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GRD Journals- Global Research and Development Journal for Engineering | Volume 3 | Issue 5 | April 2018

ISSN: 2455-5703

Cloud Computing-Technologies, Architecture,

Deployment And Service Models
Ch. Madhav Reddy Ch. Karthik Reddy
Student Student
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Department of MBA
Geethanjali college of Engineering and Technology, CMR college of Engineering and Technology, Medchel,
Cheeryal Village, keesara, Hyderabad, India Hyderabad, India

Cloud computing can run our businesses in a better and unique way. Because cloud computing runs on a shared data center. In
1990s, some companies started offering “Virtual Private Network (VPN)” services at a lower cost. The cloud symbol was used to
denote the relation between provider and user. Cloud computing covers servers and network infrastructure. The main features are
location and device independence.
Keywords- Virtual Private Network (VPN), Cloud Computing, CRM

These days, most of the business applications are moving to the cloud. Cloud computing makes it possible to collaborate through
mobile devices. Traditional business applications have always been expensive and complicated. The amount and variety of
hardware and software required to run them are difficult. Businesses are running all kind of applications in the world like CRM,
HR, accounting and more.


Cloud is nothing but a network. Cloud Computing is the process of accessing, configuring and manipulation of online applications.
It provides data storage. Cloud computing is platform independent.

A. Cloud Computing Technologies

1) Virtualization
Virtualization is a technology that shares one application among multiple customers. It assigns a logical name and a pointer to
physical resource when demanded.

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Cloud Computing-Technologies, Architecture, Deployment And Service Models
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2) Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)

Service-Oriented Architecture is a process of using applications as a service for other applications. In this, data exchange between
applications is possible.

3) Grid Computing
In Grid Computing, group of computers from different locations are connected with each other. The computer resources are
heterogeneous and geographically dispersed.

4) Utility Computing
In utility computing, services are offered using metered service.


Two parts:
– Front End
– Back End

1) Front End
Front End refers to the client part of cloud computing system. It consists of applications required to access the cloud computing
platforms. Eg: Web Browser

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Cloud Computing-Technologies, Architecture, Deployment And Service Models
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2) Back End
Back End refers to the cloud itself. It consists of resources required to provide the cloud computing services. It has large data
storage, infrastructure, security, services, applications and servers etc.

A. Cloud Infrastructure Components

Cloud infrastructure has components such as management software, deployment software, hypervisor, network, server and storage.

1) Hypervisor
Hypervisor is a firmware that allows sharing of single cloud resource between several customers.

2) Management Software
Management Software configures and maintains the infrastructure.

3) Deployment software
Deployment Software deploys and integrates the applications on cloud.

4) Network
Network connects cloud services over internet.

5) Server
Server offers services such as allocation, de allocation and monitoring of resources, security and computation of resource sharing.

6) Storage
Cloud uses distributed file system. If one storage resource fails, then it can be extracted from another one. So, it is reliable


These are divided into four types

A. Public Cloud Model

In Public Cloud Model, cloud systems and services are accessible to public. Eg. Microsoft, Google

1) Advantages
– Cost Effective
– Reliability
– Flexibility
– Location Independence
– High Scalability

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Cloud Computing-Technologies, Architecture, Deployment And Service Models
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2) Disadvantages
– Low Security
– Less customizable

B. Private Cloud Model

In Private Cloud model, cloud systems and services are accessible within an organization. It can be internally managed or by third-

1) Advantages
– Higher Security and Privacy
– More Control
– Cost and energy efficiency

2) Disadvantages
– Restricted Area
– Inflexible Pricing
– Limited Scalability
– Additional Skills

C. Hybrid Cloud Model

The Hybrid Cloud is a combination of public and private cloud. Critical activities are performed using private cloud and non-
critical activities using private cloud.

1) Advantages
– Scalability
– Flexibility
– Cost Efficiencies

2) Disadvantages
– Networking Issues
– Security Compliance
– Infrastructural Dependency

D. Community Cloud Model

In Community Cloud model, cloud system and services are accessible by group of organizations. It shares the infrastructure
between several organizations. It can be internally managed or by third-party.

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Cloud Computing-Technologies, Architecture, Deployment And Service Models
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1) Advantages
– Cost effective
– Sharing Between Organizations
– Security

2) Disadvantages
– Since all data is housed at one location, therefore one must be careful in storing data in community cloud because it might be
accessible by others.


There are five cloud service models. They are
– Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS) Model
– Platform as a Service(PaaS) Model
– Software as a Service(SaaS) Model
– Identity as a Service(IDaaS) Model
– Network as a Service(NaaS) Model

A. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

IaaS provides access to resources such as
– Virtual machine disk storage
– Virtual local area network (VLANs)
– Load balancers
– IP addresses
– Software bundles
– Physical and virtual machines.
Using server virtualization, the above resources are made available to end client or customer.

