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"Gas quality" Date: 2010-12-29 Assistant: Marie BOURBIGOT Direct line: + 33 (0)1 41 62 87

"Gas quality"

Date:

2010-12-29

Assistant:

Marie BOURBIGOT Direct line: + 33 (0)1 41 62 87 20 marie.bourbigot@afnor.org

line: + 33 (0)1 41 62 87 20 marie.bourbigot@afnor.org CEN/AFNOR/WG 197 Doc. Number: N 231 Your

CEN/AFNOR/WG 197

Doc. Number:

N 231

Your contact:

Sylvie FERNANDEZ Direct line : + 33 (0)1 41 62 86 59 sylvie.fernandez@afnor.org

GASQUAL DELIVERABLE APPROVED BY CEN/BT WG 197 "GAS QUALITY"

D1.3 "Final WP1 report on future gas profile"

The deliverable D1.3 was presented to CEN/BT WG 197 members commented, and approved on 2010-02-08/09 by the resolution 05/2010:

Resolution 05/2010 Deliverable D.1.3 Future gas profile (document N148) BT WG 197 accepts the deliverable D1-3 as presented in document N148 with the addition of an addendum presented in document N183.

With the following observations on the document:

CENBT WG197 Addendum to document N 148 Deliverable D1-3 " Future gas profile" (= Doc N183)

CENBTWG197 formulates the following observations on the document:

Clause

Comment

Follow-up

4-1

North Stream: table 4.3 obviously gives the composition known from Russian natural gas(~100% C1). However, the gas offered by the north stream consortium to some gas companies apparently is from the Russian part of the North sea, resembling by composition far more to Norvegian natural gas. needs to be checked with North stream.

This report is giving a view of the current situation but it is understood that the future may be rather different ( for instance , north stream gas might be richer than current Russian gas.

CENBTWG197 formulates the following editorial comments on the document:

Clause

Comment

Follow-up

3.1.3

Page 32

 

Page 32

3.1.3 Hungary, in the section: National Natural Gas Specification

Replace sentences:

The reference temperature for combustion is 20 °C. Volume is denoted in normal m 3 – that is a reference temperature of 0 °C and a pressure of 101.325 kPa.

To be included after being checked With M. Torok. The problem is that the reference 15°C/15°C are ISO reference, and that isn't normal m 3 .

By sentences:

The reference temperature for combustion is 15 °C. Volume is denoted in normal m 3 – that is a reference temperature of 15 °C and a pressure of 101.325 kPa.

Explanation from HU:

 

The reason of confusion is that in Hungary the official term for the cubic metre used in gas industry according to the national standard MSZ 1648 is: “gas technical normal cubic metre”. The reference conditions for that cubic metre are 15/15 o C and 1.01325 bar. The industrial slang (in both spoken and written Hungarian) uses the term in abbreviated form as “normal cubic metre”. We know this is not according to ISO 13443 but this is the practical life in Hungary. To avoid any confusion we suggest to use sentence:

Replace by sentence:

The reference temperature for combustion is 15 °C. Volume is denoted in “gas technical normal m 3 “ – that is a reference temperature of 15 °C and a pressure of 101.325 kPa.

3-11

Here, only table 3 of DVGW Code of Practice G 260 is mentioned - correct as specification. However, DVGW G 260 gives, for gas transport, also reference to the conditions of EASEE-gas as table 6, although informative only.

To be included

Table

Replace this old Table 3.16

Included after checked

3.16

with

M. Torok

Property

Gas Type 2/H

Gas Type

2/S

 

Wobbe number (MJ/m3)

46.1

– 56.5

38.5 - 46.8

 

Rated Wobbe number

54

44.6

 

(MJ/m3)

Gross calorific value

30.2

– 47.2

 

(MJ/m3)

 

Net calorific value(MJ/m3)

27.2

– 42.6

 

Relative density

0.55

– 0.71

 

Total sulphur max (mg/m3)

100

100

 

Sulphur-hydrogen max

20

20

 

(mg/m3)

A solid max (mg/m3) 5 5 Oxygen Max. (vol%) 0.2 0.2 Water vapour in transmission
A solid max (mg/m3)
5
5
Oxygen Max. (vol%)
0.2
0.2
Water vapour in
transmission pipeline
0.17 g/m3
Water vapour in distribution
Network
Non-condensing
Gas Quality Standard
MSZ 1648
Table 3.16 Gas Quality Specification for Hungary. The
reference temperature for combustion is 20 °C and the
reference conditions for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Due to the question
above, could you confirm
By the new Table 3.16
that all that is underline is
correct.
Property
Gas Type 2H
Gas Type
2S
Wobbe index (GCV based)
45.66 – 54.76
36.29 – 41.58 We
confirm that the data
(MJ/m 3 )
in the replacement table
Nominal Wobbe index (GCV
50.72
39.11
are
correct for Hungary.
based) (MJ/m 3 )
Please note we added a
Gross calorific value (MJ/m 3 )
31.0 – 45.28
note to the water vapour
Net calorific value (MJ/m 3 )
27.94 – 40.81
and
hydrocarbon dew
Total sulphur max (mg/m 3 )
100
point denoted with *.
Hydrogen sulphide max
20
3
(mg/m )
Solid impurities max (mg/m 3 )
5
Oxygen max. (%(V/V))
0.2
Water vapour max. (g/m 3 )
0.17
1.0 *
Hydrocarbon dew point at 4
+4
MPa max. ( o C)
Hydrocarbon dew point at
+4 *
maximum operating
pressure max. ( o C)
Reference conditions: Combustion reference temperature is
15 o C.
Volume reference conditions are 15 o C and 101.325 kPa.
* In regional gas distribution systems which are independent
from the nationwide gas transmission system.
Table 3.16 Gas Quality Specification for Hungary.
Page 56
About the Spanish Transmission System, second
paragraph: add “companies” as follows: “…According to
Order ITC/3993/2006, the transmission companies
allowed…”
To be included
Page 57
About the Regional integration in SW Europe, second
paragraph: remove “future” as follows: “…promoting a
common Open Subscription Procedure (OSP) to allocate
the existing and future capacities and a future Open
Season (OS)…” as the Open Season was already held this
autumn.
To be included
GASQUAL.EU ANSWER TO THE CALL FOR TENDER on GAS QUALITY- PHASE 1 of the Mandate

GASQUAL.EU

ANSWER TO THE CALL FOR TENDER on GAS QUALITY- PHASE 1 of the Mandate M/400

Investigations on new acceptable EU limits for gas quality. Influence on the performance of new and installed gas appliances. Study Project

