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DYWIDAG Geotechnical Systems

GEWI® Piles

GEWI® Piles with


a Load-Carrying Element
made of GEWI® Steel S 555/700,
ø 63.5 mm

Approval Number
Z-32.1-9
Validity
11 April 1995 - 31 December 2013
DEUTSCHES INSTITUT FÜR BAUTECHNIK
(German Institute for Civil Engineering)
Statutory Body

10829 Berlin, 30 January 2009


Kolonnenstrasse 30 L
Phone: +49 (030) 78730-0
Fax: +49 (030) 78730-320
Ref. No.: II 25-1.34.14-2/08

Approval Certificate

Approval number: Z-32.1-9

Applicant: DYWIDAG-Systems International GmbH


Dywidagstrasse 1
85609 Aschheim
Germany

Object of approval: DYWIDAG GEWI Piles with a Load-Carrying Element made of


GEWI Steel S 555/700, Ø 63.5 mm

Valid until: 31 December 2013

The aforementioned object of approval is herewith generally approved by the construction


supervision authority in accordance with German building legislation.*
This approval certificate comprises twelve pages and three appended sheets.

Important Notice
The approval in hand is the translation of a document originally
prepared in the German language which has not been verified and
officially authorized by the “Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik“ (German
Institute for Civil Engineering). In case of doubt in respect to wording
and/or interpretation of this approval, the original German version of
this document shall prevail exclusively. Therefore no liability is
assumed for translation errors or inaccuracies.

_______________________
* The object of approval was for the first time generally approved by the construction supervision authority on 11
April 1995.

18576.02
Page 2 of Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-9 of 30 January 2009

I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
1 This approval certificate is proof of the usability and applicability of the Object of Approval
as called for by the state building regulations.

2 The general approval does not replace the permits, licences and certificates required by
German law for the execution of construction projects.

3 The general approval is granted without prejudice to third party rights, in particular private
property rights.

4 Notwithstanding further regulations in the "Special Provisions" Section, the manufacturer


and distributor of the object of approval shall provide the user with copies of the approval
certificate; furthermore, they shall inform the user that the approval certificate must be
available at the place of use. On request, copies of the approval certificate shall be
submitted to all authorities involved.

5 The approval certificate may only be copied in its entirety. Any publication of excerpts
requires the consent of the German Institute for Civil Engineering. Texts and drawings in
advertising material may not contradict the approval certificate. Translations of the
approval certificate shall contain the following notice: "Translation from the German
original has not been certified by the German Institute for Civil Engineering".

6 The approval is not granted irrevocably. The provisions of this approval may be amended
or modified subsequently, in particular, if made necessary as a result of new technical
findings.

69902.06
Page 3 of Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-9 of 30 January 2009

II. SPECIAL PROVISIONS

1 Object of Approval and Application Range


1.1 General
Object of this general approval are the DYWIDAG GEWI piles with a load-carrying
element made of GEWI steel S 555/700 with a nominal diameter of 63.5 mm.
The piles in question are injection piles (composite piles) for which the stipulations of DIN
4128:1983-041 shall apply, unless stated otherwise below.
1.1 Application range
The piles may be used as tension or compression piles for temporary (< 2 years) and
permanent application.
The piles are designed for loading by axial loads only.
A geotechnical expert must be consulted, if the soil contains parts, which might weaken
the corrosion protection of the cement grout, if they intrude into the grout body (e.g.
organic material).
The piles shall not be installed, if the foundation soil contains ground water or seepage
water from waste heaps and/or landfills ensuring a high probability of steel corrosion in
form of cavities and holes in accordance with DIN 50 929-3:1985-092, Table 7, with Wo <
-8, unless the steel load-carrying element is protected by a corrugated plastic sheathing
over its entire length.

