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430113

13JonesIntervention in School and Clinic


© Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012
ISC47510.1177/10534512114301

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Collaboration Forum
Kimberley Paulsen, Associate Editor
Intervention in School and Clinic 47(5) 297­–306
© Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012
Reprints and permission: http://www. sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav
DOI: 10.1177/1053451211430113
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Fostering Collaboration in Inclusive Settings:


The Special Education Students at a Glance Approach

Beth A. Jones1

Keywords
general and special education, collaboration, processes, collaboration, for students with mild disabilities, inclusion,
paraprofessionals

Perhaps now more than ever, “successful special educators The dissemination of information to general education
[have to be] masters of collaboration” (Fisher, Frey, & teachers comprises one facet of the special education teacher’s
Thousand, 2003, p. 46). The recent push for inclusion is one collaborative role. This can encompass providing in-service
reason for an increased need for collaboration (Eccleston, training, sharing professional literature, and providing
2010; Voltz, Elliott, & Cobb, 1994). For example, students checklists to facilitate the identification of students with
with disabilities are now spending the majority of their time disabilities (Cannon, Idol, & West, 1989; Voltz, 1992;
in the general education setting, with 59% being served in Voltz et al., 1994). Because the Individuals With Disabilities
general education at least 80% of their day (U.S. Office of Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA; 2004) makes
Special Education Services, 2009). The collaboration of it clear that the individualized education program (IEP) is
special education, general education teachers, and parapro- not the exclusive responsibility of the special educator and
fessionals—involving effective communication, coopera- the successful inclusion of students with disabilities depends
tion, joint problem solving and planning, and finding upon the active involvement of general educators in the IEP
solutions—has been thought to be crucial for the successful process, the dissemination of IEP information to general
instruction of students with disabilities in general education educators could be one area in which special educators aiming
classrooms (Lamar-Dukes & Dukes, 2005; Voltz, 1992; to further collaborative efforts between general education
Voltz et al., 1994; Wallace, Shin, Bartholomay, & Stahl,
2001; Weishaar, 2001). However, collaboration with gen-
1
eral educators and learning to work with paraprofessionals Texas A&M University–Commerce, TX, USA
are two elements of the special educator’s duties that may Corresponding Author:
prove to be challenging (Giangreco, 2003; Mastropieri, Beth A. Jones, Texas A&M University–Commerce, 228 Henderson Hall,
2001; McGrath, Johns, & Mathur, 2010). Commerce, TX 75429 (e-mail: beth_jones@tamu-commerce.edu)
298 Intervention in School and Clinic 47(5)

