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Unit 1, 2 and 3

Assignment 4. Writing session

Presented by:

Brenda Camila Coral - Código: 1004578170

Dayra Lizeth Romero R. - Código: 1.024.467.161

Vanesa Lizeth Narvaez - Código: 1004697279

Vanesa Estefania Chamorro - Código: 1010078401

Yina Tatiana Casanova- Código: 1.004.635.453

Group: 900002_196

Universidad Nacional Abierta y A Distancia – UNAD

Escuela De Ciencias Sociales, Artes y Humanidades – ECSAH

Programa de Psicología

Inglés – 900002A_471

CEAD Pasto, Marzo 8 de 2018

* Osvaldo Vides
Chart with Grammar explanations

GRAMMAR EXPLANATION/STRUCTURE/EXAMPLES
TOPIC
The present tense is the base form of the verb: I work in London.
Present But the third person (she/he/it) adds an -s: She works in London.
Simple Use
We use the present tense to talk about:
something that is true in the present:
He lives in London.
I’m a student.
something that happens again and again in the present:
I play football every weekend.
I sometimes go to the cinema.
She never plays football.
Questions and negatives
Look at these questions:
Do you play the piano?
Where do you live?
Does Jack play football?
Where does he come from?
With the present tense, we use do and does to make questions. We use does for
the third person (she/he/it) and we use do for the others.
We use do and does with question words like where, what and why:
But look at these questions with who:
Who lives in London?
Who plays football at the weekend?
Who works at Liverpool City Hospital?
Look at these sentences:
I like tennis, but I don’t like football. (don’t = do not)
I don’t live in London now.
I don’t play the piano, but I play the guitar.
They don’t work at the weekend.
John doesn’t live in Manchester. (doesn’t = does not)
Angela doesn’t drive to work. She goes by bus.

The present progressive is formed by combining the verb “to be” with the
Present present participle. (The present participle is merely the “-ing” form of a verb.)
progressive
I am studying.
I am studying with María.

In English, present progressive can be used to describe what is happening now,


or what will happen in the future.
I am studying now.
Present I am studying with María tonight.
progressive
In Spanish, the present progressive is only used to describe an action that is in
the process of taking place. It is not used for future actions.

I am studying now.
(use present progressive)
I am studying with María tonight.
(do not use present progressive)

To form the present progressive in Spanish, combine a form of “estar” with the
present participle.

Estoy hablando.
I am speaking.
Juan está comiendo.
John is eating.
María está escribiendo una carta.
Mary is writing a letter.

In order to form the present progressive, you must know how to conjugate the
verb estar, and how to form the present participle. You already know how to
conjugate the verb estar:

estar
estoy
estás
está
estamos
estáis
están

To form the present participle of regular -ar verbs, add -ando to the stem of the
verb.
hablar: hablando
(hablar – ar + ando)
trabajar: trabajando
(trabajar – ar + ando)
estudiar: estudiando
(estudiar – ar + ando)

To form the present participle of regular -er and -ir verbs, add -iendo to the
stem of the verb.
comer: comiendo
Present (comer – er + iendo)
progressive hacer: haciendo
(hacer – er + iendo)
vivir: viviendo
(vivir – ir + iendo)
escribir: escribiendo
(escribir – ir + iendo)

To form the present participle of -ir stem changing verbs, change e:i and o:u in
the stem, and then add -iendo to the stem of the verb.
servir: sirviendo
pedir: pidiendo
decir: diciendo
dormir: durmiendo
morir: muriendo
poder: pudiendo

To form the present progressive, simply conjugate the verb estar to agree with
the subject of the sentence, and follow it with the present participle.

Juan está comiendo pan.


John is eating bread.

María y Carmen están hablando con nosotros.


Mary and Carmen are speaking with us.
Estoy hablando con mi madre.
I am speaking to my mother.
Los niños están comiendo en el patio.
The children are eating in the yard.
El abuelo está durmiendo en la sala.
Grandpa is sleeping in the living room.
Marco está escribiendo un ensayo para su clase de español.
Marco writing an essay for his Spanish class.
Estamos cocinando la cena.
We are cooking dinner.
Remember, only use the present progressive for actions that are “in progress.”
Compare the uses of the present indicative with the uses of the present
progressive.

