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EIE/06/221/SI2.

442663

REPORT
Work package: WP06
Benchmarking for increasing biogas injection
Start date of the action: 1st of August 2007
End date of the action: 31st of July 2008

Deliverable: D17
A register of all gas regulations and norms concerning the necessary
gas quality for allowing the transport in the natural gas grid

Month of completion: 15 (28th of February 2008)

Responsible partners:
University of Miskolc (UNI MISKOLC)
Hungarian Scientific Society of energy Economics (ETE)

Date: 31st of March 2008

REDUBAR
WP06 D17
© REDUBAR
Investigations targeted to the creation of legislative instruments and the reduction of
administrative barriers for the use of gaseous fuels produced from renewable energy sources
for heating and cooling

Agreement No: EIE/06/221/SI2.442663

Co-ordinator: DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH

WP06 D17
Edited by University of Miskolc and Hungarian Scientific Society of Energy Economics,
Hungary, 2008
EIE/06/221/SI2.442663 REDUBAR page 3

Contents

Preliminaries ............................................................................................................. 4
1. Introduction........................................................................................................... 5
2. Glossary ................................................................................................................ 7
3. Role of natural gas in the primary energy balance of Europe ........................ 11
4. Natural gas networks of Europe........................................................................ 22
4.1. Natural gas grids in the REDUBAR countries ........................................................... 23
5. European-level framework conditions for natural gas supply ....................... 32
5.1. Description of gas quality ................................................................................................. 33
5.2. Uniform European natural gas quality stipulations .................................................. 37
5.3. Gas quality harmonisation efforts .................................................................................. 43
5.4. National characteristics in the natural gas quality requirements ......................... 49
6. Conclusions ........................................................................................................ 61
7. References .......................................................................................................... 63

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Preliminaries
The objective of deliverable D17 was to compile a register which gives an overview of the
natural gas systems in the countries of Europe and those of the REDUBAR consortium as
well as of the quality requirements of the gases supplied in the individual countries. In
analysing the various quality requirements, special attention had to be paid to the
components which are not present at all or only to a negligible extent in natural gases, but
may be present even in considerable quantities in the biogases intended to be fed into the
systems.

For the purpose of deliverable D17 data from six REDUBAR countries were available (Czech
Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands and Poland). By the time of writing
the deliverable the data requested had not arrived from Italy and Lithuania.

Under the leadership of the University of Miskolc and ETE, the following institutions were
involved under contract in elaborating D17: DBI, FEE, EEI and LEI. Those involved under
contract did not include the Czech, Greek, Italian and Polish partners. Since we found it
necessary to examine the issue of gas quality in each of the consortium countries, we asked
INIG, ICT, GIF and CRES for outside contract collaboration. This is where we express out
thanks to the partners providing data for completing D17 for their willingness to cooperate.

Beyond the quality specifications of the member states, the relevant ISO specifications were
used for deliverable D17.

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1. Introduction
The possibility of feeding biogases of different qualities into the natural gas grids may provide
a significant contribution to widening the biogas market in Europe. Currently the primary
objective of biogas-based energy generation is that of electricity, the secondary is heat
generation, and the demand for feeding it into the natural gas grid emerges only
subsequently. Feeding biogases into natural gas grids and being applied as vehicle fuels can
be encountered in by far fewer places than electricity and heat generation mentioned above.
The use of renewable gases in this form can (could) gain ground to a considerable extent
where the governments also provided their appropriate supports for feeding biogas into
natural gas grids.

Raw, untreated biogas produced in biogas plants has quality parameters significantly
different from those of natural gas. First of all the specific energy contents of the two gases
differ considerably: the calorific value of natural gas supplied is 30-35 MJ/m3, that of raw
biogas being 20-25 MJ/m3. Beyond specific energy content, the organic and inorganic
components which are not present at all or only to a negligible extent in natural gas, but may
be present in considerable proportions in raw biogases are essential. These impurities pose
quality and safety hazards in public supply, that are not known in detail currently but can be
assumed to exist, and the natural gas transportation and distribution companies wish to
avoid those hazards.

In order to avoid or minimise the hazards, first the quality parameters of natural gas and
those of biogas (bio-methane) upgraded to natural gas quality are to be determined
accurately and unambiguously, the possible values of the individual parameters are to be
confined within certain limits and the gases entering the system are to be continuously
monitored. The quality and safety requirements of public supply gases may differ from each
other not only by country, but within a country, by supply district. Next to the relative diversity,
an effort is clearly seen to establish universally acceptable gas quality requirements covering
the complete natural gas system in Europe. The issues of making quality requirements
uniform are dealt with by two European organisations, EASEEgas and Marcogaz.

Under Section (24) of Directive 2003/55/EC (Directive 2003/55/EC of the European


Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003 concerning common rules for the internal
market in natural gas and repealing Directive 98/30/EC) adopted by the European Parliament
and the Council, the member states of the European Union have to ensure that under the

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appropriate quality requirements biogas and other gases derived from biomass can be fed in
a non-discriminatory way into the gas grid. The Directive set as a condition for injection only
satisfying the technical and safety specification (actually not yet formulated) on gas quality.

With that, the EU actually delegated setting the conditions for biogas injection into the natural
gas system back to the level of national gas quality legislation of the individual countries.
Currently the Union has no other means of regulating gas quality, for in the individual
member states different regulations apply to the kinds and pressure of gases supplied and
the harmonisation process is still in its initial stage.

The same principle is followed by Directive 90/396/EEC of the European Council (Council
Directive 90/396/EEC of 29 June 1990 on the approximation of the laws of the Member
States to appliances burning gaseous fuels) as well, which makes the qualification process
for the distribution of appliances burning gaseous fuels conditional on the changes in gas
quality and grid pressure fluctuation typical of the individual countries. The directive
delegates detailed regulations (including the quality requirements of natural gases that can
be burned in the individual groups of appliances) to the member states. The most viable way
for the member states is to match their own requirements to the harmonised standards
widely used in the EU.

The issue of harmonised European natural gas quality is of less consequence concerning
biogas producing facilities, but in gas preparation the quality limit values of the natural gas
supplied by the natural gas transmission or distribution system operating in the vicinity of the
biogas producing facility have to be accommodated. The concrete conditions of biogas
injection are invariably connected to the quality parameters of the natural gas supplied in the
area in hand. The concrete requirements exert a strong influence on the actual production
costs of biogas upgraded to the given natural gas quality and of bio-methane.

Another important cost factor in the examination of biogas injection is the amount of
compressor work adjusted to the pressure of the given natural gas grid. In networks with
small or medium pressure biogas can – probably – be compressed and injected at
reasonable costs, however, injection into high-pressure networks certainly cannot or can only
in very special cases be done at a realistic level of costs. It is to be stressed that injection of
bio-methane into a natural gas system depends primarily on the quality of the natural gas
transported in the given grid, and the operating pressure of the natural gas pipeline is only a
secondary, but not negligible consideration.

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2. Glossary
Natural gas
A mixture of several hydrocarbons, containing mainly methane (a quantity of at least 0.70
molar fraction), but usually ethane (generally a quantity of at most 0.10 molar fraction),
propane and in substantially smaller quantities hydrocarbons with a higher carbon atom
number as well, and non-flammable gases, e.g. nitrogen and carbon-dioxide (their total
quantity generally varies between 0.01 and 0.20 molar fraction). Its calorific value varies
between 30-45 MJ/m3.

Replacement gas
A manufactured or mixed gas which can replace natural gas due to its properties. Sometimes
also called synthetic natural gas.

Manufactured gas, synthetic gas


A treated gas which may contain components that are not truly typical of natural gas. These
gases can basically be put into two groups:
ƒ synthetic or replacement gases the composition and properties of which are very similar
to those of genuine natural gases;
ƒ gases the properties of which, irrespective of whether in service being suitable for the
substitution or replacement of natural gases or not, are different from those of natural
gases (e.g. town gas, coke gas, LPG-air mixture).

Dry natural gas


A natural gas containing at most a quantity of 0.005 % molar fraction of water in the form of
water vapour. The water content of natural gas can be expressed by its water concentration
and water dew point.

Liquefied natural gas


A natural gas which after processing is liquefied for storage or transportation purposes.

Gas quality
A characteristic of natural gas determined by its composition (main, auxiliary and trace
components) and physical properties (calorific value, Wobbe index, density, compression
factor, relative density, dew point).

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Transmission pipeline network


A system of pipelines connected to each other transporting natural gas to local distribution
systems within one country, or cooperating with each other in several countries.

Local distribution network


Gas pipelines and connecting lines delivering natural gas directly to consumers.

Gas composition
The proportions or percentages of the main, auxiliary, trace and other components of natural
gas determined by analysis.

Standard reference condition


Reference condition of pressure, temperature and moisture (saturation condition): 101.325
kPa and 288.15 K, for real dry gas.

Density
The ratio of the mass and volume of a gas sample at a set pressure and temperature.

Relative density
The ratio of a gas of a random volume and the mass of dry air with the same reference
conditions as the gas, filling the same volume and of standard composition (according to ISO
6976: 1995).

Gross Calorific Value


The amount of heat released in the course of the perfect combustion of gas of a set quantity
in air provided that pressure p1 (at which the reaction is completed) is constant, and all the
products of combustion are cooled to the same temperature t1, i.e. the set temperature of the
materials in the reaction; all the products of the combustion are gaseous, with the exception
of water vapour produced in the process of combustion, which condensed at temperature t1
is liquid.

Net Calorific Value


The amount of heat released in the course of the perfect combustion of gas of a set quantity
in air provided that pressure p1 (at which the reaction is completed) is constant, and all the
products of combustion are cooled to the same temperature t1, i.e. the set temperature of the
materials in the reaction; all the products of the combustion are gaseous.

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Wobbe index
For a given reference condition, the ratio of the calorific value for a unit of volume and the
square root of relative density determined at identical measurement reference condition.

Water dew point


The temperature above which at the given pressure no water condensation occurs yet.

Hydrocarbon dew point


The temperature above which at the given pressure no hydrocarbon condensation occurs
yet.

Gas family
All the gases with identical main components.

Gas group
On the basis of similar combustion properties, a sub-set of gases classified in the same gas
family together with the border gases and testing pressures.

Reference gas
A gas supplied at a suitable nominal pressure with which appliances operate under nominal
conditions.

Odourisation
Adding odourising materials which are in general organic sulphur compounds of a strong
smell to the (generally odourless) natural gas.

Nominal pressure
The pressure at which appliances operate at the nominal parameters if they are used with
the appropriate reference gas.

Heat output
The amount of heat used in a unit of time, according to volume or mass flow, and calorific
value

Natural gas for public utility services


Natural gas, from pipelines or regional networks, suitable for household, communal and
industrial consumption.

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Pipeline quality natural gas


Public utility natural gas distributed through the national pipeline system.

Regional quality natural gas


Public utility natural gas for a demarcated consumer group, partially or wholly from local
sources.

Compression factor
The actual volume of an amount of gas at a set pressure and temperature divided by its
volume calculated from the physical gas law for identical conditions.

Molar composition
The ratio of the individual components against all the components given in molar fraction or
molar percentage. One mol of any chemical substance is the amount of material the mass of
which is equal to the amount of its relative molecular mass expressed in grams.

Interchangeability
A measure of to what extent the combustion properties of a gas are identical with those of
another gas. Two gases are said to be interchangeable if one of the gases can be replaced
with the other without causing a disturbance in the operation of gas-fuelled equipment or
appliances.

Methane-number
The methane-number, like the octane number of petrol, is an index of knocking characteristic
for gases used to fuel motors or engines.

Molar mass
The mass of a quantity of 1 kmol of a given gas component expressed in kg. The molar mass
of pure methane, ethane, propane and pure air is 16.043 kg/kmol, 30.070 kg/kmol, 44.097
kg/kmol, and 28.9626 kg/kmol, respectively.

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3. Role of natural gas in the primary energy


balance of Europe
The Europe of the first half of the 20th century was dominated by carbon-based town gas. A
change was represented by the end of the 1950s and beginning of the 1960s, when in
several countries in Europe natural gas stocks of significant quantities were explored.
Subsequently the development of pipeline infrastructure was started at a dramatic speed
within these countries. Currently in the member states of the European Union more than 80
million households use natural gas. Figure 1 shows the energy utilisation of the European
Union-25 in the past decades by energy sources. It can be clearly seen from the Figure that
natural gas became the second most important source of energy only from the mid-1990s
on.

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2007.

Figure 1 Changes in the utilization of energy sources in Europe, in million toe

Now taking from the Figure above the utilisation of natural gas of the EU-25 and putting
aside it the natural gas demand of the USA, the CIS countries and the Far East (Figure 2), it
can be seen that the most dynamic growth is shown in the natural gas consumption of
Europe and the Far East. In the past years a natural gas has come to the foreground to a
significant extent due to the strengthening requirements of the international climatic
agreements

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Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2007.

Figure 2 Changes in natural gas utilization in the world, in thousand million m3 a year

Compared to that, proved natural gas stocks have increased in a substantially smaller extent
than the growth rate of consumption. As regards stocks, the greatest increase was seen in
the countries of the Near and Far East, but the proved stocks of the CIS countries have also
doubled in the period (Figure 3).

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2007.

Figure 3 Proved natural gas stocks

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Europe’s natural gas demand is met from three major source areas:
ƒ the Netherlands and the North Sea,
ƒ Algeria, and
ƒ the CIS countries, primarily Russia.
Looking at the most important natural gas and LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) trade routes of
the world (Figure 4), it can be seen that the bulk of natural gas transported in gaseous form
comes to Europe.

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2007.

