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ROTATIONAL MOTION

ROTATIONAL MOTION

1 . ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT
Ø When a particle moves in a curved path, the angle subtended by its position vector about a fixed point is
known as angular displacement.
Ø Unit : radian
Ø Dimension : M0L0T0
Ø It is a vector quantity whose direction is given by right hand screw rule.
Ø If θ be the angular displacement of a particle moving in a circular path of radius r and s be the length of arc, s = rθ
Note :- 360º = 2π radian
2. ANGULAR VELOCITY
Ø The angular displacement per unit time is defined as angular velocity. If, a particle moves from P to Q in time
∆θ
∆t, ω = , where ∆θ is the angular displacement during the time interval ∆t.
∆t
∆θ d θ
If ω = Lim = = Instantaneous angular velcoity.
∆t → 0 ∆t dt
θ2 − θ1 ∆θ
ω= = = average angular velocity
t 2 − t1 ∆t
Ø Unit : Radian/sec
Ø Dimension : [M0L0T–1], which is same as that of frequency.
Ø It is a vector quantity, whose direction is normal to the rotational plane & its direction is given by right hand
screw rule.
Ø If ω be the angular velocity, v be the linear velocity & r be the radius of path, we have the following relation.
r r r
v = ω × r or v = r ω
Ø If f be the frequency, w = 2fπ

If T be the time period, ω =
T
Ø The angular velocity of a rotating rigid body can be either positive, depending on whether body is rotating in
the direction of increasing θ (anticloswise) or of decreasing θ (clockwise).
Ø The magnitude of an angular velocity is called the angular speed which in also represeneted by ω.
3. COMPARISION OF LINEAR MOTION AND ROTATIONAL MOTION
Linear Motion Rotational Motion
(i) If acceleration is 0, v = constant and s = vt (i) If acceleration is 0, ω = constant and θ = ωt
(ii) If acceleration a = constant, (ii) If acceleration α = constant then

(u + v ) (ω1 + ω2 )
(i) s = t (i) θ = t
2 2
v −u ω2 − ω1
(ii) a = (ii) α =
t t
(iii) v = u + at (iii) ω2 = ω1 + αt
(iv) s = ut + (1/2) at2 (iv) θ = ω1t + 1/2 αt2

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ROTATIONAL MOTION
(v) v2 = u2 + 2as (v) θ ω12 + 2 α θ
(vi) Snth = u + a(2n – 1)/2 (vi) θnth = ω1 + (2n – 1)α/2
(iii) If acceleration is not constant, the above (iii) If acceleration is not cosntant, the above
equation will not be applicable. In this case equation will not be applicable. In this case

dx dθ
(i) v = (i) ω =
dt dt

dv d2 x dω d 2 θ
(ii) a = = 2 (ii) α = = 2
dt dt dt dt
(iii) vdv = ads (iii) ωdω = αdθ
4. ANGULAR ACCELERATION
Ø The rate of change of angular velocity is defined as angular velocity is defined as angular acceleration.
r r
Ø Suppose at time t 1, a particle has angular velocity ω1 & ω2 at time t 2 then angular acceleration,
r r
r ω − ω1 r d2 θ
α= 2 ⇒ α= 2
t 2 − t1 dt
Ø It is a vector quantity, whose direction is along the change in direction of angular velocity.

Ø Unit : Radian/sec2

Ø Dimension : M0L0T–2
r r
Ø Relation between angular acceleration α and linear acceleration a , is
r r r
a = α × r or a = αr
r r r
Ø Radial acceleration, ar = ω × v . Its direction is along the radius.

Ø Angular velocity, angular acceleration etc. are related to rotational axis and are known as axial vector.
5. MOMENT OF INERTIA (ROTATIONAL INERTIA)
Ø The virtue, by which a body revolving about an axis opposes the change in rotational
motion, is know as moment of inertia.

Ø The moment of inertia of a particle with respect to an axis of rotation is equal


to the product of mass of the particle and square of distance from the axis
hence I = mr2
Ø The moment of inertia of a system about an axis of rotation equal to the sum
of moment of inertia of all the particles of the system about the axis of rotation.

I = m1r12 + m2r22 + .................... = ∑ m r = ∫ r dm


2
11
2

Ø It is a scalar quantity

Ø Unit : In M.K.S – kg -m2, In C.G.S. – gm -cm2

Ø Dimension : [M1L2T0]

Ø Moment of inertia depends on the following factors.


(i) Mass of body
(ii) Mass distribution of body or shape, size, density of body.
(iii) On the position of axis of rotation.
Note :- The more is the distribution of mass with respect to axis rotation the more will be moment of inertia.

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ROTATIONAL MOTION

Ø Moment of inertia does not depend on the following factors.


(i) Angular velcoity(ω) (ii) Angular Acceleration (α) (iii) Torque(τ) (iv) Angular Momentum (J)
Radius of Gyration - (K)
Ø The distance, from the axis of rotation where, the entire mass of the body is supposed to be concentrated
and the value of moment of inertia is same as that due to actual distribution of masses of body, is called
radius of gyration.
Ø The radius of gyration of a body about different axes is defferent

I m1r12 + m 2r22 + .......mnrn2


Ø If K be the radius of gyration, I = mK2 ⇒ K = ⇒ K=
m m1 + m 2 + ...... + mn

Ø For a symmetrical body, the radius of gyration is equal to the root mean square of distances of all the particles
from the axis of rotation.
or if, m1 = m2 = ............. mn

r12 + r22 + ....... rn2


K= = rr m s
n

Ø The value of radius of gyration depends upon the axis of rotation and mass distribution with respect to it.

Ø Radius of gyration does not depend upon mass of body.


