torsion bar and generates appropriate signal. It is a passive device.

Fig 2.7 STEERING TORQUE SENSOR [6]

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The steering torque sensor consists of a correction coil, three detection rings and a detection coil.
The measuring principle is based on the difference in core size created by the torsion of a torsion
bar.

Fig 2.8 EPS STEERING DESCRIPTION [7]

Fig 2.9 INSIDE THE STEERING [7]

The generation coil receives an AC current and generates a magnetic field that goes to the
transformer. Depending on the position of the variable core a greater or smaller magnetic field is
guided through the detection coil. This generates an induction voltage in the coil parts.

Fig 2.10 INSIDE THE STEERING [7]

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By moving the core, the inducted voltage will change in both coil parts.

Fig 2.11 STEERING SYSTEM [7]

The generation coil is underneath the detection ring 1 and 2. When the generation coil receives
an AC current, a magnetic field is generated. The detection coil is located underneath ring 2 and
3.Due to the twisting of the torsion bar, the teeth of ring 3 falls more or less in line with the teeth
of ring 2. This influences the magnetic field strength received by the detection coil. The induced
voltage in this coil is then rectified and is in relation to the applied torque on the steering column.
[7]
Hall Effect sensor-
A Hall Effect sensor is a transducer that varies its output voltage in response to a magnetic field.
Hall Effect sensors are used for proximity switching, positioning, speed detection, and current
sensing applications.
In its simplest form, the sensor operates as an analogue transducer, directly returning a voltage,
with a known magnetic field.

Fig 2.12 WIRING OF HALL SENSOR [8]

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On car Hall Effect Sensor with wiring is shown in Fig 2.13

Fig 2.13 ON CAR HALL EFFECT SENSOR WIRING

RPM Sensor-
It is fitted onto the engine base and faces towards the phonic wheel positioned on the engine
flywheel it is of the induction type. That is it operates through the variation of magnetic field
generated by the passage of the phonic wheel teeth.The Fig 2.14 shows the phonic wheel and the
RPM sensor.

Fig 2.14 RPM AND SPEED SENSOR [9]

DC motor

Fig 2.15 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF DC MOTOR [10]

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The motor used in EPS system is a permanent magnet brush DC motor. As EPS system offers the
driver assistance directly by the output of motor, the technologies of motor control and power
drive play important roles in controller development which will be described in detail in the
upcoming chapters. The equivalent circuit of DC motor is shown in Fig 2.15. Where, R is
resistance of rotor winding and computation mechanism of motor, L is winding inductance, MV
is defined as the motor terminal voltage, N is motor rotation speed, and I is defined as armature
current of motor. And motor torque is proportional to the motor armature current. [10]

The relations as follows:

… 2.2

Electronic control unit-


The EMPS ECU receives vehicle speed, engine speed and torque sensor information. When the
driver turns the steering wheel, the torque sensor detects the twist of the torsion bar. Based on
this signal and vehicle speed, the EMPS ECU calculates the required assistance and controls the
DC motor with a duty ratio in the correct polarity.If overheating is detected; the current to the
DC motor is limited to lower the temperature. Whenever a problem is detected by the ECU, the
DC motor will still, if possible, be controlled but with a weak assistance for safety reasons.

Fig 2.16 WORKING OF ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT OF EPS [11]

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Chapter 3

In this chapter we have discussed about various strictures used for developing the hardware
model of the EPS ECU, study of MOSFET , how current sensing and limiting can be done,
designing of heat sink and the study of H Bridge .

3 Strictures Used
3.1 DC Motors
A worm drive is a gear arrangement in which a worm (which is a gear in the form of a screw)
meshes with a worm gear (which is similar in appearance to a spur gear, and is also called a
worm wheel). The terminology is often confused by imprecise use of the term worm gear to refer
to the worm, the worm gear, or the worm drive as a unit. Like other gear arrangements, a worm
drive can reduce rotational speed or allow higher torque to be transmitted. The image shows a
section of a gear box with a worm gear being driven by a worm. [12]

Fig 3.1 EPS DC MOTOR [7]

3.2 MOSFETS
MOSFETs come in four different types. They may be enhancement or depletion mode, and they
may be n-channel or p-channel. There are also logic-level MOSFETs and normal MOSFETs.
The source terminal is normally the negative one, and the drain is the positive one (the names
refer to the source and drain of electrons). The Figure below shows a diode connected across
the MOSFET. This diode is called the "intrinsic diode", because it is built into the silicon
structure of the MOSFET. It is a consequence of the way power MOSFETs are created in the

22
layers of silicon, and can be very useful. In most MOSFET architectures, it is rated at the same
current as the MOSFET itself.