and special education could improve their procedures education teachers who fail to implement student IEPs
(Cook & Schirmer, 2003; Heufner, 2000; Lee-Tarver, can also be personally assessed compensatory and punitive
2006). damages.
The collaborative role of special education teachers also One possible reason for the failure to implement student
encompasses working with and supervising paraprofes- IEPs is that general educators are unfamiliar with the IEP
sionals. For example, the 2010–2011 Occupational Outlook paperwork. This could be attributed to the fact that general
Handbook reported that in 2008 there were over 1.3 million education teachers, primarily at the secondary level, instruct
full- and part-time paraprofessional positions. In addition, a numerous students with disabilities over the course of one
10% increase is expected by the year 2018 (Bureau of Labor instructional day (Gross, 2000; Tennant, 2007; Weishaar,
Statistics, 2010). Consequently, novice and experienced 2001). To further complicate matters, there is no one com-
special education teachers alike may have the responsibility mon format for presenting the information contained in the
of supervising paraprofessionals’ work (McGrath et al., IEP. That is to say, the IDEIA mandates the required com-
2010; Morgan & Ashbaker, 2001). Supervising paraprofes- ponents of the IEP, but not the manner in which it is pre-
sionals requires both administrative and management skills, sented or in how much detail (IDEIA, 2004). Thus, students
and educators need to be able to communicate effectively, transferring from district to district, as well as out of state,
coordinate schedules, match paraprofessionals’ strengths to come with paperwork that sometimes looks drastically dif-
assigned duties, set goals, establish plans, support parapro- ferent from what teachers are accustomed to.
fessionals in providing instruction, and offer frequent feed- Findings of a study by Voltz et al. (1994) suggested that
back (Wallace et al., 2001). Special education teachers may one way to improve the actual collaborative roles of general
become overwhelmed with these responsibilities and find it and special educators is to allow for specific times for col-
difficult to know how to work collaboratively with parapro- laboration. Furthermore, Weishaar (2001) suggested that
fessionals (McGrath et al., 2010). one way for general education teachers to comply with fed-
eral law is to become familiar with IEPs of students with
disabilities assigned to their classes. To accomplish this,
Special Education special educators can provide teachers with a comprehen-
Students at a Glance sive list of students in their classes with IEPs at or prior to
The special education students at a glance approach the beginning of the school year.
(SESG) was conceptualized based on best-practice research The SESG: BOY form is intended to (a) provide a format
to help professionals overcome some of the known barriers conducive to quick referencing, (b) facilitate student track-
to collaboration and thus facilitate more effective collab- ing, and (c) ensure that teachers are adequately familiar
orative efforts between special education teachers, general with the services each student requires. Specifically, the
educators, and paraprofessionals. The SESG consists of effective use of this form requires the special education
three forms: the Beginning of Year (BOY) form, the End of teacher to make appointments with all general education
Year (EOY) form, and the Inclusion Running Record teachers who will serve included students in their class-
(IRR). The BOY and EOY forms can be used by special rooms. This should occur at the beginning of each school
educators as a collaboration tool for dissemination of IEP year, preferably during staff development training prior to
information to general educators. The IRR can be used the inception of instruction, or each time a new student with
to foster collaboration and to support paraprofessionals disabilities transfers in. During this time, the special educa-
providing services for students with disabilities in general tion teacher reviews the student’s IEP with the general edu-
education settings. cation teacher and watches as the general educator
transcribes the most crucial information to the one-page
SESG: BOY form (see Figures 1 through 3). This form
Beginning and End of Year Forms merely provides a format for the teacher to summarize all of
The responsibilities of general education teachers related to the key elements of the IEP in a concise manner. Therefore,
students with disabilities in inclusionary settings include no decision making should occur regarding the appropriate-
the design and implementation of curricula, specifically, in ness of accommodations and all accommodations, and ser-
accordance with the IEP that was developed by the IEP vices marked on the SESG: BOY form should be reflected
team. When there is a failure to implement IEPs to both the in the actual IEP. Additionally, because this form is intended
letter and spirit of the law, the consequences can include an to be a shortened version of the IEP, the accommodations
inappropriate education for the student, negative teacher indicated on this one-page form were deemed necessary for
evaluations, due process hearings, and even personal law- the general education setting by the IEP team and must be
suits. Due process hearings can be costly, both monetarily implemented by the general education teacher. It is possible
and emotionally, and school districts can ultimately be that the special educator could assist in the implementation
ordered to compensate for lost services. Additionally, general of accommodations, but that would be done on a
Jones 299

John Doe ISD


Individual Educaon Program

Jane Doe
Student Name _______________________ 5
Grade ______
____ Duraon Dates _______________
8/15/118/14/12

Student Eligibility Learning Disabled, Speech Impairment


Determinaon of Services to be Provided:

Subject Service Grade Time/Frequency Classroom Inclusion


Provider Assignment of Services Accommodaons Support
Reading/Language Special Special 250 min./week
Arts Educaon Educaon
Mathemacs Regular Regular 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 11
Educaon Educaon
Science Regular Regular 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 1 hour/week
Educaon Educaon 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
Social Studies Regular Regular 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 1 hour/week
Educaon Educaon 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
PE Regular Regular 8, 9, 10
Educaon Educaon
Elecves Regular Regular 2, 8, 9, 10, 11
Educaon Educaon
Speech Therapy Special Special 30 sessions/
Educaon Educaon semester

