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11/19/2017

Name:​ ​Hayden​ ​Robbins

Experiment​ ​7
BREAK​ ​POINT​ ​CHLORINATION

OBJECTIVES

To​ ​determine​ ​the​ ​chlorine​ ​demand​ ​for​ ​given​ ​sample​ ​and​ ​break​ ​point​ ​chlorination.

INTRODUCTION

Chlorination:​ ​Water​ ​used​ ​for​ ​drinking​ ​and​ ​cooking​ ​should​ ​be​ ​free​ ​of​ ​pathogenic
microorganisms​ ​that​ ​cause​ ​such​ ​illnesses​ ​as​ ​typhoid​ ​fever,​ ​dysentery,​ ​cholera​ ​and
gastroenteritis.​ ​Purification​ ​of​ ​drinking​ ​water​ ​containing​ ​pathogenic​ ​microorganisms​ ​requires
specific​ ​treatment​ ​called​ ​disinfection.​ ​Several​ ​disinfection​ ​methods​ ​eliminate​ ​disease-causing
microorganisms​ ​in​ ​water,​ ​chlorination​ ​is​ ​the​ ​most​ ​commonly​ ​used.​ ​Chlorine​ ​combines​ ​with​ ​water
to​ ​form​ ​hypochlorous​ ​acid​ ​(HOCl)​ ​and​ ​hypochlorite​ ​ion​ ​(OCl​-​),​ ​depending​ ​on​ ​pH​ ​of​ ​the​ ​water.
HOCl​ ​is​ ​much​ ​more​ ​effective​ ​than​ ​OCl​-​.​ ​These​ ​two​ ​compounds​ ​disrupt​ ​microorganisms’​ ​cell
membranes.​ ​Both​ ​compounds​ ​also​ ​react​ ​with​ ​the​ ​impurities​ ​in​ ​water​ ​such​ ​as​ ​ammonia,
ammonium​ ​ions,​ ​organic​ ​matters,​ ​iron​ ​(II)​ ​ions​ ​and​ ​nitrite​ ​ion.

REAGENTS

❖ Three​ ​water​ ​samples


❖ Bleach
❖ Hach​ c​ hlorine​ ​test​ ​kits

APPARATUS

❖ Beakers
❖ Volumetric​ ​Flasks
❖ Burette
❖ Pipette

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PROCEDURES

1. Use​ ​100​ ​ml​ ​volumetric​ ​flasks,​ ​add​ ​bleach​ ​solutions​ ​and​ ​fill​ ​out​ ​with​ ​the​ ​water​ ​samples​ ​the
flask​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​achieve​ ​0.5,​ ​1,​ ​2,​ ​3,​ ​4,​ ​5,​ ​6,​ ​8,​ ​10​ ​and​ ​12​ ​mg/L​ ​of​ ​chlorine.​ ​(Do​ ​calculation
first)
2. Allow​ ​20​ ​minutes​ ​contact​ ​time​ ​for​ ​chemical​ ​reaction.
3. Follow​ ​the​ ​HACH​ ​chlorine​ ​test​ ​kits.
4. Repeat​ ​the​ ​procedure​ ​for​ ​other​ ​two​ ​water​ ​samples.
5. Plot​ ​graph​ ​between​ ​concentration​ ​of​ ​chlorine​ ​added​ ​and​ ​residual​ ​chlorine​ ​to​ ​find​ ​out​ ​the
break​ ​point​ ​chlorination.

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DATA

Table​ ​1​ ​Chlorine​ ​added​ ​and​ ​Chlorine​ ​residual​ ​concentration

Sample Final Chlorine Sampl Final Chlorine Sampl Final Chlorine


chlorine​ ​(Cl​2​) Residual e chlorine​ ​(Cl​2​) Residual e chlorine​ ​(Cl​2​) Residual
concentratio concentratio concentratio
n​ ​added n​ ​added n​ ​added
Tap (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l)
(mg/L) Run (mg/L) DI (mg/L)
Off
0.5 1.3 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.4
1 1.7 1 0.2 1 0.8
2 1.4 2 0.4 2 1.7
3 1.1 3 0.7 3 2.9
4 1.2 4 1.8 4 3.4
5 3.0 5 1.5 5 4.7
6 3.2 6 2.3 6 5.0
8 4.4 8 4.7 8 6.7
10 6.2 10 5.9 10 7.0
12 7.7 12 6.9 12 8.2