DELIVERABLE D1.3

Future Gas Profiles

GQWP1_09_D13_Final_v3.doc

Deliverable

Work

Deliverable name

Type of

Lead

Limit date

package

deliverable

participant

of issue

D1.3

WP1

D1.3 Report on Future Gas Profiles

Report

GL Industrial

15.08.2009

Services

Author(s): S.K. Kimpton and M.J. Brown

Date: 30.03.2010 Version: v3

Document Version Control Amendment details:

Vers

By

Status

Date

Comments

1.0

GL

Draft

15.08.2009

Draft to CEN, sent 14 August 2009

Presented at CEN meeting 29 September 2009

2.0

GL

Final Report

30.11.2009

Comments received - CEN-BTWG197 N113, N133 and

N134

Final Report with:

1)

Minor editorial changes as requested Indonesia LNG unit names and Algeria LNG unit descriptor

2)

Hungarian gas specification data altered to include Algyő and Orosháza gas ( 2H and 2S) (table 6.2), and text altered on indigenous gas supply to include 2H and 2S

3)

Hungarian standard changed to MSZ 1648 in table 3.16

4)

EASEE-gas oxygen specification updated to CBP 2005-001/02 (6 November 2008)

5)

Added information on Nord Stream pipeline

6)

Added short section on reverse flow

7)

Updated summary table in Section 7

3.0

GL

Final Report

30.03.2010

Comments received - CEN-BTWG197 N183 “Addendum to be added to the final version of the report Deliverable D1.3 (doc N148) – dated 08.02.2010; received by GL – 19.03.2010.

Report updated with all comments from N183 including:

1)

Explanation provided by MOL regarding the nomenclature for reference conditions “gas technical normal cubic metre”. Also comment about hydrocarbon and water dew-points.

2)

Addition to German gas quality section to mention informative reference to EASEE-gas.

3)

Minor editorial changes to Spanish Transmission gas specification text comments.

Executive Summary

This report has been produced for review by CEN/BT/WG 197 to record the progress to date made by the GASQUAL consortium on Work Package 1 (WP1) Gas specification and changes to future gas quality. This is one of six work packages being undertaken by GASQUAL to provide information for CEN in the production of a harmonised European Standard for gas quality.

As Deliverable D1.3, the report focused on:

Current gas specification for European Union member countries (often related to the historical indigenous or local source of gas).

Indigenous supplies. Generally these sources are depleting and there is increased reliance on gas importation.

Pipeline interconnectors. Information is provided to give an overview of current and new pipeline infrastructure bringing different natural gases into the European region

LNG import terminals. Information has been gathered on current and future LNG importation and regasification together with some outline data on gas specification

Gas storage. An overview of current and near-term gas storage capability has been presented.

Gas quality variation around Europe is an important factor and is dependent on the source of the gas. The EASEE-gas specification and the range provided by EN 437 do not encompass the existing gas transmission specification for all member states. With the anticipated increase in the range of Wobbe Index of gas used in Europe through gas market liberalisation and with greater reliance on gas importation, a greater focus on the acceptable upper Wobbe Index limit would seem appropriate.

Contents

1 Introduction

1

1.1 Outline description of GASQUAL Project

1

1.2 Scope of Work

1

2 EASEE-gas Specification

2

3 Transmission Specifications

3

3.1 Introduction

3

3.2 Austria

4

3.3 Belgium

7

3.4 Bulgaria

9

3.5 Cyprus

12

3.6 Czech Republic

13

3.7 Denmark

15

3.8 Estonia

18

3.9 Finland

20

3.10 France

22

3.11 Germany

25

3.12 Greece

30

3.13 Hungary

32

3.14 Ireland

34

3.15 Italy

36

3.16 Latvia

39

3.17 Lithuania

41

3.18 Luxembourg

42

3.19 Malta

43

3.20 Netherlands

44

3.21 Poland

46

3.22 Portugal

48

3.23 Romania

50

3.24 Slovakia

52

3.25 Slovenia

54

3.26 Spain

56

3.27 Sweden

59

3.28 United Kingdom

61

3.29 Summary of EU Transmission Specifications

64

4 Future Supplies

67

4.1 Natural Gas Pipeline Supplies

67

4.2 Pipeline reverse flow overview

75

4.3

Future LNG Supplies

76

5

Storage

82

5.1 Types of Storage

82

5.2 Austrian Storage Specification

83

5.3 French Storage Specification

84

5.4 German Storage Specification

85

5.5 Italian Storage Specification

86

5.6 UK Storage Specification

87

6 Indigenous Gas Quality

88

7 Impact of Future Gas Quality Changes

90

8 Conclusions

92

1

Introduction

Natural gas composition or quality varies as result of the different sources, extraction and processing. The impact of the different gas qualities results in different specifications for acceptable natural gas based typically on the historical or indigenous supply for each European country, and around the world. Utilisation of the specific countries’ gas is thus optimised for a particular gas quality. As supplies of indigenous gas decline and demand for natural gas increases, the resulting impact is of increased reliance on imported gas. This imported gas may not have the same gas quality. It is essential that the different gases are interchangeable and that they enable the utilisation equipment to operate safely and efficiently.

The primary factor used to assess natural gas interchangeability is the Wobbe Index, and it is important to ensure that the reference conditions used for any calculation are correctly defined.

1.1 Outline description of GASQUAL Project

The European Commission has requested CEN to draw up standards that define the minimum acceptable range for gas quality parameters for H-gas. The CEN process covered two activities:

[A]

“MANDATE TO CEN FOR STANDARDISATION IN THE FIELD OF GAS QUALITIES, 16 January 2007

[B]

“Call for tender on Gas Quality - Phase 1 of Mandate M/400” CEN /BT WG 197

The GASQUAL study aims at evaluating the impact of gas quality variations on appliances certified for using gases in the H group. As such it shall cover all appliances complying with Directive 90/396/EEC and certified for use with gases with Wobbe Index (H-gases are defined by reference to EN 437:2003) in the range of 45.7 to 54.7 MJ/m 3 , at the reference conditions of 15 °C for combustion and of 15 °C and 101.325 kPa(a) for volume.

GASQUAL work package WP1 is aimed at providing a view of the existing market of appliances and its trend. It will identify for all the countries included in the study the types of appliances present on the market complying with Directive 90/396/EEC and certified to burn gases within the H group.

An additional aspect of this work package is the collation of information relating to natural gas specification, network codes and regulated gas quality. This is the focus of this report.

1.2 Scope of Work

Within Work Package 1 of GASQUAL (WP1) an assessment of the trends in gas quality variations due to increased imports of natural gas by LNG shipping and by pipeline interconnectors leading to greater trading across European borders.