2 Provisions for the Building Product

2.1 Properties and Composition


2.1.1 General
In accordance with Appendices 1 or 2, the piles shall be made from a continuous steel
load-carrying element which consists of one bar (see Section 2.1.2), and uniformly
embedded in cement grout over their entire length.
2.1.2 Steel Load-Carrying Element
2.1.2.1 Steel Grade and Dimensions
Only generally approved GEWI steel S 555/700 with thread ribs, nominal diameter 63.5
mm, shall be used (Approval Certificate No. Z-1.1-1 and Z-1.1-198.1).
2.1.2.2 Coupler Splices
In accordance with the relevant approval certificate No. Z-1.5-2 for threaded splices and
anchorages for GEWI steel S 555/700 63.5 mm dia., the GEWI steel may be spliced with
couplers (see Appendices 1 through 3).
For tensile loadings the couplers shall be torqued with nuts. If in the case of compressive
piles the coupler is not secured with lock nuts, it shall either be conglutinated to the load-
carrying element or prevented from unscrewing by means of pins.

1 DIN 4128:1983-04 Small diameter injection piles (cast-in-place concrete and composite piles);
construction procedure, design and permissible loading
2 DIN 50929-3:1985-09 Corrosion of metals; probability of corrosion of metallic materials when
subject to corrosion from the outside; buried and underwater pipelines and
structural components

69902.06
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In case of predominantly dead load applications, lock nuts may be dispensed with, if a
heat shrink sleeve is used in accordance with Appendice 3.
In case of load-carrying elements embedded in plastic corrugated sheathings (see Section
2.1.3), the couplers shall be protected with a heat-shrink sleeve as shown in Appendix 3.
The heat shrink sleeves shall have a minimum wall thickness of 1.5 mm in the shrunk
condition. The heat shrink sleeves shall be shrunk on through hot air, infrared radiation or
the soft flame of a gas burner. The distance between the joints in the longitudinal direction
of the GEWI bar shall be ≥ 1 m.
Irrespective of the above stipulations in this section, a fixing by lock nuts is always
required in case of alternating loads and not predominantly dead load applications in
accordance with DIN 1055-1003 (see Appendix 3).
2.1.2.3 Pile Connection in the Foundation Body
In accordance with approval certificate No. Z-1.5-2 for threaded splices and anchorages
for GEWI steel S 555/700, nominal diameter 63.5 mm, the steel load-carrying element
shall be anchored with GEWI anchorages. The additional reinforcement in the pile head
shall be positioned in accordance with the above approval certificates.
2.1.3 Plastic Corrugated Sheathing
The load-carrying element may be embedded in a cement grouted plastic corrugated
sheathing over its entire length (see Appendix 2). In this case the load-carrying element
shall be coated with a corrugated sheathing made of either PVC-U in accordance with DIN
EN ISO 1163-14, polyethylene with a moulding compound as specified by DIN EN ISO
1872-15 – PE,E,45 – T022 or polypropylene with a moulding compound pursuant to DIN
EN ISO 1873-16 – PP – B, EAGC, 10-16-003 or DIN EN ISO 1873-13 – PP – H, E, 06-35-
012/022. Care must be taken to ensure that only straight tubes which were also delivered
in this condition are used. The sheathing must have a uniform wall thickness of ≥ 1 mm;
only tubes may be used which do not show any trapped bubbles and whose pigmentation
is uniform.
If required, the individual segments of the PVC-U sheathings shall be screwed into each
other and conglutinated with PVC adhesive. PE or PP sheathings shall be used as
unspliced tubes.
A PE cap shall be connected to the corrugated sheathing using cams and glued on the
earth-side end piece. The vent cap shall be glued to the corrugated sheathing on the air-
side end piece of the corrugated sheathing.

2.2 Manufacture, Storage, Transport and Labelling


2.2.1 Corrosion Protection and Manufacture of Prefabricated Piles for Installation and Grouting
The cement grout covering of the load-carrying element as required by Section 4.2.3 shall
be ensured by the measures stipulated in said section.

3 DIN 1055-100:2001-03 Action on structures - Part 100: Basis of deign, safety concept and design
rules
4 DIN EN ISO 1163-1:1999-10 Plastics - Unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) moulding and extrusion
materials - Part 1: Designation system and basis for specifications
(ISO 1163-1:1995); German version EN ISO 1163-1:1999
5 DIN EN ISO 1872-1:1999-10 Plastics - Polyethylene (PE) moulding and extrusion materials - Part 1:
Designation system and basis for specifications (ISO 1872-1:1993); German
version EN ISO 1872-1:1999
6 DIN EN ISO 1873-1:1995-12 Plastics - Polypropylene (PP) moulding and extrusion materials - Part 1:
Designation system and basis for specifications (ISO 1873-1:1995); German
version EN ISO 1873-1:1995