Accommodaons:
1. Reduce/modified exams without 8. Short instructions
reduction in TEKS 9. Teacher check for understanding
2. Opportunity to respond orally 10. Repeat and explain instructions for
3. Provide correctly completed samples clarification
4. Reduced/modified assignments 11. Extra time for oral responses
without reduction of state standards 12. Study sheets/preview/summaries
5. Read math problems aloud 13. No penalty for spelling
6. Oral exams/open book exams 14. Tape recorded/highlighted materials
7. Small group exam administration 15. Copy of class notes

IEP Minutes/Deliberaons:
The IEP Team met to review Jane’s progress. The IEP goals were drafted, and the schedule of services
were determined. Jane’s parents reported that they would like to see a focus on improving Jane’s
organizational skills. Jane will participate in state and district assessments, with accommodations. The
IEP Team reached consensus.

Figure 1. Sample individualized education program (IEP). The IEP, developed by the IEP team, is used to determine services that
should be indicated on the beginning of year form.

case-by-case basis. In the event that a general education The use of the SESG: BOY form serves to ameliorate
teacher found the required accommodations to be unsuc- general education teachers’ unfamiliarity with special edu-
cessful or unnecessary, he or she would need to communi- cation paperwork and lack of knowledge regarding where
cate that information to the special education teacher and to find pertinent information. Additionally, it provides the
possibly call an IEP meeting to make changes to that par- special education teacher an opportunity to witness the
ticular student’s program. It is recommended that the spe- review of each student’s records. The SESG: BOY form
cial education teacher initiate this type of progress also allows the teachers to leave with a one-page summary
monitoring with the general education teacher, at the same of all of the services that are to be provided to a particular
interval that he or she completes IEP progress reports, by student, a quick reference that they can utilize throughout
setting up an appointment or inquiring via e-mail as to the the school year. Of course, every time revisions are made
effectiveness of required accommodations. to individual student IEPs, another meeting between the
300 Intervention in School and Clinic 47(5)

Student: __________________ Teacher: _____________________ Date: ____________

Special Educa on Students at a Glance:


Beginning of Year Form

Please place an “X” beside the accommoda ons that are REQUIRED for this student
Reduce/modified exams without reduc on of Extra me for oral responses
state standards Consider effort/parcipaon as part of grade
Opportunity to respond orally Study sheets/preview/summaries
Provide correctly completed samples No penalty for spelling
Reduced/modified assignments without Tape recorded/highlighted materials
reduc on of state standards
Large print materials
Read math problems aloud
Colored overlays
Oral exams/open book exams
Altered format of materials-How?
Extra me for comple ng assignments
Retake tests if grade lower than ____ Copy of class notes
Small group exam administraon Clearly defined limits
Reducon of state standards through IEP Frequent eye contact/proximity control
Exempon from reading before peers Behavior Intervenon Plan
Emphasis on major points Private discussions regarding behavior
Grading based on parcipaon/social skills Supervision during transions
acquision
Frequent reminders of the rules
Short instrucons
Augmentave communicaon device
Teacher check for understanding
Word processor
Repeat and explain instrucons for clarificaon
Other: ___________________________
Assignment notebook
Visual or auditory aides Other: ___________________________
Peer tutoring/peer working arrangement
(s)

Resource Subject(s)/Time(s)/Grading:

Inclusion Support/Related Services:

Pernent Info from the IEP Minutes

Figure 2. Blank beginning of the year form. IEP information should be transcribed to this form by the general education teacher as the
special educator explains required accommodations and services.

general educator and special educator would need to occur Figures 4 and 5) as part of their checkout procedures. The
in order to transfer the updated information in the IEP to a form provides an avenue for teachers to offer insight regard-
new SESG: BOY form (see Note 1). ing effective instructional strategies that can be passed
Likewise, at the conclusion of the school year, the spe- along to the student’s next teacher, in order that they not
cial education teacher can request that general education reinvent the wheel. Teachers are asked to give any hints
teachers complete the SESG: EOY Review worksheet (see about what they wish they would have known on the first
Jones 301