Fig 3.2 MOSFET

3.2.1 Control Quadrants

Fig 3.3 MOSFET QUADRANTS [13]

There are two variables in the motor control state space - the actual motion of the motor, and the
direction of the applied torque (from power applied to the motor). When the motor is stopped or
moving forward and the power across the motor is in the forward direction (forward torque), then
the control is said to be in Quadrant 1 (Q1), forward acceleration. A motor controller that only
supports Q1 may consist of a single switch (transistor, IGBT, or MOSFET) and a clamp diode to
protect it. When the motor is stopped or moving in reverse and the torque is in reverse, it is being
driven in Quadrant 3 (Q3), reverse acceleration. A simple two-quadrant motor controller will
operate in Q1 and Q3 and will consist of four switches in an H-Bridge configuration. This will be
explored in more detail later. The motor moving forward with a reverse applied torque puts the
control into Quadrant 2, reverse braking. Reverse motor motion with forward torque is Quadrant

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4, forward braking. Motor controllers that support the active braking of Q2 and Q4 need to
handle much higher current loads since they are fighting the back EMF of the motor.

3.2.2 MOSFET Characteristics


N-channel vs. P-Channel
MOSFETs come in two flavors: P-Channel and N-Channel. Within these flavors you can select
the ìstandardî MOSFET with a 10-volt turn-on gate voltage, or the "digital" MOSFETs with a 5-
volt on voltage.

Fig 3.4 MOSFET TYPES [13]

Like NPN and PNP transistors, the N-channel and P-channel MOSFETs are similar in internal
structure but with opposite turn-on characteristics. An N-channel MOSFET begins to turn on
when the gate voltage is raised above the source voltage (with current flow from positive drain to
source). As this voltage, VGS, approaches the full-on level defined by VGS(on), the resistance
between the drain and source drops to the minimum on-resistance defined by RDS(on).A P-
channel MOSFET turns on as the gate voltage is pulled below the source voltage (with current
flow from positive source to drain, backwards from the N-channel device). The same changing
control signal, when applied to both a P-channel and N-channel MOSFET, will have the effect of
transferring conductance from one device to the other. Due to the construction method of power
MOSFETs they will typically have a "body" diode between the source and drain. This provides a
convenient reverse diode, but before you rely on it in your circuits be sure it is featured in your
particular MOSFET. These body diodes can also be fairly slow. On paper, P-channel MOSFETs
appear to be perfect for part of an H-bridge controller. There are difficulties in driving an N-
channel MOSFET on the high-side of the load that the P-channel MOSFET eliminates.
Unfortunately, P-channel MOSFETs tend to have lower efficiencies (a higher RDS(on)), a larger
gate capacitance, and lower power levels, and can generally cost more than their N-channel
brethren. So, generally, N-channel MOSFETs are preferable when possible. [13]

24
3.2.3 Current Sensing and Current Limiting
A stalled motor causes huge current so much so, sometimes, that it can melt its internal
components and die. The very low RDS (on) of modern MOSFETs does little to protect either
themselves or the motor from high-current overloads.

Current Sensing
Based on Kirchhoff’s current law, we know that the current flow through a series circuit is the
same everywhere in that circuit. Ohm's law tells us that the current that flows through a device is
proportional to both the voltage across the device and its resistance:

I=V/R ….. 3.1


So if we put a resistor with a known value R in series with a circuit and measure the voltage drop
V across it, we know the current that is flowing through the resistor, and hence, the load that is in
series with the resistor.

Fig 3.5 CURRENT SENSING [14]

This schematic shows the current sensing resistor in action. Load is the variable-current circuit or
device we are trying to sneak a peek into. "Sense" is a small resistor of a stable and known value,
such as a 1% .01Ω resistor. Such a small resistance will not affect the load device significantly;
.01Ω at 5-volts will limit current flow to 500 amps. At 10 amps load, it will only dissipate:
P = VI
V = IR
P = I2R
P=100*0.01
P=1 ………3.2
1 watt of power. The problem isn't in power dissipation through the resistor, but what will
happen to its 18 gauge leads when we try to run 10 amps through them.

25
The op-amp is then attached to both sides of the resistor and the values of R1=R2 and R3=R4 are
chosen to give a decent amplification. The output will be an analog voltage that is proportional to
the current drawn by the load.

Current Limiting
The output of a current sensor could be fed to one side of a comparator, with the other side being
set by a fixed (or variable) voltage reference. When the current draw rises above acceptable
limits, the comparator's output can be used to turn off the circuit. [14]

Fig 3.6 CURRENT LIMITING [14]

3.2.4 A Design Example for Heat Sink


To get some idea of how to use the parameters, and the graphs in the datasheet, we will go
through a design example:

Problem: A full bridge speed controller circuit is designed to control a 12V DC motor. The
switching frequency must be above the audible limit (20 kHz) in order to reduce the noise of the
DC motor. Let us consider a motor that has a total resistance of 0.12 Ohms. Choose suitable
MOSFETs for the bridge circuit. The ambient temperature is assumed to be 25ºC.

