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Modeling and Simulation for Fatigue Life Analysis of Robots With Flexible Joints Under Percussive Impact Forces

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rcim

Modeling and simulation for fatigue life analysis of robots with ﬂexible

joints under percussive impact forces

Songliang Nie a, Yuwen Li b, Guo Shuai a,n, Song Tao a, Fengfeng Xi b

a

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Intelligent Manufacturing and Robotics, HC206A, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, BaoShan District, Shanghai, China

b

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This paper presents a method for modeling and analyzing the fatigue life of robots with ﬂexible joints,

Received 4 August 2014 with a particular focus on applications under percussive impact forces. This development is motivated by

Received in revised form growing interests in robotic automation for operations with percussive impact tools. The most important

19 March 2015

characteristic of percussive operations is the repetitive impacts generated by the tool, such as a per-

Accepted 17 April 2015

cussive rivet gun. After modeling of a ﬂexible joint robot, a forced vibration solution is provided by

Available online 5 May 2015

including the impact forces generated by the percussive gun, projecting them onto the robot joint space

Keywords: and treating them in terms of the Fourier transform. As a result, the joint angular displacements can be

Fatigue life solved using a standard vibration method. Then the joint stresses can be determined through Hooke's

Percussive rivet

law. To consider the stress variations caused by the robot operating at different poses using different

Impact

rivets, a multiple-loading fatigue model is applied from which an equation is derived to determine the

Robot

total number of the rivets that can be riveted before robot's fatigue failure. Based on simulation using our

model, the following observations are received. First, the joint torsional stresses vary with robot's po-

sition and orientation. Second, no joint will always experience the maximum stress and the joint stress

dominancy also varies with robot's position and orientation. Third, at a given riveting point, the rivet gun

direction considerately affects the joint stresses. Fourth, the fatigue life of each joint is different;

therefore robot's fatigue life should be evaluated based on the shortest joint fatigue life.

& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction have been increasing interests in the automation for manual op-

erations using percussive tools, especially in the aerospace man-

In the past few decades, robots have been playing a signiﬁcant ufacturing industry [6–8]. This automation becomes necessary for

role in industrial automation to provide high productivity, adapt- new unmanned tasks using percussive tools. For instance, per-

ability, quality, and low cost. They have been used in a wide range cussive drilling tools have recently been proposed for unmanned

of ﬁelds, such as machining, assembly, packaging, and material Mars exploration [9].

handling [1]. A robotic automation system usually includes a robot The most important characteristic of percussive operations is

and a tooling system. A tooling system is composed of tools, such the repetitive impacts generated by the tool. Due to this highly

as grippers and cutting tools, along with a tool mount that is at- impact feature, the success of their robotic automation demands

tached to the robot's end-effector. Though most industrial robots speciﬁc research on these applications. Limited works have been

are designed for general applications, tooling systems are usually published in literature on the robotic automation of percussive

customized according to speciﬁc tasks. In this paper, we focus on operations. Glass et al. [9] designed, tested, and analyzed the

the automation tasks that require percussive tools. These tools performance of a new percussive drilling tool for unmanned Mars

have been widely used as hammers, drills, chippers, road breakers, exploration. Jayaweera and Webb [10] presented a robotic riveting

and rivet guns in many industries, such as the civil construction assembly system for typical aircraft panels and investigated the

and aerospace manufacturing [2,3]. For some industrial applica- positioning accuracy of the robot with a laser metrology device.

Though not explicitly mentioned, their robotic system could be

tions, manual percussive operations can be tedious, repetitious,

adopted to percussive riveting. These works are mainly focused on

costly, and prone to error, and can cause health and ergonomic

the design, integration, and test of automatic system for percussive

problems related to human joint fatigue [4,5]. Therefore, there

operations. The performance of the percussive tool and the robot

are demonstrated respectively, but little discussion has been given

n

Corresponding author. on the dynamics mechanism of percussive impacts.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2015.04.001