THEOREMS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA
5.1 THEOREM OF PERPENDICULAR AXIS -
According to this theorem the moment of inertia of a lamina about an
axis passing thorugh its axis and perpendicular to its plane is equal to
the sum of moment of inertia about the two mutually perpendicular axis
in the plane of lamina. The normal axis OZ must pass through the point
of intersection of two mutually perpendicular axes OX and OY.
⇒ Izz’ = Ixx’ + Iyy’
Note :- This theorem is used only for plane lamina.
(b) Theorem of parallel axes :-
According to this theorem, the moment of inertia of a body about any axis is equal
to the sum of moment of inertia about an axis passing through its centre of gravity
and parallel to given axis and product of its mass and square of distance between
the centre of gravity and the axis of rotation. Ixx’ = IC.G + Md2
(c) The moment of inertia of two point masses about their centre of mass :-
Let m1 and m2 be two masses distance r from each other and r1 and r2 be the distance of their cenre of mass
from m1 to m2 respectively.
(i) r1 + r2 = r (ii) m1 r1 = m2 r2
m1 m2
CM
(iii) r = m 2r , r2 = m1r
1
m1 + m 2 m1 + m 2 r1 r2

(iv) I = m1r12 + m2r22

 m1m 2  2 m1m 2
(v) I =  m + m  r = µr where µ = m + m is known as reduced mass
2

 1 2  1 2

µ < m1 and µ < m2


(vi) In Diatomic molecules like H2, HCL etc. moment of inertia about there cenrter of mass is derived from
above formula

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ROTATIONAL MOTION

6. FORMULAE FOR THE MOMENT OF INERTIA OF REGULAR BODIES

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ROTATIONAL MOTION

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ROTATIONAL MOTION

MOMENT OF INERTIA OF SOME SPECIAL BODIES

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ROTATIONAL MOTION

7. TORQUE
Ø The torque of force F about the point O is equal to the product of force and perpendicular distance of line of action
of force from point
τ = (Force) × (Perpendicular distance of line of action of force from point o)
= Fr sin θ = (Fsin θ)r
= (The component of force perpendicular to positiion vector)
(Position vector)
∴ t = Fr sin θ, r sin θ is known as lever arm
Ø Unit : In M.K.S - N-m In C.G.S. – dyne-cm

Ø Dimension : ML2T–2
r r
Ø In vector from τr = r × F
r r r r
= rFsin θ n̂ , where θ is angle between r and F and n̂ is unit vector perpendicular to the plane of r and F .

Ø Torque is a vector quantity, whose direction is perpendicular to the plane of force and position vector and if the
direction is given by right hand screw rule.
Ø If the torque rotates the body in anticlock wise direction, the torque is positive and if the torque rotates the body
in clock-wire direction, the torque will be negative.
Ø If a body is acted upon by more than one force, the total torque is the vector sum of each torque.
r r r r
τ = τ1 + τ2 + .......... ... + τn

Ø I=Iα
I - Moment of inertia with respect to axis of rotation.
α - Angular acceleration with respect to axis of rotation
τ - Torque of force which is causing the rotational motion
r
r dJ r
Ø τ= , where J is angular momentum
dt
Ø The more is the value of r, the more will be torque and easier to rotate the body.
(i) The handle of screw driver is taken thick.
(ii) In villages the handle of flour-mill is placed near the circumference.
(iii) The handle of handpump is kept-long.
(iv) The rinch used for opening the tap, is kept-long.
θ2

Ø Work done by torque = ∫ τ dθ = Torque × angular displacement


θ1

8. FORCES COUPLE
Ø When two forces of equal magnitude act on different points and in opposite
direction, these force form a couple.
Ø The effect of couple is known by its moment.
Ø The moment of couple is equal to the product of magnitude of any force and
perpendicular distance between the force.
Moment of couple = (F) (r)
Ø The couple causes the rotational motion in the body.
Ø Generally both couple and torque carry equal meanings.
When there is only one force applying on a body the reaction force forms
torque with it.

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ROTATIONAL MOTION
Ø The work done by couple on a body is equal to work done by torque
∴ Work done by couple = work done by torque.


= τd θ

Ø If particle complets n rotations under the effect of couple or torque, work done
W = τ (2π n)
Ø As on stretching a spring energy is stored in it, in the same way as on twisting a wire the work done by torque is
stored in the form of energy.
θ
1

W − Cθ d θ =
0
2
C θ2

τ = C θ (Restoring torque), (where C = twisting coefficient)


9. ANGULAR MOMENTUM
Ø The moment of linear momentum of a body with respect to any axis of rotation is known as angular momentum.
r r
Ø It is a vector quantity, which is often represnted L or J
r r r
Ø Angular momentum J = r × p
r r
= r × (m v )
r r
= m( r × v )
r
or J = rp sin θ n̂

= mvr sin θ n̂
r r
θ is angle between r and v
r r
n̂ is unit vector perpendicular to plane of r and v
r
Ø The direction of angular momentum is perpendicular to the plane of r and vr and it is given by right hand
screw rule.
Ø J = mvrsine
cases
(i) If θ = 0, J = 0 (Minium)
(ii) If θ =90, J = mvr(Maximum)
= (mr2) w : Q v = rw
Ø Unit : J . second, kg m2/s, kg m2 rad/sec.
Ø Dimension : [M1L2T–1]
Ø If direction of rotation is anticlockwise, angular momentum is taken positive and if direction of rotation is clock-
wise, angular momentum Is taken negative.
Ø The angular momentum of a system of particle’s is equal to the vector sum of angular momentum of each particle.
r r r r
J = J1 + J2 + J3 + .......... ...