69902.06
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In case the steel load-carrying element is coated with a plastic corrugated sheathing over
its entire length in accordance with Section 2.1.3, the annulus between the load-carrying
element and corrugated sheathing shall be cement grouted from the bottom to the top as
required by DIN EN 4477 with the load-carrying element inclined.
In addition, DIN EN 4458 and DIN EN 4469 shall be observed. To ensure complete
grouting the vent cap shall be connected to a 0.5 m long grout hose or to a grout cone.
The load-carrying element shall be provided with spacers every 1 m to maintain a
distance of ≥ 5 mm between the load-carrying element and the corrugated sheathing or a
PE helix 6 mm dia. with a pitch of 0.5 m shall be placed between them. The above work
shall be carried out in a factory.
2.2.2 Storage and Transport
The effectiveness of the corrosion protection depends on the integrity of the corrosion
protection components. Therefore special care shall be taken during storage, transport
and installation of the readily assembled piles that the corrosion protection components, in
particular the corrugated plastic sheathing, are not damaged as a result of improper
handling.
2.2.3 Labelling
The delivery note for the prefabricated pile shall be marked with the conformity symbol by
the manufacturer pursuant to the conformity symbol regulations issued by the German
States. Labelling may only be carried out, when the requirements pursuant to Section 2.3
have been met.
Among others the delivery note shall include the information for which piles the
prefabricated pile components are determinated and in which factory they have been
produced. Only components for one specified type of injection pile may be delivered on
the delivery note.

2.3 Evidence of Conformity


2.3.1 General
Based on an in-house production inspection and a regular external supervision including a
first testing, every fabricating plant must observe the following provisions to confirm
conformity of the pile components and the prefabricated piles for installation and grouting
in accordance with the provisions of this approval certificate.
The manufacturer of the pile components and the prefabricated piles shall commission a
recognized certification institution to issue the certificate of conformity as well as a
recognized inspection agency for external surveillance including product inspections.
The certification institution shall submit a copy of the certificate of conformity issued to the
German Institute for Civil Engineering for information.
In addition, the German Institute for Civil Engineering shall be provided with a copy of the
report on the first testing for information.
2.3.2 Industrial Production Control
An industrial production control shall be established and implemented in every fabricating
plant. By "industrial production control" the continuous monitoring of the production by the
manufacturer is understood which ensures that the manufactured building products
comply with the provisions of this general approval.

7 DIN EN 447:1996-07 Grout for prestressing tendons - Specification for common grout; German
version EN 447:1996
8 DIN EN 445:1996-07 Grout for prestressing tendons - Test methods; German version
EN 445:1996
9 DIN EN 446:1996-07 Grout for prestressing tendons - Grouding procedures; German version
EN 446:1996