Recuperado de:
https://studyspanish.com/grammar/lessons/presprog
There is/are There is, there are y sus variaciones sirven para hablar sobre la existencia (o
no) de cosas o personas.

There is/ There’s (singular) – hay / existe


There are (plural) – hay / existen
“There is”, “there are” y los tiempos verbales

Estructur;
Conjugar el verbo “to be” en el tiempo que deseas usar
THERE + VERBO TO BE

Ejemplos en el Simple Present y en el Simple Past:


 There is/ There’s one chair in the room.
(Hay una silla en la habitación.)
 At English Live, there are classes 24/7.
(En English Live, hay clases 24/7.)
 Last night there was a bird on my window.
(Anoche había un pájaro en mi ventana.)
 There were few people at the meeting yesterday.
(Había pocas personas en la reunión de ayer.)

Simple Future
La etructura es igual para el singular y el plural, porque conjugamos el verbo
TO BE en el futuro y, en este tiempo verbal, no varía:

THERE + WILL + BE

 Tomorrow there will be two music festivals in Spain.


(Mañana habrá dos festivales de música en España.)
 They say next week there will be lots of parties.
(Dicen que la próxima semana habrá muchas fiestas.)

Formas negativa:
Para formar frases negativas, basta añadir el NOT inmediatamente después del
uso de la expresión.
 There are not/ There aren’t enough hours in the day.
(No hay suficientes horas en el día.)
 There were not/ there weren’t Astrology books at the library.
(No había libros de astrología en la biblioteca.)
 Next month there will not/won’t be any holiday.
(El próximo mes, no habrá ningún festivo.)

Formal interrogativa:
basta con invertir el orden de la estructura de las frases afirmativas y colocar el
There is/are auxiliar delante del sujeto (en el caso, ‘there’). En el presente y en el pasado, el
verbo to be es el propio auxiliar. En el futuro, el auxiliar es ‘will’.
AUXILIAR + THERE + …?
 Is there a drugstore near your school?
(¿Hay una farmacia cerca de tu escuela?)
 Were there four or five people on the room?
(¿Había cuatro o cinco personas en la sala?)
 Will there be a new season of this show?
(¿Habrá una nueva temporada de este programa?)

Recuperado de:
https://englishlive.ef.com/es-es/blog/laboratorio-de-idiomas/there-is-there-are/

Frequency Adverbs are adverbs of time and answer questions like "How often?"
Frequency (que tan seguido) or "How frequently?" (con que frecuencia). They help us
adverbs determine how often something happens.
For example:
 daily, weekly, yearly (diario, semanalmente, cada año).
 often, sometimes, rarely (con frecuencia, a veces, casi nunca).

Adverbs of defined frequency: As we said before, are those that tell us how often
an action is performed.
For example:

 Hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly.


(cada hora, a diario, semanalmente, mensualmente, anualmente).
 Every second, once a minute, twice a year.
(cada segundo, cada minuto, dos veces al año).
 Once, twice, once or twice, three times.
(una vez, dos veces, una o dos veces, tres veces).

Estos adverbios generalmente van al final de la oración.


For example:
 I check my weight every week. (Yo reviso mi peso cada semana.)
 I go to the gym twice a week. (Yo voy al gimnasio dos veces por
semana.)
 They go on vacation twice a year. (Ellos se van de vacaciones dos veces
al año.

Adverbs of indefinite frequency:

These help us to express the frequency with which an action is carried out
but not in an exact and exact way.
For example:
Never (nunca), seldom (raramente), sometimes (a veces), often (a menudo),
always (siempre).

Frequency Los adverbios de frecuencia indefinida generalmente van en la mitad de la


adverbs oración.

Por ejemplo:
 We usually go shopping on Saturday. (Nosotros usualmente vamos de
compras el día sábado.)
 I have often done that. (Yo a menudo he hecho eso.)
 She is always late. (Ella siempre está retrasada o llega tarde.)

"Occasionally, sometimes, often, frequently and usually" pueden ir también al
inicio o al final de una oración:

Por ejemplo:
 Sometimes they come and stay with us. (A veces ellos vienen y se
quedan con nosotros.)
 I play tennis occasionally. (Yo juego tennis ocasionalmente.)