Ø Relation between angular momentum and angular velocity


J=Iω
I - Moment of inertia with respect to axis of rotation
ω - Angular velocity due to angular momentum
J - The moment of momentum which Is causing rotational motion.

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ROTATIONAL MOTION
Ø The rate of change of angular momentum Is equal to the torque applied on the body.
r
r dJ
τ=
dt

Ø In rotational motion angular momentum has equal importance as linear momentum In linear motion.

Ø If torque acting on a particle is zero then


r
r dJ
τ=0⇒ =0
dt
Which implies that the angular momentum remains conserved when no extemal force acts on the body
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM
Ø If no external torque is acting upon a body rotating about an axis, then the angular momentum of the body remains
constant that is
J = I ω = constant
Ø Proof :- We have read above that when a body rotates about an axis under the action of an extenal torque τ, the
rate of change of angular momentum of the body is equal to the torque; that Is,

dJ

dt

If the external torque is zero (τ = 0), dJ = 0


dt
⇒ J = constant
This is the law of conservation of angular momentum.
EXAMPLES

(i) Suppose a ball is tied at one end of a cord whose other end passes through a
vertical hollow tube.

The tube is held in one hand and the cord in the other. The ball is set into rotation
in a horizontal circle. If the cord is pulled down, shortening the radius of the circular
path of the ball, the ball rotates faster than before. The reason is that by shortening
the radius of the circle, the moment of inertia of the ball about the axis of rotation
decreases.Hence, by the law of conservation of angular momentum, the angular
velocity of the ball about the axis of rotation increases.[fig. (1)]

(ii) When a diver jumps into water from a height, he does not keep his body straight
but pulls in his arms and legs toward: the centre of his body. On doing so, the
moment of inertia I of his body decreases. But since the angular momentum I ω
remains constant, his angular velocity ω correspondingly increases. Hence
during jumping he can rotate his body in the air - fig. (2)]
(iii) In, a man with his arms outstretched and holding heavy dumb bells in each
hand, is standing at the centre of a rotating table. When the man pulls in his
arms, the speed of rotation of the table increases. The reason is that on pulling
in the arms, the distance R of the dumbells from the axis of rotation decreases
and so the moment of inertia of the man decreases. Therefore, by conservation
of angular momentum, the angular velocity increases. [fig. (3)]
In the same way, the ice skater and the ballet dancer increase or decrease the
angular velocity of spin about a vertical axis by pulling or extending out their limbs.

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ROTATIONAL MOTION
10. KINETIC ENERGY OF ROTATION
Ø The energy due to rotational motion of a body is known as rotational kinetic energy.

Ø If I be moment of inertia of body about axis of rotation and ω be its angular velocity, then kinetic energy of rotation.
r r
1 1 1 J2 1 J. J
Er = I ω or Er = MK ω =
2 2 2
=
2 2 2 I 2 I
Ø If ω is constant, Er ∝ I
Ø If I is constant, Er ∝ ω2
1
Ø If J is constant, Er ∝
I
Ø Work energy theorem :- The work done by torque = change in kinetic energy of rotation
r r
dEr  dJ   J 
Ø Power of rotation P = = τω =   . 

dt  dt   I 
  
Ø If a body performs rotational kinetic motion as well as linear motion, then the total energy of body is equal to the
sum of kinetic energy of rotational motion and kinetic energy of linear motion.
1 1
∴ Total K.E = Er + Et = Iω2 + Mv 2
2 2
Ø If rotation is taking place without slidding then v = rω a=rα

Ø Unit : same as that of energy

Ø Dimension : M1L2T–2
1 1 . LINEAR AND ROLLING MOTION OF A BODY ON INCLINED PLANE
Linear Motion of Body on lnclined Plane Rolling Motion of a Body on Inclined Plane
A A
v v
h s h s

θ θ
B B
Let the length of inclined plane is s and its Let the length of inclined plane is s and its
inclination from horizontal be θ inclination from horizontal be θ
(i) Linear acceleration of body alinear = g sin θ (i) Decrease in potential energy = Increase in
kinetic energy mgh = 1/2 I ω2 + 1/2 mv2
(ii) Angular acceleration = Zero (ii) Because the motion of body is without
sliding so v = R ω and a = R α
(iii) The velocity acquired by body on reaching (iii) Velocity on reaching lowest point is where,
2gh
the lowest point B is Vlinear = 2gh =
1+ K 2 / R2
K is radius of gyration and R is the radius of body
(iv) Angular velocity = Zero (iv) Linear accleration of reaching the lowest point
g sin θ
a=
1 + K 2 / R2
(v) Time taken by body to reach lowest point B (v) Time taken to reach the lowest point of
2s 2s 2s(1 + K 2 / R 2 )
is t linear = =
g sin θ the plane is t =
alinear g sin θ
a
(vi) The loss in potential energy on reaching the (vi) Angular acceleration α = ,
R
1 v
point B = Increase in Kinetic energy = mgh = mv 2 angular velocity =
2 R

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ROTATIONAL MOTION

SOLVED EXAMPLE
Ex.1 The radius of a wheel of a car is 0.4 meter. The car is accelerated from rest by an angular acceleration of
1.5 rad/sec2 for 20 seconds. Distance covered by wheel and linear velocity will respectively be.
Sol. Initially the wheel is at rest (ω0 = 0). The angular displacement of the wheel in t sec is

1 2
θ = ω0 t + αt
2
=0 + 1/2 (1.5 rad/sec2) (20 sec)2 = 300 radian.
Radius of the wheel r = 0.4 meter. Therefore, the linear displacement of the wheel is
s = 0.4 meter x 300 rad.= 120 meter.
This is the distance covered by the wheel.
Angular velocity of the wheel after t sec is
ω = ω0+ αt
= 0 + (1.5 rad/sec2) (20 sec.) = 30 rad/sec.
Therefore, the linear velocity of the wheel is v = r ω
= 0.4 meter x 30 rad/sec = 12 meter/sec.
Ex.2 A wheel of mass 6 kg is rotating at 300 rpm. Its angular velocity will be

2πn 2 × 3.14 × 300


Sol. Here, ω= = = 31.4 rad / sec
t 60

Ex.3 The shaft of an eletric motor starts from rest and on the application of a torque, it gains an angular acceleration
given by α = 3t – t2, during the first two seconds after it starts after which α = 0. The angular velocity after 6
seconds will be.