Figure 4 Main natural gas trade lines

The transportation routes that can be assigned to the above sources and the quantities
transported gives a good characterisation of the European market. The long-term tendencies
of natural gas trade are decisively determined by the geographical distribution of the proved
global natural gas stocks. In the supply of Europe the Russian, Near Eastern, African and
Western European (North Sea) natural gas stocks can be potentially counted with. Together
these represent 84 % of the known stock of the world. The joint share of the Russian and
Near Eastern stocks is of an outstanding size, amounting to 76 %. All this means that Europe
can (and will) rely on these natural gas sources for long decades to come. The order of
countries exporting the largest amounts currently to the countries in Europe is: CIS, the
Netherlands, Norway and Algeria. The countries in Western Europe import natural gas
almost without an exception from several countries, while the countries in Eastern Europe
import natural gas primarily from the CIS member states. The future gas supply of Europe

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has several alternatives. One solution presenting itself is increasing the gas imports from
Russia, which would further strengthen the already strong energy dependence of Europe on
the CIS countries. Another solution is connecting the transmission pipelines in the Near East
with those in Europe, which
development direction is under rapid

Renewables
Natural gas
Solid fuels
progress (preparation for the
All fuels

Nuclear

Other*
Oil construction of the Blue-Stream,
EU27 1816.1 320.0 669.8 445.4 257.4 120.8 2.8 South-Stream and NABUCCO
100.0% 17.6% 36.9% 24.5% 14.2% 6.6% 0.2%
EU25 1757.1 304.3 654.8 428.7 251.1 114.6 3.6 pipelines). The third alternative is
100.0% 17.3% 37.3% 24.4% 14.3% 6.5% 0.2%
represented by increasing the LNG
BE 59.0 5.4 24.6 14.1 12.3 1.9 0.6
BG 19.9 6.9 4.8 2.8 4.8 1.1 -0.6 import share relying on the African
CZ 44.8 20.1 9.7 7.7 6.4 1.8 -1.0
and Near Eastern sources.
DK 19.5 3.7 8.1 4.4 3.2 0.1
DE 345.5 82.8 123.4 80.9 42.1 16.7 -0.4
EE 5.6 3.2 1.1 0.8 0.6 -0.1
IE 15.1 2.7 8.4 3.5 0.4 0.2 The statistics figures of the European
GR 31.2 9.0 18.0 2.4 1.6 0.3 Commission for the year 2005 (Table
ES 143.5 20.7 69.5 29.8 14.8 8.7 -0.1
FR 275.6 14.4 92.1 41.0 116.5 16.8 -5.2 1) prove it clearly that in the primary
IT 186.8 16.5 83.2 70.7 12.1 4.3
CY 2.5 0.0 2.4 0.1 0.0
energy balance of the European
LV 4.7 0.1 1.4 1.4 1.7 0.2 Union (projected to domestic
LT 8.6 0.2 2.7 2.5 2.7 0.8 -0.3
LU 4.7 0.1 3.1 1.2 0.1 0.3 consumption) oil is in the first place
HU 27.9 3.1 7.4 12.1 3.6 1.2 0.6
(36.9 %), and natural gas is in the
MT 1.0 1.0
NL 81.0 8.2 32.0 35.3 1.0 2.8 1.6 second place (24.5 %). Among the
AT 34.1 4.0 14.3 8.2 7.0 0.6
PL 93.9 55.2 22.5 12.2 4.5 -0.5 member states of the Union only
PT 26.7 3.3 15.4 3.8 3.6 0.6
Denmark and the Netherlands
RO 39.1 8.8 10.2 13.9 1.4 5.0 -0.2
SI 7.3 1.5 2.6 0.9 1.5 0.8 0.0 possess sources that can cover their
SK 19.4 4.3 4.0 5.9 4.6 0.8 -0.2
FI 34.5 4.9 10.5 3.6 6.0 8.0 1.5
countries’ consumption. The Eurostat
SE 51.6 2.6 14.6 0.8 18.7 15.4 -0.6 figures (Figure 5) give a clear
UK 232.7 38.2 82.7 85.6 21.1 4.1 1.1
HR 8.9 0.7 4.5 2.4 0.9 0.4 representation of the role of natural
MK 2.7
TR 85.2 22.3 30.0 22.8 10.1 -0.1
gas in the primary energy balance of
IS 3.6 0.1 0.9 2.6 the countries in Europe in a unit of
NO 32.2 0.8 14.3 5.2 13.0 -1.0
CH 26.8 0.2 12.5 2.8 6.0 4.5 0.8 1000 toe. It can be seen that most
Source: http://ec.europa.eu/energy
natural gas is consumed in the United
* Electrical Energy and Industrial Wastes
Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands
and Italy.
Table 1 Gross Inland Consumption in 2005 (Mtoe)

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Source:
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu

Figure 5 Final energy consumption of natural gas (1000 toe)

Looking at the share of natural gas in the primary energy balance of the individual countries,
we can see that the largest shares are those of the Netherlands (43.6 %), Hungary (43.3 %)
and Italy (37.8 %) (Figure 6).

50%
43.6 %
43.3 %

45%
37.8 %

40%

35%
28.8 %

30%
23.4 %

25%
17.2 %

20%
13.0 %

15%
7.5 %

10%

5%

0%
NL HU IT UK RO SK LV LT LU AT BE DE IE DK ES CZ FR EE BG PT PL SI FI GR SE

Figure 6 Role of natural gas in gross inland consumption

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In evaluating the shares it also has to be taken into consideration that the Netherlands can
cover these demands from its own production, but Hungary and Italy show strong import
dependences. Greece and Sweden are in the most favourable position in this respect. For
the EU-25 this value was 24.8 % in 2005.

The Figure 7 shows natural gas supply security in the member states of the European Union
according to import dependence and the role played by natural gas in the primary energy
balance of the country in question. Countries with no sufficient own natural gas sources but
where natural gas represents a relatively small amount in the primary energy balance can be
put into the safe zone. The countries in the low-risk zone have even smaller natural gas
import dependence. Countries in the high-risk zone (IT, HU) have very little own sources and
natural gas is represented in their primary energy balance with a large share. Countries (DK,
NL) satisfying their needs in 100 % enjoy the best position.

150% Safe Zone


Natural Gas Import Dependency

EU25 average
insufficient own NG source
24,4%
low dependency on NG
SE PT FR BE
GR FI
100% SI EE CZ SK High-Risk Zone
LT
BG IE IT HU
insufficient own NG source
PL
high dependency on NG

50% Low-Risk Zone


EU25
insufficient own NG source
RO
low or medium
dependency on NG
UK
0%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
Independent Zone
sufficient own NG source
-50% high or medium
NL
dependency on NG

-100%
DK

-150%
The Role of Natural Gas in Total Primery Energy Supply

Figure 7 Natural gas import dependence against internal consumption

Figure 8 shows the consumption of natural gas by sector in the EU-25 in 2005. Meeting the
demand in the residential and communal sectors is the most substantial task, but in Germany
and Poland the industry also uses a considerable share. In the overall natural gas balance
the consumption share of gas-fuelled power plants is the most significant in Italy, but in the
United Kingdom, or among the countries of the consortium, in Lithuania and Greece natural

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gas-based electricity generation is present in a considerable share. In Hungary the


residential and communal sectors represent the most significant share, as in the Czech
Republic. Regarding the fluctuations in natural gas consumption, the countries where the
share of the residential sector is the smallest are in a favourable position. This sector shows
the highest temperature dependence in gas consumption on an annual level, for these
consumers typically use natural gas for heating purposes. In this respect Hungary is in the
most unfavourable position. Although household consumers represent a considerable share
in Germany, the Netherlands and Poland as well, there it does not present such a problem
due to the great number of industrial consumers usually only dependent on technology (and
thus of nearly constant quantity in time).

4 000
3460

3283

3 500

3 000

2 500
1653

2 000

1 500

1 000
562

535

354

500
113

108

0
UK DE IT FR NL ES BE HU PL CZ SK DK PT FI IE CH LT GR LV LU SI SE EE

Residental & Commercial Industry Power Plants Others

Source: www.eurogas.org

Figure 8 Inland sales of natural gas by sector in PJ, in 2005

Figure 9 shows the quantities of the domestic production of the individual countries as well
as the import natural gas quantities from the EU countries and from outside the EU according
to Eurogas figures for 2005 in a unit of PJ. Only the Netherlands and the United Kingdom
produce natural gas in an amount that would be sufficient for their inland consumption.
These countries are both importers and exporters. The highest amounts of import natural gas
are required by Germany and Italy due to their geographical conditions and to the amount of
natural gas sources available on the territories of the countries. Among the consortium

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countries Greece and Lithuania show the smallest dependence, which is first of all due to the
primary energy balance composition in these countries.

3 000

2 000

1 000

0
DE IT NL FR ES BE UK HU PL CZ AT SK DK PT FI IE CH LT GR LV LU SI SE EE

-1 000

-2 000

-3 000

Total Net Import from EU Total Net Import from non-EU Indigenous Production

Source: www.eurogas.org

Figure 9 Inland natural gas production and import of EU25 in PJ, in 2005

66 % of the total natural gas consumption of the EU-25 arrived from countries outside the
European Union in 2005. Production continuing to decrease and increasing gas demands will
only intensify dependence in the decades to come. According to Eurogas estimates, the 24.1
% share of natural gas (figure for 2005) will continue to increase to 30.1 % by 2030 among
the primary energy sources in the member states of the EU-27. Expressed in numbers, it
represents an increase from the current 450 mtoe to 625 mtoe (Figure 10). The changes in
import dependence implied in this increase in demand and depletion of stocks are shown in
Figure 11. The currently 45 % import dependence will probably reach nearly double this
value, i.e. 74 % by 2030 according to Eurogas calculations.

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Source: www.eurogas.org

Figure 10 Changes in natural gas demand and sources till 2030

Source: www.eurogas.org

Figure 11 EU27 import dependency on outside Europe

Table 2 shows the quantities of import necessary for meeting the natural gas consumption of
Europe between 2000 and 2005. From the Table it can be seen that 45.1 % of the total
import quantities was provided by Russia. The second place is taken by the quantities of
imports provided from Norwegian and North Sea sources with 24.1 %, followed by African
sources with a share of approx. 26 %. All this means that the natural gas supply of Europe
can be undisturbed while these sources are available continuously and in the appropriate
quantities.

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Share
Origin
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005(%)
Russia 4539 709 4421 515 4554 744 4895 252 4951 044 4952 879 45.1
Norway 1985 231 2136 379 2601 569 2699 473 2801 723 2642 633 24.1
Algeria 2203 075 1957 181 2132 477 2158 803 2042 137 2256 826 20.6
Nigeria 172 020 216 120 217 882 335 929 410 260 436 319 4.0
Libya 33 442 33 216 25 536 30 390 47 809 209 499 1.9
Egypt 202 419 1.8
Qatar 12 443 27 463 87 952 80 414 160 170 195 713 1.8
Oman 40 509 45 336 23 221 53 316 71 379 0.7
Other Origin 2 287 2 655 2 757 2 919 3 309 3 776 0.0
Total Imports 8948 207 8835 038 9668 253 10226 401 10469 768 10971 443 100
in Mio Cubic meters 236 725 233 731 255 774 270 540 276 978 290 250

* Gross calorific value of 1 cubic meter of Natural Gas can vary between 37.5 and 42.5 MJ
Source: http://ec.europa.eu/energy

Table 2 Gas imports of EU-27 in TJ

Figure 12 shows the changes expected in the natural gas imports of EU-30 until 2020 in a
unit of billion m3. It can be seen that for each import source an increase can be expected, but
after 2010 the rate of increase appears to slow down. A substantial share of the quantities
will continue to come from Russia as well as from the North Sea and Algeria.

Source: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/gas

Figure 12 Natural gas import potential to EU30, in milliard m3

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Bio-methane, as one of the possible alternatives of natural gas may be suitable for
decreasing this considerable import dependence, but it also has to be seen that the
possibilities are strongly limited. Although there is a viable practice of biogas injection into
natural gas networks, the number of projects implemented which can actually contribute to a
replacement of natural gas as an energy source is still small. Even assuming an optimistic
growth rate, the amount of natural gas that can be replaced by bio-methane will not be more
than a few per cents in the decades to come.

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4. Natural gas networks of Europe


Natural gas can be transported over large distances in two ways:
ƒ in gaseous state in large-diameter natural gas pipelines using compressor stations,
ƒ in liquid state in tankers; from the production gas fields the gas is transported in gaseous
state in pipelines to the onshore liquefaction station, where is it liquefied with the
appropriate process (cooling). Liquid gas is transported further in tankers to the receiving
station. At the receiving station the liquid gas is vaporised and introduced into the pipeline
system.

The European natural gas trade was started in the early 1960s, with production started in the
natural gas field in Groningen in the Netherlands. A pipeline system was built through
Belgium into France, the then Federal Republic of Germany, and through Switzerland to
Italy. In the second half of the 1960s the natural gas fields put into production in the North
Sea were connected by an underwater pipeline system with Great Britain and the continental
Europe. Soviet natural gas appeared only one decade later, in 1973, on the European
market, when the first gas pipeline system was built between the Ukraine and the Federal
Republic of Germany. From that point on pipelines were continued to be built (Figure 13):
ƒ TENP, connecting the Netherlands and Italy,
ƒ NORPIPE, transporting gas from the North Sea to Germany and Belgium,
ƒ INTERCONNECTOR, providing connection between the British Isles and the continent,
ƒ WAG, providing Russian natural gas for Austria,
ƒ TAG, transporting Russian natural gas through Austria to Italy and Slovenia,
ƒ TRANSMED, connecting Italy with Africa,
ƒ SOL, providing from the TAG pipeline for Slovenia and Croatia,
ƒ the German MEGAL pipeline, transporting Russian gas to France,
ƒ YAMAL pipeline, from the Yamal peninsula to Western Europe,
ƒ MAHGREB, transporting gas through Morocco and the Straits of Gibraltar to Spain.

