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3/8/2018 Dublin Tech: The A to Z of DB2

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Dublin Tech
Some simple bits and pieces about Java EE architectures and Web solutions.

MONDAY, OCTOBER 3, 2011 ABOUT ME


Alex Staveley
The A to Z of DB2 Alex Staveley is a
software
In nearly every software architecture there is a relational database - somewhere. And in nearly every relational database there is a professional
range of concepts and buzzwords. Some unique to a particular database vendor but many not. In this post we run through some passionate about
concepts / buzzwords for DB2 - alphabetically! software engineering and technical
Authority Levels architecture. He blogs about
A DB2 Authority Level is a security level representing a collection of privileges and higher-level database manager maintenance and architectural approaches, Java
utility operations. SYSADM, SYSCTRL, SYSMAINT, SYSMON are instance level authorities and can only be assigned to a group. topics, web solutions and various
technical bits and pieces.
DBADM, SECADM and LOAD are database level authorities.
SYSADM is the only authority which can: View my complete profile

update the DMB CFG file


BLOG ARCHIVE
grant SYS* authorities to other groups. Grant DBADM authority to users / groups
► 2018 (3)
access data within any database
► 2017 (5)
do anything SYSCTRL can do
► 2016 (8)
SYSCTRL:
► 2015 (5)
only access data in database if given privilege
► 2014 (8)
can create/drop databases, tablespaces
► 2013 (13)
do anything SYSMAINT can do
► 2012 (21)
SYSMAINT can:
▼ 2011 (30)
db2start/ db2stop / backup / restore/ runstats
► December (3)
DBADM can:
► November (1)
do anything for a particular database
▼ October (5)
grant load authority to other users Javascript Closure's and
Authentication Types Currying!
The following Authentication types are available: Are you confused by "this"
SERVER: authentication takes place on the Server Javascript?
SERVER_ENCRYPT: authentication takes place on the Server username / password is encrypted on the client Problems debugging Java
before being sent. after ANT compile
CLIENT, KERBEROS, KRB_SERVER_ENCRYPT, DATA_ENCRYPT, DATA_ENCRYPT_CMP, GSSPLUGIN, DB2 cheat sheet
GSS_SERVER_ENCRYPT.
The A to Z of DB2
If a Client uses the SERVER_ENCRYPT and the Server uses SERVER authentication type and error will occur when
client tries to connect to the Server. ► September (1)
► July (2)
Common Table Expressions
Common Table Expressions exist only for the life of the SQL statement that created them. They are used for special ► June (7)
cases e.g. recursion in a query. ► May (2)
The syntax is: WITH [tablename] ...
► April (9)

Command Editor
Interactive GUI for SQL commands LABELS

Configuration Assistant Architecture (24)


The Configuration Assistant enables users to configure clients so that they can access databases stored on remote Software Engineering (16)
DB2 servers. The configuration assistant allows users to catalog, uncatalog databases, bind applications, set DB2 Javascript (13) Book Review
registry parameters, changes passwords, test database connections. (11) Java (11) Persistence
(10) Scala (9) Groovy (8)
Connect Enterprise Edition Performance and Scalability
Connect Enterprise Edition is an add on product that allows data to be moved between Linux, Unix, Windows, (8) Technology trends (8)
Grails (5) Presentation Tier (4)
iSeries and zSeries based DB2 servers.
Usability (4) XML (4) Cheat sheet (3)
Cloud (3) Functional programming (3)
Constraints JAXB (3) JQuery (3) SQL (3) Web Tier
Constraints are used to enforce business rules (e.g. attributes in a column cannot be null). The SQL used to create (3) DB2 (2) HTML5 (2) Manageability
constraints is stored in the System Catalog. (2) Networking (2) NoSQL (2) SaaS (2)
concurrency (2) Consistent hashing (1)
Control Center MOXy (1) OOAD (1) UML (1) availability (1)

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3/8/2018 Dublin Tech: The A to Z of DB2
Performs admin for instances / databases / bufferpools / tablespaces/ views / indexes... Catalog / Uncatalog MVB PROFILE
databases. And all sorts of other DB tasks.

Cursor Operations
Update and delete operations can be performed using position operations or search operations. In a position
operation the cursor must be first created, opened and then positioned. When a cursor is declared with 'WITH
HOLD' option, it will remain open across transactions until it is explicitly closed.
JAVA CODE GEEK
Cursor Usage Steps
The steps to use a cursor are: DECLARE CURSOR, OPEN, FETCH, CLOSE.

Database Manager Configuration File


Stores the names of the groups which have been given instance level authorities (SYSADM, SYSCTRL, SYSMAINT,
SYSMON)

Decimal GOOGLE PROFILE


There four ways to define decimal types: DECIMAL(percision, scale), DEC(precision, scale), NUMERIC(precision, +Alex Staveley
scale) and NUM(precision, scale)

DCS directory
The DCS directory stores database information for remote databases on z/OS iSeries.

Declared temporary tables


User defined tables to hold non persistent data. They are created by the application and destroyed when the
application terminates.