∫ dω = ∫ (3t − t
2
Sol. Given, α = 3t – t2 ⇒ = 3t – t2 or ∴ dω = (3t – t2) dt ⇒ ) dt
dt

 3t 2 t 3  3t 2 t 3
⇒ ω= −  + C[ t = 0, ω = 0 ∴ c = 0] ⇒ ω = − Putting t = 2
 2 3  2 3

8 10
= 6− = rad / sec
3 3

Since there is no angular acceleration after 2 sec. the angular velocity after 6 sec remains the same Le. 10/3 rad/sec.
Ex.4 A wheel 'A' has a radius 20 cm coupled by belt to wheel B of radius 30 cm as shown in fig. Wheel A Increases its
angular speed from rest at a uniform rate-of 3.14 rad/sec2. The time for wheel B to reach a rotational speed of 100
rev/min assuming that belt does not slip, will be
Sol. As the belt does not slip, velocity of A = velocity of B
i.e, VA = VB or rA ωA = rB ωB
Given rA = 20 cm, rB = 30 cm and ωB = 2π × 100/60 rad/sec A B
So, 20 ωA = 30 × 2π × 100/60 = 100π or ωA = 5π rad/sec
ω
We know that, ω = ω0 + αt or t = (as ω0 = 0)
α

∴ t= = 5 sec .
3.14

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ROTATIONAL MOTION

Ex.5 A turn table is rotating in a horizontal plane about the vertical axis passing through its centre with an angular
velocity 20 rad/sec. It carries upon it a flywheel rotating with an angular velocity 40 rad/sec about a horizontal axle
mounted in bearings. Find the angular velocity of the wheel as seen by an observer in the room.
Sol. As the axis of the turn table is vertical its angular velocity ωr is directed vertical. The axis of flywheel is horizontal
therefore its angular velocity ωF is directed horizontal, hence the resultant angular velocity is
r r r
ωR = ωF + ωT
ωR
r ωT
ωR = ω2T + ω2T = 40 2 + 20 2
r θ
ωR lies in a plane which makes an angle θ with the horizontal
ωF

 ωT  −1 1 
plane, given by θ = tan–1  ω  = tan  2 
 F  

Ex.6 A mass of 2 kg is rotating on a circular path of radius 0.8 m with angular velocity of 44 rad/s. If the radius of the path
becomes 1.0 m, what will be the value of angular velocity ?
Sol. Let l1 and ω1 be the initial moment of inertia and angular velocity of the mass about the axis of rotation and l2 and
ω2 the corresponding quantities after the radius of the path is changed.
By conservation of angular momentum, we have
I1ω1 = I2ω2
Here I1 = 2 X (0.8)2 = 1.28 kg-m2, ω1 = 44 rad/s, I2 = 2 X (1.0)2 = 2 kg-m2, ω2 = ?
∴ 1.28 x 44 = 2 x ω2

1.28 × 44
or ω2 = = 28.16 rad / s
2
Ex.7 A weightless horizontal rod is free to rotate about an axis OO'. Two masses, each of 1 kg, are placed at A and A’
such that, O’A = O’A’ = 0.20 meter. Now a torque of 2.0 newton-meter is applied on the system which rotates
about OO'. If the masses are displaced to B and B’ such that O’B = O’B’ = 0.50 meter, then decreament in angular
acc. will be -
Sol. In the first case the moment of inertia of each, mass about OO'
= mass x ( distance from O’)2 O
1kg 1kg
= 1 kg × (0.20 m)2 = 0.04 kg-m2
O' 0.2m
∴ moment of inertia of the whole system about OO'
(rod is weightless) is O

I = 2 x 0.04 = 0.08 kg-m 2 1kg 1kg


O' 0.5m
Let a be the angular acceleration.
Then the torque is, τ = Iα

τ 2.0N − m
⇒ α= = = 25 rad / sec 2
I 0.08kg − m 2

In the second case, the moment of inertia of each mass about OO’
= 1 kg × (0.50 m)2 = 0.25 kg-m2
∴ moment of inertia of the whole system is
I = 2 × 0.25 = 0.50 kg-m2
τ 2. 0
∴ angular acceleration α = = = 4.0 rad / sec 2 = 25.-4 = 21 rad/sec2
I 0.50

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ROTATIONAL MOTION

Ex.8 Two spheres each of mass M and radius R/2 are connected with a massless rod of length 2R as shown it fig. What
wilI be the moment of inertia of the system about an axis passing through the centre of one of the sphere and
perpendicular to the rod.
2 2
2  R 2  R  21
Sol. I = M   + M(2R) + M   =
2
MR2
5  2 5  
2 5
Ex.9 Two circular discs A and B of equal masses and thickness but made of metals with densities dA and dB (dA > dB).
If their moments of inertia about an axis passing through the centre and normal to the clrcular faces be IA and IB
then IA //IB= ?
m r2 m r2 I A rA2
Sol. I A = A A and IB = B B ∴ =
2 2 IB rB2
(∴ mA = mB) ....(1)
Now mA = π rA2 t dA
mB = π rB2 t dB
So, π rA2 tdA = π rB2 t dB

rA2 dB
or = ....(2)
rB2 dA

From equations (1) and (2)