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Source: www.inogate.org
Red line: existing pipeline systems
Red broken line: gas pipelines under study / construction / upgrading
Blue line: proposed priority axes for natural gas

Figure 13 European natural gas grids in 2005

4.1. Natural gas grids in the REDUBAR countries


Czech Republic
The Czech Republic has only a very few own natural gas sources, amounting only to 1 % of
its total annual natural gas consumption. The country’s annual natural gas consumption is
somewhat lower than 10 billion m3. Out of this, industrial consumers use approx. 3 billion m3
(34 % of total consumption), and households and public utilities use 2.4 billion m3 (27 % of
total consumption). 72 % of households use natural gas. The rest is used by power plants
and district heating plants. The Czech Republic satisfies its natural gas demand in 98 % by
import gas based on long-term contracts, 81 % of which is of Russian and 17 % of
Norwegian origin. Russian natural gas is injected into the gas transportation grid at Lanzhot
on the Czech-Slovakian border, and 64 % of that gas is transferred at Waidhaus to the
German Verbundnetz Gas AG and Wintershall AG for Germany. The Norwegian gas is

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injected in the North-Western part of the country also from Germany. As shown by the Figure
14, the country also serves transit purposes. The Czech Republic transports through the
transit line 40 billion m3 of Russian natural gas to Germany. In the country there are six
underground gas storage facilities operating, with a total peak-shaving capacity of more than
67 million m3 daily.

Source: www.winne.com

Figure 14 Natural gas pipeline system in the Czech Republic

Germany
It is characteristic of Germany’s natural gas stocks that they are to be found only close to the
North Sea in the Nieder-Sachsen area bordered by Hannover, Hamburg, Bremen, and
Münster, and in smaller quantities near Erfurt. They only represent less than 20 % of
Germany’s total natural gas consumption. The necessary imports come from Denmark, as
well as through Poland, the Czech Republic and Austria from Russia, and, from the
Netherlands, Belgium and the Norwegian areas of the North Sea. Looking at the natural gas
pipeline system (Figure 15) the major injection points can be clearly seen. From the North
Sea and Russian sources H quality natural gas with a high methane content arrives, while
the natural gas produced from Dutch and own sources can be put in the L quality group.

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Source: www.sel-erdgasleitung.de

Figure 15 Natural gas pipeline system in Germany

Greece
The gas transmission network of Greece is connected to those in the neighbouring countries
in four points. The most important of them is the connection point on the Northern border of
the country (Promachonas), where Russian natural gas is imported into the country. The
second entry point is Megara, where natural gas imported from Algeria, transported by ship
in liquefied state to the LNG terminal, is introduced into the system. The third entry point is
Kipoi, where natural gas transported through the Turkish pipeline system and coming from
Asian countries is injected into the national system. From the Figure 16 showing the Greek
natural gas system it can be seen that there is one major natural gas transportation route in
the Eastern part of the country, injection into which takes place at the points described
above. In the interest of the security of the natural gas supply of the country and the
propagation of natural gas as an energy source in a wider scope, new strategic objectives
have been formulated. They include increasing the capacity of the LNG terminal, installing
new compressor stations, modernising the gas transmission system, further expanding the
high-pressure natural gas transmission network and constructing an interconnection pipeline
between Italy and Greece across the Adriatic Sea.

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Source: www.desfa.gr

Figure 16 High pressure natural gas transmission network in Greece

Hungary
Natural gas plays an outstanding role in the primary energy balance of Hungary with its
share of 45 %. One fourth of that natural gas quantity comes from domestic production, with
the rest being imported. Natural gas of inland production enters the country at 12 points,
while import natural gas at 2 points. Five compressor stations provide the pressure increase
required for transportation, as shown by Figure 17. The dimensions of the national pipeline
system are DN 600 and DN 800, those of the system serving regional transmission purposes
are DN 200 and DN 400. Natural gas production is performed in two places in the country: in
Hajdúszoboszló and Algyő. The injection point of the pipeline transmission system bringing
the Russian imports is on the Ukrainian border at Beregdaróc, which pipeline goes as far as
the capital. The HAG pipeline transporting Russian import gas from Austria into the country
was installed in the mid 1990s. The system has an exit point on the Southern border of the
country, transporting Russian import natural gas to Yugoslavia. Hungary has four
underground gas storage facilities ensuring the balancing of the considerable seasonal

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consumption fluctuations resulting from the large number of household consumers.


Hungary’s annual natural gas consumption was 14.5 billion m3 in 2005.

Source: www.mol.hu

Figure 17 Natural gas pipeline system in Hungary

Italy
Approximately 80 % of Italy’s natural gas consumption comes from imports. The high-
pressure transmission system is 4300 km long (Figure 18). The natural gas necessary for
supplying the country arrives on 6 major routes: Russian natural gas arrives on the TAG
(Trans Austrian Gasleitung) pipelines, Dutch and Norwegian gas comes on the TENP (Trans
Europa Naturgas Pipeline) and Transitgas pipelines, respectively, while Greenstream, TTPC
(Trans Tunisian Pipeline Company) and TMPC (Transmediterranian Pipeline Company)
pipelines bring North-African natural gas. While the TAG pipeline may carry 81 million m3 of
natural gas daily from Russia, the capacity of the TENP pipeline is half that, 44 million m3
daily. The maximum capacity of the Transitgas pipeline is 61 million m3 daily. Greenstream is
an underwater pipeline carrying gas from the Western part of Libya to Italy. This pipeline
extends 520 km long under the Mediterranean. Its capacity is 24.4 million m3 daily. The
Transmed pipeline carries natural gas for a length of 2500 km from Tunisia to Sicily. (Source:
www.ensicoula.net)

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Source: www.eia.doe.gov

Figure 18 Natural gas pipeline system in Italy

Lithuania
In the Lithuanian gas sector, five natural gas supply companies and one vertically integrated
natural gas transmission and distribution company ‘Lietuvos dujos’ (‘Lithuanian Gas’)
operated in the country in 2000. Lithuania has no own resources of natural gas. Natural gas
is supplied to Lithuania via Byelorussia from Russia. The gas network of Lithuania is not
interconnected with the Western European gas networks; therefore, no other alternative
options of natural gas supply are available. The Lithuanian gas network is linked with the
Byelorussian, Latvian and Russian gas networks. Transit of natural gas to the Kaliningrad
Region is carried out via the territory of Lithuania. In 2000, natural gas transit made up 0.466
billion m3. Transit is not subject to any legal restrictions and is carried out on a contractual
basis. In 2000, the country’s natural gas consumption was 2.58 billion m3, which made up 27
% of the total energy consumption. (Source: http://www3.lrs.lt). Figure 19 show the map of
the Lithuanian natural gas system.

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Source: www.dujos.lt

Figure 19 Lithuanian natural gas transmission and distribution systems

The Netherlands
According to the role of natural gas in the primary energy balance, the Netherlands leads the
European countries, for it has own resources in substantial quantities. Regarding the quality
of natural gases, there are considerable differences depending on the production sites.

Gas fields were subsequently discovered and tapped in Drenthe, Overijssel, Friesland and in
dozens of other places under the North Sea. Although none of these other locations
exceeded the capacity of the Groningen fields, taken together they accounted for hundreds
of billions of cubic metres. Natural gas from Groningen’s Slochteren field is 81 % methane,
3.6 % higher gaseous hydrocarbons and 0.4 % hydrogen sulphide, plus traces of nitrogen
and carbon dioxide. (Source: www.gasterra.com)

Figure 20 shows the Dutch natural gas system. The gas from Groningen (quality L) and the
North Sea gases with their higher calorific values (quality H) reach the places of consumption
on nearly the same routes, but in different pipelines. Natural gas with lower calorific values is
supplied only in the regional system. The large number of injection points can also be seen,
partly from the mainland, partly from the North Sea gas fields. The Netherlands exports
typically Groningen gas to Germany and Belgium, but also some of the North Sea natural
gas with its higher calorific value is exported.

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Source: www.nvnederlandsegasunie.nl

Figure 20 Dutch natural gas transmission system and connected facilities

Poland
Natural gas accounted for hardly more than 10 % in the primary energy balance of Poland in
2005. The country’s natural gas consumption is fundamentally based on own sources, which
can be grouped together with the European natural gases in groups E and L. All the natural
gas fields of the country are typically in four territorial units. The most significant quantities of
natural gas come from the South-Eastern and Western border areas of the country. Smaller
natural gas fields can also be found in the Northern areas and the Baltic Sea. The natural
gas pipeline system of the country can be described by the fact that the major gas
transmission routes are connected to these sources as well as to the Russian import natural
gas sources arriving at Przemysl from the Ukraine. According to Figure 21, the route of the

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Yamal pipeline also crosses Poland, and thus can provide Russian natural gas for Western
Europe by avoiding Ukraine.

Source: www.geoland.pl

Figure 21 Natural gas pipeline system in Poland

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5. European-level framework conditions


for natural gas supply
The development of European level uniform technical framework conditions for natural gas
systems is an essential part of the cooperation of the natural gas networks covering the
continent. The technical requirements that can be related to gas quality can be put into two
main groups:
ƒ eliminating changes causing disturbance in gas quality for the safe and energy-efficient
operation of the end user appliances;
ƒ preventing the entry of materials hazardous to the pipeline gas system, primarily
corrosive materials.
The issue of the injection of flammable gases with a quality different from that of natural gas
into a natural gas system emerges again and again in some countries and at European level
as well, but it will always be natural gas and its typical quality parameters that remain in the
focal point. This is due to a number of things. On the one hand, a distribution system
developed in several decades dedicatedly for natural gas quality would not be able to
tolerate effects arising from the different quality of biogas from every respect. On the other,
the quantity of energy that can be realistically injected on a biogas basis represents only a
fraction of that of natural gas. Mention must also be made of natural gas consuming
appliances very sensitive to changes in quality, on the energetics efficiency and safe
operationability of which the quality of gas burned in them exerts a very significant influence.
In this respect therefore it is easy to understand the unwillingness of the natural gas industry
and the very high requirements it imposes on the biogases that can be injected. Approaching
the issue from another side, however, it is Europe’s fundamental and required interest to be
able to utilise the gases resulting from a renewable source in as wide a range as possible.
There have been visible European-level efforts made in this direction (e.g. Directive
2003/55/EC), but these still offer solutions only at principle-level for managing the problem,
the actual tasks are delegated to the member states. And the member states – primarily
according to their energetics systems and economic situations – support the transportation of
biogas in natural gas systems more (e.g. Austria), or less or very little (e.g. Hungary).

This chapter will present the uniform European natural gas quality specifications, the national
characteristics of the consortium countries as well as the supplementary safety criterion
system derived from the different qualities of biogases and natural gases. Although the
chapter expressly addresses the qualities of natural gases, they will be expounded from the
points of the parameters closest related to the application of biogases in NG networks.

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5.1. Description of gas quality


The quality of natural gases is determined by the proportion of the components present in the
natural gas. The components can be classified as main, auxiliary and trace components. The
main components of natural gas are hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, etc.) present in the
most significant proportion, and nitrogen and carbon-dioxide as frequent inert accompanying
components. Auxiliary components include hydrogen (typical in carbon- and hydrocarbon-
based town gases), oxygen, carbon-monoxide and helium. Trace components may be
compounds occurring in very small concentrations and undesirable from transportation and
utilisation aspects (e.g. hydrogen-sulphide, mercaptan-sulphur, dialkil-disulphide, carbonil-
sulphide and total sulphur).

Resulting from the composition of the gas, other physical properties can be formed, which
give an answer first of all to the safety and energetics questions related to the transportation
and utilisation of a gas with a particular composition. These properties are generally used by
all the standards on natural gas; the accurate definitions being included in the standard ISO
13686 Natural gas. Quality designation. The reference condition under the standard is
1013.25 mbar and 288.15 K (gas technology normal condition). The determination of the
various components and certain physical properties is built on other standards, with
references given. In its Appendix, the standard formulates further quality requirements
satisfying certain European practices at information level. In Germany the practical
regulations DVGW G 260 cover natural gases. In France gas quality is determined in two
government orders, the first specifying calorific value and the second the water and sulphur
content. In the United Kingdom legislation specifies the requirements on natural gas quality.

In order to establish whether two gas mixtures are interchangeable or not, i.e. can be burned
in the same appliance with the same adjustment parameters, the standard offers various
testing and prediction methods according to the practices of the different countries. The
existing approaches to interchangeability are essentially based on experiments and studies
on appliances with natural ventilation and atmospheric burners.

In establishing interchangeability the following have to be considered:


ƒ thermal load: gas flow though a nozzle, at constant pressure as function of the Wobbe
index;
ƒ backfiring: a tendency in the flame to withdraw towards the discharge orifice, and the
combustion takes place inside the burner;

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ƒ fracture of flame: the burning surface of the flame moves away from the discharge orifice,
where the combustion ceases and continues above it;
ƒ yellow flame top: imperfect combustion, where the excess hydrocarbon results in
unacceptable carbon-monoxide levels in the majority of cases. It may cause soot
deposition and continuous deterioration of the combustion.

There are two ways to investigate interchangeability:


ƒ methods based on the Wobbe index and
ƒ prediction methods based on gas composition.

The prediction methods may be as follows:


ƒ Wobbe index and extended Wobbe index method;
ƒ the A.G.A.-index method;
ƒ the British Gas hydrocarbon-equivalence method;
ƒ the Weaver-index method,
ƒ the German SRG method and
ƒ the French method for determining interchangeability of gases.

The processes using the European testing gases under EN 437 ensure continuous
interchangeability for appliances with appliance certificates also without performing these
tests.

The calculations of the individual physical parameters are included in the standard ISO 6976
Natural gas. Calculation of calorific values, density, relative density and Wobbe index from
composition. The measurement-calculation processes of the components are included in
separate standards, which are referred to in the above standards. The most important
physical properties of natural gases can be calculated as follows:

ƒ Gross or Net Calorific Value


The amount of heat released in the course of the perfect combustion of gas of a set
quantity in air provided that pressure p1 (at which the reaction is completed) is constant,
and all the products of combustion are cooled to the same temperature t1, i.e. the set
temperature of the materials in the reaction;
• if all the combustion products are of gaseous state, it is the lower calorific value,
• if all the combustion products are of gaseous state with the exception of water vapour
produced in the combustion process, which condensed at temperature t1 is of liquid
state, then it is the upper calorific value.

