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,----- :.,. ..

-h “--+-
--e

. . --. -- ——-. -.......--—— .. . .—. .... ,. . . .. .. .. . -

-.
L“””.
-, ---
--i.: ~..,. -“W. AD?-lSORY
C(NIXiH’TiL2
FORAEROPNJrIICS
TECHNICAL NOTE 3781
OAR
TECHNICAL
LIBMY
AFL2291

=~- I - BUCKIJNG OF FLAT PLATES

-.-
q “-e -~d andHerbertBecker
*
Xew YarkUniversity

..
. . ?*.

I
.
&
s“” Wmngtoil
my 1957
.


I
.,
. . . -——-

.
.

.- -1
---- ---i- - i
—..
TECHLIBRARY
KAFB,
NM ‘

llllllllll]llll[lkll~ll!
E
IIOLLL+

S!!m.lw.-.
-.a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1

,~ 1N3%C)IXJCTIOH...
.... .... . . . . . . ----- . . . . . 1
● .
S!mKKIJJ”.
.. . . . . . . . . ... . . ...* .: ---- ----- 3
—.
*..

13ASZ2.PRIIJC?X’L
=....... . . . . . . . . ------ ---- 7
Remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .--.
General * . ---- 7
F@.ilLbriun
Di.t<=z~alEquation . . . . . . . s.-.....- -..-- ‘i
*_~lntegrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . *.”. ● !3
dilutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- .?... . ..- 10

~coxmmcxs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..*I2
lkthe=timl~sis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. -12
Jhticlastic
e?lzz-ture
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..l~
SZEESS-STRA12T
~IGlii311 YIELDRBHON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s
5hree-Parameter
kcription of Stress-Strain Cum=5=5. . . . . . . K
inelastic
lkdti. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. 17
me3.astic
Poi=$=*sRatio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...17

~fx!rY-Rxmnz%aFxxmS . . . ..*...-.. . . . . . ..+19


2Mastic-EwI&Lqj-StressEquation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 19
J3mrparisoa
of.55kories
and&pertiintal &ta . . . . . . . . . . 2Q
Assumptions
of ZEelastic-BuckMngTheories. . . . . . . . - . . 20
Inelastic-Bu_ !X%eo5es . .. .. ... . . . . . . . . ...23
FactorsUsedim C!mqwtations ... . ... .. . . . . . . . ..24
of 3hndizensionlQ
CcLnstmction Euckling-s . . . . . . . . . 25
~m-GREMscTJEE EwmRs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..-
33esicPrinciples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. --’
lkrivationof W Stress-Strain Curve . . . . . . . . . ..-.=
#2cmpzmL5un
ofmeQrysmd Eqerhent . . . . . . - . -......27
kivations Of ~fied c~g Reduction ~CtC2ZZZ * a e - a. - 28
I!sse1. IOng~Iy supporte~ pletesincompr~~~ . . . . - 26
Csse2. Pkteaums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..2g
Case3. Longs&k@y supporte~ platesinshear - . . . . . . . 2g
~ QFmAT E=2!2K?I=ULAR-Pup UN!ERccMmEssm= X&ms . . . . 31
3fstorical
E.se~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
~cal Values=f C=pressive-13uckMng Coeffic=- =ur
Ehtes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -’

—. -- -——- --- .
... ,

.
., r.-
......%1.6;-,
1.

l?.-:.:
Sup~rtedPlate,
E~cesElasiicQ>-?==T==–.-==== &=illst
Rotation. . . . . . . . . ------------- -- ”=-” 32
Plates
WithUnequal FklgeRoLLLZZ-L ‘~ —..
..“---
... - . - . . - . . . - 33 -,
Supported
klanges
WithElastic :~—-—====..%===-=int. . . . . . . 33
n Effect
of IateralRestminton ~~? ‘--~- - - . . . . . . . . . . 3%
. .-:.
EUCKLIWJ
OF FiiTRECTAXXJLARPIJ== ===== ==== WADS . = . - . - ~~

