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BKU2032 Tutorial 5 Goodness-of- Fit and Contingency Table

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG


BKU2032 PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
TUTORIAL 5: GOODNESS-OF-FIT TEST AND CONTINGENCY TABLE

1. Students who are home-schooled often attend their local schools to participate in various types of activities such as
sports or musicals ensembles. According to the government, 82% of home-scholars receive their education entirely
at home, while 12% attend school up to 9 hours per week, and 6% spend from 9 to 25 hours per week at school. A
survey of 85 students who are home-schooled revealed the following information about where there receive their
education.
Entirely at home Up to 9 hours 9 to 25 hours
50 25 10
At α = 0.05, is there sufficient evidence to conclude that the proportions differ from those stated by the
government?

2. A researcher whishes to see if the five ways (drinking decaffeinated beverages, taking a nap, going for a walk,
eating a sugary snack, other) people use to combat midday drowsiness are equally distributed among office
workers. A sample of 60 office workers is selected, and the following data are obtained.
Method beverage nap walk snack other
Number 21 16 10 8 5
At α = 0.01, can it be concluded that there is no preference?

3. Human blood type is grouped into four types (A, B, AB, O). The percentages of American with each type of blood
area as follows: O, 43%; A, 40%; B, 12%; and AB, 5%. At a recent blood drive at a large university, the donors
were classified as shown below.
O A B AB
60 65 15 10
At α = 0.05, is there sufficient evidence to conclude that the proportions differ from those stated above?

4. A large supermarket carries four qualities of ground beef. Customers are believed to purchase these four varieties
with probabilities of 0.10, 0.30. 0.35, and 0.25, respectively, from the least to most expensive. A sample of 500
purchases resulted in sales of 46, 162, 191, and 101 of the respected qualities. Does this sample contradict the
expected proportions? Use α = 0.05.

5. The data below shows the number of passes students for Statistics course according to their tutorial attendance.
Result
Pass Fail
Attend tutorial 50 8
Not attend tutorial 28 14
Test a hypothesis that the result is not independent with tutorial attendance at significance level, α = 0.01.

6. A university official wishes to determine whether the instructor’s degree is related to the student’s opinion of the
quality of instruction received. A sample of student’s evaluations of various instructors is selected and the data are
shown below.
Degree
Rating Bachelor’s Master’s Doctorate
Excellent 14 9 4
Average 16 5 7
Poor 3 12 16
At α = 0.01, can the official conclude that the degree of the instructor is related to the students’ opinion about the
instructor’s effectiveness in the classroom?

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BKU2032 Tutorial 5 Goodness-of- Fit and Contingency Table

7. A newspaper report that 21% of loans granted by credit unions were for home mortgages, 39% were for automobile
purchases, 20% were for credit card and other unsecured loans, 12% were for real estate other than home loans, and
8% were for other miscellaneous needs. To see if her credit union customers had similar needs, a manager surveyed
a random sample of 100 loans and found that 25 for home mortgages, 44 for automobile purchases, 19 for credit
card and other unsecured loans, 8 for real estate other than home loans, and 4 for other miscellaneous needs. At α =
0.01, is the distribution the same as reported by the newspaper?

8. This table lists the number of officers and enlisted personnel for women in military.
Officers Enlisted
Army 10791 62491
Navy 7816 42750
Marine Corps 932 9525
Air Force 11819 54344
At α = 0.05, is there a sufficient evidence to conclude that a relationship exist between rank and branch of the
Armed Forces?

9. The production manager at a food products plant claims that absenteeism among workers is more common on
some weekdays than on others. The following sample data of 150 workers were recorded last week:
Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Number Absent 34 27 25 29 35
Test the hypothesis at α = 0.01 significance level that the distribution of absences among workers has changed.

10. Lack of discipline has become major problems in schools in Malaysia. A random sample of 300 adults was
selected, and these adults were asked if they favor giving more freedom to schoolteachers to punish students for
lack of discipline. The response of these adults is presented in the following table.
In Favor Against No Opinion
Men 93 70 12
Women 87 32 6
Does the sample provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the gender and opinions of adults are dependent?
Use a 1% significance level.

ANSWERS

1. H 0 : 82% of home-schoolers receive their education entirely at home, while 12% attend school up to 9
hours per week, and 6% spend from 9 to 25 hours per week at school , c test = 31.7503 , Reject H o
2

2. H 0 : There is no preference in the way people use to combat midday drowsiness, c test
2
= 13.8332 ,
Reject H o
3. H 0 : The percentages of American with each type of blood area as follows: O, 43%; A, 40%; B, 12%; and
AB, 5% , c test2
= 2.064 , do not reject H o
4. H 0 : Customers purchase these four varieties of ground beef with probabilities of 0.10, 0.30. 0.35, and
0.25, c test = 7.3509 , do not reject H o
2

5. H 0 : The result is independent with tutorial attendance, c test


2
= 5.4202 , do not reject H o
6. H 0 : The degree of the instructor is not related to the students’ opinion about the instructor’s effectiveness
in the classroom, c test = 19.5075 , Reject H o
2

7. H 0 : A newspaper report that 21% of loans granted by credit unions were for home mortgages, 39% were
for automobile purchases, 20% were for credit card and other unsecured loans, 12% were for real estate
other than home loans, and 8% were for other miscellaneous needs, c test
2
= 4.7859 , do not reject H o
8. H 0 : There is no relationship exist between rank and branch of the Armed Forces, c test
2
= 654.28 ,
Reject H o

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BKU2032 Tutorial 5 Goodness-of- Fit and Contingency Table

Ho: The distribution of absences among workers has not changed, c test = 2.5333 , do not reject H o
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9.
10. Ho: the gender and opinions of adults is independent, c test = 8.2527 , Reject H o
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