Jane Doe
Student: __________________ Mr. Smith/Science
Teacher: _____________________ 8/16/11
Date: ____________

Special Educa on Students at a Glance:


Beginning of Year Form
Please place an “X” beside the accommoda ons that are REQUIRED for this student
X Reduce/modified exams without reduc on of X Extra me for oral responses
state standards Consider effort/parcipaon as part of grade
Opportunity to respond orally X Study sheets/preview/summaries
Provide correctly completed samples X No penalty for spelling
X Reduced/modified assignments without X Tape recorded/highlighted materials
reduc on of state standards
Large print materials
X Read math problems aloud
Colored overlays
X Oral exams/open book exams
Altered format of materials-How?
Extra me for completing assignments
Retake tests if grade lower than ____ X Copy of class notes
X Small group exam administra on Clearly defined limits
Reduc on of state standards through IEP Frequent eye contact/proximity control
Exemp on from reading before peers Behavior Intervenon Plan
Emphasis on major points Private discussions regarding behavior
Grading based on par cipa on/social skills Supervision during transions
acquisi on
Frequent reminders of the rules
Short instruc ons
Augmentave communicaon device
X Teacher check for understanding
Word processor
X Repeat and explain instruc ons for clarifica on
Other: ___________________________
Assignment notebook
Visual or auditory aides Other: ___________________________
Peer tutoring/peer working arrangement
(s)

Resource Subject(s)/Time(s)/Grading:

R/LA 250 minutes/week

Inclusion Support/Related Services:

1 hour/week

Speech Therapy

Pernent Info from the IEP Minutes

Parents requested that we work on organizaonal skills.

Jane will take state/district assessments, with accommodaons.

Figure 3. Completed beginning of the year form. An example of how to use the information on the sample IEP to complete the
beginning of year form.

day of the school year about working with that student, for a future teacher to know that instruction was not suc-
what did not work, the reason(s) particular approaches were cessful when presented in a lecture format or that the
not successful, and the accommodations they felt were the student best demonstrated his or her learning in visual rep-
most helpful to the student. For example, it would be helpful resentations rather than in written work. The special education
302 Intervention in School and Clinic 47(5)

Student: ___________________ Teacher: _____________________ Date: ____________

Special Educa on Students at a Glance:


End of Year Review
Please place an “X” beside the accommoda ons that you find most helpful for this student.
Reduce/modified exams without reduc on of Extra me for oral responses
state standards Consider effort/parcipaon as part of grade
Opportunity to respond orally Study sheets/preview/summaries
Provide correctly completed samples No penalty for spelling
Reduced/modified assignments without Tape recorded/highlighted materials
reduc on of state standards
Large print materials
Read math problems aloud
Colored overlays
Oral exams/open book exams
Altered format of materials-How?
Extra me for comple ng assignments
Retake tests if grade lower than ____ Copy of class notes
Small group exam administraon Clearly defined limits
Reducon of state standards through IEP Frequent eye contact/proximity control
Exempon from reading before peers Behavior Intervenon Plan
Emphasis on major points Private discussion regarding behavior
Grading based on parcipaon/social skills Supervision during transions
acquision
Frequent reminders of the rules
Short instrucons
Augmentave communicaon device
Teacher check for understanding
Word processor
Repeat and explain instrucons for clarificaon
Other: ___________________________
Assignment notebook
Visual or auditory aides Other: ___________________________
Peer tutoring/peer working arrangement

Things I have tried with this student that did NOT work and WHY:

What I wish I had known from day 1 for working with this student:

Addional Helpful Hints:

Figure 4. Blank end of the year form. As part of standard checkout procedures, general educators complete this form on any
students with disabilities that were included in their classroom in the preceding year.