0736-5845/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

S. Nie et al. / Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing 37 (2016) 292–301 293

G Shear modulus of the joint shaft

Symbol Description J

l Link length J 6 × n Jacobian matrix

mi Mass of the ith link K n × n generalized stiffness matrix

n Unit vector representing the force direction Kd n × n decoupled stiffness matrix

nd Unit vector used in the decoupled system M n × n generalized mass matrix

ni Number of cycles at working stress Md n × n decoupled mass matrix

q0 Vector of joint coordinates at an equilibrium ME Vector of the external moments acting at the end-

conﬁguration effector

Δq Vector of joint deﬂections Ni Number of cycles to failure

Δq̇ Vector of joint deﬂection rates S Matrix of the time-independent normal mode shape

Δq0 Vecror of transient response of joint vibration Te Elastic energy

displacements Tk Kinetic energy

Δq ss Vector of steady-state response of joint vibration γ Shear strain

displacements η Vector of the time-dependent generalized coordinates

r Radius of the joint shaft ηi The ith element of vector η

Δs Arc length of the joint shaft θ Joint angle

v Vector of the velocity of the end-effector ς Damping ratio

w Vector of the wrench acting on the end-effector τ Vectror of torsional stresses

D Diagonal matrix of ωi2 ω Vector of the angular velocity of the end-effector

FE Vector of the external forces acting on the end-effector ωi The ith natural frequency of the system

The dynamics of percussive operations involves the impacts fatigue cycle. Miclosina and Campian [22] investigated the fatigue

generated by the tool and the interaction between the tool and the of a parallel robot, where the stress of the ﬂexible linkages was

part. Kadam [11] and Bloxsom [12] investigated the modeling of calculated by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in SolidWorks. In both

pneumatic percussive hammers. They demonstrated how the re- works, the robot was considered to performance simple point-to-

petitive impacts were produced through simulation. Quan et al. point motion. Thus, these works cannot represent the percussive

[13] presented and implemented the dynamic simulation of the operations with highly impact dynamics.

percussive driving mechanism for a rotary-percussive drilling tool. To estimate the cost, efﬁciency, and life limit of a robotic system

The impact energy produced by the percussive tool was modeled for percussive operations, the fatigue life of the robot under re-

by a spring-mass model. Johnson et al. [14] proposed a three de- petitive impact forces must be predicted. This paper aims to

grees-of-freedom (DOF) analytical dynamics model to simulate overcome this problem.

percussive riveting and to investigate the dynamic interaction

between the operator, the gun, and the part. Li et al. [15] studied

how the inertia of the percussive rivet gun could affect the ac- 2. System description and problem statement

celeration, natural frequencies, and energy consumption of the

robot. The above researches have provided some insight into the A robotic riveting system has been developed at Shanghai

complex dynamics of percussive operations, indicating the im- University [23]. As shown in Fig. 1, this system includes four ro-

portance of studying the dynamics of percussive operations for bots. A Fanuc M-20iA robot is used to hold and drive a percussive

their robotic automation. rivet gun. Two Kawasaki JS010G-A robots are used to form a

A most signiﬁcant issue for percussive operations is the struc- ﬂexible jig to hold a piece of sheet metal, and an ABB IRB 2600

tural fatigue due to the repetitive impacts, which has been ad- robot is used to hold a bucking bar for support during riveting. As

dressed for manual operations [4,5]. The human health risks can shown in Fig. 2, in riveting a hole has to be drilled ﬁrst, then a rivet

be eliminated by robotic automation, but robots are ﬂexible is inserted into the hole and deformed by force. For complete sheet

structures and have limited life expectancy. The life limit of a robot metal riveting, the Fanuc robot will move point-to-point along a

relates to the performance of its mechanical and electrical com- pre-planned path and the ABB robot will follow the same path in

ponents. The life expectancy of an industrial robot can largely vary

from ﬁve to twenty years, depending on the operating conditions

and care of service [16]. For percussive operations, because of the

repetitive impacts, the torsional stress in robot joints can vary

greatly in a relatively short time. It has been demonstrated that

varying torsional stress can lead to stress fatigue to machine shafts

[17]. Extensive research on the dynamics and control of ﬂexible

robots can be found in literature. These works cover various topics

including stiffness mapping, dynamic modeling, inverse dynamics,

vibration control, and parameter estimation. The readers are re-

ferred to three review articles [18–20] for more detail on the

works on the dynamics and control of ﬂexible robots. However, to

the knowledge of the authors, only a few studies have been pub-

lished on the fatigue analysis of ﬂexible robots. Du, Yu, and Su [21]

analyzed the dynamic stress of linkages of a 3-RRR parallel robot Fig. 1. A robotic percussive riveting system.

under bending and then used the stress results to calculate the

294 S. Nie et al. / Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing 37 (2016) 292–301

riveting.