GRAPHS

Figure​ ​1a:​ ​Graph​ ​of​ ​Chlorine​ ​Residual​ ​vs.​ ​Final​ ​Chlorine​ ​Concentration​ ​Added​ ​with​ ​Trendlines

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Figure​ ​1b:​ ​Graph​ ​of​ ​Chlorine​ ​Residual​ ​vs.​ ​Final​ ​Chlorine​ ​Concentration​ ​Added​ ​with​ ​Smooth
Lines​ ​to​ ​enhance​ ​Break​ ​Point​ ​Chlorination​ ​visibility

Figure​ ​2:​ ​Chlorine​ ​Demand​ ​&​ ​Break​ ​Point​ ​Chlorination​ ​of​ ​Runoff​ ​Graph​ ​with​ ​Zone​ ​Locations

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CALCULATIONS

-​ ​Dilution​ ​of​ ​Original​ ​Chlorine​ ​Sample

For​ ​a​ ​desired​ ​final​ ​concentration​ ​of​ ​0.5​ ​mg/L:

chlorine​ ​concentration:​ ​137.5​ ​mg/L

C​1​V​1​=C​2​V​2

(137.5​ ​mg/L)*V​1​=​ ​(.50​ ​mg/L)​ ​(25​ ​mL)

V​1​=(.50*25)/137.5

V​1​=0.09​ ​mL​ ​needed

-​ ​Chlorine​ ​Demand

For​ ​tap​ ​water:

Chlorine​ ​Demand​ ​=​ ​Chlorine​ ​Added​ ​-​ ​Chlorine​ ​Residual​ ​=

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​=​ ​(3​ ​mg/L)​ ​-​ ​(1.1​ ​mg/L))

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​=​ ​1.9​ ​mg/L

DISCUSSION

For​ ​this​ ​lab,​ ​three​ ​water​ ​samples​ ​were​ ​analyzed​ ​using​ ​the​ ​HACH​ ​chlorine​ ​test​ ​kit,​ ​where
the​ ​break​ ​point​ ​chlorination​ ​and​ ​chlorine​ ​demand​ ​were​ ​determined;​ ​the​ ​water​ ​samples​ ​used
were​ ​tap​ ​water,​ ​run​ ​off,​ ​and​ ​deionized​ ​water.​ ​Referring​ ​to​ ​Figure​ ​2,​ ​the​ ​break​ ​point​ ​chlorination
for​ ​the​ ​run​ ​off​ ​sample​ ​occurred​ ​when​ ​the​ ​final​ ​chlorine​ ​concentration​ ​added​ ​was​ ​5​ ​mg/L​ ​and​ ​the
chlorine​ ​residual​ ​was​ ​1.5​ ​mg/L.​ ​For​ ​tap​ ​water,​ ​refer​ ​to​ ​Figure​ ​1b,​ ​the​ ​break​ ​point​ ​chlorination
was​ ​determined​ ​when​ ​the​ ​final​ ​chlorine​ ​concentration​ ​was​ ​3​ ​mg/L​ ​and​ ​the​ ​chlorine​ ​residual​ ​was
1.1​ ​mg/L.​ ​There​ ​was​ ​no​ ​break​ ​point​ ​chlorination​ ​observed​ ​for​ ​the​ ​deionized​ ​water​ ​sample;
further​ ​discussion​ ​will​ ​proceed​ ​in​ ​the​ ​following​ ​paragraphs.