Design Advisor
The design advisor makes recommendations for new indexes, deletion of indexes, Materialized Query Tables, Multi
Dimensional Clustering

Developer Workbench (Development Center in v8)


Used to create, edit, debug, deploy, test DB2 stored procedures and user defined functions. Also to develop and run
XML queries.

Distinct Type
A distinct data type is a user-defined data type that is derived from one of the built in data types in DB2. Example of
syntax creation: CREATE DISTINCT TYPE euro AS DECIMAL (9,3) WITH COMPARISON. Disinct types are
strongly typed; they cannot be used as an argument for a built-in data type in a built-in function, even if they are
derived from them (and vice versa). If the WITH COMPARISON syntax is used during creation, it means that
comparison functions (<>, <, > , <=, >=, >) and ORDER BY, GROUP BY clauses can be used for the distinct type.
Two casting functions are created anytime a distinct type is created. This is used to convert to / from its base type
and has the same name as the distinct type.

Extenders
Extenders are advanced data types that are not part of the built-in datatypes. There are 6 types of extenders in DB2.
DB2 AVI extender
DB2 Text extender
DB2 Net search extender
DB2 XML extender
DB2 Spatial extender
DB2 Geodetic extender - can treat earth like globe rather than flat map.

Foreign Key Constraints for Delete:


ON DELETE CASCADE: When entity is deleted from parent table, any entity which has a FK to the parent entity will
be deleted.
ON DELETE SET NULL: When entity is deleted from parent table, FK will be set to null
ON DELETE RESTRICT: When entity is deleted from parent table, FK values must point to same value
ON DELETE NO ACTION: When entity is deleted from parent table, FK values must point to something valid but can
change

Foreign Key Constrains for Update:


ON UPDATE RESTRICT: When entity is updated in parent table, the FK values must have to have the same values
ON UPDATE NO ACTION: When the entity is updated in the parent table, the FKs values can change but must
always point at something.

Grant All (table)


GRANT ALL privileges for table means: ALTER, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, INDEX, REFERENCES
privileges. Note there is no 'ADD' privilege.

Graphic
Graphic is a fixed length double-byte character type.

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Group By
Used to specify columns that are to be grouped together and to provide input into aggregate functions such as
SUM() and AVG()

Group By Cube
Used to group in multiple dimensions e.g. SELECT workdept, gender, AVG(salaray) AS avg_salary FROM employee
GROUP BY CUBE (workdept, gender);

Having
The having clause is used to by further selection criteria to a GROUP BY clause. It refers to data that has already
been grouped by a GROUP BY clause. It uses same syntax as WHERE clause and can only be used in by the
GROUP BY clause.

Health Center
The Health Center tool is used to select instance and database objects that you want to monitor

Identity Column
Identity columns must be a numeric data type with a scale of 0.

Indexes
The creation of an index provides logical ordering of rows in a table in ascending order of the index.

Isolation levels
Repeatable read isolation level will lock rows scanned in a query.
Read stability isolation level will only lock the rows returned in the result data set.
Cursor stability isolation level will only lock the result set that the cursor is currently pointing to.
The uncommitted read isolation level will not lock any rows during normal read processing (unless another user tries
to alter or drop the table being read).

Journal
The DB2 journal is an interactive GUI that tracks historical information about tasks, database actions and operations

License Center
the License Center Allows users to view information about licenses

Like (table creation)


CREATE TABLE ... LIKE ... - creates table which has exact same name, datatype and nullability characteristics.

Locks
Locks can only be applied to table spaces, tables and rows.

Lock conversion
The act of changing a lock to a more restrictive state. In most cases, lock conversation happens for row level locks,
e.g. if an Update(U) lock is held and an Exclusive(X) lock is needed, the update(U)lock will be converted to an
Exclusive lock

Lock escalation
Lock escalation is when the size of a lock changes. For example from Row to Table size. This is usually to free up
some space in the Lock list.

Lock list
The specific amount of memory set aside to hold a structure that DB2 uses to manage locks.

Lock state (or mode)


DB2 locks can have various states: Intent None, Intent share, Next Key Share, Share, Intent Exclusive, Share with
Intent Exclusive, Update, Next Key Exclusive, Exclusive, Weak Exclusive, Super Exclusive. DB2 determines the
lock state by looking at isolation level and the SQL being executed.

Materialised Query Tables:


User defined tables whose definition is based on the result of a query used for query optimization.

Null
For predicates use IS NULL. In result sets, - means null. Unique indexes can one null value. Unique constraints can
have never have a null value. Nulls can't be in used with IN clauses.

Operating System Support

DB2 Type / OS Linux Windows Solaris Mobile OS AIX HP-UX System i


DB2 Everyplace No No No Yes No No No
DB2 PE Yes Yes No No No No No

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DB2 Express C Yes Yes No No No No No
DB2 Express Yes Yes Yes No No No No
DB2 i5 / Os No No No No No No Yes
DB2 WSE Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
DB2 ESE Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No

Packages
A package is an object that contains the information needed to process SQL statements associated with a source
code file of an application program.

Privilege: Alter (Table)


The alter table privilege allows user to add columns to a table, add / change table comments, create a table pk,
unique/check constraint, triggers for table.