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Sign: HS (upper calorific value) and Hi (lower calorific value)


Unit of measurement: MJ/m3, kWh/m3 (1 kWh=3,6 MJ)
Calculation:
N
HS,i (t) = ∑ x j ⋅ H0j (t)
j=1

where
HS,i(t)- is the molar calorific value of the mixture for the ideal state at the given temperature
xj- molar fraction of the given component
Hj0- molar calorific value of the j-th component for the ideal state

ƒ Density
The ratio of the mass and volume of a gas sample at a set pressure and temperature.
Sign: ρ
Unit of measurement: kg/m3
Calculation:

 p  N 1
ρ(t,p) =   ⋅ ∑ x j ⋅ Mj ⋅
 R ⋅ T  j=1 Z gas (t, p)
where
p- pressure of the gas mixture (Pa)
R- molar gas constant (8134.510 J/kmolK)
T=t+273,15 K- absolute temperature
xj- molar fraction of the j-th component
Mj- molar mass of the j-th component (kg/kmol)

ƒ Relative density
The ratio of the densities of gas and dry air with standard composition and the same
pressure and temperature as the gas. The term ideal relative density is used when both
the gas and the air are considered to be media following the ideal gas law. The term
practical relative density is used when both the gas and the air are considered to be
practical media.
Sign: d
Unit of measurement: -
Calculation:
N Mj
d0 = ∑ x j ⋅ for an ideal gas
j=1 Mair
Z air (t, p)
d(p, t) = d0 ⋅ for a practical gas
Z gas (t, p)

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where
d0- relative density of the ideal gas
Mj- molar mass of the j-th component (kg/kmol)
Mair- molar mass of dry air of standard composition (kg/kmol)
Zair(t,p)- compression factor of dry air of standard composition
Zair(273.15 K; 101 325 Pa)=0.99941
Zair(288.15 K; 101 325 Pa)=0.99958
Zair(293.15 K; 101 325 Pa)=0.99963
Zgas(t,p)- compression factor of the gas

ƒ Wobbe index
For a given reference condition, the ratio of the gross calorific value for a unit of volume
and the square root of relative density determined at identical measurement reference
condition.
Sign: WS,i
Unit of measurement: MJ/m3, kWh/m3
Calculation:
HS,i (t)
WS,i =
d(t)
where
HS,i- calorific value of the gas mixture at given temperature
d- relative density of the gas mixture at the same reference temperature

ƒ Compression factor
The actual volume of an amount of gas at a set pressure and temperature divided by its
volume calculated from the physical gas law for identical conditions.
Sign: Z(p,T)
Unit of measurement: -
Calculation:
2
N 
Z(p, t) = 1 − ∑ x j ⋅ b j 
 j=1 
where
the summary is to be performed for all N components of the mixture
xj- molar fraction of the j-th component

b j - summary factor (from Table 2 of standard ISO 6976)

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Table 3 shows the molar masses, moral volumes, densities, gross and net calorific values,
and compressibility factors of natural gas for the gas technological normal condition (1013.25
mbar; 288.15 K). For non-flammable components the calorific values are obviously zero.

Gross Net Compres-


Molar Molar
Density Calorific Calorific sibility
mass volume
Component Formula Value Value factor
Mi Vi ρi Hs Hi Z
kg/kmol 3 3 3 3
m /kmol kg/m MJ/m MJ/m
Methane CH4 16.043 22.3600 0.7175 37.706 33.948 0.9980
Ethane C2H6 30.070 22.1875 1.3553 66.070 60.430 0.9915
Propane C3H8 44.097 21.9297 2.0108 93.940 86.420 0.9821
i-Butane C4H10 58.123 21.6159 2.6889 121.400 112.010 0.9680
n-Butane C4H10 58.123 21.5195 2.7009 121.790 112.400 0.9650
i-Pentane C5H12 72.150 21.0556 3.4266 149.360 138.090 0.9480
n-Pentane C5H12 72.150 20.8874 3.4542 149.660 138.380 0.9370
n-Hexane C6H14 86.177 20.5000 4.2038 177.550 164.400 0.9130
n-Heptane C6+ C7H16 100.204 20.5000 4.8880 205.420 190.390 0.8660
Carbon monoxide CO 28.010 22.4026 1.2503 11.960 11.960 0.9995
Hidrogen H2 2.016 22.4362 0.0899 12.102 10.223 1.0006
Hidrogen sulphide H2S 34.082 22.1875 1.5361 23.780 21.910 0.9900
Carbon dioxide CO2 44.010 22.2569 1.9774 0.000 0.000 0.9944
Nitrogen N2 28.014 22.4049 1.2503 0.000 0.000 0.9997
Oxigen O2 31.999 22.3914 1.4291 0.000 0.000 0.9992
Water vapour H2O 18.015 21.6290 0.8329 0.000 0.000 0.9450
Argon (noble gase Ar 39.948 22.3937 1.7839 0.000 0.000 0.9992
Air (dry) 28.963 22.4004 1.2930 0.000 0.000 0.9996
Source: N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie: Physical properties of natural gases; 1980

Table 3 Properties of main components of natural gases at 1013.25 mbar and 15 °C

5.2. Uniform European natural gas quality stipulations


Flammable gases are classified into three main families which can be further subdivided into
groups according to the Wobbe index. In the European natural gas networks basically two
types of natural gas are supplied, quality L and quality H. The source of quality L natural
gases is the Netherlands and some smaller districts, such as the Western part of Poland.
Gases in group L represent a mixture with a larger inert gas content, and thus of lower
calorific value and Wobbe index, while gases in group H represent a mixture rich in methane,
with a higher calorific value and Wobbe index. In addition, European standard EN 437
includes one more group, group E also belonging to the second gas family (natural gases).

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The grouping of flammable gases by Wobbe index according to this standard is shown by
Table 4.

Upper Wobbe index


Gas families and Reference condition: 15 °C and 1013.25 mbar
groups In MJ/m3
Minimum Maximum
First gas family
- a group 22.4 24.8
Second gas family 39.1 54.7
- H group 45.7 54.7
- L group 39.1 44.8
- E group 40.9 54.7
Third gas family 72.9 87.3
- B/P group 72.9 87.3
- P group 72.9 76.8
- B group 81.8 87.3

Table 4 Grouping of flammable gases according to EN 437

The Figure 22 in the specification DVGW G262 gives a characteristic representation of the
difference between the quality of natural gases (2. gas family) and that of renewable gases
from different sources. The permitted range of natural gases H, L and E (grey hexagon) has
been plotted as a function of relative density and Wobbe index, as well as of calorific value.
The location of biogases from different sources can also be distinctly seen, which is clearly
outside the above range. Sewage gases and agrarian biogases lie the closest to the quality
range of natural gases.

Broadly speaking, there is no regulation mandatory in Europe to define the quality of natural
gases transported in the networks. The quality requirements that can be supplied in the
networks are included in national regulations, which are adjusted to the specific natural gas
qualities of the given country, usually taking the general European principles as their basis
(e.g. EN 437). The standard EN 437 (Test gases. Test pressures. Appliance categories)
published by CEN does not define network gas quality specifically either, but the types of gas
together with their permissible limit values that can be safely applied in the gas appliances
distributed in Europe. In this way it formulates groups depending on specific gas
compositions, assigns them permissible parameters, but essentially only covers test gases
and does not cover defining the quality of gases supplied in the gas networks. The standard
does not actually stipulate limit values for the components but only fixes the permissible
ranges of the Wobbe indices of the gases in use in Europe. If two gases with different
compositions but identical Wobbe indices are burned in the same appliance, the same
amount of heat will be released in the appliance.

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Key to signs
the range of 2nd gas family according to DVGW G260
○ Natural gases □ Dump gases
Import gas: 51…55 HM Household waste
Pipeline gas: 56…61 GM Industrial waste

+ Sewage- and biogases X Gases from thermal processes


KA Communal sewage FbS Solid bed/ Oxygen
Gü Animal manure WbL Turbulent layer/ Air
Br Distillery waste WbS Turbulent layer/ Oxygen
TKV Animal wastes FIS Air flow/ Oxygen
Pyr Pyrolisys

Figure 22 The range of 2nd gas family according to DVGW G262

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The standard is applied is a number of European countries and is often regarded as the
basic requirement in elaborating the national stipulations. All this ensures that the natural gas
trade between the countries can go on smoothly. Figure 23 and Figure 24 show the ranges
of permitted Wobbe indices in some European countries for H gas and for L gas,
respectively. H gas is supplied in nearly all countries, but there are some exceptions, such as
Poland, where only L and E quality natural gas is supplied. (For some countries there are no
data available.) L gas is not supplied in every country, this quality is only typical of the
Netherlands, the countries importing gas from there and Poland. Both figures show the
ranges permitted by the standard EN 437 and by the German specification DVGW G260,
respectively. From the figures it can be seen that the gases supplied within each group
approach the limit values of at least one of the regulations, although a national stipulation
showing substantial divergence from them is no exception, e.g. in France.

59
3
MJ/m

58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
Hungary
Germany

Luxemburg
Czech Republic

Sweden
Italy

Switzerland
the United Kingdom

EN 437
Denmark
Austria

France

the Netherlands
Belgium

Finland

Greece

Ireland

Lithuania

Spain
Poland
Portugal

DVGW G 260

Source: SGC: Adding gas from biomass and BIOCOMM

Figure 23 Range of permitted Wobbe indices in some European countries, H gas

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47

46

45

44

43

42
3
MJ/m

41

40

39

38

37

36

35
Hungary

Switzerland
Czech Republic

Italy

Portugal
Luxemburg

Sweden
Belgium

Germany

the Netherlands
Austria

Finland

France

Greece

Ireland

Lithuania

Poland

Spain

the United Kingdom

EN 437
Denmark

DVGW G 260
Source: SGC: Adding gas from biomass and BIOCOMM

Figure 24 Range of permitted Wobbe indices in some European countries, L gas

In a case when the methane content of the prepared biogas reaches 84 %, its Wobbe index
reaches the minimum limit value of the standard EN 437 for group L. If the raw biogas is to
be prepared for H quality, it has to contain a minimum of 92 % methane in order to satisfy the
Wobbe index requirement of the standard EN 437.

The different national stipulations still regard the Wobbe index as the basic gas quality
parameter. The second place is taken by sulphur content as the most important property.
The permitted amount of all sulphur is maximised in a value of 150 mg/m3 in Belgium,
France, Italy and the Netherlands. Stricter requirements are in force in Hungary and Greece,
where the permitted total sulphur content is 100 mg/m3 and 80 mg/m3, respectively, in
Denmark, Sweden and the United Kingdom where it is 50 mg/m3, in Poland, where it is 38
mg/m3, and in Germany, where it is the strictest with 30 mg/m3. The permissible values of
some sulphur-containing compounds (hydrogen-sulphide, carbonil-sulphide and mercaptans)
are often specified separately. In addition to the sulphur content, generally there are
specifications on the oxygen and water vapour content as well. Depending on the
composition of the natural gas available in a country, the limit values of some halogen or
metallic components may also be defined. For the dry dust content there are often no

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numerical values determined, but the mixture is referred to as „technically free”, i.e. it cannot
contain impurities which might cause the slightest damage to the equipment used in the
service. In the specifications, some permissible physical parameters are also defined, such
as the water dew point and the hydrocarbon dew point of the gas with reference to a
particular testing pressure value. For certain gas qualities the maximum amounts of other
flammable components (CO, H2) may also be specified values.

Transportation, safety, application and environmental requirements for natural gases


supplied are connected to the auxiliary components. These limit values are close to identical
throughout Europe, and are shown in Table 5.

Component or quality Unit Limit Notes


Hydrogen % < 12
Carbon monoxide % <1 toxic
Oxygen (in dry
% <4
surroundings)
Oxygen (in wet
% < 0,5 corrosive
surroundings)
Water and other liquids condensate precipitation is not allowed
Sulphur and sulphur mg/m3
< 120 corrosive
containing components (S)
3
mg/m
Hydrogen sulphide <6
(S)
3
mg/m
Mercaptans <5
(S)
Solids, dust - no „technically free”
Alkali metals Μg/m3 no data
Aromatic components g/m3 < 10
Ammonia Mg/m3 <3
Hydrogen cyanide Mg/m3 < 150
Source: SGC: Adding gas from biomass

Table 5 Gas quality requirements in natural gas supply in general

Technical/technological development and specialist applications impose new quality


requirements on flammable gases, which have to given increased attention in the use of
biogases. These undesirable components are grouped in Table 6. Halogen compounds
generally indicate an acidic medium, exerting a detrimental effect on their environment both
in themselves and when burned. The methane number is important with respect to burning in
gas engines, for a difference between the methane numbers of the gas and the one required
by the engine exerts a considerable effect on the operation and life of the engine. Organic
silicon-containing components wear away the surfaces of pistons and cylinders to a
considerable extent.

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Component or quality Unit Limit


Chlorine containing components 3
mg/m < 50
(halogen)
Fluorine containing components
mg/m3 < 25
(halogen)
Methane number - 70…100
Siloxanes - not noticeable
Source: SGC: Adding gas from biomass and BIOCOMM

Table 6 Additional gas quality requirements

5.3. Gas quality harmonisation efforts


It is the general standpoint of European legislation that the system operator is responsible for
the network, its safe operation and with that, the quality of gas in the system. The gas quality
requirements and other specific parameters are defined by the national authorities, thus the
collaboration of the networks presents rather varied and differing requirements. In Europe the
Italian Marcogaz handles the questions set by gas companies relating to gas quality. In the
organisation there are 16 European states represented, and the work of the organisation is
performed in three different groups.
The working groups have to formulate recommendations for the following:
ƒ systems guaranteeing constant quality for biogas injection;
ƒ measurement methods for biogas injection;
ƒ biogas quality requirements for injection into natural gas networks.