1) Advantages
– Portability, Interoperability with Legacy Applications.

2) Disadvantages
– Compatibility with Legacy Security Vulnerabilities
– Virtual Machine Sprawl
– Robustness of VM-level Isolation
– Data Erase Practices

3) Characteristics
– Virtual machines with pre-installed software.
– Virtual machines with pre-installed Operating Systems such as windows, Linux, and Solaris.
– On-demand availability of resources.
– Allows storing of particular data in particular location.

B. Platform as a Service (PaaS)

PaaS offers development & deployment tools that are required to develop applications and run time environment for applications.

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Cloud Computing-Technologies, Architecture, Deployment And Service Models
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1) Advantages
– Lower administrative overhead
– Lower total cost of ownership
– Scalable Solutions
– More current system software

2) Disadvantages
– Lack of portability between PaaS clouds
– Event Based Processor Scheduling
– Security Engineering of PaaS applications

C. Software as a Service (SaaS)

It refers to software that is deployed on a host service and is accessible via internet. Software as a Service (SaaS) model provides
applications as a service to the end users.

1) Applications
– Billing and Invoicing System
– Customer Relationship Management (CRM) applications
– Help Desk Applications
– Human Resource (HR) Solutions

2) Characteristics
– SaaS makes the software available over the internet.
– They are available on demand.
– They can be scaled up or down on demand.
– They are automatically upgraded and updated.

3) Advantages
– Modest Software Tools
– Efficient use of Software Licenses
– Centralized Management & Data
– Platform responsibilities managed by provider
– Multitenant solutions.

4) Disadvantages
– Browser based risks
– Network dependence
– Lack of portability between SaaS clouds

D. Identity as a Service (IDaaS)

1) Overview
Company employees need to login to system to perform various tasks. These systems may be based on local server or cloud based.
Following are the problems that an employee might face:
– Remembering different username and password combinations for accessing multiple servers.
– If an employee leaves the company, It's required to ensure that each of the user's account has been disabled. This increases
workload on IT staff.
These problems can be overcome by Identity as a Service (IDaaS).

2) Identity
Objects may have same attributes but not the identities. Identity refers to a set of attributes that make it recognizable.
Identity as a Service includes the following
– Directory Services
– Federated Services
– Registration
– Authentication Services
– Risk and Event monitoring
– Single sign-on services
– Identity and Profile management

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Cloud Computing-Technologies, Architecture, Deployment And Service Models
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3) Single sign-on (SSO)

In Single Sign-On software, user has to login only one time and can manage the access to other systems.

4) Working of SSO

1) User logs into the authentication server using a username and password.
2) The authentication server returns the user's ticket.
3) User sends the ticket to intranet server which further sends it to authentication server.
4) Authentication server sends the user's security credentials for that server back to the intranet server.

5) Federated Identity Management (fidm)

In this, FIDM uses Security Markup Language (SAML) to package a user's security credentials.

6) Advantages
– Increased site conversation rates.
– Access to greater user profile content.
– Fewer problems with lost passwords

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Cloud Computing-Technologies, Architecture, Deployment And Service Models
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E. Network as a Service (naas)

1) Overview
Networks as a Service allows users to access the network straight away. NaaS is also based on metered service.
How naas is delivered?
Here, consumer first logs to the web page. Then he pays for the usage.

2) Advantages
– Independence
– Analytics
– Resilience
– Ease of Adding new Service Elements
– Isolation of customer traffic
– Support Models


1) Security & Privacy

Information security should be of primal importance. By encrypting data, we can secure it.

2) Portability
Applications should easily be migrated from one cloud provider to another. There should not be vendor-lock in.

3) Interoperability
Application on one platform should be able to include services from other platform.

4) Computing Performance
Cloud requires high network bandwidth to deliver data intensive applications.

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Cloud Computing-Technologies, Architecture, Deployment And Service Models
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5) Reliability and Availability

Cloud systems should be reliable and robust because most of the businesses are now becoming dependent on services provided by
third party.


1) Emergency Efficient Transmission

Transmission of data between cloud and mobile devices should be frequent..

2) Architectural Issues
Because of heterogeneous environment, there are some issues in architecture.

3) Live VM Migration
There is difficulty in transferring an application to cloud and execute it in virtual machine.

4) Mobile Communication Congestion

Workload is increased because of increased demand for cloud services.

5) Security and Privacy

Since mobile users share their personal information over the cloud, safety and privacy is of primal importance.

This paper discussed the definition of cloud computing, its technologies, architecture, deployment models and service models. It
also addressed the challenges and issues in cloud computing. In spite of these limitations, cloud computing has many advantages
and is used in many businesses.

[1] https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/overview/what-is-cloud-computing/
[2] https://www.tutorialspoint.com/cloud_computing/index.htm
[3] https://aws.amazon.com/what-is-cloud-computing/
[4] https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/cloud-computing.asp

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