Solution: Let’s have a look at the IRF3205. First drain current requirement. At stall, the motor
will take 12V / 0.12 Ohms = 100 Amps. We will first make a guess at the junction temperature;
at 125ºC we must find what the maximum drain current is at 125ºC first. At 125ºC, the
maximum drain current is about 65 Amps from IRF3205 Datasheet. Therefore 2 IRF3205s in
parallel should be capable in this respect.

26
How much powers will the two parallel MOSFETs be dissipating? Let’s start with the power
dissipation whilst ON and the motor stalled, or just starting. That is the current squared times the
on-resistance. What is RDS(on) at 125ºC?
It is about 1.6. Therefore, we assume RDS (on) will be 0.008 x 1.6 = 0.0128. Therefore Power
Dissipation = 50 x 50 x 0.0128 = 32 Watts. How much of the time will the motor be either
stalled or starting? This is impossible to say, so we will have to guess. 20% of the time is quite a
conservative figure - it is likely to be a lot less. Since the power causes heat, and the heat
conduction is quite a slow process, the effect of power dissipation tends to get averaged out over
quite long time periods, in the region of seconds.
Therefore we can derate the power requirement with the quoted 20%, to arrive at an average
power dissipation of 32W x 20% = 6.4W.
Now we must add the power dissipated due to switching. This will occur during the rise and fall
times, which are quoted in the Electrical Characteristics table as 100ns and 70ns respectively in
the Irf3205 datasheet.
Now what are the switching requirements? The MOSFET driver ship we use will cope with most
of these, but it’s worth checking. The turn-on voltage, Vgs (th), is just over 5 Volts.
.
Now what about the heat sink? We want to keep the temperature for the semiconductor junction
below 125ºC, and we have been told that the ambient temperature is 25ºC.
Therefore, with a MOSFET dissipating 6.4W on average, the total thermal resistance must be
less than (125 - 25) / 6.4 = 15.6 ºC/W. The thermal resistance from junction to case makes up for
0.75 ºC/W of this, typical case to heat sink values (using thermal compound) are 0.2
ºC/W, which leaves 15.6 - 0.75 - 0.2 = 14.7 ºC/W for the heat sink itself. Heat sinks of this jock
value are quite small and cheap. [13]

3.3 H-Bridge
An H-Bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either
direction. These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to
run forwards and backwards. H-Bridges are available as integrated circuits, or can be built from
discrete components.

27
Fig 3.7 H BRIDGE [15]

The Fig 3.7 shows an H-Bridge built with four switches (solid-state or mechanical). When the
switches S1 and S4 (according to the first figure) are closed (and S2 and S3 are open) a positive
voltage will be applied across the motor. By opening S1 and S4 switches and closing S2 and S3
switches, this voltage is reversed, allowing reverse operation of the motor.

Using the nomenclature above, the switches S1 and S2 should never be closed at the same time,
as this would cause a short circuit on the input voltage source. The same applies to the switches
S3 and S4. This condition is known as shoot-through.

3.3.1 Operation of H Bridge

Fig 3.8 H BRIDGE OPERATION [15]

Fig 3.9 shows the two basic states of an H-Bridge. The H-bridge arrangement is generally used
to reverse the polarity of the motor, but can also be used to 'brake' the motor, where the motor
comes to a sudden stop, as the motor's terminals are shorted, or to let the motor 'free run' to a
stop, as the motor is effectively disconnected from the circuit. [15]

28
Chapter 4

This chapter describes off vehicle testing of various parameters related with EPS and an
abridgement is made between various assisted systems. It also describes the algorithm used in
lab view.

4 Testing of EPS System

Fig 4.1 EPS TEST BENCH

In order to measure the basic parameters of the EPS system off-vehicle testing of the system was
done. The results were seen in oscilloscope. In order to activate the EPS because it’s an off
vehicle system arrangement various connections were done by checking the continuity and
comparing the analysis with the available wiring diagram. The EPS only starts when it accepts a
rpm signal which indicates the vehicle is on, for that purpose an external rpm is provided using a
timer, and in order to check whether the system is working fine the system was loaded with
weights and appropriate results were obtained.

29
4.1 ON-Vehicle Testing
The parameters which were tested are -
• Motor current
• Torque
• Angle
• Time

4.1.1 Comparison between Various Assistances


The comparison between various assistance systems has been done using an instrument known
as V-Box. By the help of V-Box we can measure different parameters of the car according to the
requirement.

A system without assistance-


Fig 4.2 shows the graph generated by V-Box when tested on a car system without any assistance.
Here the below graph shows the Maximum torque required is :

183Nm(anticlockwise steer),-217Nm(clockwise steer).

Fig 4.2 NO ASSISTANCE SYSTEM

30
A system with HPS-
Fig 4.3 shows the graph generated by V-Box when tested on a car system with Hydraulic Power
assistance. Here the below graph shows the Maximum torque required is : 161Nm(anticlockwise
steer),-181Nm(clockwise steer).

Fig 4.3 HYDRAULIC POWER STEERING ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS

A system with EPS-


Fig 4.4 shows the graph generated by V-Box when tested on a car system with Electronic Power
assistance. Here the below graph shows the Maximum torque required is: 136Nm(anticlockwise
steer),-151Nm(clockwise steer) the maximum Current- 49 Ampere.