"Rarely and seldom" también pueden ir a final de una oración (usualmente
con “very”):

Por ejemplo:
 We see them rarely. (Los vemos rara vez.)
 John eats meat very seldom. (John come carne en pocas ocasiones.)
 List of adverbs of indefinite frequency where 100% indicates the events
that always happen and 0% the events that never happen.
 Always, constantly (siempre, constantemente).
 Usually, normally (usualmente, normalmente).
 Frequently, regularly (frecuentemente, regularmente).
 Often (bastante).
 Sometimes (a veces).
 Occasionally (ocasionalmente).
 Rarely, infrequently (rara vez).
 Seldom (contadas veces).
 Hardly ever (casi nunca).
 Never (nunca).

Recuperado de:
https://www.gcfaprendelibre.org/ingles/curso/ingles_intermedio/adverbios_de_fr
ecuencia/1.do

Connectors in EXPLANATION:
writing
The grammatical connectors allow the union of words, sentences or paragraphs
that give coherence to a text. Therefore, there are different types of connectors
such as: adding, sequencing, illustrating, cause and effect, comparing, qualifying,
Connectors in contrasting, emphasising, and others.
writing STRUCTURE:
Word/ sentences/ paragraphs + grammatical connectors + Word/ sentences/
paragraphs.

EXAMPLES:
Word+ grammatical connectors+Word
 Black or White
Sentences +grammatical connectors+Sentences
 He saved the photo because it showed the whole landscape.

Fuente: http://www.ejemplos.co/50-ejemplos-de-oraciones-con-conectores-
causales/#ixzz57tYprRXY

Paragraphs+grammaticalconnectors+ paragraphs
- "In the middle of March, an environmental phenomenon occurred over the city
of Medellin that altered the quality of the air, forcing Mayor Federico Gutiérrez
Zuluaga to declare it on red alert (...)" All of the above, "(...) occurred due to the
change of the dry season to a sudden rainy season, which generated a thick layer
of haze that obstructed the solar incidence on the city. This prevented the release
of gas emissions (...) ".
Recuperado de:
https://www.archdaily.co/co/785486/por-que-medellin-esta-tan-contaminada

Chart with answers to practical exercises

1. Aporte por: BRENDA CAMILA CORAL

Exercise 1. From the picture of the refrigerator. Write 5 complete positive sentences, three
negative sentences and two interrogative sentences using
THERE + BE

Affirmative

1. There is a broccoli on tomatoes.

2. There are red strawberries inside a lunch box.

3. There are two small bottles in the middle of four large bottles.
4. There are two aubergines next to the broccoli.

5. There are meats on the first shelf.

Negatives

1. There are no onions inside the fridge.

2. There are not many milk bottles.

3. There is no ice cream in the fridge.

Interrogatives.

1. Are there tomatoes in the fridge?

2. Are there enough drinks?

2. Aporte por: VANESSA ESTEFANIA CHAMORRO

Exercise 2: write corresponding sentences to the images in Present simple tense. Use The
subject according to the pictures.

He takes shower evereday She wakes up at 7:00 o'clock

She goes the school on week


He dresses to go to work

He eats the dinner that his mom prepares


She get up the bed
She eats breakfast bread and coffee She studies in the school library

He brushes his teeth three times a day He watches television after his work

3. Aporte por: DAYRA LIZETH ROMERO

Exercise 2: write the sentences corresponding to the images in Simple Present, use The
subject according to the images).

1. She gets up in the morning to start her day

2. The man puts on his white sweater

3. Get up in the morning to start your day

4. She gets up early to go to school

5. She walks to work every day

6. He eats cereal in the morning

7. She reads the ingredients before preparing each meal

8. He brushes his teeth after every meal

9. She studies for her English class

10. He likes to sit and watch television


4. Aporte por: VANESSA LISETH NARVAEZ

Exercise 3: Describe ten actions of the people in the


picture. Use presente progressive in both positive and
negative

-The woman with the bicycle is going down, the


woman is not walking

La mujer con la bicicleta está bajando, la mujer no está caminando

-The man in the red shirt is playing guitar, he is not skating.