Privilege: Control
The control privilege that applies to Table, View, Nicknames, Packages and Indexes. It includes every privilege
including the privilege to drop the object from the DB. The owner of a table automatically receives control privilege
(and all other privileges). Only users with SYSADM or DBADM authority are allowed to explictily grant CONTROL
privilege on any object. A user with CONTROL privilege can grant any table privilege except CONTROL privilege.

Privilege: Connect (Database)


Connect Privilege applies to a database. It allows users to connect.

Privilege: References (Table)


Reference table privilege allows a user to create and drop foreign key constrains that reference a table in a parent
relationship. This can be granted for entire table of just specific columns in
the table.

Privilege: Usage (sequences)


Allows the PREVIOUS VALUE and NEXT VALUE expression associated with the sequence to be changed.

Privileges: Packages
The BINDADD privilege at database allows a user to create packages in the database.

Privileges (Explicit / Implicity)


Explicit privileges have to be granted explicitly. Implictly privileges do not. For example, CONTROL is granted to
anyone who creates a Table or View. CREATEIN, ALTERIN, DROPIN is granted to anyone who creates a schema.

Privileges: View / Nickname


There is no Alter, Index or Reference privilege for View. Otherwise they have have the same privileges as Tables.
Nickhaves have the same privileges possible as Tables.

Privileges:Index
There is only one Index privilege - it is Control.

Replication Center
Facilitates data replication between a DB2 database and any other relational database

Routine
A routine is a user defined function or stored procedure

Satellite Admin Center


Allows users set up and administer a group of DB2 Servers

Sequences
Sequences, identity columns and triggers can be used to generate values for a column. But, only sequences can be
referenced in an INSERT statement.

SET operators
A set operator is is used to combined two or more queries into a single query. Examples: UNION, UNION ALL,
INTERSECT, INTERSECT ALL, EXCEPT, EXCEPT ALL

Spatial Extenders
Spatial extender treats the world as flat map; the DB2 geodetic extender treats the world as a globe.

SQL Performance Monitor


To analyse database operations performed againsts a DB2 for i5/OS database

Storage
Char = (number of characters * 1) bytes required; 1 and 254 characters

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Varchar = (number of characters + 4) bytes requires; 32,672 characters
LONG VARCHAR = (number of characters + 24) bytes required; 32,672 characters (table space agnostic)
GRAPHIC = (number of characters * 2) bytes required; 127 characters
VARGRAPHIC = (number of characters * 2) + 4 bytes required; 16, 336
LONG VARGRAPHIC = (number of characters * 2) + 24 bytes required; 16,350 characters (table space agnostic)

Structured Data Type


A structured data type is a user-defined type that contains one or more attributes, each of which has a name and a
data type of its own. A SDT can also be created as a subtype of another structured type. SDT are created by the
CREATE TYPE sql statement.

Table Locks
Share mode - Other transactions are allowed read data but not change the data that is locked.
Exclusive mode - Other transactions can neither read nor modify the data that is locked.

Task Center
Allows users schedule, run tasks and send notifications about them

Time / Timestamp
Timestamp can store date time. Time can only store time.

Triggers
A trigger can be activated whenever an insert, update or delete operation is performed (not a select).
A trigger event can be activated before, after or instead of the trigger event
Trigger granularity: They can be activated for every row updated (FOR EACH ROW) or just for every
statement (FOR EACH STATEMENT)
To stop trigger events setting off other triggers use the NO CASCADE option
A trigger event can reference old or new data using the 'REFERENCE OLD AS' or 'REFERENCE NEW
AS' syntax
A trigger can send signals.This can be used to prevent actions, for example: SIGNAL SQLSTATE '75002'
SET MESSAGE TEXT 'Deletes not allowed'.
The SQL used to create Triggers is stored in the system catalog.

Typed tables
User defined tables whose column definitions are based on the attributes of a user defined structured data type.

Universal Developer's Edition


Contains tools to build application supported Linux, UNIX, Windows and DRDA Application Requestor

View Tables
Do not contain real data but instead refer to data in real tables. Only the view definition itself is stored in the
database.
Useful for controlling access to data. The WITH LOCAL CHECK OPTION can be used to enforce data constraints
for inserts, updates.
The WITH CASCADED CHECK OPTION can be used to cascade constraints to subsequent views. Characteristics
of View tables are stored in the system catalog not the SQL that created them.

Visual Explain
Gives visual representation of data access plan

XML Columns
XML columns are used to store documents as a hierarchial set of entities. The XML data type does not have a fixed
length.

P.S. Well done Seán O'Brien on another super performance! Well done Ireland beating Italy and making the World
Cup Quarter finals!

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Seán O'Brien

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Posted by Alex Staveley at 1:23 PM

Labels: Cheat sheet, DB2, Persistence, SQL

1 comment:

Joe September 10, 2013 at 2:23 PM


Thanks Alex, really great list of terms and definitions in DB2 that I found quite handy.

Also wanted to share a great link on lock escalation right here:

http://www.programmerinterview.com/index.php/database-sql/lock-escalation/
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