Fig 4.4 ELECTRONIC POWER STEERING ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS

31
Abridgment
The Fig 4.5 shows how an Electronic Power Assistance system is more efficient than other
assistance systems.

Fig 4.5 COMPARISON BETWEEN VARIOUS ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS

4.2 LAB VIEW Simulation:


An algorithm is built in LABVIEW where we acquire analog signal coming from the torque
sensor present in the ELECTRONIC POWER STEERING. The LAB VIEW program processes
the signal and produces a desired PULSE WIDTH MODULATION which drives the Driver
circuit through an interfacing Data acquisition card (SCB-68) from National Insrument.Which in
turn drives the DC motor. The MOSFET driver circuit used is HIP4081.

Fig 4.6 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF EPS ECU IN LABVIEW

32
4.2.1 Algorithm Steps
Step 1- Acquire the signal from the vehicle Torque sensor through SCB-68 data acquisition
card.

Step 2- Process the signal.

Step 3- Generate PWM based on acquired torque signal.

Step 4- Driver circuit acquires the PWM signal.

Step 5-Drive the DC motor through Driver circuit.

Fig 4.7 INTEGRATION OF MOSFET DRIVER WITH SCB-68

33
Fig 4.8 INTEGRATION OF LAB VIEW PROGRAM WITH SCB-68

The SCB-68 card has multiple input and output channels. Here two output channels are used
which works as pulse width modulation for triggering MOSFET Driver circuit. Torque sensors
input is taken from the car and given to the SCB-68 which is interfaced with the LAB VIEW
program

Fig 4.9 SCB-68 TAKING INPUT FROM THE CAR

34
Chapter 5

In this chapter we have discussed in detail the representative model of the system and schematic
of the hardware.

5 Hardware Approach
5.1 Block Diagram for the Hardware

Fig 5.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE EPS CONTROLLER

Fig 5.1 shows the block diagram of the EPS controller which has been used in the hardware. The
controller takes the value from the torque sensor and converts it into digital format, then the
appropriate pulse width is sent to the MOSFET driver .The MOSFET driver produces the
required voltage to the gate in order to switch on the MOSFET, which are arranged in a H Bridge
format, further this H Bridge drives the DC Motor. A current limiting circuit is used to protect
the entire circuit, the cooling system keeps the MOSFET at proper junction temperature.

5.1.1 Torque Sensor:


The torque sensor which is a Hall Effect sensor gives analog information to the controller, the
value of the torque sensor changes with the turning of the steering, the value of it ranges from
0.8V to 4.2V. When there is no toque applied the analog value is always 2.5V, as soon as there is

35
a steering rotation (clockwise <->anticlockwise) the value changes from 2.5V to 4.2V and 2.5V
to 0.8V.

5.1.2 Micro Controller Used:


The Micro Controller used in the EPS controller is shown in the Fig 5.2.

Fig 5.2 PIN CONFIGURATION OF ATMEGA-16 [16]

Here we are using ATmega-16 microcontroller.

Features-
1. It is a 8 bit, 40 pin PDIP (package) Microcontroller
2. ADC mode of 8-bit and 10 bit
3. 4 PWM channels
4. Operating Voltage of 4.5 V -5.5 V
5. Internal clock of 1MHz
6. With16 kilobyte flash memory.

Description-

This Controller converts the Analog input coming from torque sensor into digital format. Based
on this digital value it triggers one of the two relays. The relay provides input to the MOSFET
Driver which in turn switches on two MOSFETS (placed diagonally to each other).

36
5.1.3 The ADC:
Here we are using the 10 bit ADC mode of the ATMEGA -16.

Features

1. Converts range of voltage from 0-5V into digital


2. Two modes of operation 8-bit and 10 bit
3. ADC can be operated in free running mode and single conversion mode

Fig 5.3 ADC CONVERSION [17]

The analog to digital converter of the microcontroller converts the incoming voltage range of 0-5
V into digital format. The need of conversion is that the microcontroller understands only digital
language but the torque sensor provides the information in analog format. In our case the voltage
is 0.8 to 4.2 V. So for the communication between controller and the sensor we require ADC.

The ADC in the controller which we are using has two modes of operation –
a) 8-bit mode-0-255 bits
b) 10-bit mode-0-1023 bits
We are using the 10 bit mode of ADC.

The ADC requires a clock pulse to do its conversion and the frequency is between 50KHz -
200KHz.In higher frequency the conversion is fast but at lower frequency conversion is slow but
accurate. We need to see the division factor so as to get an acceptable frequency from our 16
MHz clock. We have set the ADC clock frequency by prescaling it by the factor 128 which gives
125 KHz of conversion rate, which is in between 50 KHz -200 KHz.
Since we need continuous conversion of analog voltage coming from torque sensor so, we
require the ADC to operate in free running mode.