IA d
= B . As dA > dB hence IA < IB
IB d A
Ex.10 The moment of inertia of HCI molecule about an axis passing through its centre of mass and perpendicular to the
bond will be-
(Given, internuclear distance = 1.3 Å, atomic weight of chlorine = 35 and mass of proton = 1.7 x 10–27 kg)
Sol. Moment of. i,nertia about centre of mass, I = µr2
mH .mCl 1.7 × 10 −27 × 35 × 1.7
µ = reduced mass = = = 1.65 × 10 − 27 kg
mH + mCl 1.7 × 10 −27 + 35 × 1.7 × 10 − 27
∴ I = (1.65 × 10–27) (1.3 × 10–10)2 = 2..79 × 10–47 kg. m2
Ex.11 A mass m hangs from the rim of a wheel of radius r when released from rest, the mass falls through a height h
in t seconds. The moment of inertia of the wheel will be

2h a 2h
Sol. h = 1/2 at2 or a = ⇒α= =
t2 r rt 2
Now mg – T = ma ⇒ T = m(g – a)
τ = lα or Tr = Iα or m(g – a) . r = Iα

 2h 
m g − 2  r
m(g − a)r  2h  r 2 t 2
= 
t 
⇒ I= = m g − 
α 2h / rt 2  t 2  2h
Ex.12 The 'M.l. at rod of length 1.5 m and mass 0.1kg about the axis passing through centre and perpendicular to the
length of rod is I1 and that through one end perpendicular to rod is I2. Now I1 × I2 will be (in kg2 m4)

Ml 2 0.1× (15)2
Sol. I1 = = = 0.187kg.m 2
12 12

Ml 2 0.1× (1.5)2
I2 = = = 0.75 kg.m 2 Now, I1 × I2 = 0.15 kg2.m4 y
3 3

Ex.13 Three rings, each of mass P and radius Q are arranged as shown in fig. 1 2

The moment of inertia of arrangement about yy' axis will be


3

y'

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ROTATIONAL MOTION
Sol. M.I. of ring '1' about yy' M.I. of ring about the tangent parallel to its plane
⇒ I1 = (3/2) MR2
Similarly, M.I. of ring about yy’
I2 = (3/2) MR2
M.I. of ring '3' about yy' = M.I. of ring about its diameter

MR 2
⇒ I3 =
2
Now M.l. about yy’ is I = I1 + I2 + I3 = (7/2) MR2 = (7/2) PQ2
Ex.14 Select the correct altenative (s). The moment of inertia I of a thin square plate ABCD (Fig.) of uniform thickness
about an axis passing through the centre O and perpendicular to the plane of the plate is
(1) I1 + I2 (2) I3 + I4 (3) I1 + I3 (4) I1 + I2 + I3 + I4
(where I1, I2, I3 and I4 are respectively the moments of inertia about axes 1, 2,3 and 4 which are in the plane of the plate.)
Sol. (1, 2, 3 ) 4
1
By the theorem of perpendicular axes,
A B
I = I1 + I2 = I3 + I4
3
By symmetry : I1 = I2 and I3 = I4 O
∴ I = 2I1 = 2I3 D C
2
or I1 = I3
Thus I1 = I2 = I3 = I4
∴ I = I1 + I2 = I1 + I3 = I3 + I4
r r
Ex.15 Given that. r = 2 î + 3 ĵ and F = 2 î + 6 k̂ . The magnitude of torque will be
r r
Sol. We know that τr = r × F
r
⇒ τ = (2 î + 3 ĵ) × (2 î + 6 k̂ )

= 12( − ĵ ) + 6( − k̂ ) + 18 î = −12 ĵ − 6 k̂ + 18 î

[Note : ˆi × ˆi = 0, ˆi × ˆj = k,
ˆ ˆj × ˆi = −kˆ etc. ]
r
Now | τ | = ( −12)2 + ( −6 )2 + (18 )2 = 144 + 36 + 324 = 504
Ex.16 A constant torque acting on a uniform circular wheel changes its angular momentum from A0 to 4A0 in 4 sec.
The value of torque will be
Sol. Torque, τ = rate of change of angular momentum
dJ 4 A 0 − A 0 3 A 0
= = =
dt 4 4
Ex.17 A cylinder of mass M and radius r is mounted on a frictionless axle over a well. A rope of negligible mass is
wrapped around the cylinder and a bucket of mass m is suspended from the rope. The linear acceleration of the
bucket will be
Sol. mg – T = ma
M
T = m(g – a)

ω
τ = Iα = r T ⇒ (1/2) Mr2 . a/r = r T T h
bucket m v

⇒ T = 1/2 Ma .......(2)
From (1) and (2),
M + 2m
(1/2) Ma = m (g – a) ⇒ a = mg,
2
2mg
⇒ a=
M + 2m

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ROTATIONAL MOTION

Ex.18 In the above example, the velocity of bucket, after it has fallen through a height h will be.
Sol. Let v be the velocity of bucket after falling a height h.
Now, using v2 = u2 + 2ah
1/ 2
2.2mgh  4mgh 
v = 2ah = = 
(M + 2m)  M + 2m 