For this part of the project, existing natural gases sources have been identified country-by-country and plans for the natural gas imports for the next decade investigated. In addition to this existing gas specification, indigenous gas information, gas storage specification, LNG import gas characteristics and new pipeline supplies have been reviewed. Natural gas distributed in individual European countries has to comply with the appropriate country specification and these are compared. Overall, the work has endeavoured to answer the following questions:

1) What are the current acceptable gas quality standards?

2) Is there a reasonably consistent view on gas quality at the present time?

3) What LNG/pipeline supplies will be used?

4) Is there compliance with EASEE-gas specification?

2

EASEE-gas Specification

The European Association for the Streamlining of Energy Exchange – gas, EASEE-gas, has identified a number of gas properties and parameters for harmonisation across the European Union. The parameter units and reference conditions are in accordance with the EASEE-gas Common Business Practice (CBP) 2003-001/01. The energy unit is the kWh with a combustion reference temperature of 25 °C. The volume unit is m 3 at a reference condition of 0 °C and 101.325 kPa(a). For conversion to other reference conditions, the procedures described in ISO 13443:1996 Natural Gas – Standard reference conditions should be used. The parameters are defined in ISO 14532:2001 Natural gas – Vocabulary.

The specification applies only to high-calorific value (H-gas) gas without added odorants; it was not intended to address possible interoperability issues arising from differences in odorisation practices. EASEE-gas recommends that no gas should be refused on nitrogen content provided all other requirements of the CBP are met.

Parameter

Description

Units

Minimum

Maximum

Recommended

implementation

date

WI

Gross (Superior) Wobbe Index

kWh/m 3

13.60

15.81

01/10/2010

D

relative density

m

3 /m 3

0.555

0.700

01/10/2010

S

Total sulphur

mg/m 3

-

30

01/10/2006

H2S + COS

Hydrogen sulphide + carbonyl sulphide

mg/m 3

-

5

01/10/2006

RSH

Mercaptans

mg/m 3

-

6

01/10/2006

O2

Oxygen

mol %

-

0.001*

01/10/2010

CO2

Carbon dioxide

mol %

-

2.5

01/10/2006

H2O DP

Water dew point

°C at 7000 kPa(a)

-

-8

See note **

HC DP

Hydrocarbon dew point

°C at 1 - 7000 kPa (a)

-

-2

01/10/2006

*Limit is <0.001 mol%, daily average. However, cross border point daily average levels up to 0.01 mol% will be accepted if these are the result of the prudent operation of UGS's existing in 2006, which use oxygen for desulphurisation purposes. (Based on the full CBP Wobbe range).

**At certain cross border points, less stringent values are used than defined in this CBP. For these cross border points, these values can be maintained and the relevant producers, shippers and transporters should examine together how the CBP value can be met in the long run. At all other cross border points, this value can be adopted by 1 st October 2006.

Table 2.1 EASEE-gas specification for natural gas quality. The reference temperature for combustion is 25 °C. temperature and pressure for volume measurement are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa.

The reference

3

Transmission Specifications

3.1

Introduction

Gas Infrastructure Europe (GIE) is an organisation representing European Institutions (European Commission, European Parliament, Council of the European Union) as well as European energy regulators (ERGEG, CEER) and other stakeholders. GIE is an umbrella organisation for three organisations:

Gas Transmission Europe (GTE) representing the Transmission System Operators (TSO)

Gas Storage Europe (GSE) representing storage system operators (SSO)

Gas LNG Europe (GLE) representing LNG terminal operators (TO)

Over 200000 km of transmission pipelines extend across GIE members and several thousands of kilometres of pipelines, interconnections and extensions are being built or planned, to ensure security of supply. A map identifying the transmission companies operating in Europe is shown in Figure 3.1.

The gas quality requirements have been obtained either from the network codes of each of the TSOs or from the Regulator, as appropriate, for each country in the EU; the results are shown in sections 3.2 to 3.28.

in t he EU; the results are shown in sections 3.2 to 3.28. Figure 3.1 Map

Figure 3.1 Map from GIE showing the gas transportation companies for each European country. Source GIE

The Gas Infrastructure Europe website is at http://www.gie.eu.com.

3.2

Austria

The gas quality specification for Austria is defined by the regulations of ŐVGW, the Austrian Association for Gas and Water. The natural gas specification, G 31 (2001) is shown in Table 3.1. The standard conditions for Austria are 25 °C for calorific value measurement and 0 °C and 101.325 kPa for metering volumes – these reference conditions are the same as those recommended by EASEE-gas.

Natural gas has been used commercially in Austria for 50 years. Approximately 20% of the gas used is produced in Austria; the remaining 80% is imported. About 60% of the imported natural gas is from the Russian Federation; the rest is from Norway and Germany. Austria has two major European pipelines crossing the country – the West-Austria-Gasleitung (WAG) and the Trans-Austria-Gasleitung (TAG) – see Figure 3.2. Although the national gas quality specification is defined by ŐVGW, there are also further gas quality specifications for the WAG and TAG pipelines – see Table 3.2.

The WAG pipeline runs from the Slovak/Austrian border at Baumgarten an der March to the Austrian/German border at Oberkappel. The WAG pipeline is one of the most important East-West transit routes for Russian natural gas to Western Europe; there are compressor stations at Baumgarten and Rainbach which can be operated bi-directionally. Dependent on conditions, WAG currently offers a technical capacity of up to almost 1 million Nm³/h (0 °C) over its entire length of 245 km. The pipeline is owned by OMV Gas GmbH and Baumgarten-Oberkappel Gasleitungs GmbH (BOG) is the exclusive holder of marketing rights for transportation services.

The TAG pipeline system consists of three pipelines, four compressor stations, auxiliary equipment and several intake and offtake points. The 380 km pipeline runs from the Slovakian-Austrian border near Baumgarten an der March to the Austrian-Italian border near Arnoldstein. The TAG pipeline supplies domestic customers in Austria and provides transportation of natural gas to Italy. The SOL Pipeline System (Süd - Ost - Leitung) of OMV Gas GmbH, branches from the TAG Pipeline System at Weitendorf and transports gas to Slovenia. The TAG pipeline is owned jointly by OMV Gas GmbH (11%) and ENI International BV (89%).

by OMV Gas GmbH (11%) and ENI International BV (89%). Figure 3.2 Map of the Austrian

Figure 3.2 Map of the Austrian Gas Transmission System

Property

Units

Range

Comment

WI

kWh/m 3

13.3

– 15.7

 

CV

kWh/m 3

10.7

– 12.8

 

RD

 

0.55

– 0.65

 

Hydrocarbon dew point temperature

°C

0

at the maximum operating pressure

Water dew point temperature

°C

-8

at a pressure of 4000 kPa

Oxygen

vol%

<

0.5

 

Carbon dioxide

vol%

<

2

 

Nitrogen

vol%

<

5

 

Hydrogen

vol%

<

4

 

Total sulphur

mg(S)/m 3

<

10

Normal limit

<

30

Emergency limit

Mercaptans

mg(S)/m 3

<

6

 

Hydrogen sulphide H2S

mg/m 3

<

5

 

Carbonyl sulphide COS

mg/m 3

<

5

 

Halogen compounds

mg/m 3

0

 

Ammonia

 

0

Technically free

Impurities

   

Technically free

Table 3.1 OVGW G 31 Natural Gas Quality Specification (ŐVGW G 31 “Erdgas in Österreich”)

OMV Gas & Power GmbH has established the Central European Gas Hub (CEGH) that aims to create a commercial gas-trading platform. The CEGH is planned to develop into the biggest gas-trading platform in Continental Europe in association with Gazprom and Wiener Boerse (Vienna Stock Exchange).