El hombre de camisa roja está tocando guitarra, él no está patinando.

-The man in the blue shirt is reading a book, the man is not flying a kite.

El hombre de camisa azul está leyendo un libro, el hombre no está volado una cometa.

-The man in the brown bag is taking pictures, He is not walking with his dog.

El hombre de saco café está tomando fotografías, él no está paseando con su perro.

-The woman in blue dress is reading a book, she is not eating

La mujer de vestido azul asta leyendo un libro, ella no está comiendo.

-The couple are eating, they are not reading a book.

La pareja están comiendo, ellos no están leyendo un libro.

-The girl in the tomato blouse is walking her dog, she is not eating.

La niña de blusa tomate está paseando a su perro, ella no está comiendo.

-The boy in the tomato shirt is flying a kite, he is not listening to music.

El niño de camisa tomate está volando una cometa, el no está escuchando música.

-The man in the blue shirt is reading the newspaper, he is not taking pictures.

El hombre de camisa azul está leyendo el periódico, él no está tomando fotos.

-The dog is watching its owners eat, the dog is not walking.

El perro está mirando a sus dueños comer, el perro no está paseando.


5. YINA TATIANA CASANOVA

Exercise 4: Answer five questions


about you and five about one member
from your family. Use Adverbs of
frequency How often do you do these
activities? How often does your family
member do these activities?

How often do you do these activities?

1. I never play chess

2. I usually read books

3. I always visit my friend miyei

4. I sometimes call my friends

5. I seldom go to shopping

How often does your family member do these activities?

1. my mom always plays chess

2. my sister often does homework

3. my mom occasionally rests in the house

4. my sister always surf in the net

5. my mother rarely eat out, she always cooks


Letter with pictures and the paragraphs with different colors

LETTER TO MOM

Hello Mom.

My dear and esteemed mother, I hope you have good health,and estes well in
every field; I write this first letter to tell you that I am well and very happy to
begin this new phase with my husband and daughter in a new country

For two months I live in China, and this place is beautiful, I am visiting the giant
statue of the Buddha "Tian Tan", we climb two hundred stairs or so, we are with
people from many countries, here is a woman in a yellow shirt and she is taking
pictures, also next to these stairs there are
red flags and lots of nature, we go to the
statue and it is made of bronze and people
say it has a meaning "the union of nature",
and this statue has a weight of two hundred
fifty tons, and also thirty-four meters in
height, this adventure is very beautiful in
this place, I want you to visit it.

My house is beautiful, in this there


are four bedrooms, each with its
own bathroom, there is also a
comfortable living room, there is a
library, but what I like most about
my house is my kitchen. Because in
it there is a stove with an oven,
there is a fridge, there are several
fruits on the table, there are four
drawers to store the pots, there is a
table with four chairs, there are
two cupboards, there are six paintings hanging on the wall, there is a window
There is an odor trap, there are three vases on the table, and there is also a jacket
of my husband on the chair. Everything that is in my kitchen makes it special.

Mom, I have known and learned many things, of course after doing my
activities. In the morning, my husband and I always get up at 6:00 a.m., we
usually have breakfast together and get ready to go to work; Every day, my
husband leaves at 7:00 a.m. to your work and start your day, and often at 10 AM
you have to meet with your boss and other colleagues to give the different reports
of the company; then at 12:30 p.m. He always comes to pick me up for lunch
together, and then often at 2:00 p.m. He returns to work and performs his
different tasks, in the afternoon leaves work at 6:00 p.m. or rarely at 7:00, to
return home. On the other hand I almost always exercise, then I bathe and brush
my teeth, at 8:00 a.m. M I always go to work, we rest constantly at 10:00 a.m. and
then we go back to the company, at 12:00 I go out to lunch and I meet my
husband; Then I go back to work to finish the day always at 7:00 p.m, I meet my
husband, at 7:30 p.m., we have dinner and finally at 9:00 p.m. we sleep.

Well mom, with this I finish, I say goodbye with a huge hug and I send many
kisses, say hello to my brothers and tell them please that I miss them and that I
love them with all my heart.

Your dear daughter, kisses and hugs!