37
5.1.4 Pulse Width Modulation

The pulse width modulation is generated through the timer of the microcontroller. The timer is a
register having resolution of 16-bit.The value of timer increases or decreases automatically at a
predefined rate. The timer works independently of CPU therefore measures time accurately. We
have used the timer in fast PWM mode with 10 bit resolution. Here the clock value is said to be
15 hundred KHz. The below figure explains the timer of the microcontroller.

Fig 5.4 Timer [18]

5.1.5 Regulated Power Supply-

Fig 5.5 PROTEUS DESIGN FOR POWER SUPPLY

38
Here I have used two power supplies separately for controller and for the MOSFET card, as the
power rating for Microcontroller and the MOSFET card are different. This is done in order to
project the controller from blowing out. Fig 5.5 shows the proteus simulation of the design,
which is implemented in the hardware.

The power supply consist of following components-

Transformer-Here we have used a step-down transformer which steps down a 220 V-50 Hz AC
into 12-0 -12 V AC .Another transformer coverts 220V-50 Hz AC into 0-12 V AC.

Rectifier-Diodes in bridge format are connected which gives the rectification of the step down
AC voltage coming from the transformer.

Fig 5.6 DIODE IN A FULL WAVE RECTIFIER FORMAT

Capacitor-The capacitor smoothes out the AC repels coming after rectification process.

Fig 5.7 ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR [19]

Voltage Regulator- A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically


maintain a constant voltage level. The voltage coming out of the the capacitor still has some AC
repels which is further smoothen by the voltage regulator.

39
Fig 5.8 VOLTAGE REGULATOR [20]

TABLE 1 POWER SUPPLY

S.No Component Ratings

1st -12-0-12 V ,1 AMP,


1 Transformer
2nd -12-0 V ,1 AMP

2 Rectifier 1N4007

3 Capacitor 1000uf ,25V,85 degree C

4 Voltage Regulator 7812,7912,7805

5.1.6 MOSFET Driver-


The accepted way to use MOSFETS in a H bridge, is to use 4 N channel MOSFETS with high
current/voltage ratings and Low Rds values (on resistance, the lower it is, the more current can
flow with less heat dissipations).

There lies the problem. N channel MOSFETS are supposed to conduct to a ground reference. ie,
the Gate voltage must be at least 10V higher than the Source. If we raise the S-D voltage, we
have to apply 10V higher than the Drain voltage to turn the mosfet on.

The solution, is to let a H Bridge MOSFET driver IC do all the work for you.A MOSFET driver
IC has an inbuilt buck-boost convertor (a method of transforming a voltage to higher potential
than the input) to generate the 10V (normally 15V to turn the Mosfet fully on) higher than the D-
S voltage you intend for switching.

40
Here HIP4081 is used as a MOSFET driver.

HIP4081

The HIP4081 is a member of the HIP408X family of High Frequency H-Bridge Driver ICs. The
HIP408X family of H-Bridge driver ICs provides the ability to operate from 8VDC to 80VDC
busses for driving N-channel MOSFET H-Bridges.

Feature-

The HIP4081 is a 20 pin DIP

Provide peak gate current drive of 2.5A

Description of the HIP4081-The VCC and VDD terminals on the HIP4081 should be tied
together. They were separated within the HIP4081 IC to avoid possible ground loops internal to
the IC. Tying them together and providing a decoupling capacitor from the common tie-point to
VSS greatly improves noise immunity. The below figure shows the pin diagram of HIP4081.

Fig 5.9 PIN CONFIGURATION OF HIP 4081[21]

It is a combination of bootstrap and charge-pumping technique is used to power the circuitry


which drives the upper halves of the H-Bridge. The bootstrap technique supplies the high
instantaneous current needed for turning on the power devices, while the charge pump provides
enough current to “maintain” bias voltage on the upper driver sections and MOSFETs.

Working of Charge Pump of the HIP4081

There are two charge pump circuits in the HIP4081, one for each of the two upper logic and
driver circuits. Each charge pump uses a switched capacitor doubler to provide about 30µA to

41
50µA of gate load current. The sourcing current charging capability drops off as the floating
supply voltage increases. Eventually the gate voltage approaches the level set by an internal
zener clamp, which prevents the voltage from exceeding about 15V, the safe gate voltage rating
of most commonly available MOSFETs.