teacher can keep a file of these completed forms and pass instructional assistants, citing a mismatch between respon-
them on to the next year’s general education teacher at the sibilities and training and a lack of adequate guidance as
beginning of the year meeting previously discussed. driving forces (Idol, 2006; McGrath et al., 2010). Giangreco
(2003) suggested that classroom teachers, special educa-
tors, and paraprofessionals should hold meetings explicitly
Inclusion Running Records for the purpose of outlining plans for including students
Research indicates that both teachers and paraprofessionals with disabilities in lessons and various activities. Therefore,
themselves feel a need for professional development for the the special educators’ first responsibility with regard to
Jones 303

Jane Doe
Student: ___________________ Mr. Smith/Science
Teacher: _____________________ 5/30/12
Date: ____________

Special Educaon Students at a Glance:


End of Year Review
Please place an “X” beside the accommodaons that you find most helpful for this student.
X Reduce/modified exams without reducon of X Extra me for oral responses
state standards Consider effort/parcipaon as part of grade
Opportunity to respond orally Study sheets/preview/summaries
Provide correctly completed samples No penalty for spelling
X Reduced/modified assignments without X Tape recorded/highlighted materials
reducon of state standards
Large print materials
X Read math problems aloud
Colored overlays
X Oral exams/open book exams
Altered format of materials-How?
Extra me for compleng assignments
Retake tests if grade lower than ____ X Copy of class notes
X Small group exam administraon Clearly defined limits
Reducon of state standards through IEP Frequent eye contact/proximity control
Exempon from reading before peers Behavior Intervenon Plan
Emphasis on major points Private discussion regarding behavior
Grading based on parcipaon/social skills Supervision during transions
acquision
Frequent reminders of the rules
Short instrucons
Augmentave communicaon device
Teacher check for understanding
Word processor
Repeat and explain instrucons for clarificaon
Other: ___________________________
Assignment notebook
Visual or auditory aides Other: ___________________________
Peer tutoring/peer working arrangement

Things I have tried with this student that did NOT work and WHY:
Requiring Jane to write wrien responses to chapter focus quesons
Jane becomes frustrated with the reading level of the textbook, and she has great difficulty formulang
wrien responses.

What I wish I had known from day 1 for working with this student:
Jane seems to have a very fragile self-concept, and she does not like being singled out or looking
different from her peers.

Addional Helpful Hints:


I found that Jane was really movated by the opportunity to earn free me.

Figure 5. Completed end of the year form. An example of how a general education teacher might complete the end of year form to
provide useful information to the next year’s teacher.

working with their paraprofessionals would be ensuring requiring each paraprofessional with inclusionary duties to
that these preplanning meetings occur in order to help complete a form on each student they work with, each
clarify roles and define learning goals for individual students. week. The paraprofessionals, in effect, keep a log indicating
The SESG: IRR (see Figures 6 and 7) would then be that they delivered services; what day and time services
used as a way of monitoring the provision of inclusionary were delivered; whether the student was absent, present, or
services and involves the special education teacher’s tardy; if the student was prepared with the appropriate
304 Intervention in School and Clinic 47(5)

Student Name _______________________ Grade ________ Inclusion Staff______________


Total Inclusion Time on IEP by Subject____________________________________________

Special Educaon Students at a Glance:


Weekly Inclusion Running Record
Date Time Time Teacher A­endance Had Homework/ Inclusion Acvity During
In Out Materials? This Class
Monday

Date Time Time Teacher A­endance Had Homework/ Inclusion Acvity During
In Out Materials? This Class
Tuesday

Date Time Time Teacher A­endance Had Homework/ Inclusion Acvity During
In Out Materials? This Class
Wednesday

Date Time Time Teacher A­endance Had Homework/ Inclusion Acvity During
In Out Materials? This Class
Thursday

Date Time Time Teacher A endance Had Homework/ Inclusion Acvity During
In Out Materials? This Class
Friday