Property

Units

Property Range

TAG Pipeline

WAG Pipeline

Chemical Composition

Methane

mol%

85.00

85.00

Ethane

mol%

7.00

7.00

Propane

mol%

3.00

3.00

Butane

mol%

2.00

2.00

Heavier hydrocarbons C5+

mol%

1.00

1.00

Nitrogen

mol%

5.00

5.00

Carbon dioxide

mol%

2.00

2.00

Oxygen

mol%

0.02

0.02

Sulphur Content

Hydrogen sulphide

mg/m 3

5.0

6.8

Mercaptan sulphur

mg/m 3

15.00

16.9

Total sulphur

mg/m 3

100.00

120.0 (150.0 for short time)

Gross CV

MJ/m 3

36.00-40.00

38.5-46.0

kWh/m 3

10.00-11.11

-

Wobbe Index

MJ/m 3

-

48.6-55.7

Dew point

Hydrocarbon dew point temperature

°C

0 °C at 4120 and 6860 kPa

0 °C 100 and 7000 kPa gauge

Water dew point temperature

°C

-8 °C at 3920 kPa

-8 °C at 6400 kPa gauge

Other Properties

Impurities

 

The natural gas shall be practically free of solids, dust, iron oxide, mud, liquid hydrocarbons, resins, resin forming constituents and shall not be odorised

The natural gas shall be practically free of solid, dust, iron oxide, mud, liquid hydrocarbons and shall not be odorised

Temperature

°C

42

50

Pressure

kPa

Varies at intakes, usually >5000 kPa but may depend on operational conditions

Table 3.2 Gas Quality Specification for the WAG and TAG pipelines

3.3

Belgium

Belgium National Gas Quality Specification

Belgium has both an H-gas and an L-gas network. Belgium’s supply of H-gas comes from LNG producing countries and sources in the North Sea and Russia. The H-gas network supplies the provinces of East and West Flanders, most of the provinces of Hainaut, Namur and Liège and much of the province of Limburg.

Belgium’s supply of L-gas mainly comes from the Slochteren field in the Netherlands, which is why it is known as ‘Slochteren gas’. The L-gas network supplies part of the Brabant and Antwerp region, as well as parts of Limburg and Hainaut.

The transmission specification of the Belgian network is under review and it will change to any European- wide specification as required. The reference temperature for combustion is 25 °C and the reference temperature and pressure for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa respectively.

Fluxys Transmission Specification

Fluxys is the independent operator of both the natural gas transport, transit grid and storage infrastructure in Belgium. The company also operates the Zeebrugge LNG terminal and the Zeebrugge Hub, one of the international short-term gas markets in continental Europe. A map of the Fluxys transmission system is shown in Figure 3.3. As Belgium does not have any indigenous gas sources, it is completely dependent on imports. The transmission system is an integral part of the European network; gas can flow both ways between Belgium and the UK, France, Spain and Italy and gas is exported to neighbouring Luxembourg.

There are nineteen entry points into the Belgian network, three take L-gas and sixteen take H-gas. An indicative gas quality specification is shown in Table 2.1. Given the constraints on networks adjacent to the Fluxys transport network, specifications for gas quality at specific points of entry may be different to the indicative gas quality specification.

Fluxys indicate that they will make all reasonable efforts to accept gas that is out-of-specification but the shipper must bear the cost of any processing required.

the shipper must bear the cost of any processing required. Figure 3.3 Map of the Belgium

Figure 3.3 Map of the Belgium H-gas and L-gas transmission system (reproduced from the Fluxys website)

Property

Unit

 

H-gas

 

L-gas

Minimum CV

MJ(25 °C)/m³(n)

 

38.9 1

 

34.3

Maximum CV

MJ(25 °C)/m³(n)

 

46.055

 

38.686

Minimum Wobbe Index

MJ(25 °C)/m³(n)

 

49.132

 

43.9

Maximum Wobbe Index

MJ(25 °C)/m³(n)

 

56.8150

 

46.892

Minimum CV

kWh(25 °C)/m³(n)

 

10.81

1

9.53

Maximum CV

kWh(25 °C)/m³(n)

 

12.79

 

10.75

Minimum Wobbe Index

kWh(25 °C)/m³(n)

 

13.65

 

12.19

Maximum Wobbe Index

kWh(25 °C)/m³(n)

 

15.78

 

13.03

Maximum H2S (in S) incl. COS

mg/m³(n)

 

5

5

Maximum Total S (as S)

mg/m³(n)

 

150

 

150

Maximum annual Total S (as S)

mg/m³(n)

 

-

-

Maximum Mercaptans (in S)

mg/m³(n)

     

Maximum O2

ppm(vol)

 

5000

 

5000

Maximum CO2

%(vol)

 

2

2

3

Maximum dewpoint H2O

°C @ 6900 kPa(g)

 

-8

-8

Maximum dew point Hydrocarbon

°C @ 0-6900 kPa(g)

 

-2

-2

1 34.583 MJ/m³(n) or 9.61 kWh/m³(n) in an emergency

 

2 For historical reasons, ‘s Gravenvoeren 3% H Blaregnies 3% and 2.5% ZPT

 

Table 3.3 Indicative gas quality specification for entry into the Belgian transmission system operated by Fluxys. The reference temperature for combustion is 25 °C and the reference temperature and pressure for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa

Future Gas Supplies

Fluxys indicate that Belgium may replace the L-gas network with a H-gas network in the long term. The future supplies of low calorific natural gas to Belgium depend on developments in supplier purchase contracts and the remaining period left for exploitation of the Groningen field in the Netherlands. It is in this context that the Federal Public Service Economy was given the task of setting the schedule, mode of financing and actions that will make it possible to adapt, either partially or in full, the Fluxys network and the distribution system operators’ networks currently used to supply low calorific gas to the supply of high calorific gas. This conversion will require a series of investments and actions that will involve not only Fluxys, but also the distribution system operators, suppliers, grid users, regulators and neighbouring countries.