69902.06
Page 6 of Approval Certificate No. Z-32.1-9 of 30 January 2009

The results of the industrial production control shall be recorded and evaluated. The
recordings shall at least include the following information:
- Description of the building product or the basic material respectively and its components
- Nature of the control or inspection
- Dates of manufacture and inspection of the building product or the basic material
respectively or its components
- Result of the controls and inspections and, if applicable, comparison with the
requirements
- Signature of the person in charge of the industrial production controls
The records shall be kept for at least five years and shall be submitted to the inspection
agency employed for external surveillance. On request, they shall be presented to the
German Institute for Civil Engineering and the responsible supreme construction
supervision authority.
In case of insufficient test results, the manufacturer shall immediately take the necessary
actions to remedy the defect. Building products not meeting the requirements shall be
handled in such a way that excludes any confusion with complying products. After the
defect has been remedied, the corresponding test shall be repeated immediately – as far
as technically feasible and to prove the removal of defects.
The in-house production control shall at least include the following measures:
2.3.2.1 GEWI Bars, Anchoring Components and Parts for Coupler Splices
Only GEWI bars, anchoring components and parts for coupler splices (see details shown
in section 2.1.2) shall be used for which an evidence of conformity has been produced
pursuant to the provisions of approval certificates No. Z-1.1-1, No. Z-1.1-198.1 and No.
Z-1.5.-2.
The stipulations for the receiving inspection set in the approval certificates shall be
observed.
2.3.2.2 Plastic Corrugated Sheathings
The composition of the moulding compound shall be attested by certificate of conformity
"2.1" in accordance with DIN EN 1020410. One plastic corrugated sheathing shall be taken
per batch (100 tubes) to measure the wall thickness at one internal and one external
corrugation and on the flank of the tubes. The decision whether a batch is accepted or
rejected shall be made in accordance with Section 2.3.2.6.
2.3.2.3 Vent Caps
The material properties and dimensions shall correspond to the specifications deposited
with the German Institute for Civil Engineering and the external surveillance agency. The
values shall be attested by certificate of conformity "2.1" in accordance with DIN EN
1020410.
2.3.2.4 Heat Shrink Sleeves
The material properties of the heat shrink sleeves and the bonding agent shall be attested
by certificate of conformity "2.1" in accordance with DIN EN 1020410. The wall thickness
shall be measured at 3 locations on the basic material and the bonding job determined per
batch (100 pieces). The decision whether a batch is accepted or rejected shall be made in
accordance with Section 2.3.2.6.
2.3.2.5 Factory applied Corrosion Protection
The corrosion protection measures to be carried out in the factory pursuant to Section
2.2.1 shall be verified by visual inspection on each pile (statistical evaluation not
necessary).

10 DIN EN 10204:2005-01 Metallic products - Types of inspection documents; German version


EN 10204:2004

69902.06
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For the cement grout, test in accordance with DIN EN 4478 shall be carried out.
Additionally DIN EN 4459 and DIN EN 44610 shall be observed.
2.3.2.7 Check Plan
In case each single measured value equals or exceeds the minimum value stipulated, the
batch shall be accepted. If not, further samples may be taken. The same measurements
shall be carried out on those samples as on the first sample. The measuring results shall
be summed up with the previous measurements. The mean average value x and the
standard deviation s shall be calculated from all values. In case the resulting test value
(numerical value)
z = x - 1,64 s equals or exceeds the minimum value stipulated,
the batch shall be accepted, otherwise rejected.
2.3.3 External Surveillance
The industrial production control in each fabricating plant shall be regularly checked by an
external surveillance, but at least twice per year.
As part of the external surveillance a first testing shall be carried out. Samples for
sampling inspections shall be taken and the inspection tools controlled. Sampling and
inspections are incumbent on the respective recognized inspection agency. The results of
the certification and external surveillance shall be kept for at least five years. On request,
they shall be presented to the German Institute for Civil Engineering and the responsible
supreme construction supervision authority by the certification institution or inspection
agency.

3 Provisions for Planning and Design

3.1 General
Unless stated otherwise below, DIN 105411 shall apply for the planning and design of
structures by use of DYWIDAG GEWI piles.
DIN 105411, section 8.4.2, applies for pile tests. The minimum required number of tests
results from DIN 105411, section 8.4.2 (10).
In case of not predominantly dead loads it shall be shown pursuant to DIN 1055-1003 that
the permissible fatigue stress range of the steel load-carrying element or the coupler
splices and the anchorages respectively is not exceeded.
The permissible fatigue stress ranges shall be taken from the approval certificates for
reinforcing bars with thread ribs (No. Z-1.1-1 and No. Z-1.1-198.1), or for from the
approval certificates for couplers and anchorages of reinforcing bars with thread ribs (No.
Z-1.5.-2).
The partial safety factor of γR = 1.15 for the material strength of the load bearing element
shall be taken for the load cases LF1 to LF3.