In principle there are two riveting methods, the ﬁrst called

squeezing (or one-shot) riveting, where a large upsetting force is

applied to deform a rivet instantly. This method requires a large

riveter operating under high pressure beyond the yield strength of

aluminum rivets. This type of riveter is made of either a hydraulic

cylinder or an electromagnetic piston, very heavy, bulky and

usually requires a lifting assisted device if used for manual op-

eration. The automated riveting machines and existing riveting

robots all employ this type of riveter, and hence they are gigantic

and only limited to riveting large and simple components.

The second method is called percussive (or hammering) rivet- Fig. 3. An n-DOF ﬂexible joint robot with a percussive impact tool acting on the

ing, widely used for manual riveting, where a series of impact end-effector.

forces is applied to deform a rivet accumulatively by a series of

hits. This method uses a rivet gun of regular hand-held power tool Fig. 3. If we choose the input joint angles as the generalized co-

size, very compact and light, operating under much lower pressure ordinates, i.e. q = [θ1, θ2, ... , θn]T , the kinetic energy Tk and elastic

in a range less than 100 psi; very safe and energy efﬁcient. Our energy Te of a stationary ﬂexible-joint robot can be respectively

robotic riveting is based on this principle, and as such a light written in terms of the mass and stiffness matrices as

weight Fanuc robot of 20 Kg payload can be used to develop for

riveting. 1 T 1

Tk = Δq̇ M(q)Δq̇ and Te = ΔqTK(q)Δq

2 2 (1)

While the main problem of squeezing robotic riveting is large

static deformation, percussive robotic riveting experiences ex- where Δq ∈ Rn is the perturbations in joint angles from an equi-

cessive vibration due to striking from the percussive riveting gun. librium conﬁguration q0 , representing the joint deﬂections, Δq is

Since the gun is mounted on robot's end-effector, when a series of the deﬂection rate, M(q) is the n × n symmetric generalized mass

impact forces is employed, forced vibrations will be induced inside matrix, and K is the n × n diagonal stiffness matrix in the joint

the robot. There are hundreds and thousands of rivets in an air- space, with its entries equal to the torsional stiffnesses of the

craft, if a percussive robotic riveting is used, it is necessary to in- corresponding joints. Then, the dynamic model when the robot is

vestigate the fatigue life of the robot. To do so, a dynamic model the stationary and under forced vibration can be represented as [1]

must be developed to analyze robot vibration and inﬂuence on its

fatigue life. This motivates the research reported in this paper. The M (q)Δq + K Δq = J T w (2)

remaining paper is organized as follows. A theoretical model is

presented in Section 3 and simulation is carried out in Section 4. The 6 × n Jacobian matrix J represents the mapping from the

joint velocities to the velocities of tool center E such that

⎡ Jv ⎤

3. Theoretical modeling J=⎢ ⎥

⎣ Jω ⎦ (3)

3.1. Equations of motion

where v = Jv q, ω = Jω q, Jv ∈ R3 × n , Jω ∈ R3 × n , v is the linear velocity

of point E , and ω is the angular velocity of the last link. The wrench

Fig. 3 illustrates an n-DOF robot with n rigid links and n ﬂexible T

joints. The position vector of the ith joint in the inertial frame vector w can be written as W = ⎡⎣FTE , MTE ⎤⎦ , in which FE and ME are

{O _xyz} is denoted by Pi and the position of the end-effector E on the external forces and moments acting at the end-effector E . If

the last link is denoted by Pn + 1. For convenience, local body-ﬁxed point E is deﬁned at the tip of the percussive tool at which the

frames {Oi _x iyi zi} (i = 1, 2, … , n) are established on the links at external repeated impact forces are applied to the robot, the ex-

their corresponding joints. For percussive operations, the robot ternal moments ME can be ignored. Furthermore, since the change

moves to a required position, stops in this position, and then sends in the direction of percussive impact force during the operation

a signal to the percussive tool to complete the operation. There- can be ignored, the external force can be written as

fore, to investigate the robot fatigue life, the vibration model of the FE = F (t)n (4)

robot in a stationary position must be developed.

