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Layouts

Accurate and detailed layout drawings of the donor facility where the
equipment is currently located are required to plan for equipment location
within the destination facility. These drawings also enable engineers
provide the designs to accommodate the necessary utilities.
Facility and equipment layout drawings often become neglected. The
accuracy of the available drawings should be checked and missing
drawings should be replaced before any design effort begins. Items such
as building column locations, equipment quantities, equipment identification
and sizes, utility locations, pits, trenches and aisle sizes should be
confirmed by spot checking. Be sure to note overhead equipment such as
conveyors or cranes that may not appear on layouts.
Introduction

Engineering drawings are used to facilitate the production of all engineering components and
systems. An engineering drawing is only one document of a suite of documents used including
calculations,design specification, data sheets, material specifications etc. etc. There is a strong
economic motivation and often a vital (mandatory) safety requirement that the drawings are fit for
their purpose. Standards including the ones referenced in BS 8888 provide guidance on the
preparation of drawings. Unfortunately drawings are produced by humans or human substitutes
(computers) and often include errors. The checking function is an important function enabling the
reduction of errors to an acceptable level. Checking can be completed at various levels as listed
below:

Signing the check box to get the drawing through the system - useless

Simple scan to check for neatness and presentation -virtually useless

Detailed check of ones own drawing - Useful but not substitute for independent check- One is often
blind to ones own errors

Detailed dimension check by the designer of drawings produced by subordinate draughtsmen.


Useful but design errors may be overlooked

Detailed dimension check by independent engineer- Very useful but fundamental design errors may
be overlooked

Detailed design & dimension check by independent engineer- Very useful with some cost penalty

Design review by diverse design team with follow up detailed independent design /dimension check-
extremely useful -expensive

Engineering production includes an intrinsic self correcting facility in that in the manufacturing
process drawings are used by number of downstream departments each using the drawing for their
own purpose. Each responsible person in these departments seeing the drawing is able to feed back
to the designer any errors noticed. In the various production stages drawing errors may result in
obvious errors in the components produced resulting in scrap and then consequent correction of the
offending drawings. The inspection of finished components often identifies drawing errors which
are communicated to design department. The assembly and testing of produced components often
uncovers problems resulting in correction of drawing errors. The end user of the component will
also have some impact on the design when complaining about its low reliability. All of these
feedback routes have progressively increased cost penalty.

Preparation for Checking

For a drawing check to be completed efficiently and correctly the following items must be available.

Checking pens/pencils three colours [ OK, Delete, Amend ]

Approved design specifications

Information on the service conditions if not included in above

Approved process /mechanical data sheets

Reports /minutes of relevant design review meetings

Company Drawing Standards /Relevant standards e.g. BS 8888 referenced standards

Company Material/Equipment Standards /Relevant Standards/Directives etc e.g Machinery


Directive.

All relevant component literature. e.g. Bearing design data, gearbox information etc

Drawings of existing similar successful operating systems

Full set of completed drawings to be checked

Checking guidance

New Designs

The checker should make himself fully aware of the design requirements by reviewing all documents
prepared prior and following production of the drawings. The checker should, at this stage confirm
that these documents are approved.

Layout /Arrangements

The layout /arrangement drawings should be checked for the following features

The drawings should clearly :


Illustrate the complete system design with no ambiguity

Position the system in the relevant world.e.g. Datum positions and Direction arrow pointing North

Identify the space required by the system.

Identify the access required for and to the system.

Ensure that all sub-assemblies and details are correctly referenced

Indicate floor static / dynamic / full/ empty loadings

Indicate important lifting provisions

Identify the relevant installation drawings.

The checker should, at this stage review in outline that the system will operate satisfactorily and is
aesthetically acceptable and that there are no obvious strength problems. The checker should check
the design against any similar successful systems.

Installation/ Assembly /Detail Drawings

Document presentation:

The drawing should be neat with bold outlines and clear hidden/centre lines The checker should
ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and conforms to the accepted company standards ( Better
to BS 8888 ref'd standards).