Ex.19 Two bodies of masses m1 and m2 are attached to the two ends of a string. The string passes over a pulley of
mass m and radius R. If m1 > m2, the acceleration of the system will be.
Sol. m1g – T1 = m1a ......(1)
m
T2 – m2g = m2a ......(2) R
T1
∴ (T1 – T2) + (m1 + m2) a = (m1 – m2) g m1 T2
⇒ T1 – T2 = (m1 – m2)g – (m1 + m2) a m2
a
τ = (T1 – T2)R = I α = (1/2) mR2 (a/R) ......(3)
⇒ (T1 – T2) = (1/2) ma ......(4)
From (3) and (4)

m1 − m 2
(1/2) ma = (m1 – m2)g – (m1 + m2)a ⇒ a= g
m1 + m 2 + (m / 2)
Ex.20 A uniform solid cylinder of mass M and radius R rotates about a frictionless horizontal axle. Two similar masses
suspended with the help of two ropes wrapped around the cylinder. If the system is released from rest then the
tension in each rope will be
Sol. mg – T = ma
mg – T = ma
M

ω
From these equation, 2mg – 2T = 2ma ....(1)
m m
M

τ = (2T) R = I α = (1/2)MR2. (a/R) ....(2)


ω
T T
m m

mg mg
Mm
From (1) and (2), T = g Note: Also a = 4mg/(M + 4m)
M + 4m
Ex.21 A body whose moment of inertia is 3 kg. m2, is at rest. It is rotated for 20 seconds with moment of force 6N-m.
The work done will be- (in joule)
Sol. Suppose an angular acceleration α is produced in the body by applying a torque τ. Then,
τ = Iα, where I is the moment of inertia of body about the axis of rotation.
Hence τ = 6 N.m and I = 3 kg. m2.

τ 6
Therefore, α = = = 2 rad / sec 2
I 3

Initially, the body is at rest (ω0 = 0), It rotates under the action of angular acceleration α. for 2 seconds. In this
time-interval, the angular displacement of the body is, θ = ω0t + (1/2) αt2 = 0 + (1/2) x 2 x(20)2 = 400 radian.
Work done in this displacemertt, W = (torque x displacement) = τ × θ = 6 x 400 = 2400 joule

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ROTATIONAL MOTION
Ex.22 Two particles A and B are moving as shown in fig. At this moment of time the angular speed of A with respect
to B is
Sol. Resolving the velocities along x and y axes, we
VA VB

have, Vx = – VA cos θ1 θ1 θ2
A r B
Vy = VA sin θ1 and V’x = VB cos θ2, V’y = VB sin θ2
The relative velocity of A with respect to B along y-axis is given by (VA sin θ1 – VB sin θ2)
r r r
Q v = r × ω Because V is in positive y direction and position vector of A w.r.t. B is in negative x direction so the
direction of ω will be in clock wise and magnitude of ω will be.
 v sin θ1 − v B sin θ 2   v sin θ 2 − v A sin θ1 
ω= A  clock wise or ω= B  anticlock wise
 r   r 
Ex.23 A particle is moving in x-y plane and the components of its velocity along x and y axis are Vx and Vy. The angular
momentum about the origin will be
r r r r r r r
Sol. We know that angular momentum of a part L = r × p = r × mv = m( r × v )

i j k i j k
=m x y z =m x y o = m k̂ ( x Vy − y Vx )
Vx Vy Vz Vx Vy o

Ex.24 A ring. of mass 10 kg and diameter 0.4 m is rotating about its geometrical’ axis at 1200 rotation per minute. Its
moment of inertia and angular momentum will respectively be
Sol. M.I. of a ring about its geometrical axis = M.I. of ring about an axis passing through its centre and perpendicular
to its plane.
= MR2 = 10 (0.2)2 = 10 x 0.04 = 0.4 kg-m2
2πn 2π × 1200
Now Angular momentum, J = I.w = I. = 0.4 × = 50.24 J-sec
t 60
Ex.25 A cockroach of mass m is moving on rim of a disc of radius r with velocity v in anticlockwise direction. The moment
of inertia of the disc about its own axis is I and it is rotating in the clockwise direction with angular speed ω. If the
cockroach stops moving then the angular speed of the disc will be
Sol. According to law of conservation of angular momentun. Angular momentum before the cockroach stops
= Angular momentum after the cockroach stops.

Iω − mvr
⇒ Iω – mvr = (I + mr2) ω’ ∴ ω' =
I + mr 2
Ex.26 A solid cylinder of mass 2kg and radius 0.2 m is rotating about its own axis without-friction with angular velocity
3 rad/sec. A particle of mass 0.5 kg and moving with a velocity of 5 m/s strikes the cylinder and sticks to it as.The
loss in energy due to collision will be
Sol. According to conservation of angular momentum,
Angular momentum before collision = Angular momentum after collision ......(i)
Angular momentum of cylinder befor callision
J1 = Iω = (1/2) mR2 ω = (1/2) x 2 x 0.04 x 3 = 0.12 J.sec
Now from (1)

0.12 + 0.5 × 5 × 0.2


Jcyl + mp vR = (I + mR2) ω ⇒ ω= = 10.3 rad/sec.
(1/ 2) × 2 × 0.04 + 0.5 × 0.04
Now energy of system before collision

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ROTATIONAL MOTION
E = (1/2) Iω + (1/2) mv2 = (1/2) x (1/2) x 2 x 0.04 x 9 + (1/2) x 0.5 x 25 = 6.43 J
Energy of system after collision.
E’ = (1/2) I’ ω’2 = (1/2) x (1/2 M + m) R2 ω2 = (1/2) x (1/2 x 2 + 0.5) x 0.04 x (10.32)2 = 3.18 J
Now E – E1 = 6.43 – 3.18 = 3.25 J
Ex.27 A particle of mass 3 kg is moving under the action of a central force whose potential energy is given by.
U (r) = 10 r3 joule. For what energy and angular momentum will the orbit be a circle of radius 10m ?
Sol. The (variable) potential energy of the particle, U (r) = 1 0r3 joule. Hence the force acting on the particle is
∂U
F=− = −30 r 2
∂r
mv 2
For circular motion of the particle, F = = 30 r 2
r
Substituting m = 3 kg and r = 10m, we get, v = 100 m/s
Total energy of the particle in circular motion is