Marcogaz prepared a recommendation by December 2006, which analysed the


specifications for natural gas of 9 European countries, as well as their limit values necessary
for biogas injection. Table 7 shows the parameters used for defining natural gas quality in the
countries studied as well as the countries of the REDUBAR consortium. It can be seen that
the Wobbe index and the gross calorific value, as well as the density and the dew point
values are the distinct descriptors of gas quality in the majority of countries. The limit values
referring to sulphur-containing components (total sulphur and hydrogen sulphide) are fixed in
each case. Depending on the qualities of gas supplied in the individual countries,
specifications may provide for the permissible values of dust, carbon-dioxide, nitrogen,
oxygen, or hydrogen.

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for allowing the transport in the natural gas grid
page 44 REDUBAR EIE/06/221/SI2.442663

COUNTRY
AT BE DE DK ES FR GR HU IT NL 4 PL UK
0
Reference temperature, C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 15 0 15 15
Gross Calorific Value X X X X X X X X X
Wobbe index X X X X X X X X X
Density/ Relative density X X X X X
Methane number
Hydrocarbon dew point X X X X X X X X
Water dew point X X X X X X X X X
Total X X X X X X X X X X
H2S X X X X X X X X X X X
Sulphur 2,3
Odorant X X X
Mercaptan X X X X
COS X
Comb. Potential
Other Lift index
1
indices ICF X
Shoot index X
CO X
Carbonyl metals
Impurities (liquids, solids) X X X X X X X
CO2 X X X X
N2 X X
O2 X X X X X X X
H2 X X
Aromatics
NH3 X X

Source: Marcogaz, 2006.


1) Other indexes relate to indexes used for interchangeability.
2) In every country except the Netherlands there is national legislation stating that gas shall be odorized. Thus if the table
shows an indication of odorant specification it means that an actual concentration of odorant is specified to fulfill this
obligation.
3) Odorants are not always sulphur based. In some countries, a sulphur free, acrylate based odorant is used.
4) In the Netherlands gas quality parameters are agreed between the gas supplier and its customers.

Table 7 Gas quality parameters currently specified in national legislation

If non-conventional (NC) gases are to be injected into a natural gas system, certain
European countries set specific requirements for the gases to be injected. It is important that
limit values should be set also for the components which are not present in natural gases but
can be found in flammable gases derived from anaerobic digestion, biomass gasification or
are coal-associated gases. Table 8 shows the permissible limit values collected by
Marcogaz.

It can be seen from the requirements that in addition to the most important components of
flammable gases (methane, carbon-dioxide, and hydrogen), the Wobbe index and the
permissible value of the Gross Calorific Value play significant roles as the most important
basic combustion engineering parameters. There are stringent requirements on sulphur,
hydrogen sulphide and the composition of mercaptans as well. Essentially the requirements
described so far, together with the hydrocarbon and water dew points as well as the
permissible values of solid impurities, refer to natural gases. Concerning biogases,

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halogenated compounds, silicon compounds, ammonia, benzene and mercury qualify as


important components, which components do not come under requirements following as
uniform principles as the typical components of natural gases.

COUNTRY
Switzerland
the
Austria France Germany Sweden
Netherlands unlimited injection limited injection

CH4 > 96 % > 85 % > 97 % > 96 % > 50 %

CO2 <3% < 2,5 % <6% <3% <4% <6%

CO <2%

Total S < 10 mg/m3 < 30 mg/m3 < 30 mg/m3 < 45 mg/m3 < 23 mg/m3 < 30 mg/m3 < 30 mg/m3

3
< 5 mg/m
H2S < 5 mg/m3 < 5 mg/m3 < 5 mg/m3 < 10 ppm < 5 mg/m3 < 5 mg/m3
(H2S+COS)

3 3 3
Mercaptans < 6 mg/m < 6 mg/m < 15 mg/m

O2 < 0,5 % < 0,01 % < 0,5 % < 0,5 % < 1,0 % < 0,5 % < 0,5 %

H2 <4% <6% <5% < 0,5 % <5% <5%

water dew point water dew point


H2O 0 0 ground temperature < 32 mg/m3 < 32 mg/m3 < 60 mg/m3 < 60 mg/m3
-8 C/40 bar < -5 C/MOP
Hydrocarbon < -2 0C/
0 0C/OP ground temperature
dew point (1-70 bar)

13,64-15,7 kWh/m3
(H gas)
Wobbe index 13,3-15,7 kWh/m3 3 10,5-15,7 kWh/m3 43,6-44,41 MJ/m3 45,5-48,5 MJ/m3 13,3-15,7 kWh/m3
12,01-13 kWh/m
(B gas)

pressure of pipeline
Pressure to be injected into

10,7-12,8 kWh/m3
Gross Calorific (H gas)
10,7-12,8 kWh/m3 31,5 MJ/m3 10,7-13,1 kWh/m3
Value 9,5-10,5 kWh/m3
(B gas)

relative density 0,55-0,65 0,555-0,700 0,55-0,70

gas to be odorized 3 gas to be odorized gas to be odorized 3 3


Odorant at consumer
15-40 mg THT/m
at consumer at consumer
15-25 mg THT/m 15-25 mg THT/m

Impurities "technically pure" "technically pure" "technically pure" "technically pure"

Halogenated 3 < 1 mg Cl/m3 < 10 3


0 mg/m < 25 mg Cl/m
compounds mg F/m3
3 3
Ammonia "technically pure" < 3 mg/Nm < 20 mg/Nm

Dust "technically pure" no dust no dust

Mercury < 1 µg/m3

Benzene

3
Siloxanes < 10 mg/m

Source: Marcogaz, 2006.


0
Note: AT ÖVGW G31 G33; FR n 2004-555 Gaz de France; DE DVGW G260 G262; NL draft proposal for Dutch Distr. Netw.
Comp.; SE SS15543 Standard; CH SVGW G13.

Table 8 Specific requirements for the injection of NCS gases into natural gas networks

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The problem arising out of the differing qualities of natural gases supplied in Europe was
highlighted already by Directive 98/30/EC on creating a unified internal natural gas market.
The experts stated that the establishment of the unified market, i.e. the cooperation of natural
gas supply systems might have a critical point in there being several gases with differing
qualities on the EU gas market. There are not only different gas groups, but within the groups
there are gas qualities varying over a wide range in Europe. The resulting problem of great
complexity is the issue of the interchangeability of gases.

The theory and practice of interchangeability have continuously developed in the past
decades, and currently there are numerous methods described above for testing the
interchangeability of gases. However, in one thing all the methods are similar: they regard
the Wobbe index as the most important criterion. The permissible ranges of the Wobbe
index, however, vary from country to country due to the different gas compositions. One
obvious method for unifying the gas qualities could be to produce a gas corresponding to a
gas with a lower calorific value from high quality natural gas, for example, by admixing
nitrogen. However, this is not viable on a scale of the European natural gas market. It is also
obvious that distributing gases with differing qualities in a single natural gas supply system
raises a host of technical and accounting problems, thus the non-harmonised gas quality
requirements represent a real barrier to the free trade of natural gas. The directive described
above was replaced by Directive 2003/55/EC, Common rules for the internal market in
natural gas in June. Section (24) of the Directive refers to the harmonisation of gas quality
requirements concerning the injection of non-natural-gas-quality flammable gases: „Member
States should ensure that, taking into account the necessary gas quality requirements,
biogas and gas from biomass or other types of gas are granted non-discriminatory access to
the gas system, provided such access is permanently compatible with the relevant technical
rules and safety standards. These rules and standards should ensure, that these gases can
technically and safely be injected into, and transported through the natural gas system and
should also address the chemical characteristic of these gases.”

In investigating the problem of gas specification, there was no dispute among the experts
about the need to specify requirements which, in keeping with the spirit of the European
directives and principles, can be implemented in practice, are restrictive to the least possible
extent, and are as flexible as possible. The stakeholders were also agreed that on account of
the wide range of gas qualities no uniform gas quality definition can be formulated for
Europe, however, it is expedient to formulate a gas specification suitable for common
application which should be built on H gas with its prevailing quantity in Europe.

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EASEEgas was founded by six members in Paris on 14 March 2002 with the objective to
harmonise and promote the establishment of a uniform European natural gas market and
facilitate cooperation between the parties. The activities of EASEEgas are carried out in 9
working committees, with Committee 8 responsible for gas quality harmonisation. The
objective of the committee is to elaborate uniform quality requirements which may render
natural gas trade (primarily across borders) easier.

The Executive Committee adopted the recommendation ‘Common Business Practice’ of CPB
2005-001-01 Gas Quality Harmonisation in 2005. By August 2003 the first report had been
completed including the parameters which the committee regarded as worth examining in
terms of the cooperation of the systems. They were as follows:
ƒ calorific value,
ƒ Wobbe index,
ƒ relative density,
ƒ hydrogen sulphide and carbonil sulphide,
ƒ total sulphur content,
ƒ mercaptans,
ƒ oxygen,
ƒ carbon dioxide,
ƒ water dew point,
ƒ hydrocarbon dew point,
ƒ impurities.
In justifying the choice of parameters, the committee emphasised that the individual
parameters recommended for investigation are interrelated, i.e. changes in the values of
certain parameters may induce modifications in other parameters.

These values were analysed and unified, as well as compared with qualities used in Europe.
The issue of the Wobbe index was crucial, for it may be hazardous if its value is not in
harmony with Directive 90/396/EEC on gas appliances. The amount of hydrogen in the gas
was also of importance, since it requires additional measures for safety. According to the
standpoint of the committee, the application of gas quality requirements to be adopted in the
future will be restricted to all the entry and cross-border points of the common natural gas
system of the European Union (including the LNG terminals) where the pipelines carry
natural gas (H quality) with a high calorific value.

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According to the then standpoint of EASEEgas, the quality requirements would be expedient
to introduce as of 1 October 2006, but the full-range application was certainly not feasible to
be implemented before 1 October 2010. The permissible values of the different parameters
and the possible implementation deadlines are shown in Table 9. Since the Wobbe index,
relative density and calorific value are directly related to each other, only the Wobbe index
and relative density are considered to be gas quality parameters. These values are in
harmony with the safety requirements of the gas appliances directive (GAD) and assume that
the hydrogen content of the natural gas is low. Consequently, the application of these
specifications might present a safety risk in appliances which do no meet the specifications
of the gas appliances directive. The members of the working committee came soonest to a
common agreement concerning the maxima of the hydrogen sulphide, total sulphur,
mercaptan and carbon-dioxide contents as well as the acceptable upper values of the water
and hydrocarbon dew points. The specifications on impurities remained in the negotiation
stage.

Recommended
Parameter Mark Unit Min. Max. implementation
date
Gross (Superior) WI kWh/m3 13.60 15.81
1/10/2010
Wobbe Index (MJ/m3) (48.96) (56.92)
Relative density D m3/m3 0.555 0.700 1/10/2010
Total Sulphur Total S mg/m3 - 30 1/10/2006
Hydrogen sulphide + H2S
mg/m3 - 5 1/10/2006
Carbonyl sulphide COS (as S)
Mercaptans RSH (as S) mg/m3 - 6 1/10/2006
Oxygen O2 mol% - [0.01]1) 1/10/2010
Carbon dioxide CO2 mol% - 2.5 1/10/2006
o 2)
Water dew point H2O DP C at 70 bar (a) - -8
Hydrocarbon dew HC DP o
C at 1-70 bar (a) - -2 1/10/2006
point
1)
EASEE gas have organized an oxygen measurement survey, which by end of 2005 will examine the maximum feasible limit
equal to or a tan alternative specified value below 0.01 mol%.
2)
At certain cross border points, less stringent values are used than defined in this CPB. For these cross border points, these
values can be maintained and the relevant producers, shippers and transporters should examine together how the CPB value
st
can be met in the long run. At all other cross border points, this value can be adopted by 1 October.

Table 9 Parameter ranges and values according to CPB 2005-001/01

The units of measurement of the gas parameters included in the recommendation and the
reference condition indicators are uniform. The unit of measurement of energy is kWh, the
combustion reference temperature is 25 °C, the unit of measurement of gas volume is m3,
the normal condition indicators are 0 °C and 1.01325 bar absolute pressure. The harmonised
standard ISO 13443 can be used for conversion.

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The application of the above gas quality requirements should be implemented, according to
the standpoint of the committee, at all the entry points of the common natural gas system of
the European Union (including the LNG terminals) and cross-border points where there is
natural gas with a high calorific value carried in the pipeline. The committee did not wish to
address gas quality issues arising in the course of natural gas production, or the issue of
production, transmission and distribution natural gas systems operating in an isolated way
and cooperating only with each other.

The introduction of the recommendations of the CBP may present various problems in
several countries and may necessitate further measures such as:
ƒ modification of national legislation;
ƒ overhaul of a huge number of household and industrial gas appliances;
ƒ changing the maintenance practice and periods of the appliances;
ƒ changing the gas composition as required (e.g. by mixing).

5.4. National characteristics


in the natural gas quality requirements
Czech Republic
In the Czech Republic there is only natural gas H transported, distributed and consumed.
There are four main regulation specifications referring to the gas quality requirements of
natural gas transportation and distribution (Table 10, Table 11, Table 12, Table 13). The
values in the TPG specifications are very similar to the parameters in the German
specifications DVGW G260, which determine the minimum requirements for the gases that
can be supplied to the end users. In addition to the characteristic values (Wobbe index,
calorific value, relative density, minimum methane content), the permissible values of other
gas components are detailed such as the highest permissible values of higher hydrocarbons,
and N2, CO2, O2, CO, H2, S, CS, RSH. The RWE Transgas Net also has its own
specifications on the quality of the gases that can be transported in the transmission system.
These specifications include the permissible water and hydrocarbon dew points, with the
other limit values being very similar to those in the TPG specifications. In addition, there are
two more specifications in force, which include requirements on the gas qualities permissible
in gas distribution networks. The two sets of specifications show only minimum differences
from each other in some of the limit values, and are in good agreement with the previous two
sets. The most important factors, the Wobbe index and the relative density are identical in all
the four specifications, with only the RWE specifications applying a slightly different limit
value for the Wobbe index.