Input Logic

The HIP4081 has 4 inputs, ALI, BLI, AHI and BHI, which control the gate outputs of the H-
bridge. In addition, the DIS, “Disable,” pin disables gate drive to all H-bridge MOSFETs. With
external pull-ups on AHI and BHI, the bridge can be totally controlled using only the lower input
control pins, ALI and BLI, which can greatly simplify the external control circuitry needed to
control the HIP4081. As below Table suggests, the lower inputs ALI and BLI dominate the
upper inputs. That is, when one of the lower inputs is high, it doesn’t matter what the level of the
upper input is, because the lower will turn on and the upper will remain off. The input sensitivity
of the DIS input pin is best described as “enhanced TTL” levels. Inputs which fall below 1.0V or
rise above 2.5V are recognized, respectively, as low level or high level inputs. [21]

Table 2 TABULAR LOGIC [21]

5.1.7 DC MOTOR-

Fig 5.10 WORM WHEEL AND WORM GEAR OF A DC MOTOR [22]

42
We are using a worm wheel worm gear dc motor,it’s a 12V DC motor

Feature

1. High torque
2. Low RPM
3. large gear reduction
4. Here the gear reduction is of 20:1

Characteristics

1. The worm can easily turn the worm wheel, but the worm wheel cannot turn the worm.
2. Large speed reduction
3. Occurrence of pure sliding motion
4. Perfect for accurate movement of load
5. Single step conversion of high speed inputs to low speeds and high torque outputs

5.1.8 H Bridge
High current DC motor speed controls, controlled with low power electronics is quite difficult at
first, but we can make an efficient controller .Before going further let us discuss H Bridge .

Fig 5.11 H BRIDGE [23]

Switches are connected on either side, above and below the motor. When we switch on A1 and
A2, the motor spins clockwise, when we switch on B1 and B2 the motor spins counter-

43
clockwise. When using transistors with diodes across the Source and Drain, when both switches
are closed and we attempt to spin the motor, back emf generated by the motor flows through the
diodes and back round to the opposite terminal of the motor, thus causing it to "short" itself and
hence making the motor more difficult to turn. This is known as "Regenerative braking" and is
proportional to the back emf, e.g. the harder we attempt to spin the motor, the more it resists.
Some Hybrid cars are now using this system to generate power when driving down hills.

Fig 5.12 SCHEMATIC OF H BRIDGE [23]

If we put MOSFET transistors in place of the switches, we can control a motors direction quite
simply by applying voltages to the Gates of each pair of transistors. We can also vary the speed
in either direction, by using a PWM signal with variable duty cycle. For this HIP4081 MOSFET
driver is used.

DRIVER IC SCHEMATIC FOR H BRIDGE

44
Fig 5.13 DRIVER IC SCHEMATIC FOR H BRIDGE [23]

Here I had connected the A, B and Disable lines to AVR microcontroller. The HIP will accept 5v
Logic. By using a microcontroller, we can send a PWM signal to either the A or B inputs to
make the motor spin forward or back at any speed desired. Make both inputs low to enter brake
mode. The disable pin is an active low and makes all outputs enabled.

Two things to note:

We must make sure that A and B are never on at the same time. For a failsafe, I had used a relay
in-between the microcontroller and the HIP to switch the PWM signal to either A or B. I had
simply toggled the relay with microcontroller and a transistor.

45
Fig 5.14 FAIL SAFE CONDITION USING A RELAY [23]

5.1.9 Current Sensing and Limiting

Fig 5.15 shows the proteus simulation circuit of the current sensing and limiting. In my work I
have used a shunt which has the conversion factor of 500 Ampere to 75mV which is working as
a sense resistor. We will be limiting a current of 50 Amperes. This is done in such a manner that
the value coming from the shunt is amplified using LM324 as an amplifier. This amplified value
is given to the LM324 comparator, which compares the amplified value with a preset reference
voltage and gives the output to the driver IC which in turn limits the current.

Fig 5.15 PROTEUS SIMULATION OF CURRENT SENSING AND CURRENT LIMITING

46
5.1.10 Cooling System-

The motor which we are using is a 12V DC motor. Suppose if we consider an ambient
temperature of 40degree C because for designing any heat sink everything is above ambient.At
140 degree C the maximum drain current is about 55AMP.If we refer to datasheet we will see
how the Mosfet derate from its value of 0.008 ohm by a factor of 1.8.

0.008 *1.8=0.0144

The power dissipation =I2 R

55*55*0.0144=43.56 Watts …. 5.1

Then the next factor is for how much times motor will be stalled. Let’s suppose its 20 % of time
it may be less too. Since the power causes heat and heat conduction is quite slow process
.Therefore we can say that the power dissipation will get averaged over time.

Therefore Power dissipation=

43.56*20/100=8.71 Watts …5.2

Now for the heat sink we require to keep the temperature of the transistor junction below 140
degree C .Since the Mosfet will dissipate 8.71 watt on average the total thermal resistance must
be less than

140-40/8.71=11.48 degree C/Watt ….5.3

Thermal resistance from junction to case is

=0.75 degree C/ Watt ….5.4

For compound of the heat sink the thermal resistance is 0.2 degree C per watt.

Therefore

11.48-0.75-0.2=10.53 degree C/Watt …5.4

We can get heat sink of this dock quite easily.I have use this and blown a fan over the sink for
forced cooling.