Total Inclusion Time for This Week:


Math ______________ Social Studies ______________ Science ______________
Reading/Language Arts ______________ Other ___________

Figure 6. Blank inclusion running record. Inclusion staff completes this form weekly to document inclusionary activities of all students
with disabilities in general education settings.

materials; what instructional activity was engaged in during an avenue for “spot checks” regarding what is occurring in
the inclusion time; and the total amount of inclusion support general education classrooms and provides documentation
for that week. At the conclusion of each week, as their job that can be taken to IEP meetings. It is the intention that the
duties, the special education teacher can ask paraprofes- completed SESG: IRR forms be routinely reviewed and ref-
sionals to file their completed logs by student in a desig- erenced when completing IEP progress reports. If included
nated, central location. It is important to note that this form students are participating in lessons appropriately in the
could also be utilized by other members of the special edu- general education setting, then the special education teacher
cation team, such as special education teachers themselves, merely uses the completed forms for documentation of ser-
as a form of reflective journaling that would help uncover vices provided and no change is made to the programming.
patterns in student and/or teacher performance. However, if it becomes apparent to the special educator
IRRs serve to hold paraprofessionals accountable for that, over time, students are not engaged in lessons, consis-
their respective assignments. In addition, this form provides tently are not prepared with the appropriate materials, or are
Jones 305

Jane Doe
Student Name _______________________ Grade ________
5 Inclusion Staff______________
Mrs. Johnson
Total Inclusion Time on IEP by Subject____________________________________________
1 hour /week for science (Smith) and social studies (Thomas)

Special Educaon Students at a Glance:


Weekly Inclusion Running Record
Date Time Time Teacher A­endance Had Homework/ Inclusion Acvity During
In Out Materials? This Class
Monday

8/19 1:15 1:45 Smith Present Missing materials Read about water cycle

8/19 2:30 2:45 Thomas Present Yes Helped Jane get her
assignments wrien down
Date Time Time Teacher A­endance Had Homework/ Inclusion Acvity During
In Out Materials? This Class
Tuesday

8/20 2:15 2:45 Thomas Absent Helped small group of


students instead

Date Time Time Teacher A­endance Had Homework/ Inclusion Acvity During
In Out Materials? This Class
Wednesday

8/21 1:15 1:45 Smith Tardy Yes Helped with water cycle
experiment
8/21 2:15 2:45 Thomas Present Yes Made list of states and
capitals by region
Date Time Time Teacher A­endance Had Homework/ Inclusion Acvity During
In Out Materials? This Class
Thursday

8/22 2:15 2:45 Thomas Present Missing Helped complete


homework homework (label map)

Date Time Time Teacher A endance Had Homework/ Inclusion Acvity During
In Out Materials? This Class
Friday

8/23 1:15 1:45 Smith Present Yes Illustrated steps in water


cycle

Total Inclusion Time for This Week:


Math ______________ Social Studies ______________
1 hour 15 min. Science ______________
1 ½ hours

Reading/Language Arts ______________ Other ___________

Figure 7. Completed inclusion running record. An example of how the weekly log of inclusionary services is completed to reflect
activities in the general education classroom and to document that all inclusion time mandated by the sample IEP has been provided.

not being included by the general educator, the special edu- Conclusion
cator should set up a meeting with the general educator to
address the area(s) of concern. Again, it may become neces- Including students in the general education classroom suc-
sary to call an IEP meeting to make formal changes to the cessfully requires multiprofessional coordination (Eccleston,
student’s program. 2010; Voltz, 1992; Voltz et al., 1994). However, given the
306 Intervention in School and Clinic 47(5)