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for allowing the transport in the natural gas grid
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REDUBAR WP06 D17 EIE-06-221


Czech Republic
Quality designation of natural gases (2nd gas family)
National regulation or norm concenrning the necessary Year
natural gas quality in transport and public supply Number of issue Title
in language of the country: TPG G 902 02 2005 Jakost a zkoušení plynných paliv s vysokým obsahem metanu

in English: TPG G 902 02 2005 Quality and testing of gaseous fuels with high methane content
Reference conditions: 15 0C 101 325 Pa
The sign of gas group (e.g. H, L, E, S...): H
Mark Unit min. max. min. max. min. max. Reamarks
(I) Combustion parameters of natural gases
(I.1) Wobbe-number calcualted from gross calorific value WS MJ/m3 45.70 52.20 1 kWh/m3=3,6 MJ/m 3
(I.2) nominal Wobbe-number WS MJ/m3
(I.3) effectively range of Wobbe-number in natural gas supply* WS MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.4) gross calorific value HS MJ/m3 33.80 42.50
(I.5) net calorific value Hi MJ/m3 30.40 38.40
(I.6) effectively range of net calorific value in natural gas supply* Hi MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.7) relative density d - 0.56 0.70
(I.8) nominal connection pressure of household gas appliances p mbar
(I.9) other
(II) Permitted values of main componets of natural gases
(II.1) methane content (CH4) mol% 85
(II.2) ethane content (C2H6) mol% 7
(II.3) higher hydrocarbons content in all (C3…C6) mol% 6
(II.4) carbon dioxide content (CO2) mol% 5
(II.5) nitrogen content (N) mol% 10
(II.6) inert gas components in all mol% 10
(II.7) oxygen content in damp atmosphere (O2) mol% 0.50
(II.8) oxygen content in dry atmosphere (O2) mol%
(II.9) carbon monoxide content (CO) mol% 3.00
(II.10) hydrogen content (H2) mol% 2.00
3
(II.11) sulphur and sulphur containing componets (S) mg/m 30
(II.12) hydrogen sulphide (H2S) + carbonil sulphide (CS) mg/m3 6
(II.13) mercaptans (RSH) mg/m3 5
(II.14) other
(III) Permitted values of subsidiary componets of natural gases
(III.1) solids, dust mg/m3
(III.2) ammonia (NH3) mg/m3
(III.3) chlorine (Cl) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.4) fluorine (F) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.5) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) mg/m3
(III.6) aromatic componets (benzol, toluol, xylol - BTX) g/m3
(III.7) mercury (Hg) µg/m3
(III.8) alkali metals µg/m3
(III.9) siloxanes -
(III.10) other
(IV) Physical properties, others
water dew point (H2O DP) at XX bar 0
(IV.1) C * * max. temperature of the earth
0
(IV.2) hydrocarbon dew point (HC DP) at XX bar C * * max. temperature of the earth
(IV.3) steam content g/m3
0
(IV.4) gas temperatur in public utility services C
(IV.5) methane number MZ -
(IV.6) other1
(IV.7) other2
(IV.8) other3

Table 10 Quality designation of natural gases in the Czech Republic (Part1)

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REDUBAR WP06 D17 EIE-06-221


Czech Republic
Quality designation of natural gases (2nd gas family)
National regulation or norm concenrning the necessary Year
natural gas quality in transport and public supply Number of issue Title
in language of the country: None 2007 Řád provozovatele přepravní soustavy pro tranzitní přepravu přes území ČR
Set of rules valid for the runner of transmission pipeline grid through the Czech
in English: None 2007
republic (RWE Transgas Net)
Reference conditions: 20 0C 101 325 Pa
The sign of gas group (e.g. H, L, E, S...): H
Mark Unit min. max. min. max. min. max. Reamarks
(I) Combustion parameters of natural gases
(I.1) Wobbe-number calcualted from gross calorific value WS MJ/m3 45.00 51.10 1 kWh/m3=3,6 MJ/m 3
(I.2) nominal Wobbe-number WS MJ/m3
(I.3) effectively range of Wobbe-number in natural gas supply* WS MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.4) gross calorific value HS MJ/m3
(I.5) net calorific value Hi MJ/m3
(I.6) effectively range of net calorific value in natural gas supply* Hi MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.7) relative density d - 0.56 0.70
(I.8) nominal connection pressure of household gas appliances p mbar
(I.9) other
(II) Permitted values of main componets of natural gases
(II.1) methane content (CH4) mol% 85
(II.2) ethane content (C2H6) mol% 7
(II.3) higher hydrocarbons content in all (C3…C6) mol% 6
(II.4) carbon dioxide content (CO2) mol% 3
(II.5) nitrogen content (N) mol% 5
(II.6) inert gas components in all mol%
(II.7) oxygen content in damp atmosphere (O2) mol% 0.02
(II.8) oxygen content in dry atmosphere (O2) mol%
(II.9) carbon monoxide content (CO) mol%
(II.10) hydrogen content (H2) mol%
(II.11) sulphur and sulphur containing componets (S) mg/m3 30
(II.12) hydrogen sulphide (H2S) + carbonil sulphide (CS) mg/m3 6
(II.13) mercaptans (RSH) mg/m3 5
(II.14) other
(III) Permitted values of subsidiary componets of natural gases
(III.1) solids, dust mg/m3
(III.2) ammonia (NH3) mg/m3
(III.3) chlorine (Cl) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.4) fluorine (F) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.5) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) mg/m3
(III.6) aromatic componets (benzol, toluol, xylol - BTX) g/m3
(III.7) mercury (Hg) µg/m3
(III.8) alkali metals µg/m3
(III.9) siloxanes -
(III.10) other
(IV) Physical properties, others
water dew point (H2O DP) at 40 bar 0
(IV.1) C -7
0
(IV.2) hydrocarbon dew point (HC DP) at XX bar C 0* * for whole range of operating pressure

(IV.3) steam content g/m3


0
(IV.4) gas temperatur in public utility services C
(IV.5) methane number MZ -
(IV.6) other1
(IV.7) other2
(IV.8) other3

Table 11 Quality designation of natural gases in the Czech Republic (Part2)

D17 A register of all gas regulations and norms concerning the necessary gas quality
for allowing the transport in the natural gas grid
page 52 REDUBAR EIE/06/221/SI2.442663

REDUBAR WP06 D17 EIE-06-221


Czech Republic
Quality designation of natural gases (2nd gas family)
National regulation or norm concenrning the necessary Year
natural gas quality in transport and public supply Number of issue Title
in language of the country: None 2007 Řád provozovatele distribuční soustavy
Set of rules valid for the runner of distribution pipeline grid
in English: None 2007
(RWE Distribution Operator)
0
Reference conditions: 15 C 101 325 Pa
The sign of gas group (e.g. H, L, E, S...): H
Mark Unit min. max. min. max. min. max. Reamarks
(I) Combustion parameters of natural gases
3
(I.1) Wobbe-number calcualted from gross calorific value WS MJ/m 45.70 52.20 1 kWh/m =3,6 MJ/m 3
3

(I.2) nominal Wobbe-number WS MJ/m3


(I.3) effectively range of Wobbe-number in natural gas supply* WS MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.4) gross calorific value HS MJ/m3
(I.5) net calorific value Hi MJ/m3
(I.6) effectively range of net calorific value in natural gas supply* Hi MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.7) relative density d - 0.56 0.70
(I.8) nominal connection pressure of household gas appliances p mbar
(I.9) other
(II) Permitted values of main componets of natural gases
(II.1) methane content (CH4) mol% 85
(II.2) ethane content (C2H6) mol% 7
(II.3) higher hydrocarbons content in all (C3…C6) mol% 12
(II.4) carbon dioxide content (CO2) mol% 5
(II.5) nitrogen content (N) mol% 10
(II.6) inert gas components in all mol% 10
(II.7) oxygen content in damp atmosphere (O2) mol% 0.50
(II.8) oxygen content in dry atmosphere (O2) mol%
(II.9) carbon monoxide content (CO) mol% 3.00
(II.10) hydrogen content (H2) mol% 2.00
(II.11) sulphur and sulphur containing componets (S) mg/m3 100
(II.12) hydrogen sulphide (H2S) + carbonil sulphide (CS) mg/m3 7
(II.13) mercaptans (RSH) mg/m3 5
(II.14) other
(III) Permitted values of subsidiary componets of natural gases
(III.1) solids, dust mg/m3
(III.2) ammonia (NH3) mg/m3
(III.3) chlorine (Cl) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.4) fluorine (F) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.5) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) mg/m3
(III.6) aromatic componets (benzol, toluol, xylol - BTX) g/m3
(III.7) mercury (Hg) µg/m3
(III.8) alkali metals µg/m3
(III.9) siloxanes -
(III.10) other
(IV) Physical properties, others
water dew point (H2O DP) at XX bar 0
(IV.1) C * * max. temperature of earth
0
(IV.2) hydrocarbon dew point (HC DP) at XX bar C
(IV.3) steam content g/m3
0
(IV.4) gas temperatur in public utility services C
(IV.5) methane number MZ -
(IV.6) other1
(IV.7) other2
(IV.8) other3

Table 12 Quality designation of natural gases in the Czech Republic (Part3)

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Czech Republic
Quality designation of natural gases (2nd gas family)
National regulation or norm concenrning the necessary Year
natural gas quality in transport and public supply Number of issue Title
in language of the country: 2007 Řád provozovatele distribuční soustavy
Set of rules valid for the runner of distribution pipeline grid
in English: 2007
(EOn Distribution Operator)
Reference conditions: 15 0C 101 325 Pa
The sign of gas group (e.g. H, L, E, S...): H
Mark Unit min. max. min. max. min. max. Reamarks
(I) Combustion parameters of natural gases
(I.1) Wobbe-number calcualted from gross calorific value WS MJ/m3 45.70 52.20 1 kWh/m3=3,6 MJ/m 3
(I.2) nominal Wobbe-number WS MJ/m3
(I.3) effectively range of Wobbe-number in natural gas supply* WS MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.4) gross calorific value HS MJ/m3 33.80 42.50
(I.5) net calorific value Hi MJ/m3 30.40 38.40
(I.6) effectively range of net calorific value in natural gas supply* Hi MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.7) relative density d - 0.56 0.70
(I.8) nominal connection pressure of household gas appliances p mbar
(I.9) other
(II) Permitted values of main componets of natural gases
(II.1) methane content (CH4) mol% 85
(II.2) ethane content (C2H6) mol% 7
(II.3) higher hydrocarbons content in all (C3…C6) mol% 6
(II.4) carbon dioxide content (CO2) mol% 5
(II.5) nitrogen content (N) mol% 10
(II.6) inert gas components in all mol% 10
(II.7) oxygen content in damp atmosphere (O2) mol% 0.50
(II.8) oxygen content in dry atmosphere (O2) mol%
(II.9) carbon monoxide content (CO) mol% 3.00
(II.10) hydrogen content (H2) mol% 2.00
3
(II.11) sulphur and sulphur containing componets (S) mg/m 30
(II.12) hydrogen sulphide (H2S) + carbonil sulphide (CS) mg/m3 6+5
(II.13) mercaptans (RSH) mg/m3 5
(II.14) other
(III) Permitted values of subsidiary componets of natural gases
(III.1) solids, dust mg/m3
(III.2) ammonia (NH3) mg/m3
(III.3) chlorine (Cl) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.4) fluorine (F) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.5) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) mg/m3
(III.6) aromatic componets (benzol, toluol, xylol - BTX) g/m3
(III.7) mercury (Hg) µg/m3
(III.8) alkali metals µg/m3
(III.9) siloxanes -
(III.10) other
(IV) Physical properties, others
water dew point (H2O DP) at XX bar 0
(IV.1) C * * max. temperature of earth
0
(IV.2) hydrocarbon dew point (HC DP) at XX bar C * * max. temperature of earth
(IV.3) steam content g/m3
0
(IV.4) gas temperatur in public utility services C
(IV.5) methane number MZ -
(IV.6) other1
(IV.7) other2
(IV.8) other3

Table 13 Quality designation of natural gases in the Czech Republic (Part4)

Germany
In Germany specifications DVGW G260 refer to the quality of natural gases supplied in
networks. In the specifications the permissible parameters for the flammable gases
belonging to the first, second and third gas families are determined separately. Table 14
contains the specifications for natural gases, i.e. H and L gases of the second gas family.
The limit values permitted for the Wobbe index determine ranges slightly different from the
values in the standard EN 437. Among the main components of natural gas, the
specifications refer to oxygen, sulphur content and dust content. The reference temperature
in the specifications is 0 °C. The gas is supplied between 18 and 24 mbar, at a nominal
pressure of 20 mbar. The specifications determine a Wobbe index supply range slightly wider
than the EASEEgas recommendation, but agree with it in terms of relative density and

D17 A register of all gas regulations and norms concerning the necessary gas quality
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sulphur content. As for oxygen, the difference between the permissible values of the two
specifications is approximately fivefold.