3.4

Bulgaria

National Gas Quality Specification

Bulgaria has some indigenous natural gas (218 million m 3 in 2008) but most of the natural gas used in Bulgaria is imported from Russia (3487 million m 3 in 2008).

The gas quality of Bulgarian gas as specified by the State Energy Regulatory Commission is shown in Table 3.4. The reference temperature for combustion is 20 °C. Reference conditions for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa.

Property

Units

Range

Composition

Methane

%

92

Ethane

%

4

Propane and higher hydrocarbons

%

2

Nitrogen

%

2

Carbon dioxide

%

1

Oxygen

%

0.1

Hydrogen sulphide

mg/m 3 (n)

2.0

Mercaptans

mg/m 3 (n)

5.6

Total sulphur

mg/m 3 (n)

20

Water and particulates

Water dew point

°C

-5

Particulates

Free of mechanical impurities

Calorific value

Minimum at 20 °C and 101.325 kPa

MJ/m 3

 

35.7

Odour

Natural gas shall be delivered to the customer odorised

Detection level

Gas in air 20% LEL

Table 3.4 Gas quality specification for Bulgaria as stated by the State Regulatory Commission. The reference temperature for combustion is 20 °C and the reference conditions for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa

Transmission Gas Quality Specification

The state-owned Bulgarian Energy Holding EAD subsidiary Bulgartransgaz EAD is the sole gas transmission operator in Bulgaria executing the activities on transmission and gas storage and regulated by the State Energy and Water Regulation Commission. The company is owner and operator of a gas transmission ring system with high pressure off-takes to transport natural gas to customers and gas distribution companies in the country. About 3.34 bcm natural gas is transported along Bulgartransgaz EAD transmission network.

Large quantities of natural gas are transited through the Republic of Bulgaria; in 2007 a total of 17.190 bcm passed through Bulgaria to:

Turkey - 13.9 bcm (increase of 13% on previous year)

Greece - 3.1 bcm (increase of 15% on previous year)

Macedonia - 0.1 bcm (increase of 27% on previous year)

• Macedonia - 0.1 bcm (increase of 27% on previous year) Figure 3.4 Map of the

Figure 3.4 Map of the Bulgarian Transmission System

Future Gas Supplies

Bulgaria and Greece have signed an agreement in 2009 to construct a natural gas pipeline from the Bulgarian city of Stara Zagora to the Greek town of Komotini. The Bulgarian Energy Holding signed an agreement with Greek natural gas monopoly DEPA and Italy's Edison SpA for the creation of a company that will construct and operate the pipeline and a company that will supply and make commercial use of the natural gas. The link will allow Bulgaria to import 1 billion cubic meters of Azeri gas per year from 2012 through the ITGI pipeline which is due to carry Caspian gas via Turkey and Greece to Italy.

The new pipeline will receive funding of 45 million from the EU Energy Programme.

The state-owned Bulgarian Energy Holding also signed a deal with Greece's gas grid operator DESFA to use the capacity of the Greek LNG terminal near Athens and import 1 bcm of gas per year.

The proposed technical specification for the Romania – Bulgaria interconnector is shown in Table 3.5. The reference temperature for combustion is 20 °C. Reference conditions for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa.

Component

Units

Range

Methane

%

92

Ethane

%

4

Propane

%

2

i-Butane

%

2

n-Butane

%

2

i-Pentane

%

2

n-Pentane

%

2

Hexanes and higher hydrocarbons

%

2

Nitrogen

%

2

Carbon dioxide

%

1

Oxygen

%

0.1

Hydrogen sulphide

mg/m 3 (n)

2.0

Mercaptans

mg/m 3 (n)

5.6

Total sulphur

mg/m 3 (n)

20

Table 3.5 Proposed gas quality specification for the Romania-Bulgaria interconnector

3.5

Cyprus

There is currently no natural gas supply in Cyprus. The Cyprus Energy Authority (CERA) was set up by law in July 2003 to meet the requirements of the EU for the liberalisation of energy markets. The Republic of Cyprus decided to establish the Energy Centre, which will include facilities for the import, storage of strategic and operational stocks, management, distribution and export of oil products, as well as facilities for the import, storage and regasification of LNG.

The Energy Centre will be built on the south coast of Cyprus, at a distance of 25 km east of Limassol, in the area formerly occupied by the Hellenic Chemical Industries fertiliser manufacturing facility. This area was considered as the most appropriate for the erection of storage and distribution facilities for petroleum products, as well as for the establishment of a receiving and storage terminal for LNG, due to its location and nature. Initially, natural gas will be mainly used by the nearby Power Station belonging to the Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC) for power generation. The LNG is likely to be imported from Egypt, Algeria or Libya; there is also a possibility that Gazprom could be a supplier.

With the creation of the Energy Centre at Vasilikos, the Government of Cyprus aims to achieve a secure and cost-effective, long-term, energy supply in the country, the operation of a liberalised oil market and fair competition, as well as better control and maximum transparency in pricing. The site of the proposed LNG import terminal is shown in Figure 3.5.

of the proposed LNG import terminal is shown in Figure 3.5. Figure 3.5 Site of the

Figure 3.5 Site of the LNG import terminal and Energy Centre on Cyprus

3.6

Czech Republic

Czech Transmission Gas Quality Specification

The major gas transporter in the Czech Republic is RWE Transgas Net. The gas quality specification is shown in Table 3.6 – this was valid from 1 st August 2009. There are additional constraints on pressure at border entry points – further information is contained in the RWE Transgas Net network code.

Property

Value

Unit

Chemical Composition

Methane

85

mol%

Ethane

7

mol%

Propane

3

mol%

Butanes

2

mol%

Pentanes and higher hydrocarbons

0.5

mol%

Oxygen

0.02

mol%

Nitrogen

5

mol%

Carbon dioxide

3

mol%

Hydrogen sulphide H2S

6

mg/m 3

Mercaptan sulphur RSH

5

mg/m 3

Total sulphur

30

mg/m 3

Combustion Properties

Wobbe Index

12.7

– 14.5

kWh/m 3

 

45.7

– 52.2

MJ/m 3

Relative density

0.56

– 0.70

 

Reference Conditions

Combustion

15 °C

Volume

15 °C at 101.325 kPa

 

Dew point

Water dew point

-7

°C at a pressure of 4 MPa

Hydrocarbon dew point

0

°C at operating pressure

Notes

Natural gas shall not contain any mechanical impurities

 

The quality of gas delivered through individual delivery points from underground gas storage (UGS) expressed as the Gross Calorific Value (kWh) may not diverge by more than –0.5% to +2.0% from the average Gross Calorific Value of gas delivered through delivery points to UGS in the last 100 days.