1 1
E= mv 2 + U(r ) = × 3 × (100)2 + 10 × (103) = 2.5 × 104 J
2 2
Angular momentum of the particle is
J = mvr = 3 x 100 x 10 = 3000 kgm2/s.
Ex.28 Give the correct answer (s) : mass 8m lies on a smooth horizontal table. Two point masses m and 2m moving in
the same horizontal plane with speeds 2v and v respectively strike the bar as whown in Fig. and stick the bar after
collision. Denoting angular velocity (about the centre of mass,) total energy and centre of mass velocity by ω, E
and vc respectively, we have after collision.
(1) vC = 0 (2) ω = 3v/5a (3) ω = v/5a (4) E = 3mv2/5
2m
v
3a
C
A B
a 3a

2v
m
Sol. Both the masses, 2m and m, after striking the bar give equal momentum each 2mv to the bar in oppoisite
directions. Hence, after collision the bar has no translational motion, i.e. the linear velicity of the centre of mass of
the bar is zero (vc = 0).
When both the masses stick to the bar, the whole system rotates about the centre of mass C. As there is no
external torque acting on the system, the angular momentum is conserved. Before collision (bar is stationary),
there will be only the angular momenta of 2m and m about C. Hence the initial angular momentum (see Fig.) is
J1 = 2mva + m (2v) 2a = 6 m v a. (in an anticlock wise direction) After collision, the bar and both the
masses (2m and m) rotate with angular velocity ω about the centre of mass C. The moment of inertia of the bar
(mass 8m and lenght 6a) about C is

Ml 2 8m(6a)2
= = 24m a2, and the moments of inertia of 2m and m about C are 2ma2 and 4ma2 respectively.
12 12
Hence, after collision the angular momentum of the system is
Jf = (24ma2 + 2ma2 + 4ma2) ω = 30ma2 ω
But Ji = Jf (conservation of angular momentum)

6ma v v
ω= =
30 ma 2 5a (in an anticlock wise direction)

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ROTATIONAL MOTION
The angular kinetic energy

1 2
 I ω  of the system is
2 
2
1  v  3
= (30ma 2 )   = mv 2
2  5a  5
Ex.29 A cord is wound round the circumference of a wheel of radius r. The axis of the wheel is horizontal and moment
of inertia about it is I. A weight mg is attached to end of the cord and falls from rest. After falling through a
distance h, the angular velocity of the wheel will be.
Sol. mgh = (1/2) Iω2 + (1/2) mv2 = (1/2) Iω2 + (1/2) mr2ω2

1/ 2
 2mgh 
or 2
2mgh = [I + mr ]w , 2
∴ ω= 
 I + mr 2 

Ex.30 A mass m is supported by a massless string wound round a uniform cylinder of mass m and radius R. On
releasing the mass from rest, it will fall with acceleration

1 1 1 1 3
Sol. mgh = mv2 + Iω2 = mv2 + [ mR2] v2/R2 = mv2
2 2 2 2 4

v = 2ah [Q v2 = u2 + 2as]

3 2
∴ mgh = m × 2ah ⇒ a= g
4 3
Ex.31 Let g be the acceleration due to gravity at earth’s surface and K be the rotational kinetic energy of the earth.
Suppose the earth’s radius decreases by 2%, keeping all other quantities same, then g and k are....

GM
Sol. We know that that g =
R2
take logarithmic on both side:
log g = log GM – 21ogR ⇒ log g = log G + log M – 2 log R

∆g ∆M ∆R
Now partially differentiating on both side g = 0 + M − 2 R

∆g ∆M ∆R
so the percentage change in g ∴ × 100 = × 100 − 2 × 100
g M R
Because radius decreases by 2% and other quantities are constant (∴ ∆M = 0) so
 −2 
2 R  × 100
∆g
× 100 = 0 − 
100 
= 4%
g R

1 1 2 1
Simillarly for rotational kinetic energy K= Iω2 = ( MR2 )ω2 = MR2 ω2
2 2 5 5
So for the percentage change
∆K ∆M ∆R ∆ω
⇒ × 100 = × 100 + × 100 + 2 × 100
K M R ω

 −2 
⇒ ∆M = 0, ∆R =  R  and ∆ω = 0
 100 

∆K
∴ × 100 = −4% (so K.E. is decreasing by 4%)
K

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ROTATIONAL MOTION
Ex.32 When a solid sphere of moment of inertia I rolls down an inclined plane, then the percentage of its rotational
kinetic energy is
2 2
Sol. M.I. of sphere about the diameter, I = mr
5
The rotational kinetic energy Kr = (1/2) Iω2 = (1/5) mr2ω2
The translation kinetic energy Kt = (1/2) mv2 = (1/2) m.r2ω2
7
Total energy, K = Kr + Kt = mr2ω2
10
Kr 1/ 5
Now, × 100% = × 100 % = 28%
K 7 / 10
Ex.33 A uniform thin rod of length l is suspended from one of its ends and is rotated at f rotations per second. The
rotational kinetic energy of the rod will be
Sol. The M.I. of a rod about an axis passing through its one ends

Ml 2
and perpendicular its to axis I, =
3 ω

Now rotational kinetic energy Kr = (1/2) Iω2


Ml 2
= (1/2) . (2πf)2
3
= (2/3) Ml2 π2f2
Ex.34 A thin uniform rod PQ of mass M and length L is free to rotate about a hinge at P in the floor. Initially the rod is
vertical. If it is released from this position then its angular velocity while striking the floor will be
Sol. M.I.of rod PQ about an axis passing through the

Q
mL2
point P and perpendicular to the rods is I =
G
mg
3
P
Now according to conservation of energy,

mL2
mgh = (1/2) Iω2 ⇒ m.g. (1/2) L = (1/2) ω
3

3g
⇒ ω=
L

Ex.35 Two bodies of mass 1 kg and 2kg are attached to the two ends of a 3m long rod. This rod is rotating about an axis
passing through centre of mass with angular velocity 10 rad/sec and perpendicular to its length. The rotational
K.E. of the system will be

Sol. Suppose the C.M. of the system be at x distance from 1 kg.