47
5.1.11 Component used for HIP4081 driver
Byv26 -It’s a Ultra Fast

Fig 5.16 BYV26 DIODE [24]

Features

1. Glass passivated junction


2. Hermetically sealed package
3. Very low switching losses
4. Low reverse current & High reverse voltage

MBR 150

The MBR150, MBR160 axial leaded Schottky rectifier has been optimized for very low
forward voltage drop, with moderate leakage. Typical applications are in switching power
supplies, converters, freewheeling diodes, and reverse battery protection. [25]

Fig 5.17 MBR 150 [25]

P6KE6.8CA

The P6KE6.8CA series is designed to protect voltage sensitive components from high voltage,
high energy transients. They have excellent clamping capability, high surge capability, low zener

48
impedance and fast response time. These devices are ON Semiconductor’s exclusive, cost-
effective, highly reliable Surmetic axial leaded package and are ideally-suited for use in
communication systems, numerical controls, process controls, medical equipment, business
machines, power supplies and many other industrial/consumer applications. [26]

Fig 5.18 P6KE6.8 CA [26]

A transient-voltage-suppression (TVS) diode is an electronic component used to protect


sensitive electronics from voltage spikes induced on connected wires. The device operates by
shunting excess current when the induced voltage exceeds the avalanche breakdown potential. It
is a clamping device, suppressing all over voltages above its breakdown voltage. Like all
clamping devices, it automatically resets when the overvoltage goes away, but absorbs much
more of the transient energy internally than a similarly rated crowbar device.
A transient-voltage-suppression diode may be either unidirectional or bidirectional. A
unidirectional device operates as a rectifier in the forward direction like any other avalanche
diode, but is made and tested to handle very large peak currents.
A bidirectional transient-voltage-suppression diode can be represented by two mutually
opposing avalanche diodes in series shown in the above figure with one another and connected in
parallel with the circuit to be protected. While this representation is schematically accurate,
physically the devices are now manufactured as a single component.
A transient-voltage-suppression diode can respond to over-voltages faster than other common
over-voltage protection components such as varistors or gas discharge tubes. The actual
clamping occurs in roughly one pico second, but in a practical circuit the inductance of the wires
leading to the device imposes a higher limit. This makes transient-voltage-suppression diodes
useful for protection against very fast and often damaging voltage transients. Here the
P6KE6.8CA is used for the voltage spike suppression purpose.

RELAYS

A relay is a simple electromechanical switch made up of an electromagnet and a set of contacts.


Relays are amazingly simple devices. The following figure shows these four parts in action:

49
Fig 5.19 ELECTRICAL SYMBOL OF RELAY[27]

I have used two relays in my work. I had used a relay in-between the microcontroller and the
HIP to switch the PWM signal to either A or B of the HIP4081 driver refer figure 5.7. I had
simply toggled the relay with microcontroller and a transistor.

50
Chapter 6

In this chapter we have discussed the working of Electronic Control Unit hardware with
explanation of algorithm used along with its proteus simulation.

6 Working of Electronic Control Unit


6.1 The Algorithm for the Circuit

Step 1-The values that is the value in analog format is obtained from the non contact Hall
Effect sensor and the 10 bit ADC of the Atmega 16 accepts the value, the value ranges from
0.8-2.5-4.2.

Step 2-The controller after sensing the value from ADC port produces an pwm wave.

Step 3-The condition is such that the value of pwm is maximum at the two extremes 4.2 and
0.8.

Step 4-The value of pwm is 0 i.e. the value when obtained as 2.5 it corresponds to zero pwm.

Step 5-This pwm signal is activated and the pord d0 and d1 of the controller is used to switch
the relay on.

Step 6-When one port is on the relay will be on to provide an appropriate pwm according to
the value obtained from ADC i.e. port pin d5.

Step 7-This pwm signal is given to the pin of hip which switches the two MOSFET on and
off according to the requirement.

Step 8-Heat sinks are used for extra protection of the MOSFET, a fan is also used in order to
provide a forced cooling to the entire system.

51
6.2 Proteus Simulation for the Circuit
The circuit is a simulation of the design the proteus software is used because we can burn the hex
file of the controller in the simulating environment and check for errors in code as well in circuit
if it is there or not. In the figure I have used a virtual oscilloscope which shows the variation in
pulse width modulation as the torque sensor value is changed, for the simulation purpose.I have
used a potentiometer. As the value of the potentiometer changes the pulse width modulation
changes appropriately. Only for the simulation purpose I have taken two more inputs they are
from the RPM sensor and the speed sensor. As the value of the RPM is made one only then the
controller starts its operation until its off and when speed sensor value is 1 the controller stops its
operation. Actually the speed sensor shows that the speed has reached 40KM or above.The
transistor is triggered by the controller further which drives the relay.

52
Fig 6.1 PROTEUS SIMULATION FOR PROPOSED CIRCUIT

53
6.3 PCB Layout for the Circuit

The PCB layout of the circuit has been done in Dip trace Its an routing software, the entire
component level from copper pouring and all is done in dip trace, further the design is given for
screen printing and Followed by PCB etching ,drilling soldering everything self done.