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Germany
Quality designation of natural gases (2nd gas family)
National regulation or norm concenrning the necessary Year
natural gas quality in transport and public supply Number of issue Title
in language of the country: G 260 2000 Gasbeschaffenheit

in English: G 260 2000 Gas quality


Reference conditions: 0 0C 101 325 Pa
The sign of gas group (e.g. H, L, E, S...): L H
Mark Unit min. max. min. max. min. max. Reamarks
(I) Combustion parameters of natural gases
(I.1) Wobbe-number calcualted from gross calorific value WS MJ/m3 37.80 46.80 46.10 56.50 1 kWh/m3=3,6 MJ/m 3
(I.2) nominal Wobbe-number WS MJ/m3 44.60 54.00
(I.3) effectively range of Wobbe-number in natural gas supply* WS MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.4) gross calorific value HS MJ/m3 30.20 47.20
(I.5) net calorific value Hi MJ/m3
(I.6) effectively range of net calorific value in natural gas supply* Hi MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.7) relative density d - 0.55 0.75
(I.8) nominal connection pressure of household gas appliances p mbar 20 20 18 to 24 mbar
(I.9) other
(II) Permitted values of main componets of natural gases
(II.1) methane content (CH4) mol%
(II.2) ethane content (C2H6) mol%
(II.3) higher hydrocarbons content in all (C3…C6) mol%
(II.4) carbon dioxide content (CO2) mol%
(II.5) nitrogen content (N) mol%
(II.6) inert gas components in all mol%
(II.7) oxygen content in damp atmosphere (O2) mol% 0.50 0.50
(II.8) oxygen content in dry atmosphere (O2) mol% 3.00 3.00
(II.9) carbon monoxide content (CO) mol%
(II.10) hydrogen content (H2) mol%
(II.11) sulphur and sulphur containing componets (S) mg/m3 30 30
(II.12) hydrogen sulphide (H2S) + carbonil sulphide (CS) mg/m3 5 5
(II.13) mercaptans (RSH) mg/m3 6 6
(II.14) other
(III) Permitted values of subsidiary componets of natural gases
(III.1) solids, dust mg/m3 technical free
(III.2) ammonia (NH3) mg/m3
(III.3) chlorine (Cl) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.4) fluorine (F) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.5) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) mg/m3
(III.6) aromatic componets (benzol, toluol, xylol - BTX) g/m3
(III.7) mercury (Hg) µg/m3
(III.8) alkali metals µg/m3
(III.9) siloxanes -
(III.10) other
(IV) Physical properties, others
water dew point (H2O DP) at XX bar 0
(IV.1) C
0
(IV.2) hydrocarbon dew point (HC DP) at XX bar C
(IV.3) steam content g/m3
0
(IV.4) gas temperatur in public utility services C
(IV.5) methane number MZ -
(IV.6) other1
(IV.7) other2
(IV.8) other3

Table 14 Quality designation of natural gases in Germany

Greece
Under the specifications valid in Greece only quality 2H quality natural gas is supplied (Table
15). Compared with the standard EN 437, the supply range of the Wobbe index is modified
upwards in terms of both the upper and the lower values. The minimum methane content of
the gas is 75 %, and the gas supplied is permitted to contain at most 3 % carbon-dioxide and
6 % nitrogen. The total sulphur content of the gas is not allowed to exceed 80 mg per m3.
The water dew point is maximised in 5 °C, and the hydrocarbon dew point in 3 °C at an
excess pressure of 80 bar. The reference temperature, as in the DVGW specifications, is 0

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°C. Comparing the values with the EASEEgas recommendations, the supply range of the
Wobbe index covers a wider band, for sulphur content the difference is two and half-fold, and
the water and hydrocarbon dew points also show much higher permissible values.

REDUBAR WP06 D17 EIE-06-221


Greece
Quality designation of natural gases (2nd gas family)
National regulation or norm concenrning the necessary Year
natural gas quality in transport and public supply Number of issue Title
in language of the country: D1/1227 2007
Greek Government Gazette Vol. II, No. 125/5.2.07 Definition of the procedure for the
in English: D1/1227 2007 conclusion, content and terms of contracts for right of access to and the use of the
National Natural Gas System
Reference conditions: 0 0C 101 325 Pa
The sign of gas group (e.g. H, L, E, S...): 2H
Mark Unit min. max. min. max. min. max. Reamarks
(I) Combustion parameters of natural gases
3
(I.1) Wobbe-number calcualted from gross calorific value WS MJ/m 46.80 58.46 1 kWh/m =3,6 MJ/m 3
3

(I.2) nominal Wobbe-number WS MJ/m3


(I.3) effectively range of Wobbe-number in natural gas supply* WS MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.4) gross calorific value HS MJ/m3 36.45 48.97
(I.5) net calorific value Hi MJ/m3
(I.6) effectively range of net calorific value in natural gas supply* Hi MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.7) relative density d - 0.56 0.71
(I.8) nominal connection pressure of household gas appliances p mbar
(I.9) other
(II) Permitted values of main componets of natural gases
(II.1) methane content (CH4) mol% 75
(II.2) ethane content (C2H6) mol%
(II.3) higher hydrocarbons content in all (C3…C6) mol%
(II.4) carbon dioxide content (CO2) mol% 3
(II.5) nitrogen content (N) mol% 6
(II.6) inert gas components in all mol%
(II.7) oxygen content in damp atmosphere (O2) mol% 0.20
(II.8) oxygen content in dry atmosphere (O2) mol%
(II.9) carbon monoxide content (CO) mol%
(II.10) hydrogen content (H2) mol%
(II.11) sulphur and sulphur containing componets (S) mg/m3
(II.12) hydrogen sulphide (H2S) + carbonil sulphide (CS) mg/m3 5
(II.13) mercaptans (RSH) mg/m3
(II.14) total Sulphur mg/m3 80
(III) Permitted values of subsidiary componets of natural gases
(III.1) solids, dust mg/m3
(III.2) ammonia (NH3) mg/m3
(III.3) chlorine (Cl) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.4) fluorine (F) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.5) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) mg/m3
(III.6) aromatic componets (benzol, toluol, xylol - BTX) g/m3
(III.7) mercury (Hg) µg/m3
(III.8) alkali metals µg/m3
(III.9) siloxanes -
(III.10) other
(IV) Physical properties, others
water dew point (H2O DP) at 80 barg 0
(IV.1) C 5
0
(IV.2) hydrocarbon dew point (HC DP) at 80 barg C 3
(IV.3) steam content g/m3
0
(IV.4) gas temperatur in public utility services C
(IV.5) methane number MZ -
(IV.6) other1
(IV.7) other2
(IV.8) other3

Table 15 Quality designation of natural gases in Greece

Hungary
In Hungary standard MSZ 1648: 2000 determines the system of requirements of gases in
public supply (Table 16). Supply of natural gases H and S is permitted in the country. Natural
gas S is a national characteristic and is supplied in only a small area (< 5 %) of the country
and is characterised by considerable carbon-dioxide content (14-17 %). The Wobbe index of
natural gas 2H is identical with the recommendation in EN 437, the reference temperature is

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15 °C. The nominal connection pressure of the gas is 25 mbar at gas appliances. The
specifications maximise the oxygen content in 0.2 mol%, which is 20 times the EASEEgas
recommendation. The sulphur content is also higher, 100 mg instead of 30 mg per m3.
Differing from the other specifications presented, the water vapour content is limited to 0.17
g/m3, while the hydrocarbon dew point is given with a value less stringent than the
EASEEgas recommendation.

REDUBAR WP06 D17 EIE-06-221


Hungary
Quality designation of natural gases (2nd gas family)
National regulation or norm concenrning the necessary Year
natural gas quality in transport and public supply Number of issue Title
in language of the country: MSZ 1648 2000 Köszolgáltatású, vezetékes földgáz

in English: MSZ 1648 2000 Natural gas for public utility services
Reference conditions: 15 0C 101 325 Pa
The sign of gas group (e.g. H, L, E, S...): 2H 2S
Mark Unit min. max. min. max. min. max. Reamarks
(I) Combustion parameters of natural gases
(I.1) Wobbe-number calcualted from gross calorific value WS MJ/m3 45.66 54.76 36.29 41.58 1 kWh/m3=3,6 MJ/m 3
(I.2) nominal Wobbe-number WS MJ/m3 50.72 39.11
(I.3) effectively range of Wobbe-number in natural gas supply* WS MJ/m3 45.40 50.40 37.24 38.36 * additional information
(I.4) gross calorific value HS MJ/m3 31.00 45.28 31.00 45.28
(I.5) net calorific value Hi MJ/m3 27.94 40.81 27.94 40.81
(I.6) effectively range of net calorific value in natural gas supply* Hi MJ/m3 32.50 35.50 28.00 29.40 * additional information
(I.7) relative density d -
(I.8) nominal connection pressure of household gas appliances p mbar 25 25
(I.9) other
(II) Permitted values of main componets of natural gases
(II.1) methane content (CH4) mol%
(II.2) ethane content (C2H6) mol%
(II.3) higher hydrocarbons content in all (C3…C6) mol%
(II.4) carbon dioxide content (CO2) mol%
(II.5) nitrogen content (N) mol%
(II.6) inert gas components in all mol%
(II.7) oxygen content in damp atmosphere (O2) mol% 0.20 0.20
(II.8) oxygen content in dry atmosphere (O2) mol%
(II.9) carbon monoxide content (CO) mol%
(II.10) hydrogen content (H2) mol%
(II.11) sulphur and sulphur containing componets (S) mg/m3 100 100
(II.12) hydrogen sulphide (H2S) + carbonil sulphide (CS) mg/m3 20 20
(II.13) mercaptans (RSH) mg/m3
(II.14) other
(III) Permitted values of subsidiary componets of natural gases
(III.1) solids, dust mg/m3 5 5
(III.2) ammonia (NH3) mg/m3
(III.3) chlorine (Cl) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.4) fluorine (F) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.5) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) mg/m3
(III.6) aromatic componets (benzol, toluol, xylol - BTX) g/m3
(III.7) mercury (Hg) µg/m3
(III.8) alkali metals µg/m3
(III.9) siloxanes -
(III.10) other
(IV) Physical properties, others
water dew point (H2O DP) at XX bar 0
(IV.1) C
0
(IV.2) hydrocarbon dew point (HC DP) at 40 bar C 4 4
(IV.3) steam content g/m3 0.17 0.17 in regional pipelines 1,0 mg/m 3
0
(IV.4) gas temperatur in public utility services C
(IV.5) methane number MZ -
(IV.6) other1
(IV.7) other2
(IV.8) other3

Table 16 Quality designation of natural gases in Hungary

The Netherlands
In the Netherlands two different natural gas qualities are supplied: gases from the Groningen
source (L) and gases from the North Sea sources (H). L quality gases are supplied only in
regional networks. For the task in hand, the Dutch partners made a report written by Kiwa

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N.V. in 2007 (GT-070127 Quality Aspects of Green Gas) available to us, which presents not
the quality of natural gases supplied, but the specifications on bio-methane to be injected into
the natural gas network. The specification was formulated with the following objective:

REDUBAR WP06 D17 EIE-06-221


the Netherlands
Quality designation of natural gases (2nd gas family)
National regulation or norm concenrning the necessary Year
natural gas quality in transport and public supply Number of issue Title
in language of the country:
in English: 2006 Requiremets of Dutch Regulator (Source GT-070127)
0
Reference conditions: C 101 325 Pa
The sign of gas group (e.g. H, L, E, S...): GREEN GAS
Mark Unit min. max. min. max. min. max. Reamarks
(I) Combustion parameters of natural gases
(I.1) Wobbe-number calcualted from gross calorific value WS MJ/m3 43.46 44.41 1 kWh/m3=3,6 MJ/m 3
(I.2) nominal Wobbe-number WS MJ/m3
(I.3) effectively range of Wobbe-number in natural gas supply* WS MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.4) gross calorific value HS MJ/m3 31.60 38.70
(I.5) net calorific value Hi MJ/m3
(I.6) effectively range of net calorific value in natural gas supply* Hi MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.7) relative density d -
(I.8) nominal connection pressure of household gas appliances p mbar
(I.9) other
(II) Permitted values of main componets of natural gases
(II.1) methane content (CH4) mol%
(II.2) ethane content (C2H6) mol%
(II.3) higher hydrocarbons content in all (C3…C6) mol%
(II.4) carbon dioxide content (CO2) mol% 6
(II.5) nitrogen content (N) mol%
(II.6) inert gas components in all mol%
(II.7) oxygen content in damp atmosphere (O2) mol%
(II.8) oxygen content in dry atmosphere (O2) mol% 0.50
(II.9) carbon monoxide content (CO) mol% 1.00
(II.10) hydrogen content (H2) mol% 12.00
(II.11) sulphur and sulphur containing componets (S) mg/m3 45
(II.12) hydrogen sulphide (H2S) + carbonil sulphide (CS) mg/m3 5
(II.13) mercaptans (RSH) mg/m3 10
(II.14) other
(III) Permitted values of subsidiary componets of natural gases
(III.1) solids, dust mg/m3 techn. free
(III.2) ammonia (NH3) mg/m3 3
(III.3) chlorine (Cl) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3 50
(III.4) fluorine (F) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3 25
(III.5) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) ppm 1
(III.6) aromatic componets (benzol, toluol, xylol - BTX) ppm 500
(III.7) mercury (Hg) µg/m3
(III.8) alkali metals µg/m3
(III.9) siloxanes ppm 5
(III.10) hydrogen chloride (HCl) ppm 1
(III.11) aromatic hydrocarbons mol% 1
(III.12) odorant level (THT) mg/m3 10
(IV) Physical properties, others
water dew point (H2O DP) at 8 bar 0
(IV.1) C -10
0
(IV.2) hydrocarbon dew point (HC DP) at XX bar C
(IV.3) steam content g/m3
0
(IV.4) gas temperatur in public utility services C 0 40
(IV.5) methane number MZ - 80
(IV.6) other1
(IV.7) other2
(IV.8) other3

Table 17 Quality designation of injected biogases in the Netherlands

“The connection and transport conditions for the injection of biogas into the regional network
(8 bar or lower) were set by the DTe (Dutch Regulator) on 21st November 2006. The main
aim of the DTe is that the integrity of the distribution network is guaranteed and that gas
installations and appliances function correctly. The network controller can set other
requirements for the biogas injector regarding the inspections which need to be carried out.
The network controller is responsible for the quality of the gas which is distributed through

D17 A register of all gas regulations and norms concerning the necessary gas quality
for allowing the transport in the natural gas grid
page 58 REDUBAR EIE/06/221/SI2.442663

their network, it is necessary for the network controller to set additional requirements
regarding the quality control of the injected gas.”