Chlorine​ ​demand​ ​is​ ​the​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​chlorine​ ​that​ ​will​ ​be​ ​consumed​ ​by​ ​the​ ​water​ ​that​ ​is
being​ ​treated.​ ​For​ ​this​ ​experiment,​ ​the​ ​chlorine​ ​demand​ ​can​ ​be​ ​found​ ​by​ ​taking​ ​the​ ​difference
between​ ​the​ ​concentration​ ​of​ ​chlorine​ ​added​ ​to​ ​the​ ​sample​ ​and​ ​the​ ​concentration​ ​of​ ​the​ ​chlorine
residual.​ ​This​ ​results​ ​in​ ​a​ ​chlorine​ ​demand​ ​for​ ​tap​ ​water​ ​of​ ​1.9​ ​mg/L​ ​(as​ ​observed​ ​in​ ​the
previous​ ​section),​ ​a​ ​chlorine​ ​demand​ ​of​ ​3.5​ ​mg/L​ ​for​ ​run​ ​off,​ ​and​ ​a​ ​value​ ​of​ ​0.1​ ​mg/L​ ​for​ ​DI
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water.​ ​Break​ ​point​ ​chlorination​ ​is​ ​important​ ​when​ ​determining​ ​exactly​ ​how​ ​much​ ​chlorine​ ​should
be​ ​added​ ​to​ ​water,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​a​ ​pool​ ​or​ ​a​ ​spa.​ ​Once​ ​the​ ​break​ ​point​ ​is​ ​determined,​ ​control​ ​of​ ​the
taste​ ​and​ ​smell​ ​of​ ​the​ ​substance​ ​can​ ​be​ ​achieved​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​having​ ​the​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​increase
germicidal​ ​efficiency.​ ​Referring​ ​to​ ​Figure​ ​2,​ ​it​ ​can​ ​be​ ​noted​ ​that​ ​the​ ​chlorine​ ​on​ ​the​ ​right​ ​side​ ​of
the​ ​break​ ​point​ ​is​ ​25​ ​times​ ​more​ ​powerful​ ​than​ ​that​ ​of​ ​the​ ​left​ ​side.​ ​When​ ​comparing​ ​break​ ​point
chlorination​ ​and​ ​chlorine​ ​demand​ ​for​ ​each​ ​water​ ​sample,​ ​refer​ ​to​ ​Figures​ ​1a-2;​ ​run​ ​off​ ​had​ ​a
slightly​ ​higher​ ​break​ ​point​ ​then​ ​tap​ ​water’s​ ​and​ ​ultimately​ ​had​ ​the​ ​highest​ ​chlorine​ ​demand
amongst​ ​all​ ​the​ ​other​ ​samples.​ ​The​ ​run​ ​off​ ​water​ ​sample​ ​behaves​ ​this​ ​way​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​reaction
between​ ​chlorine​ ​and​ ​the​ ​dissolved/suspended​ ​organic​ ​materials​ ​in​ ​the​ ​water;​ ​run​ ​off​ ​generally
contains​ ​more​ ​of​ ​these​ ​irregularities​ ​and​ ​demands​ ​more​ ​chlorine​ ​to​ ​form​ ​stable​ ​chlorinated
organic​ ​compounds.​ ​Tap​ ​water​ ​appears​ ​to​ ​be​ ​slightly​ ​lower​ ​in​ ​both​ ​values​ ​compared​ ​to​ ​run​ ​off,
which​ ​agrees​ ​with​ ​the​ ​theory​ ​that​ ​the​ ​lower​ ​the​ ​chlorine​ ​demand,​ ​the​ ​lower​ ​the​ ​amounts​ ​of​ ​these
irregularities​ ​in​ ​the​ ​water.​ ​While​ ​the​ ​values​ ​for​ ​run​ ​off​ ​and​ ​tap​ ​water​ ​are​ ​very​ ​similar,​ ​it​ ​would​ ​be
comforting​ ​to​ ​attest​ ​the​ ​close​ ​resemblance​ ​to​ ​error,​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​fact​ ​that​ ​tap​ ​water​ ​is​ ​an​ ​easily
accessible​ ​water​ ​source​ ​for​ ​most​ ​people,​ ​and​ ​if​ ​it's​ ​so​ ​close​ ​to​ ​the​ ​run​ ​off​ ​values,​ ​either​ ​the​ ​run
off​ ​is​ ​potable​ ​water​ ​or​ ​the​ ​tap​ ​water​ ​is​ ​very​ ​dirty.​ ​The​ ​deionized​ ​water​ ​didn’t​ ​have​ ​an​ ​observed
break​ ​point​ ​chlorination​ ​for​ ​the​ ​opposite​ ​reasoning​ ​of​ ​the​ ​run​ ​off​ ​sample,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​a​ ​controlled
sample​ ​where​ ​impurities​ ​are​ ​purposely​ ​filtered​ ​out​ ​to​ ​minimize​ ​the​ ​contaminants​ ​in​ ​the​ ​water.
Theoretically,​ ​the​ ​chlorine​ ​demand​ ​is​ ​minimal​ ​because​ ​the​ ​sample​ ​already​ ​contains​ ​relatively
stable​ ​chlorinated​ ​organic​ ​compounds.​ ​The​ ​solution​ ​pH​ ​affects​ ​the​ ​stability​ ​of​ ​a​ ​prepared
chlorine​ ​dosage,​ ​where​ ​chlorine​ ​(pH​ ​>​ ​9)​ ​is​ ​higher​ ​in​ ​stability​ ​than​ ​as​ ​hypochlorous​ ​acid,​ ​and​ ​in
deionized​ ​water,​ ​this​ ​solution​ ​becomes​ ​unstable​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​pH​ ​resulting​ ​in​ ​values​ ​less​ ​than​ ​9.