For industrial robots, the main source of deformation is joint where n = [n1, n2, n3]T is a unit vector representing the force di-

ﬂexibility [1]. Thus, in our discussion, it is assumed that all the rection and F (t) changes with the time. For percussive operations,

links are rigid and all the joints are ﬂexible revolute joints which F (t) can be modeled as a periodic pulse train, as shown in Fig. 4.

are modeled as linearly elastic torsional springs, as illustrated in Then, Eq. (2) is simpliﬁed as

S. Nie et al. / Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing 37 (2016) 292–301 295

where ηi is the ith element of vector η , ndi is the element on the ith

element of vector nd . Also, damping ratio ζ is incorporated in Eq.

(10) to consider the inﬂuence of material viscous damping to the

system vibrations.

The periodic pulse train input force F (t), as shown in Fig. 4, is

approximated as an expansion of N Fourier series as follows [24]

N N

F (t) = a 0 + ∑ aj cos(jωt) + ∑ bj sin(jωt)

j=1 j=1 (12)

bj = (F0/jπ) − (F0/jπ)cos(2jπ (Td/T )).

Fig. 4. Periodic pulse train.

With Eqs. (11) and (12), the analytical solution of the steady-

state responses of ηi can be written as

N

M (q)Δq + K Δq = F (t)J T n (5) ηi(t) = ndi A 0 + ndi ∑ Aj cos(jωt − φj)

j=1 (13)

Eq. (5) represents the vibration model of the robot under per-

1

cussive impact forces. Matrices M and Jv depend on the conﬁg- where A0 = a 0 / k , Ai = k

ai2 + bi2 /(1 − r 2)2 + (2ζr)2 , r = iω/ωn ,

uration of the robot, force F (t) and its direction n depend on the φi = tan−1(2ζr /1 − r 2) + tan (bi /ai). Once vector η is obtained, the

−1

speciﬁc percussion operation at that conﬁguration. responses of the joint displacements can be calculated from Eq.

(7).

3.2. Steady-state responses of joint displacements

3.3. Joint displacement and stress envelopes

Since the robot stays in a stationary conﬁguration during the

percussive operations, the model described in Eq. (5) is a time- As shown in Fig. 5, the joint angular displacement Δq can be

invariant forced vibration system. Its solution can be written as related to the shaft shear strain, where r is the radius of the joint

Δq = Δq ss(t) + Δq 0(t) (6) shaft, l is the length, Δs is the arc length produced by Δq and γ is

the shear strain. First, Δs can be written in terms of Δq as

where Δq ss is the steady-state responses of the joint displacements

Δs = r Δq (14)

and Δq0 is related to the initial conditions. Since Δq0 can be

damped out with time, we only focus on the steady-state re- Since the arc displacement Δs is small, it can also be expressed

sponses. In particular, we present a method to ﬁnd out the ap- in terms of the shear strain as

proximate analytical solution of the steady-state responses. First,

Eq. (5) is decoupled into n single-DOF vibration systems, and the Δs = γl (15)

external force acting on each single-DOF system is formulated.

From Eqs. (14) and (15), the shaft shear strain can be derived as

After solving the decoupled vibration systems, the responses of

the joint displacements can be easily computed. Δqr

γ=

For this purpose, we write the joint displacement vector Δq as l (16)

Δq = Sη (7) Further, based on Hooke's law, the torsional stress can be ob-

tained that

where S is the time-independent normal mode shape matrix and

can be obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem KS = MSD , in τ = Gγ (17)

which D is a diagonal matrix as

where G is the joint shaft shear modulus.

⎡ω 2 ⎤

⎢ 1 ⎥

⎢ ⎥ 3.4. Fatigue life estimate

D=⎢ ω22

⎥

⎢ ⋱ ⎥ The fatigue life of the robot joints under torsional vibrations

⎢⎣ ωn ⎥⎦

2

(8) can be estimated from the shear stresses of the joint shafts. In

practice, the robot will perform riveting at different positions in

where ωi (i = 1, 2, ... , n) is the ith natural frequency of the system.