The detailed data are shown in Table 17. The calorific value and Wobbe index of the gas to
be injected are practically identical with the values for L gas quality, but there are also limit
values referring to other components that are normally not found in natural gases (BTX,
siloxanes, etc.). Specifications for the minimum methane number, hydrogen-chloride and
hydrogen-cyanide contents of the gas are only set in the Netherlands. The values for the
total sulphur content and hydrogen content of the gas to be injected (45 mg/m3 and 12 mol%,
respectively) are here the highest.

Poland
The Polish regulations differentiate between the permissible limit values applied in gas
transmission and distribution. The gas qualities permitted in distribution are shown in Table
18, while those permitted in transmission are given in Table 19. The only difference between
the two specifications is that for natural gases in pipelines the values of the water and
hydrocarbon dew points permissible at an excess pressure of 5.5 bar are determined, as is
the permissible value of hydrocarbons with a higher number of carbon atoms condensing at
a temperature of –5 °C. In Poland three gas groups are supplied: E quality, with a Wobbe
index between the limit values permitted in standard EN 437 and categories LS and LW. The
gases in the LS group have a Wobbe index considerably different and that in the LW group is
different to a lesser extent from the European standard, with the limit values being shifted
downwards in both cases. For the category LS the nominal connection pressure of gas
appliances is 13 mbar, while in the groups LW and E it is 20 mbar. The value of the Wobbe
index cannot in this case be compared with the EASEEgas recommendation, for the latter
refers to H gas. Comparing the permissible extent of sulphur content, it is a good
approximation of the specification. Under the Polish standard, the amount of mercury can be
at most 28 µg/m3 in the gases supplied.

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Poland
Quality designation of natural gases (2nd gas family)
National regulation or norm concenrning the necessary Year
natural gas quality in transport and public supply Number of issue Title
in language of the country: PN-C-04753 2002 Gaz ziemny. Jakość gazu dostarczanego odbiorcom z sieci rozdzielczej

in English: PN-C-04753 2002 Natural Gas - quality of the gas supplied to consumers from a local distribution system

Reference conditions: 15 0C 101 325 Pa


The sign of gas group (e.g. H, L, E, S...): Ls Lw E
Mark Unit min. max. min. max. min. max. Reamarks
(I) Combustion parameters of natural gases
(I.1) Wobbe-number calcualted from gross calorific value WS MJ/m3 30.80 35.60 35.60 42.70 42.70 51.20 1 kWh/m3=3,6 MJ/m 3
(I.2) nominal Wobbe-number WS MJ/m3 33.20 39.40 47.40
(I.3) effectively range of Wobbe-number in natural gas supply* WS MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.4) gross calorific value HS MJ/m3 24.70 28.50 32.30 not less than
(I.5) net calorific value Hi MJ/m3 22.80 25.60 29.40
(I.6) effectively range of net calorific value in natural gas supply* Hi MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.7) relative density d -
(I.8) nominal connection pressure of household gas appliances p mbar 13 20 20 +/-3 mbar
(I.9) other
(II) Permitted values of main componets of natural gases
(II.1) methane content (CH4) mol%
(II.2) ethane content (C2H6) mol%
(II.3) higher hydrocarbons content in all (C3…C6) mol%
(II.4) carbon dioxide content (CO2) mol%
(II.5) nitrogen content (N) mol%
(II.6) inert gas components in all mol%
(II.7) oxygen content in damp atmosphere (O2) mol%
(II.8) oxygen content in dry atmosphere (O2) mol% 0.20 0.20 0.20
(II.9) carbon monoxide content (CO) mol%
(II.10) hydrogen content (H2) mol%
(II.11) sulphur and sulphur containing componets (S) mg/m3 38 38 38
(II.12) hydrogen sulphide (H2S) + carbonil sulphide (CS) mg/m3 7 7 7
(II.13) mercaptans (RSH) mg/m3 15 15 15
(II.14) other
(III) Permitted values of subsidiary componets of natural gases
(III.1) solids, dust mg/m3 1 1 1
(III.2) ammonia (NH3) mg/m3
(III.3) chlorine (Cl) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.4) fluorine (F) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.5) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) mg/m3
(III.6) aromatic componets (benzol, toluol, xylol - BTX) g/m3
(III.7) mercury (Hg) µg/m3 28 28 28
(III.8) alkali metals µg/m3
(III.9) siloxanes -
(III.10) other
(IV) Physical properties, others
water dew point (H2O DP) at XX bar 0
(IV.1) C
0
(IV.2) hydrocarbon dew point (HC DP) at XX bar C
(IV.3) steam content g/m3
0
(IV.4) gas temperatur in public utility services C
(IV.5) methane number MZ -
(IV.6) P
(IV.7) other2
(IV.8) other3

Table 18 Quality designation of natural gases in Poland (Part 1)

D17 A register of all gas regulations and norms concerning the necessary gas quality
for allowing the transport in the natural gas grid
page 60 REDUBAR EIE/06/221/SI2.442663

REDUBAR WP06 D17


nd
EIE-06-221
Poland
Quality designation of natural gases (2 gas family)
National regulation or norm concenrning the necessary Year
natural gas quality in transport and public supply Number of issue Title
in language of the country: PN-C-04752 2002 Gaz ziemny - Jakość gazu w sieci przesyłowej
in English: PN-C-04752 2002 Natural gas - Quality of the gas transmitted trough a pipeline grid.
Reference conditions: 15 0C 101 325 Pa
The sign of gas group (e.g. H, L, E, S...): Ls Lw E
Mark Unit min. max. min. max. min. max. Reamarks
(I) Combustion parameters of natural gases
(I.1) Wobbe-number calcualted from gross calorific value WS MJ/m3 30.80 35.60 35.60 42.70 42.70 51.20 1 kWh/m3=3,6 MJ/m 3
(I.2) nominal Wobbe-number WS MJ/m3 33.20 39.40 47.40
(I.3) effectively range of Wobbe-number in natural gas supply* WS MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.4) gross calorific value HS MJ/m3 24.70 28.50 32.30
(I.5) net calorific value Hi MJ/m3 22.80 25.60 29.40
(I.6) effectively range of net calorific value in natural gas supply* Hi MJ/m3 * additional information
(I.7) relative density d -
(I.8) nominal connection pressure of household gas appliances p mbar 13 20 20
(I.9) other
(II) Permitted values of main componets of natural gases
(II.1) methane content (CH4) mol%
(II.2) ethane content (C2H6) mol%
(II.3) higher hydrocarbons content in all (C3…C6) mol%
(II.4) carbon dioxide content (CO2) mol% 3 3 3
(II.5) nitrogen content (N) mol%
(II.6) inert gas components in all mol%
(II.7) oxygen content in damp atmosphere (O2) mol%
(II.8) oxygen content in dry atmosphere (O2) mol% 0.20 0.20 0.20
(II.9) carbon monoxide content (CO) mol%
(II.10) hydrogen content (H2) mol%
(II.11) sulphur and sulphur containing componets (S) mg/m3 38 38 38
(II.12) hydrogen sulphide (H2S) + carbonil sulphide (CS) mg/m3 7 7 7
(II.13) mercaptans (RSH) mg/m3 15 15 15
(II.14) other
(III) Permitted values of subsidiary componets of natural gases
(III.1) solids, dust mg/m3 1 1 1
(III.2) ammonia (NH3) mg/m3
(III.3) chlorine (Cl) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.4) fluorine (F) containing componets (halogen) mg/m3
(III.5) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) mg/m3
(III.6) aromatic componets (benzol, toluol, xylol - BTX) g/m3
(III.7) mercury (Hg) µg/m3 28 28 28
(III.8) alkali metals µg/m3
(III.9) siloxanes -
(III.10) other
(IV) Physical properties, others
water dew point (H2O DP) at 5,5 bar 0
(IV.1) C 4 -5 summer winter
0
(IV.2) hydrocarbon dew point (HC DP) at 5,5 bar C 0
(IV.3) steam content g/m3
0
(IV.4) gas temperatur in public utility services C
(IV.5) methane number MZ -
(IV.6) P
(IV.7) higher hydrocarbons content which can condense in -5 mg/m3 28.40
(IV.8) other3

Table 19 Quality designation of natural gases in Poland (Part 2)

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EIE/06/221/SI2.442663 REDUBAR page 61

6. Conclusions
The natural gas supply in Europe relies currently on a finite number of sources. This situation
will certainly change in the decades to come: in order to meet the natural gas demand in
Europe, new, more distant sources will have to be taken advantage of. At the same time it
can also be assumed that the integrated EU natural gas market is large (and liquid) enough
to be able to establish uniform natural gas quality requirements which the production
countries will also have to accommodate.

No end user sector is able to tolerate changes in gas quality in a wide band. In the case of
industrial consumers changes in natural gas quality have a direct effect on the efficiency of
their equipment, and the large number of household consumers encourages by itself natural
gas suppliers to keep the characteristic values of gas quality (and have them kept) in the
smallest possible range.

On the basis of the comparisons performed, it can be seen that the natural gas supply of
Europe relies on well-delineated sources that may exhibit significant differences in their
qualities. The regulations on gas quality in the individual countries have been elaborated
separately, depending on the natural gas qualities typical in them, and in some cases even
several specifications can be found simultaneously in force. However, the liberalisation of the
European natural gas market has brought the efforts at harmonising natural gas quality
regulations to the foreground. It can be seen that with the existing natural gas qualities this is
not a viable alternative, however, bringing the demands closer to each other is an absolutely
necessary and essential condition for a collaborating European natural gas system.

In Europe the most important gas quality parameters are in almost every country in relation
with the Wobbe index, the gross calorific value (GCV), the sulphur components and the
water and hydrocarbon dew points. The specifications on dew points are very similar all over
Europe, and so are permissible amounts of hydrogen sulphide. Concerning the total sulphur
content, there are several different standpoints, the permissible limit value being in some
countries 30-50 mg/m3, while elsewhere it may reach even 150 mg/m3. The permitted values
of oxygen content are in a similar range, solid and liquid impurities are generally undesirable,
but specific limit values are given only in few countries.

D17 A register of all gas regulations and norms concerning the necessary gas quality
for allowing the transport in the natural gas grid
page 62 REDUBAR EIE/06/221/SI2.442663

It can be stated that in Europe there exists no uniform system of requirements for natural
gases, only the not very detailed guidance of some standards and the references in Directive
2003/55/EC to a collaborating natural gas system formulate this expectation. The
specifications in force in the individual countries exhibit differences not only in terms of the
values of the most important natural gas characteristics, but select the characteristics
themselves for the qualification of natural gas according to different principles.

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7. References
British Petrol: Statistical Review of World Energy, 2007. (www.bp.com)

Council Directive 90/396/EEC of 29 June 1990 on the approximation of the laws of the
Member States to appliances burning gaseous fuels

Directive 2003/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003
concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas and repealing Directive
98/30/EC

DVGW Technische Regel Arbeitsblatt G 260: Gasbeschaffenheit; Wirtschafts- und


Verlagsgesellschaft Gas und Wasser mbH, Bonn, 2000.

DVGW Technische Regel Arbeitsblatt G 262: Nutzung von Gasen aus regenerativen Quellen
in der öffentlichen Gasversorgung; Wirtschafts- und Verlagsgesellschaft Gas und Wasser
mbH, Bonn, 2004.

EASEE-gas CBP 2005-001/01 Common Business Practice; Harmonization of Natural Gas


Quality (www.easeegas.org)

EuroGAS: Statistics 2005. (www.eurogas.org)

Final Report – Regulation Draft of Biogas Commercialisation in Gas Grid - BIOCOMM; EC


4.1030/C02-082/2002, (Altener), 2005.

Joos L.: Gázfelhasználás a háztartásban és a kisfogyasztóknál (Gas supply in domestic


sector); Frohner Bt., Pécs, 2005.

MARCOGAZ Technical Association of the European Natural Gas Industry:


WG-Biogas-06-18 Injection of Gases from Non-Conventional Sources into Gas Networks;
Brussels, 2006. (www.marcogaz.org)

M. Persson – O. Jönsson: Biogas Upgrading to Vehicle Fuel Standards and Grid Injection;
IEA Bioenergy, Task 37, 2006. (www.iea-biogas.net)

N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie: Physical properties of natural gases; 1980

Polman E.A.: GT-070127 Quality Aspects of Green Gas; Kiwa N.V., Rijswijk, the
Netherlands, 2007. (www.iea-biogas.net)

S. Kilinski Hauptschriftleiter: STUDIE Einspeisung von Biogas in das Erdgasnets; Institut für
Energetik und Umwelt gGmbH; Leipzig, 2006. ISBN 3-00-018346-9

Swedish Gas Center: Report 118: Adding gas from biomass to the gas grid; GASTEC,
Danish Gas Technology Center, SGC, 2001.

Tihanyi L.: Szénhidrogén-szállítás I. (Natural gas transport) -lecture notes; University of


Miskolc, 2006.

D17 A register of all gas regulations and norms concerning the necessary gas quality
for allowing the transport in the natural gas grid
page 64 REDUBAR EIE/06/221/SI2.442663

European Standards

EN 437 Test gases. Test pressures. Appliance categories

ISO 6976 Natural gas. Calculation of calorific values, density, relative density and Wobbe
index from composition

ISO 13443 Natural gas. Standard reference conditions

ISO 13686 Natural gas. Quality desigantion

ISO 14532 Natural gas. Terminology

WP06 Benchmarking for increasing biogas injection

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