In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​measure​ ​right​ ​at​ ​the​ ​break​ ​point​ ​chlorination.​ ​the​ ​free​ ​chlorine​ ​should​ ​ideally
be​ ​equal​ ​or​ ​slightly​ ​less​ ​than​ ​the​ ​combined​ ​chlorine;​ ​this​ ​is​ ​observed​ ​in​ ​Figure​ ​2.​ ​While​ ​the​ ​free
chlorine​ ​appears​ ​to​ ​be​ ​slightly​ ​larger​ ​than​ ​the​ ​combined​ ​residual,​ ​this​ ​can​ ​be​ ​attributed​ ​to​ ​errors
during​ ​the​ ​lab,​ ​because​ ​the​ ​physical​ ​and​ ​chemical​ ​properties​ ​of​ ​the​ ​water​ ​samples​ ​have​ ​such​ ​of
a​ ​high​ ​effect​ ​on​ ​the​ ​chlorine​ ​demand.​ ​ ​Some​ ​errors​ ​that​ ​may​ ​of​ ​occurred​ ​in​ ​this​ ​lab​ ​are:​ ​not
waiting​ ​enough​ ​time​ ​between​ ​analysing​ ​the​ ​samples​ ​for​ ​chlorine.​ ​Also,​ ​the​ ​decomposition​ ​of
free​ ​chlorine​ ​in​ ​water​ ​can​ ​be​ ​attributed​ ​to​ ​sunlight,​ ​pH​ ​and​ ​temperature​ ​which​ ​could​ ​have
adversely​ ​affected​ ​the​ ​results;​ ​if​ ​the​ ​sample’s​ ​temperature,​ ​pH​ ​or​ ​chlorine​ ​dosage​ ​are
inaccurately​ ​measured,​ ​the​ ​data​ ​can​ ​easily​ ​skew​ ​from​ ​expected​ ​results.

Remark:​ ​Your​ ​grade​ ​is​ ​relied​ ​on​ ​the​ ​accuracy​ ​of​ ​your​ ​results.

CONCLUSION
This​ ​experiment​ ​determined​ ​the​ ​chlorine​ ​demand​ ​for​ ​various​ ​water​ ​samples​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​the​ ​break
point​ ​chlorination.​ ​By​ ​using​ ​the​ ​HACH​ ​chlorine​ ​test​ ​kit,​ ​tap​ ​water,​ ​run​ ​off,​ ​and​ ​DI​ ​water​ ​samples
were​ ​analyzed.​ ​The​ ​values​ ​of​ ​chlorine​ ​demand​ ​ranged​ ​from​ ​0.1​ ​mg/L​ ​-​ ​3.5​ ​mg/L,​ ​whereas​ ​the
break​ ​point​ ​chlorination​ ​ranged​ ​from​ ​3​ ​mg/L​ ​-​ ​5​ ​mg/L​ ​of​ ​final​ ​chlorine​ ​concentration​ ​added​ ​and
1.1​ ​mg/L​ ​-​ ​1.5​ ​mg/L​ ​of​ ​chlorine​ ​residual.

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