well-documented barriers to successful collaboration, special Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Thousand, J. (2003). What do special
educators in the inclusive model face a task that can be over- educators need to know and be prepared to do for inclusive
whelming (Mastropieri, 2001; McGrath et al., 2010). schooling to work? Teacher Education and Special Education,
Research has shown that effective communication is one 26, 42–50.
of the biggest hurdles in the collaborative effort and that Giangreco, M. F. (2003). Working with paraprofessionals. Educa-
attempts at overcoming these barriers need to focus on open- tional Leadership, 61(2), 50–53.
ing the lines of communication among professionals (Lamar- Gross, J. (2000). Paper promises? Making the code work for you.
Dukes & Dukes, 2005; Voltz et al., 1994; Wallace et al., Support for Learning, 15, 126–133.
2001; Weishaar, 2001). Whereas collaboration should be Heufner, D. S. (2000). The risks and opportunities of the IEP
viewed as a continual process with many facets, the SESG requirements under IDEA ’97. Journal of Special Education,
approach is one tool that special educators can utilize to help 33, 195–204.
them take the first step in fostering a collaborative environ- Idol, L. (2006). Toward inclusion of special education students in
ment. Of course, continued monitoring of student progress general education. Remedial and Special Education, 27, 77–94.
and collaboration among professionals throughout the school Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. (2004).
year are essential elements that need to accompany the use of 20 U. S. C. §1414 (a) (1) (D); 20 U. S. C §1414 (d) (1-4); 20
the forms discussed here. However, the SESG approach pro- U. S. C §1415 (a-k). Retrieved from http://www.copyright.gov/
vides an avenue for improved communication and, therefore, legislation/p1108-446.pdf
could impact future collaborative efforts between special Lamar-Dukes, P., & Dukes, C. (2005). Consider the roles and
educators, general educators, and paraprofessionals by help- responsibilities of the inclusion support teacher. Intervention
ing to establish good working relationships. Furthermore, in School and Clinic, 41, 55–61.
this approach is intended to facilitate improved IEP imple- Lee-Tarver, A. (2006). Are individualized education plans a good
mentation on the part of the general educator and paraprofes- thing? A survey of teachers’ perceptions of the utility of IEPs
sional, which will, in turn, improve the instructional gains in regular education settings. Journal of Instructional Psychol-
made by students with disabilities in inclusive settings. ogy, 33, 263–272.
Mastropieri, M. A. (2001). Is the glass half full or half empty?
Acknowledgments Challenges encountered by first-year special education teach-
The author would like to express her sincere gratitude to Drs. ers. Journal of Special Education, 35, 66–74.
Jennifer Schroeder and Kashunda L. Williams for their time and McGrath, M. Z., Johns, B. H., & Mathur, S. R. (2010). Empow-
efforts in editing. ered or overpowered? Strategies for working effectively with
paraprofessionals. Beyond Behavior, 19, 2–6.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests Morgan, J., & Ashbaker, B. Y. (2001). A teacher’s guide to work-
The author(s) declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the ing with paraeducators and other classroom aides. Alexandria,
authorship and/or publication of this article. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Tennant, G. (2007). IEPs in mainstream secondary schools: An
Funding agenda for research. Support for Learning, 22, 204–208.
The author(s) received no financial support for the research and/or U.S. Office of Special Education Services. (2009). Number and per-
authorship of this article. centage of students ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part
B, by educational environment and state (Table 2-2). Retrieved
Note from https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc11.asp#partbLRE
1. Complimentary copies of both the SESG: BOY and EOY forms Voltz, D. L. (1992). Just what do you mean, collaborate? LD
are available from the corresponding author upon request. Forum, 17, 32–34.
Voltz, D. L., Elliott, R. N., Jr., & Cobb, H. B. (1994). Collabora-
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Cook, B. G., & Schirmer, B. R. (2003). What is special about spe- About the Author
cial education? Journal of Special Education, 3, 200–205. Beth A. Jones, PhD, is an assistant professor of special educa-
Eccleston, S. (2010). Successful collaboration: Four essential traits tion at Texas A&M University–Commerce. Her current interests
of effective special education. Journal of the International include collaboration, curriculum/teaching strategies, behavior
Association of Special Education, 11, 40–47. management, and visual impairments.