Fig 6.2 PCB LAYOUT FOR THE MOSFET DRIVER AND CONTROLLER

Fig 6.3 PCB LAYOUT FOR MOSFET

Here the circuit containing controller takes the value from the hall effect sensor and converts the
value in digital format and the appropriate pulse width is sent to the hip driver through a relay

54
such that no two pwm is start at the same time the Hip4081 produces the required voltage to the
gate to switch on the MOSFET and required current is produced by the MOSFET to keep the
motor rotating thereby producing assist to the driver. The analog information obtained from the
sensors are converted using an ADC an ATmega-16 microcontroller is used to process the data
obtained from ADC.

6.4 Working of Electronic Control Unit

The values that is the value in analog format is obtained from the non contact hall effect sensor
and the 10 bit ADC of the Atmega 16 accepts the value, the value ranges from 0.8-2.5-4.2 the
controller after sensing the value from ADC port produces an pwm wave the condition is such
that the value of pwm is maximum at the two extremes 4.2 and 0.8 the value of pwm is 0 i.e. the
value when obtained as 2.5 it corresponds to zero pwm this pwm signal is activated and the pord
d0 and d1 of the controller is used to switch the relay on when one port is on the relay will be on
to provide an appropriate pwm according to the value obtained from ADC i.e. port pin d5. This
PWM signal is given to the pin of hip which switches the two MOSFET on and off according to
the requirement. Heat sinks are used for extra protection of the MOSFET a fan is also used in
order to provide a forced cooling to the entire system. High current DC motor speed controls,
controlled with low power electronics can be quite difficult at first, but it's not really that hard to
make an efficient controller at all.

Fig 6.4 ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT

55
Chapter 7

This chapter highlights the future aspects and draws conclusion for the work.

7 Future Aspects & Conclusion


7.1 Future Aspects

• Optimization of design-In future the design need to be optimized in a 6/6 package area.
• Efficient Heat Sink –In future heat sink needs to be entire casing of the ECU for more
efficient cooling.
• On vehicle testing required-In future performance of EPS needs to be tested in
accordance with temperature variation.
• EMI-EMC parameters-Proper grounding and casing is required for EMI-EMC
reduction.

7.2 Conclusion and Discussion

EPS system can significantly improve the car’s dynamic performance and static performance,
increase the driver’s comfort and safety in normal running and reduce environmental pollution.
EPS controller based on AVR and motor control strategy is developed, the experiment bench is
designed. The test results show that the EPS system is comfortable to operator, and the assist
effect is obvious to meet the steering performance and also shows how it is better than other
assist systems. The design and test results on EPS controller in the thesis not only provide useful
references for the further improvement and industrialization of EPS, but also construct a good
platform for further research on steering system’s control strategies and control algorithms.
However, the electric power steering system is designed to meet the requirements of high
reliability and low power consumption in actual driving; it will surely advance towards a more
compound and intelligent control system.

56
References

[1] http://auto.howstuffworks.com/steering.htm.

[2] http://www.justanswer.com/lexus/54uyq-lexus-1992-lexus-es300-3-0-fan-making-
really.html.

[3] Oshima, Atsushi Sugita, Sumio, “Intelligent Power Assist Steering System”.

[4] http://www.infineonic.org/article/11-12/3242031325233876.html?sort=2200_0_0_0.

[5] Yuji Kozaki, Goro Hirose, Shozo Sekiya, “Electric Power Steering (EPS)”. Motion &
Control No. 6 — 1999.

[6] http://www.dormanguide.com/steering-position-sensor.html.

[7] Toyota Education & Training Department EPS Simulator – 2004.

[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hall_sensor.

[9] Fiat Steering Manual Linea and Punto.

[10] Wang shaohua, Yin chunfang, “Design and Full-vehicle Tests of EPS Control System”.
International Forum on Computer Science-Technology and Applications 2009.

[11] Hundai Ventra Eps System Video.

[12] Gears Educational Systems 105 Webster St.Hanover Massachusetts. www.gearseds.com.

[13]MOSFETs and MOSFET drivers V1.04 30-Jan-2002.


http://homepages.which.net/~paul.hills/SpeedControl/MOSFETs.html.

[14] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_limiting.

[15] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H_bridge.

[16] AVR ATMEGA ATMEL 16 Datasheet.

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[17] http://extremeelectronics.co.in/avr-tutorials/using-the-analog-to-digital-converter/.

[18] http://extremeelectronics.co.in/avr-tutorials/using-the-analog-timer0/.

[19] http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/capacitor.htm.

[20] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_regulator.

[21] HIP 4081 Datasheet Intersil.

[22] http://maartenvanoverbeke2010.blogspot.in/

[23] http://www.hvlabs.com/hbridge.html.

[24] Byv26 Datasheet Vishay General Semiconductor.

[25] MBR 150 Datasheet Vishay Semiconductors.

[26] P6ke6.8 CA Datasheet On Semiconductor.

[27] http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/components/relay.htm

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