Substituting Eq. (7) into Eq. (5), we have

Mdη + Kη = F (t)nd (9)

presents the decoupled system. Matrices Md and Kd are both n × n

diagonal matrices and they can expressed as

⎡m1 ⎤ ⎡k ⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥

m2

Md = ⎢ ⎥, K d = ⎢ k2 ⎥

⎢ ⋱ ⎥ ⎢ ⋱ ⎥

⎢⎣ mn ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎥

⎣ k n⎦ (10)

̇ ̇ Fig. 5. Joint angular displacement and shear strain.

mi ηi + 2ς mi ki ηi + kiηi = F (t)ndi , i = 1, 2, …, n (11)

296 S. Nie et al. / Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing 37 (2016) 292–301

Table 1

Inertial properties of links.

(

I Kg m2 )

1 80 0,0,0.2 diag(0.9,1,1)

2 30 0.4,0,0 diag(0.6,6.5,6.5)

3 45 0.4,0,0 diag(0.8,9.5,9.5)

tween the numbers of cycles ni needs to be established. In our

case, the number of cycle is equal to the number of hits generated

by the percussive rivet gun. Our riveting process research [26]

indicates that the number of hits for percussive riveting is a

function of rivet size and supply pressure. Therefore, if deﬁning h1

as the number of hits per rivet for the smallest rivet under the

Fig. 6. Multiple loading fatigue S-N curve. lowest workable pressure, the number of hits per rivet for differ-

ent sizes and/or different supply pressures can be expressed as

hi ¼aih1, where ai is the ratio between hi and h1. Now Eq. (18) can

different directions over its workspace. It is well known that the be re-written as

robot joint forces are robot's conﬁguration dependent. In other

words, even under the same robot impact forces, the joint vibra- hi

∑ p =1

tions will differ and the joint shear stresses will vary. Therefore, a Ni i (19a)

multiple-loading fatigue model must be applied. As shown in where pi is the total number of rivets that can be riveted under the

Fig. 6, different shear stresses will produce different number of ith riveting operation. Note that ni ¼hipi. Furthermore, if deﬁning

cycles to failure. To account for this, the Palmgren-Miner cycle- p1 as the number of rivets riveted under h1 operation, then mi can

ratio summation rule, also called Miner's rule, is adopted here [25] be related to m1 as pi¼bip1, where bi is the ratio between mi and

k ni m1. Now Eq. (19a) can be re-written as

∑ i= 1 =c

Ni (18) aibi

∑ h1p1 = 1

where ni is the number of cycles at stress level τi , Ni is the number Ni (19b)

of cycles to reach failure at stress level τi , and k is the number of

Since the number of hits per rivet, hi, can be determined ex-

different riveting operations. The parameter c is determined by

perimentally or numerically [26] and Ni determined by a S–N

experiment and found in a range 0.7 o co 2.2. Usually, c¼ 1 is

curve under the fatigue stress τi , m1 can be obtained from Eq. (19b)

used.

as

The torsional stress τi induced by riveting is ﬂuctuating under a

series of impact forces. There are a number of methods to quantify ⎛ aib ⎞

the fatigue stress that corresponds to Ni. These methods include p1 = 1/⎜∑ i h1⎟

⎝ Ni ⎠ (20)

Gerber, Goodman and Soderberg [25], considering peak stress,

valley stress, stress amplitude, mean stress, etc. For simplicity, the Finally, the total number of rivets, n, that can be riveted by a

peak stress is used here as the fatigue stress to calculate Ni. percussive riveting robot before robot's fatigue failure can be

Fig. 7. (a) Schematic of the simulation robot and (b) CAD of the simulation robot with rivet gun.

S. Nie et al. / Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing 37 (2016) 292–301 297

determined as mi , position vectors of the CG, and inertia tensors of the links Ii are

listed in Table 1. Note that these vectors and tensors are written in

n= (∑ b )p

k

i=1 i 1 (21a)

the corresponding local frames. The maximum quantities of the

actuator torques are: m1 = m2 = 200 N-m, and m3 = 120 N-m. The

For percussive riveting of the same rivet size under the same torsional stiffnesses of the three joints are: k1 = 2.4 × 105 N-m/rad

gun supply pressure, Eq. (21a) can be further simpliﬁed as and k2 = k3 = 105 N-m/rad. Finally, the range of the input joint

n = kp1 angles is: θ1 ∈ [−π , π]rad, θ2 ∈ [−π /2, π /2]rad, and

(21b)

θ3 ∈ [−7π /18, 7π /18] rad.