Table 3.6. RWE Transgas Net Gas Quality Specification for gas entering the Czech Republic. The reference temperature for combustion is 15 °C and the reference temperature and pressure for volume are 15 °C and 101.325 kPa.

The RWE Gastrans Net pipeline network supplies gas to the Czech Republic and also forms part of the European international transit system. A map of the system is shown in Figure 3.6.

The transmission system delivering gas for use within the Czech Republic is 1183 km in length with nominal pipeline diameters of DN 80 to DN 700. The nominal operating pressures are 4 MPa, 5.35 MPa and 6.1 MPa; 85% of the system operates at 6.1 MPa.

The international transit network consists of 2460 km pipelines with nominal diameters ranging from DN 800 to DN 1400 and nominal pressures of 6.1 MPa, 7.35 MPa and 8.4 MPa. The DN 900 “Central”, “North” and “West” pipelines have been in operation since 1973; the “South” pipeline has been in operation since 1978. Due to increased demand, the DN 1000 pipeline was completed in 2000 in the “Central” and “North” sections.

Natural gas is received and delivered at the inlet and outlet points from the Czech Republic; the volume and quality are metered at the border delivery stations in Lanžhot and Hora Svaté Kateřiny in the Czech Republic and at the border delivery stations Waidhaus and Olbernhau, which are located in Germany.

Waidhaus and Olbernha u, which are located in Germany. Figure 3.6 Map of the RWE Gastrans

Figure 3.6 Map of the RWE Gastrans Net transmission system reproduced from the company website. The border crossing point with Slovakia in the east is Lanžhot, the other two border crossing points are with Germany at Waidhaus in the west and Deutschneudorf in the north.

Future Development

As a result of market surveys, two preliminary requests for increased transmission capacity are being considered by RWE Transgas Net:

105 million m 3 /day along the Olbernhau - Waidhaus route from 2011

Transmission to/from Poland in the area of Cesky Tesin of 1 million m 3 /day.

RWE Transgas Net is due to make a decision in 2010.

3.7

Denmark

Danish National Gas Specification

The specification for natural gas supplied to the Danish market is laid down by the Danish Safety Technology Authority (Sikkerhedsstyrelsen) in Section A, Appendix 1A of the Danish Gas Regulations. Natural gas received, transported and delivered in the Danish natural gas system under a transport contract must at all times comply with the Danish Gas Regulation and the quality specifications of the Rules for Gas Transport.

The Wobbe Index minimum of 50.8 MJ/m 3 is lower than the current value in the regulations – in December 2007, the minimum Wobbe Index was lowered from 51.9 MJ/m 3 to allow for the import of gas from Northern Germany. A summary of the regulations is shown in Table 3.7. The reference conditions are 25 °C for combustion and 0 °C and 101.325 kPa for volume.

Property

Units

Range

Comment

Wobbe Index

MJ/m 3 (n)

50.8 – 55.8

Under normal circumstances

Max. 56.5

In emergency circumstances. Customers sensitive to gas quality must be alerted.

Current regulations state a minimum Wobbe of 51.9 MJ/m 3 the new limit of 50.8 MJ/m 3 is approved by the Regulator but is not yet in the existing rules

Relative density

 

<0.7

No lower limit

Hydrogen sulphide

mg/m 3 (n)

<5

This is a daily average. In exceptional circumstances, hourly values of up to 10 mg/m 3 (n) may be permitted

Purity

The gas must be free of gaseous, solid or liquid substances which may affect the operation or corrosion of the transmission system

Hydrocarbon dew point

°C

-5

At pressures up to 4 bar

°C

0

At pressures above 4 bar

Water dew point

°C

Below soil

For buried pipelines below 4 bar

temperature

°C

0

At operating pressures above 4 bar

Dust

Dust that may cause malfunction of meters, regulators and other components must be filtered out.

Odorant

   

Distributed natural gas must include an odorant in such a concentration that a person with a normal sense of smell is able to detect a gas/air mixture of up to 20% of the lower explosion limit and a maximum of 0.025% carbon monoxide.

THT

mg/m 3 (n)

>10.5

Mercaptans

mg/m 3 (n)

>4.0

Table 3.7 The National Danish Gas Quality Specification. The reference conditions are 25 °C for combustion and 0 °C and 101.325 kPa for volume

Transmission System

The Danish gas transmission system is operated and owned by Energinet.dk; the system runs from Nybro in

Western Jutland to Amager in Eastern Denmark and from the German border to Aalborg. Energinet.dk also owns the installations which meter and regulate the gas and send it into the gas distribution network. Approximately 8 billion cubic metres of natural gas a year are transported each year. The system consists of a transmission grid and distribution grids on land and of marine pipelines at sea. A map of the transmission system is shown in Figure 3.7.

The natural gas from the Danish section of the North Sea is transported in two marine pipelines from the Tyra and Syd Arne fields to the shore just north of Esbjerg. On land the natural gas passes through a gas treatment plant in Nybro near Varde. Here, the quality of the gas is checked and measured. The plant can also dry the gas and remove any sulphur, if necessary. From Nybro, the gas is sent to customers in Denmark and in other countries or for storage at one of two subterranean natural gas storage facilities. The storage facilities are situated in Ll Thorup north of Viborg and in Stenlille near Sorø on Zealand.

The Danish gas system is connected with the rest of Europe via pipelines to Germany and Sweden, and Denmark thus enjoys a central position in relation to the transmission of, trade in and storage of natural gas.

the transmission of, trade in and storage of natural gas. Figure 3.7 Map of the Danish

Figure 3.7 Map of the Danish transmission system. Source Energinet.dk.

Energinet.dk has a gas quality transmission specification which is in addition to the national gas quality requirements – this is shown in Table 3.8.

Property

Units

Range

Comments

Wobbe Index

MJ/m 3 (n)

50.8

– 55.8

In an emergency, the maximum Wobbe Index may be increased to 56.5 MJ/m 3 (n)

Gross Calorific Value

MJ/m 3 (n)

39.6

– 46.0

In an emergency, the maximum calorific value may be up to 46.8 MJ/m 3 (n)

Relative density

 

0.60

to 0.69

 

CO2

mol%

2.7

 

Oxygen

mol%

0.1

 

H2S + COS

mg/m 3 (n)

5

Under exceptional circumstances, H2S + COS content may be up to 10 mg/m 3 (n) for a maximum of two hours but not more than 5 mg/m 3 (n) on a 24 hour basis

Mercaptan

mg/m 3 (n)

6

 

Total sulphur

mg/m 3 (n)

30

 

Water dew point

°C

-8

At any pressure up to 70 bar

Hydrate formation

No hydrates may form at temperatures of -8 °C at any pressure up to 70 bar

Hydrocarbon dew

°C

-2

At any pressure up to 70 bar

point

Dust and liquids

Technically free of gaseous, solid or liquid substances that may cause blocking, malfunction or corrosion of the transmission system. This excludes very small droplets that may form in natural gas and that cannot be removed

Odorisation

Natural gas shall be delivered unodorised at the entry point.