The title block should be correctly completed and the title should be clear and provide the correct
key words in the correct arrangement.

The text size should be in accordance with the relevant standard and should be clear without undue
style

All elevations and sections should be made to show most clearly the shape of the items and the
machining production processes to be completed. The drawing should clearly show the the
complete shape and all necessary dimensions of the item.

All sub items should be completely identified against a component schedule. The drawings should
include sufficient notes to clearly identify all production stages, and surface coatings..

If needed sub-views should be used to show parts not easily shown in the main elevations.

Strength:
All parts should be checked for strength and rigidity by confirming that suitable strength calculations
have been completed and the drawing conforms with these calcs. The check should include
comparing the items with similar existing successful parts.

The check should confirm that the design has included consideration of fatigue. If operating
conditions include repeated/reversing loads it is important that sources of stress concentration have
been minimised and calculated strength levels have been suitably adjusted

Materials:

All materials specified should be suitable for the functional requirements and the operating
environment.. In the UK, at this time, material specifications seem to be in continuous flux. There
is still a tendency to specify materials such as BS 970 EN8. This is probably acceptable as it is
definitive but it is much better to use the latest material specification and the material should be
specified as recommended in the relevant standard.

The checker should provide an input on the suitability of the material form if a significant design
improvement or cost reduction results.i.e forged, cast, welded.

Dimensions

Ensure the drawing includes all dimensions and that the dimensions are correct.

Dimensions should be checked manually to confirm they are to scale. If any dimension is out of
scale ensure that, if it is correct, then it is marked appropriately..

Overall dimensions should be clear and unambiguous and machining allowances should be
identified.

Reference dimensions provided only for information should be so identified

All extension lines should go to the correct points on the drawings

All arrow points should point to the correct witness points

The geometric and linear tolerances and limits should be checked to ensure correct clearances and
tightness

Ensure there are no strings of dimensions where errors can accumulate

If the machining process includes a requirement for co-ordinate positioning the parts should be
dimensioned accordingly

Checking for assembly

Ensure all parts can be conveniently assembled with the associated parts
Male parts filets/chamfers and female part radii/ fillets to be sized so they do not interfere on
assembly .

Ensure bearings fits are correct to allow relative motion

The parts should include features to enable dismantling if required

Castings

It is important when checking items made from casting that the requirements of the casting process
are considered e.g. the method of supporting the cores, vent provisions, and pattern split lines.

Cast items should be of uniform thickness - no adjacent thick and thin sections

Generous fillets should be used

Ensure that machining allowances are included for core movement and swelling.

Ensure sufficient machining allowances are provided for distortion of the casting

Machining

Ensure that the correct machining symbols are used and they are located against the correct
surfaces or witness lines

When specific machining operations are required ensure that the requirements are identified

Confirm that the correct drill, reamer,and tap sizes are included on the drawing

Ensure that all features required to ensure convenient machining are provided i.e. clamping points

Ensure that where required suitable raised faces are included to allow clear machining operations

Ensure clearances are provided for machining and fastening spanners

Handling

Ensure that all details include the weights

All heavy items than say > 300N should include provision for lifting

All lifting points should be clearly identified

Specific lifting features should include requirement for factory testing -e.g a note

The checker should confirm that the necessary calculations for the the lifting points have been
completed and approved
Identification

All components and main assemblies should be clearly identified either by an code number which
cannot easily be removed or a fixed on label

Heat Treatment

When needed the drawing should identify clearly that heat treatment is required and should also
identify the relevant specification

The checker should confirm that the specified heat treatment is appropriate

CAD drawings.

It is desirable that within a company all CAD drawings are produced to a common CAD standard.
This aspect of the drawing process is generally checked as a separate process

Checking CAD drawings includes confirming that the following tasks have been completed correctly..

Separating parts of the drawing onto separate layers (title blocks, Line Types, etc)

Using standard fonts

Using Designated line types

Allocating colours to drawing features

Using correct title blocks / labels /borders

Drawing to scale when plotted at designated size

Blocks correctly inserted and unused blocks purged

Associated dimensions used