3.2 Evidence for Piles subject to Tensile Stress


3.2.1 Evidence shall be produced for temporary piles (service life < 2 years) and for piles
provided with plastic corrugated sheathings as required by Appendix 2 that the design
value of the active axial load NEd does not exceed the design value of the material
resistance for the load bearing steel element.
NEd ≤ NPl,Rd = A · fy/γR

11 DIN 1054:2005-01 Ground - Verification of the safety of earthworks and foundations


DIN 1054 Ber. 1:2005-04 Corrigenda to DIN 1054:2005-01
DIN 1054 Ber. 2:2007-04 Corrigenda to DIN 1054:2005-01
DIN 1054 Ber. 3:2008-01 Corrigenda to DIN 1054:2005-01

69902.06
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With
NEd design value of the active axial load
NPl,Rd design value of the material resistance for the load bearing steel element
A cross section of the load bearing steel element
fy yield strength of the steel
This tension fy/γR must also not exceeded on the tension side of the bar in the case of
non-regular bending stresses, calculated from the design values of the active loads.
3.2.2 Evidence shall be produced for piles provided with standard corrosion protection in
accordance with Appendices 1 and 3 and which are intended for permanent installation
(longer than 2 years) that the following tensile stresses or marginal stresses, calculated
from the design values of the active loads, are not exceeded in the steel when subjected
to irregular bending stresses:
- Load case LF1 ≤ 230 N/mm²
- Load cases LF2 and LF3 ≤ fy/γR

3.3 Evidence for Piles subject to Compressive Stress


Evidence shall be produced that the marginal stresses, calculated from the design values
of the active loads, do not exceed the value fy/γR (without taking into account the cement
grout in the calculation).
It is necessary to produce an evidence for the safety against buckling, if the pile is laterally
unsupported or installed in soils with an undrained shear strength of cu < 30 kN/m².
When determining the bending stiffness, grout may only be used for calculation if it is
encapsulated, further cracking of the grout (until the middle of the cross section) must be
considered.
A lateral bearing through the soil may be taken into account, if the undrained shear
strength of cu is ≥ 10 kN/m², with a continuous elastic support of kl = 60 · cu and a max.
contact bearing stress between grout and grout of σgr = 6 · cu. In this case, a pre-
deformation with a bending radius of 200 m must be considered.
In case of free-standing piles or if the undrained shear strength of cu is < 10 kN/m², the
safety against buckling shall be verified taking into account the deformations (theory of the
second order) in accordance with DIN 18800-212. No lateral support provided by the soil
shall be considered in the calculations.
3.4 Evidence of the Transfer Lengths
It shall be ensured that the force transfer lengths exceed the required transfer lengths
from the steel load-carrying element into the cement grout.
Evidence must be carried out in accordance with DIN 1045-113.

12 DIN 18800-2:1990-11 Structural steelwork; analysis of safety against buckling of linear members
and frames
DIN 18800-2/A1:1996-02 Steel structures - Stability - Part 2: Buckling of bars and skeletal structures;
Amendment A1
13 DIN 1045:2001-07 Concrete, reinforced and prestressed concrete structures - Part 1: Design
and construction
DIN 1045-1 Ber. 2:2005-06 Concrete, reinforced and prestressed concrete structures - Part 1: Design
and construction, Corrigenda to DIN 1045-1:2001-07

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The values for the bond stress fbd shall be chosen in accordance with DIN 1045-113, table
25, line 1. Following DIN 1045-113, section 12.5(4), the values for the bond stress fbd shall
be reduced with the following factor α:
α = 0.9 for Ø 63.5 mm
A separate evidence for the transverse tensile stresses may be dispensed with, if
evidence of the force transfer lengths is produced.

3.5 Evidence of the Anchorage in the Foundation Body


3.5.1 General
The load transfer of all loads into the concrete structure (e.g. splitting forces,...) has to be
proven in accordance with the relavant rules (e.g. DIN 1045-113) in each case.
3.5.2 GEWI Anchorages
The provisions of the approval certificate for couplings and anchorages for bars with
thread ribs (see also section 2.1.2.3 of this approval certificate) shall be observed.
3.6 Complete Project
If necessary, the slip (see details in Appendix 3) occurring in tensile stressed coupler
splices without the use of lock nuts shall be taken into account for the design of the
complete project.

4 Provisions for the Installation

4.1 Production of the Hollow Space


Uncased and partly cased drillings are permissible for the production of the hollow space
for the injection pile, if evidence is produced that the drill rods used are sufficiently rigid to
assure a straight drilling, that the borehole wall is stable and that the borehole can be
properly cleaned.
4.2 Pile Shaft
4.2.1 General
14
The pile shaft shall be produced by injecting cement grout in accordance with DIN 4125 ,
Section 7.3, or DIN 41281, section 7.2. Contrary to DIN EN 4468, the compressive strength
shall be verified by producing 2 series of 3 samples every 7 working days on which piles
are concreted or per construction site respectively.