4. Numerical simulation

Based on the parameters given in Section 4.1, the vibration

4.1. System parameters equations given in Eq. (11) are established for each of the three

joints of the robot under simulation. The impact force generated

Typically, an industrial robot is designed to have the ﬁrst three by the rivet gun is obtained through vibration measurement at

joints with the links for position control and the last three joints as 300 N. Fig. 8 shows a typical joint shear stress under percussive

a wrist for orientation control. Therefore, from the fatigue point of riveting. It can be seen that the joint stress ﬂuctuates.

view, only the ﬁrst three joints are considered. Fig. 7(a) shows a The ﬁrst set of simulation is to examine the effect of gun's or-

3-DOF spatial robot with revolute joints for this simulation, which ientation. As shown in Fig. 9, four conﬁgurations are considered,

mimics the Fanuc robot used for our percussive riveting as shown mimicking a vertical path of riveting four rivets. In this case, while

in Fig. 7(b). The ﬁrst joint rotates about a vertical axis and the the x and y coordinates of the gun tip remain the same, the z

other two joints rotate about two parallel horizontal axes. The coordinate changes from 1.5 to 1.2, 0.9 and 0.6. At each given rivet

orientation of the percussive rivet gun can be adjusted by rotating point the gun orientation is changed to investigate the effect of the

the wrist. During riveting, gun's orientation is not changed. force direction. Since the impact force is generated along the gun

The inertial and link-ﬁxed local frames are established as axis, the gun direction is the force direction. Several important

shown in Fig. 7(a). The inertial frame {O _xyz} is located at the base observations can be obtained from this simulation. First, all the

of the robot, with the positive z axis vertically upward and the y joint displacement envelops appear to be a double-ball like shape

axis perpendicular to the plane containing the second and third with a symmetric plane and the maximum force direction is per-

links. The zi axes of the local frames {Oi _x iyi zi} are along the rota- pendicular to this plane. The said envelop is formed for each joint

tion directions of the corresponding joints, the x1 axis is parallel to by linking all the maximum joint displacements simulated under

the x axis when the robot is stationary, and the x2 and x3 axes are different force directions. Second, the size of each joint displace-

along the link length directions. The directions of the other re- ment envelop changes with conﬁguration. As shown in Fig. 8, the

ference axes are determined from the right hand rule. The link largest joint displacement envelop is at joint 2 for z¼ 1.5, then it

length vectors of O1O2, O2O3, and O3E can be written in local frames changes to joint 3 for z ¼1.2 and z¼0.9, and to joint 1 for z¼ 0.6.

as Third, the force directions causing the maximum joint displace-

l1b = [0, 0, l1]T , l2b = [l2, 0, 0]T , l3b = [l3, 0, 0]T ment change with conﬁguration and they are different for differ-

ent joints. As shown in Fig. 9, though the force direction for joint

where the link lengths are l1 = 0.4 m and l2 = l3 = 0.8m. The masses 1 do not change due to the vertical path in the x–z plane, the force

298 S. Nie et al. / Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing 37 (2016) 292–301

Fig. 9. Joint displacement envelopes in four conﬁgurations for percussive force (red lines: force directions for maximum displacements). (For interpretation of the references

to color in this ﬁgure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article).

Fig. 10. (a) Joint 1 distribution of maximum displacements throughout the workspace (red color indicates the high displacement and blue the low displacement, other colors

in between). (b) Joint 2 distribution of maximum displacements throughout the workspace (red color indicates the high displacement and blue the low displacement, other

colors in between). (c) Joint 3 distribution of maximum displacements throughout the workspace (red color indicates the high displacement and blue the low displacement,

other colors in between). (For interpretation of the references to color in this ﬁgure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article).

S. Nie et al. / Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing 37 (2016) 292–301 299

directions for joint 2 and 3 both change from leaning the left to

leaning to the right.

