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ME165-4

MICRO-HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT DESIGN


Week-5.0 Turbine Design Prepared By:
2017-2018/ 3T Engr. Estelito V. Mamuyac
05 February 2018
Hydraulic Turbines
Hydraulic Turbine
Hydraulic Turbine
-a device that converts the energy of the water into mechanical energy
Hydraulic Turbine
Classification of Hydraulic Turbines
According to the type of energy at inlet
(a) Impulse turbine
(b) Reaction turbine
Hydraulic Turbine
Impulse Turbine
-power generation prime mover in which fluid
under pressure enters a stationary nozzle
where its pressure(potential) energy is
converted to velocity(kinetic) energy and
absorbed by the rotor.
Ex. Pelton Turbine
Hydraulic Turbine
Pelton Turbine
Hydraulic Turbine
Impulse Turbine P h(from reservoir)

Head of Impulse
V Turbine
runner
nozzle

buckets
casing
Hydraulic Turbine
Reaction Turbine
-a power generation prime mover utilizing the steady flow principle of
fluid acceleration where nozzles are mounted on the moving element.
Ex. Francis and Kaplan Turbine
Hydraulic Turbine
Francis Turbine
Hydraulic Turbine
Kaplan Turbine
Hydraulic Turbine
Reaction Turbine
h(from reservoir)
P

A
V

B
Hydraulic Turbine
Peripheral Coefficient,
-ratio of the peripheral velocity(Vp) to the velocity of the jet(Vj)

Where D= diameter of the runner in m


N= angular speed in rev/s
h= net head in m
Vp(Peripheral speed/Velocity)-speed at the periphery of a circular part due to
its rotation
Vj(Velocity of the jet)- speed of the fluid upon hitting the circular part of the
turbine blades.
Hydraulic Turbines
Specific speed, Ns
Specific speed is defined as the speed in revolutions per minute at which a
turbine would run at the best efficiency for full guide-vane/nozzle opening under
a head of one unit and its dimensions having been adjusted to produce unit
power output.
Mathematical expression,
SI units: N S = N * (P1/2/H5/4)
Where, N= Shaft speed in rpm,
H= Net head in m, P= Rated output in kW
English Units: N 1/2 5/4
S = N * (P /H )
H = Net Head in ft, P= Rated output in hp
SPECIFIC SPEED
Problem #1:
A supply of water is available at a head of 60m. It
is proposed to build a turbine to operate at 125
rpm and this turbine is expected to develop
50kW. What is the specific speed?

16
Hydraulic Turbine
Problem #2:
A Pelton wheel is to be
designed to run at 300 rpm
under an effective head of
150m. Find the diameter of
the runner. Assume a
peripheral coefficient of 0.45.
References

• Textbooks
• Renewable Energy Technologies, Jean-Claude Sabonnadiere, 2009
• Energy Conversion, D. Yogi Goswami, Frank Kreith, 2008
• Power Plant Engineering, 3rd Edition, PK Nag, 2008, Tata McGraw Hill

• Webference
• www.eere.energy.gov
• www.nrel.gov
• www.doe.gov.ph
• http://www.slideshare.net/daudsangeenkhan/types-of-turbine-thier-application