14
DIN 4125:1990-11 Ground anchors, Temporary and permanent anchors, Design, Construction
and Testing

69902.06
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4.2.2 Cement Grout


Source material for the grout are cements with special properties in accordance with
DIN 1164-1015 and the cements in accordance with DIN EN 197-116 – under observance
of the actual exposition class in accordance with DIN EN 206-117 in connection with
DIN 1045-218 (tables 1, F.3.1 to F.3.2) –, water in accordance with DIN EN 100819, and (if
necessary) additives in accordance with DIN EN 934-220 in connection with DIN V 1899821
under observance of DIN V 20000-10022 respectively with general German approval and
aggregates for concrete in accordance with DIN EN 1262023 under observance of
DIN V 20000-10324. The cement grout must be mixed mechanically, and must not
segregate and lump before it is injected.
The cement grout shall be introduced using the tremie method. As a general rule, the
discharge opening of the grouting machine shall reach at least 2 m into the grout material.
The steel load-carrying element may be introduced before or after filling the borehole with
cement grout. Grouting pressure shall be applied with a grout or injection pump via a
sealing cap at the upper end of the sheathing. In case of post-groutings an initial grouting
may be abandoned.

15
DIN 1164-10:2004-08 Special cement - Part 10: Composition, requirements and conformity
evaluation for special common cement
DIN 1164-10 Ber1:2005-01 Corrigenda to DIN 1164-10:2004-08
16
DIN EN 197-1:2004-08 Cement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for
common cements; German version EN 197-1:2000 + A1:2004
DIN EN 197-1 Ber1:2004-11 Corrigenda to DIN EN 197-1:2004-08
17
DIN EN 206-1:2001-07 Concrete - Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity;
DIN EN 206-1/A1:2004-10 Concrete - Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity;
German version EN 206-1/A1:2004
DIN EN 206-1/A2:2005-09 Concrete - Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity;
German version EN 206-1:2000/A2:2005
18
DIN 1045-2:2001-07 Concrete, reinforced and prestressed concrete structures - Part 2: Concrete;
Specification, properties, production and conformity; Application rules for
DIN EN 206-1
DIN 1045-2/A1:2005-01 Concrete, reinforced and prestressed concrete structures - Part 2: Concrete;
Specification, properties, production and conformity; Application rules for
DIN EN 206-1; Amendment A1
19
DIN EN 1008:2002-10 Mixing water for concrete - Specification for sampling, testing and assessing
the suitability of water, including water recovered from processes in the
concrete industry, as mixing water for concrete; German version EN
1008:2002
20 DIN EN 934-2:2002-02 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Part 2: Concrete admixtures;
Definitions, requirements, conformity, marking and labelling
DIN EN 934-2/A1:2005-06 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Concrete admixtures - Part 2:
Definitions, requirements, conformity, marking and labelling; German version
EN 934-2:2001/A1:2004
DIN EN 934-2/A2:2006-03 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout - Part 2: Concrete admixtures -
Definitions, requirements, conformity, marking and labelling; German version
EN 934-2:2001/A2:2005
21 DIN V 18998:2002-11 Assessment corrosion behaviour of admixtures according the series DIN EN
934
DIN V 18998/A1:2003-05 Assessment corrosion behaviour of admixtures the series DIN EN 934;
Amendment A1
22 DIN V 20000-100:2002-11 Application of building products in structures - Part 100: Concrete
admixtures according DIN EN 934-2:2002-02
23 DIN EN 12620:2003-04 Aggregates for concrete; German version EN 12620:2002
DIN EN 12620
Ber.1:2004-12
24 DIN V 20000-103:2004-04 Use of building products in construction works - Part 103: Aggregates
according to DIN EN 12620:2003-04

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4.2.3 Post-Grouting via Grout Nozzles or Grout Valves