The second set of simulation is to examine the change of the

maximum joint displacement over the robot workspace. Fig. 10

shows a snapshot of this simulation by focusing on the x–z plane,

with ﬁgure (a), (b) and (c) for joint 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The

workspace is identical for the three ﬁgures as it is in the x–z plane

of the robot's task space. But, the locations of the maximum joint

displacement vary. In Fig. 10(a–c), red color indicates the high

displacement and blue the low displacement, other colors in be-

tween. First, it can be seen that joint 1 experiences the largest

displacement when the robot reaches the left and right end in the

x direction to perform percussive riveting. At these conﬁgurations

the robot is fully extended in the horizontal direction and the

implusive riveting forces acting on the tool tip in the x direction

will be fully transmitted to produce the largest torque to joint 1,

thereby causing the largest displacement of joint 1. Second, it can

be seen that joint 2 experiences the largest displacement when the

robot reaches the up and low end in the z direction to perform

Fig. 11. Torsional S-N curve of steel. percussive riveting. At these conﬁgurations the robot is fully ex-

tended in the vertical direction and the implusive riveting forces

acting on the tool tip in the z direction will be fully transmitted to

produce the largest torque to joint 2, thereby causing the largest

displacement of joint 2. Third, it can be seen that joint 3 experi-

ences the largest displacement when the robot performs percus-

sive riveting in the middle area. At these conﬁgurations the robot

is not fully extended, and the implusive riveting forces acting on

the tool tip will be mainly absorbed by the nearest joint 3, therey

causing the largest displacement of joint 3.

termined from the joint displacements and the joint fatigue

stresses are determined from the joint shear strains. To determine

the fatigue life, an S–N curve of the used material is needed. For

this study, the S–N curve is obtained through ﬁtting the data

presented in [17] for steel. This S–N data was generated from the

experiment for the material similar to those used for common

Fig. 12. Rivet pattern and corresponding path. robot joint shafts. The equation for the fatigue curve is (N) = a⁎N b .

By ﬁtting it is found that a ¼18930, and b¼ 0.3548. The ﬁtted

curve is given in Fig. 11.

300 S. Nie et al. / Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing 37 (2016) 292–301

Table 2

Fatigue life analysis of the simulation robot indicate the sequence of riveting, i.e. the rivet path. For all riveting

the same size of rivets is used. To predict robot fatigue life, the

Direction Forward fatigue stress of each direction must be determined to ﬁnd the

corresponding cycle numbers to failure. The number of hits per

Joint Joint 1 Joint 2 Joint 3

rivet is found through experiment to be 12. Finally, Eq. (22) is used

Stress Level(MPa) 32.81 37.46 9.43 to determine the maximum number of rivets that can be riveted

Ni 3.08e þ06 2.38e þ 06 3.44e þ 07 before the robot's fatigue failure.

Direction Left

Fig. 13(a) shows the riveting in the forward direction. The im-

Joint Joint 1 Joint 2 Joint 3

Stress Level(MPa) 35.56 37.91 11.13

pact force direction in this case is n ¼[0, 1]. Fig. 13(b) shows the

Ni 2.64e þ 06 2.33eþ06 1.10e þ 07 maximum stresses of the three joints over riveting 15 rivets at 15

Direction Upward rivet spots. The mean value of the fatigue stresses over 15 rivets

Joint Joint 1 Joint 2 Joint 3 are found as 32.81, 37.46 and 9.43 MPa, which are used to ﬁnd Ni

Stress Level(MPa) 0 54.86 56.23

for the three joints, respectively. Fig. 14(a) depicts the riveting in

Ni +∞ 1.14e þ 06 1.09e þ 06

the left direction, with the impact force direction n¼[0 1 0]. Fig. 14

(b) shows the maximum stresses of the three joints over 5 rivets.

In this simulation, a riveting task including three directions, The mean value of the fatigue stresses over 15 rivets are found as

forward, left and upward, is considered for fatigue life prediction. 35.56, 37.91 and 11.13 Mpa for the three joints, respectively. Fig. 15

The same rivet pattern as shown in Fig. 12 is applied to all three (a) displays the riveting in the left upward direction, and the im-

pact force direction n ¼[0 0 1]. Fig. 15(b) shows the maximum

S. Nie et al. / Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing 37 (2016) 292–301 301

stresses of the three joints over 5 rivets. The mean value of the and the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Intelligent Manufacturing and

fatigue stresses over 15 rivets are found as 0, 54.86 and 56.23 Mpa Robotics (Granted no.ZK1304).

for the three joints, respectively. Table 2 lists all the fatigue

stresses for the three directions and corresponding cycle number

to failure. Now, the total number of rivets that can be riveted over References

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This work is supported by the Shanghai Municipal Science and namics, Vol. 5, No. 2, 021011.

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