Now Σ moment of masses about C.M. = 0

⇒ 1.× – 2. (3 – x) = 0 or x = 2

1kg 2kg
Now C.M. will be at distance 2m from 1 kg CM
x
3m

and 1 m from 2kg

Now M.I. of 1 kg mass about an axis passing through

C.M. and ⊥ rod, I1 = 1.x2 = 1.22 = 4 kg-m2

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ROTATIONAL MOTION
Similarly, for 2kg mass, I2 = 2.12 = 2kg m2

Net M.I., I = I1 + I2 = 6 kg m2

Now rotational K.E. = (1/2) Iω2 = (1/2) x 6 x 100 = 300 J

Ex.36 Point masses M1 and M2 are placed at the ends of a rigid rod of lenght l and negligible mass. The rod is to be set
rotating about an axis perpendicular to its length. Locate a point on the rod through which the axis of rotation
should pass in order that the work required to set the rod rotating with angular velocity ω is minimum.

Sol. Suppose the rod is set rotating about an axis passing througha point C, distatnt x from M1, The moment of nertia
of the system about this axis is given by
ω
M1 C M2
I = M1x2 + M2(l-x)2
x (l-x)

The work done in setting the rod rotating with angular velocity ω equals the kinetic energy of rotation acquired by
the rod. That is,

1 2 1
W= I ω = [M1x 2 + M2 (l − x )2 ] ω2
2 2

dW
For W to be minimum, we must have =0
dx
or 2M1 –2M2 (l – x) = 0

M2
or x= l
M1 + M2

Ex.37 A small sphere rolls down with out slipping from the top of a track in a vertical plane. The track has an elevated
section and a horizontal part. The horizontal part is 1.0 meter above the ground level and the top of the track is 2.4
meter above the ground. Find the distance on the ground with respect to a point B (which is vertically below the
endA of the track as shown in fig.) where the sphere lands.
A

B
2.4m

1.0m

Sol. Let m be the mass and r the radius of the sphere. Let v and ω be the linear and angular velocities at A. In rolling
down from the top of the track to the point A the sphere loses potential enegy which appears as linear and
rotational kinetic'energies in the sphere. Thus

1 1
mgh = mv2 + Iω2
2 2

2 2 v
But I= mr and ω =
5 r
2
1 1 2 2v
mgh = mv2 +  mr  2
2 2 5 r

10
or v2 = gh Here h = (2.4 – 1.0) = 1.4 meter
7

 10   10g(1.4) 
∴ v =  gh    = 2g
 7   7 

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ROTATIONAL MOTION
v is the horizontal velocity of the sphere at A. The vertical velocity at A is zero.If t is the time taken in covering
the vertical distance AB (= 1.0 m), then using the formula h = 1/2 g t2, we have.

 2h  2
⇒ t =   =   (Q h = 1.0 m)
 g   g

2
The horizontal distance moved in time t = v × t = 2g ×   = 2m
 g

During the flight the sphere continues to rotate about its centre of mass due to conservations of angular momentum.

Ex.38 A carpet of mass M made of inextensible material is rolled along its length in the form of a cylinder of radius
R and is kept on a rough floor. The carpet starts unrolling without sliding on the floor when a negligibly small
push is given to it. Calculate the horizontal velocity of the axis of the cylindrical part of the carpet when its
radius reduces to R/2.

Sol. If l is the length of the cylinder and ρ its density, then the mass of the carpet is

M = πR2 l × ρ

When the carpet unrolls with half its radius (R/2) then its mass is

2
R  M
= π  l × ρ =
 
2 4

When the carpet unrolls, its potential energy decreases while its kinetic energy of translation and kine energy of
rotation increase.

M R 1M 2 1 2
MgR – g = v + Iω
4 2 2 4 2

2
1 1 M R v 2v
Hence I = mass x radius2 = × ×   and ω = =
2 2 4 2 R/2 R

M R 1 M 2 1  1 M  R   4v 2
2
∴ MgR − g = v +    × 2
4 2 2 4 2 2 4  2   R
 

7 1 Mv 2 3
or MgR = Mv 2 + = Mv 2
8 8 16 16

Solving we get : v = 14gR / 3

Ex.39 A cylinder is released from rest from the top, of an incline of inclination θ and length l. If the cylinder rolls without
slipping, its speed when it reaches the bottom will be.

Sol. Let v be the linear speed of the cylinder, when it reaches the bottom. Here the cylinder rolls without slipping, its
angular speed about its axis will be ω = v/r . So, the kinetic energy at the bottom is given by

K.E. = (1/2) Iω2 + (1/2) mv2

= (1/2) (1/2 mr2) ω2 + (1/2) mv2

= (3/4) mv2 (Q v = rω)

Now K.E. = loss.of potential energy at bottom

4
Q (3/4) mv2 = mg l sin θ ⇒ v = gl sin θ
3

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