4.2.3.1 Post-Grouting via Grout Nozzles
The nozzles provided with valves shall be tightly connected to the steel load-carrying
element and arranged symmetrically around it. In addition, the specifications in Section
7.3 of DIN 4128:1983-041shall be observed.
The grout valves shall be arranged according to the ground conditions.
4.2.3.2 Arrangement of Grout Valves
The grout valves and grout tube shall be tightly connected to the steel load-carrying
element (see Appendice 2). In addition, the specifications in Section 7.3 of
DIN 4128:1983-041shall be observed.
The grout valves shall be arranged according to the ground conditions.
4.2.4 Centering and Covering of the Steel Load-Carrying Element
The steel load-carrying element shall be centered within the borehole such that an
adequate cement grout covering is provided at all locations, including the couplers.
The dimension of the covering depends on the aggressiveness of the soil, ground water or
fissure water; the following minimum values (Table 1) shall be observed.

Table 1: Min. measures of the cement grout covering of the steel load-carrying element
Aggressiveness to concrete in
Cement grout covering c Remark
accordance with DIN 4030-125
Not aggressive ≥ 20 mm --
HS cement CEM III/B shall
Not aggressive; but with
≥ 20 mm be used in accordance with
sulphate content XA1
DIN 1164-116
XA1 ≥ 20 mm Consult expert1

XA2 ≥ 30 mm Consult expert1

1
The piles shall only be installed, when an expert opinion confirms that the permanent load-carrying characteristics of the
piles will not be impaired by a time controlled reduction of the skin friction. The thickness of the covering shall be
determined as part of that expert opinion.

Piles with plastic corrugated sheathings as required by Appendix 2 must have a cement
grout covering of at least 10 mm above the corrugated sheathings.
If the piles are only temporarily used to carry loads (service life < 2 years), cement grout
coverings of 10 mm are sufficient.
The cement grout coverings can be assured with elastic spacers (see Appendix 2,
segment spacers, also in combination with grout nozzles, or by the casing alone or in
combination with the above spacers. The actions to be taken depend on the soil and the
inclination of the piles (see also Table 2).

25 DIN 4030-1:2008-06 Assessment of water, soil and gases for their aggressiveness to concrete –
Part 1: Principles and limiting values

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Table 2: Inclination of the Piles and Distance between the Spacers


Loadbearing Distance between
Spacer Inclination of piles Remarks
Element spacers1
0° (vertical) – 15° ≤ 3.0 m Outer diameter D
Spring basket²
of the elastic
or segment Ø 63.5 mm 16° - 45° ≤ 2.6 m
spacers, cf.
spacer
46° - 80° ≤ 2.2 m Appendices 1 & 2

1
at least 3 spacers in each case
2
If the wall thickness of the casing starter tube equals or exceeds the cement grout covering ü, spacers may be dispensed
with in non-cohesive soils.

4.2.4 Pile Neck


The pile neck shall always be cased.
A corrugated PE or PVC sheathing shall be provided as constructional protection of the pile
neck in the transition region of the pile shaft to the foundation body (see Appendix 1). The
min. 1 mm thick corrugated sheathing shall have a distance of ≥ 5 mm from the load-
carrying element and shall be encased with at least 10 mm cement grout. The same holds
for piles with double corrosion protection (see Appendix 2).
If the piles are only temporarily used (service life < 2 years) to carry loads (e.g. for
underpinnings), the corrugated plastic sheathing may be dispensed with.
Alternatively to the corrugated sheathing, an additional reinforcement made of N94 welded
wire fabric (or a reinforcement cage of an equivalent cross-section and the same spacing
between the wires) may be provided around the steel load-carrying element in the pile
neck. The longitudinal wires must be on the outside; the overlap length in the direction of
the bar circumference shall be ≥ 180°.
The additional reinforcement shall be located as far to the outside of the cross-section as
possible; the longitudinal wires shall be covered with cement grout in accordance with
Table 1 in Section 4.2.3. The inner diameter of the longitudinal wires of the additional
reinforcement shall be ≥ 89 mm. The welded wire fabric shall be positioned concentrically
to the steel load-carrying element to meet the above conditions and centered in the
borehole by suitable spacers.

69902.06
Remark

The following page is an excerpt from the German approval certificate Z-1.5-2. It
shows the different types of anchorages of the GEWI-Piles in the concrete of the
building structure.

This page is necessary for the understanding of the approval Z-32.1-9, as there are
some cross-references, e.g. on Appendix 1.
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