Other components

Natural gas shall not contain other components or contaminants such that it cannot be transported, stored or marketed without further adjustment of the gas quality

and contaminants

Temperature

°C

0 - 50

-10°C under exceptional circumstances and for up to 2 hours

Table 3.8 Transmission specification for natural gas transported by Energinet.dk. The reference temperature for combustion is 25 °C and for volume the reference conditions are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa.

3.8

Estonia

National Specification

Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia and Finland are remote from the rest of the European transmission system; at the present time, the sole source of gas is Russia. The EU has given the four countries exemption from the complete unbundling of the gas industry due to the lack of competition.

The national gas specification must be the same as that agreed with Gazprom.

Transmission Specification

Eesti Gaas AS owns and operates Estonian natural gas transmission system. Eesti Gaas is owned by Gazprom (37%), E.ON Ruhrgas (32%), Fortum OY (18%) and Itera Latvija (9%) – the remaining 2% is owned by other shareholders. A map of the Estonian transmission system is shown in Figure 3.8.

Natural gas is imported into Estonia from Russia and from the Inčukalns underground gas storage in Latvia. Eesti Gaas AS has two gas metering stations on the border of Estonia to determine the volume of imported gas.

border of Estonia to det ermine the volume of imported gas. Figure 3.8 Map of the

Figure 3.8 Map of the Estonian transmission system. Source Eesti Gaas

Eesti Gaas describe the properties of natural gas in a document entitled Maagaas Toote kirjeldus (Natural Gas Product Description). Although this document is not strictly a gas specification, it gives an indication of the type of gas delivered in Estonia – a summary of the gas properties is shown in Table 3.9.

The Balticconnector is a proposed pipeline connecting Estonia to Finland in the north; this will connect Finland to the gas storage facilities in Latvia in the south. The gas transmission system in Estonia and neighbouring Baltic countries is shown in more detail in Figure 3.9 in section 3.9. The reference conditions for combustion are 20 °C. The reference pressure is 101.325 kPa.

Property

Units

Range

Comments

Methane

%

96 - 99

 

Ethane

%

0.5

– 1.5

 

Higher hydrocarbons

%

< 0.5

   

Inert gases

%

< 1.5

   

Gross calorific value

MJ/m 3

36.8

– 37.7

 

kWh/m 3

10.2

– 10.5

 

Net calorific value

MJ/m 3

33.1

- 34

 

kWh/m 3

9.2

– 9.5

 

Gross Wobbe Index

MJ/m 3

49.2

– 49.9

 

Net Wobbe Index

MJ/m 3

44.3

- 45

 

Relative density

 

0.55

– 0.58

 

Sulphur content

mg/m 3

<

1

 

Dew point (hydrocarbon?)

°C

<

-5

in winter at a pressure of 40 bar

°C

0

in summer at pressure of 40 bar

Table 3.9 Summary of typical natural gas delivered to Estonia. The reference temperature for combustion is 20 °C and the reference temperature and pressure for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa.

3.9

Finland

National Gas Quality Specification

The gas quality for Finland is that delivered by Gazprom. The reference combustion temperature is 20 °C and the reference conditions for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa.

Domestic gas appliances in Finland are equipped to burn gas from the 2H group. Indicative values for the gas composition for Finland are shown in Table 3.10.

Component

Unit

Value

Methane

%

>98

Ethane and higher hydrocarbons

%

<1

Nitrogen

%

<1

Gross calorific value

MJ/m 3

39.9

Net calorific value

MJ/m 3

36.0

Wobbe Index

MJ/m 3

53.0

Table 3.10 Indicative properties of natural gas in Finland. Source Maakaasuyhdistys Naturgasforeningen. The reference temperature for combustion is 20 °C and the reference conditions for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa

The gas specification for the Finnish distribution company Gaasienergia AS for delivery to domestic consumers is shown in Table 3.11.

Property

Range

Unit

Gross calorific value

36.70

– 38.00

MJ/m 3

Net calorific value

32.70

– 34.00

MJ/m 3

Methane content

96.91

– 98.33

%

Table 3.11 Example of gas specification for delivery to domestic consumers. The reference temperature for combustion is 20 °C and the reference conditions for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa

Transmission System

The transmission system in Finland and neighbouring Baltic states is shown in Figure 3.9. Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia are remote from the rest of the European gas transmission system and the four countries are supplied solely by gas from Russia; the EU has given the four countries exemption from the complete unbundling of the gas market due to the lack of competition.

Figure 3.9 Transmission system in Finland and neighbouring Baltic States. Sources Gasum . The Balticconnector

Figure 3.9 Transmission system in Finland and neighbouring Baltic States. Sources Gasum.

The Balticconnector will connect gas markets around the northern Baltic Sea. It will link the Finnish, Estonian and Latvian natural gas grids. The Balticconnector will enable two-way flow between Finland and Estonia and provide greater gas supply capacity and flexibility for the whole region. The underground gas storage potential in Latvia at Inčukalns will be used more effectively.

The consortium for development of the pipeline is led by the Finnish natural gas company Gasum and includes Eesti Gaas of Estonia, Latvijas Gāze of Latvia and Gazprom of Russia. The project comprises construction of an offshore gas pipeline between Finland and Estonia, compressor stations on both landfalls and connecting onshore pipelines to the existing gas grids. The 80-120 km long DN 500 pipeline will be laid on the seabed of the Gulf of Finland starting from Vuosaari (district of Helsinki) or Inkoo in Finland to Paldiski in Estonia. In Estonia the pipeline will be connected to the existing DN 700 transmission pipeline from Latvia. The import capacity of the new gas pipeline will be 2 billion cubic metres (bcm) per annum.

The pipeline's cost would be €100 million. The pipeline is expected to be ready by 2010.

3.10

France

French National Gas Quality Specification

France operates two transmission systems. In Northern France, the L-gas system imports gas from the Netherlands. The rest of France is covered by the H-gas transmission system. The gas quality specification for both L- and H-gas is shown in Table 3.12. The reference temperature for combustion is 0 °C. The reference conditions for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa.

Characteristic

Specification

Higher Calorific Value (combustion conditions 0 °C and 101.325 kPa)

H

type gas (1) : 10.70 to 12.80 kWh/m 3 (n) (combustion 25 °C: 10.67 to 12.77)

L

type gas (1) : 9.50 to 10.50 kWh/m 3 (n) (combustion 25 °C: 9.48 to 10.47)

Wobbe Index (combustion conditions 0 °C and 101.325 kPa)

H

type gas (1) : 13.64 (1bis) to 15.70 (1bis) kWh/m 3 (n) (combustion 25 °C: 13.6 to 15.66)

L

type gas (1) : 12.01 to 13.06 kWh/m 3 (n) (combustion 25 °C: 11.98 to 13.03)

Relative density

Between 0.555 and 0.700 (2)

Water dew point

Below -5 °C at Maximum Service Pressure on the system below the connection (3)

Hydrocarbon dew point (4)

Below -2 °C from 1 to 7000 kPa(a) (2)

Total sulphur content

Less than 30 mg(S)/m 3 (n) (2)

Total mercaptan sulphur content

Less than 6 mg(S)/m 3 (n) (2)

H2S + COS sulphur content

Less than 5 mg(S)/m 3 (n) (2)

CO2 content

Less than 2.5% (molar) (2)

Tetrahydrothiophene content (THT– odorizing product)

Less than 40 mg/m³(n)

O2 content

Less than 100 ppm (molar) (2)

Impurities

Gas that can be transported, stored and distributed without further processing on injection into the system

Notes

(1) H gas: Gas with a high calorific value. B gas: Gas with a low calorific value.

(1 bis) H gas: pending contractual changes, gas with a Wobbe Index (combustion conditions 0 °C and 101.325 kPa) between 13.64 (value recommended by the European EASEE-gas association) and 13.50 kWh/m 3 (n) is likely to be accepted. As regards the upper limit for the Wobbe Index, checks are being carried out to establish when the value of 15.85 kWh/m 3 (n) (instead of 15.70) discussed within EASEE-gas will be acceptable in France.

(2) These values are the ones recommended within the European EASEE-gas Association. Pending contractual changes, gases with the following characteristics are likely to be accepted:

hydrocarbon dew point below 0° C between 1 and 8100 kPa(a) at Obergailbach,

total sulphur content: instant reading below 150 mg(S)/m 3 (n) and, for Dunkerque, Taisnières H “Ekofisk” and Taisnières H “Troll”, less than 120 mg as an annual average,

mercaptan sulphur content below 16.1 mg(S)/m 3 (n) at Obergailbach,

H2S content below 5 mgH2S/m 3 (n) at Obergailbach and Taisnières H “Troll”, and 5.4 mgH2S/m 3 (n) at Taisnières B and Taisnières H “Ekofisk” , whatever the H2S+COS content at these points,

instant H2S content below 15 mgH2S/m 3 (n) and only allowed to exceed 12 mgH2S/m 3 (n) for a maximum of 8 consecutive hours, average content over 8 days below 7 mgH2S/m 3 (n) on leaving underground storage facilities and at Cruzy and Castillon.

CO2 content below 3% at Taisnières B, Taisnières H “Ekofisk” and Obergailbach,

O2 content below 1000 ppm at Dunkerque and Taisnières H “Troll”, below 5000 ppm at Taisnières H “Ekofisk” and Obergailbach.

(3) The conversion of the water dew point to water content and vice versa is done in accordance with ISO 18453 ”Natural gas – Correlation between water content and water dew point.” (Gergwater correlation).

(4) This specification is applicable to natural gas, which covers only hydrocarbons and not oils.

Table 3.12 Natural gas transmission specification in France. The reference temperature for combustion is 0 °C. The reference conditions for volume are 0 °C and 101.325 kPa.

French Transmission System

The French transmission system comprises over 31,000 km of pipelines and about 30 compressor stations; it is operated by GRTgaz and TIGF. Both GRTgaz and TIGF were both formed as part of the process of liberalising the gas and electricity markets. GRTgaz is the operator of the natural gas transmission system previously owned by Gaz de France. TIGF is a 100% owned subsidiary of Total that only operates in the Southern part of France, near the Spanish border. A map of the transmission systems is shown in Figure 3.10.

There are two types of entry points into France:

LNG terminals, of which there are two at Fos-sur-Mer and one at Montoir-de-Bretagne.

·Border entry points which link the transmission system to other European transmission operators, for example, at Loon-Plage, Taisnières and Obergailbach. At these points, the gas is compressed (using electric drive compressors), odorised and injected into the GRTgaz system.

Both GRTgaz and TIGF natural gas quality specifications comply with the French statutory requirements. GRTgaz transports both H and L gas whereas TIGF only transports H gas. The specification for H gas Wobbe Index lies within, but does not fully cover, the EASEE-gas range.

GRTgaz states that gas with a Wobbe Index between the lower EASEE-gas limit of 13.50 kWh/m 3 (n) and the French lower limit of 13.64 kWh/m 3 (n) is likely to be accepted. Gas with a Wobbe Index above the French limit will not be accepted until an assessment of the impact has been completed. Further differences between the EASEE-gas limits and the French specification are given in the notes beneath Table 3.12. It is interesting to note that GRTgaz can accept gas that does not meet the French specification:

As a temporary measure, non-compliant gas may be accepted if it is possible to guarantee that gas leaving the system is within specification

By special agreement between adjacent operators.

Any acceptance of such gases by GRTgaz must be subject to a prior agreement.

TIGF does not give any undertaking to accept gases outside the French specification.

Figure 3.10 Gas transmission maps of France. The tr ansmission network in Southern France is
Figure 3.10 Gas transmission maps of France. The tr ansmission network in Southern France is

Figure 3.10 Gas transmission maps of France. The transmission network in Southern France is operated by TIGF and the remainder of the system is operated by GRTgaz. The L-gas system is in the North of the country. Sources TIGF and GRTgaz.

3.11

Germany

German National Gas Quality Specification

The German gas specification is contained in DVGW standard G 260 May 2008 – the specification for both L and H natural gas supply is shown in Table 3.13. The standard conditions are 101.325 kPa and 0 °C for volume measurement and 0 °C for combustion. Within G 260, details of the EASEE-gas specification is also made for informative purposes (see Table 2.1).

Combustion limit data

Name

Symbol

Unit

Group L

Group H

Wobbe Index

WS,n

kWh/m 3

10.5

to 13.0

12.8

to 15.7

   

MJ/m 3

37.8

to 46.8

46.1

to 56.5

Nominal Wobbe Index value

 

kWh/m 3

12.4

15.0

   

MJ/m 3

44.6

54.0

Variation range for local distribution area (1)

 

kWh/m 3

+0.6

+0.7

   

kWh/m 3

-1.4

-1.4

Gross calorific value

HS,n

kWh/m 3

8.4 to 13.1

 
   

MJ/m 3

30.2

to 47.2

Relative density

dn

 

0.55

to 0.75

Supply pressure

pan

 

Range

 

mbar

18 to 24