HistoricalIhckground. . . . ------------ ---- =”35


SymmetricandAntisyrmetricM&-= . . - . . . . - . . . . - - - . 3%5
EumericalValuesof Shear-~cUq 2==—--=:——- - - - - - - = - -
Effectof PlateLengthon BuckltLK ,i&kfEZL*2s?-. . . . . . . . . 36
KXKGINGOFFIATFWTANGULMPLATESEZZ=T LSXJ=XG 3JMDS. . - - - - 36
Historical
l?ackground... ----------- .-- ~----%
Numsrical
Vah~esof Bending-Ewxz%l$-~
_Z~ ;&s*- e-.--*. - 36
HJCHJN3OF Phil’
RECTMGULARPrA!i55Q3KK==.--* ~--’?mms ------ 37
~ne~~~c~o~a.... . . . . . . . . . . . . --.....37
Biaxial
.Co-=pression
. . . . ------------ ------ t--3T .
Shearan&Hoxmal S+xess.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %
BendingandNormalStress.----------- -..--..-39
Bending,and
ShearStress.. -------------- -.=---$x
Ber~ing,Shear,andTransverse -.***. ---- kl
Benin, Longitud+= S.”-==-,
Longittiinal and
Transverse
Coxzpression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...42
Combined
~elasticStresses . ---------- . . . . . ...&
EETK?l?
OF PRESSURE
ON KHKDG = E%=====”= .-IT-T= - - - . - &3
?kmgeofPublishedResults.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...~~
Longitudiral%f
CompressedIaw .~!= ~Plates ... ..
Lmgitudini CoqressedLcmz~ +.iz.%~. . . . . . . . ..*
.
SPECIALC
AS:3
. . . . . ...* -,-----------*’- -- ”-*
Useof Elastic-Eucklin6-%ress~— %*..=-.Z-. -. . . ...” &
AxiallyCoqressed PlateWithW=- ------.-~~ and!IMclmess. . #
AxiallyCompressedP:.lte
Withm-i=+- ‘2 =3 Cond=nt
‘l%ickne.=
. . . ..-. ---------- --------o-
Par&LlelogmmPanels4LnCmp~-- ------------- .- :;
ParaUelogramPlates.m. . ------------ .--- =-~
Triangular
Plates. . . . . . -- a --------- -----.==
A - APPlzT4TIoNsEtmmN
APPEWDIX --. --- m.---
. . . . . . . . ...’=
Intr&.uction =...... . - j----------- --------~
Physical
Properties
ofMaterial=. . ... -.- . . . - . . . . . . . @
Compressive
Eucklinc. . . . . . ---------< -..---~~

.— ----- .—— — ..—-—- . .---. — ... . —— .-. .


.. . .. ..-.,

..
--..:-

PIRteE . . . ... . . . . . - . . -.. . . . . . . . .


FlsrAes. . . . . . . . . -.. . . -.. . . .
PlateColuzms. . . . . . - . -.. . . . . . . - -- —
9xw.rB~ckling . . . . . . . . -.. . . . .
● . . . -=
.-
*
_ %in~ Buckling. . “ . -- .-. . ..-
✎ .
m C!cmbir~&
Lading . . . ,. ---- . ..-
✎ . .

. RL3RJCH . . . . . . . . -.. . ✎ ----

TEtiAEs*. . . . .- . . . *-. . ● ---- .

FKXZELZS
.. . . . . . s .--, .- ., -, . . -*- ✎ **. - . &-
1

I
1

.-

..— — . . —t. -. —.. .— , ..... -— .—-


.
.. . . . .... . . ..,. ..;.. , .,-,
. . . ...”. .1.- . . :. ,.-. .: :.,.
,,, ..:c-:r.,- .,-

-. .--—

T~A:~[!i
~~~ ~{’~~ ~’fij~

HN21PC)OK
OF oSINJCZIJLIL
SYYLKCLIi’Y
PART1 - PLJCKLIRG
OFFIATPL4TSS
~ GeorgzGerard
a&.EerLert
Becker

SUMMA.RY

A Thevariousfactorsgoverninz
bucklirg
of flatplatesarecritically
retie-~ed
andtheresultsaresumarized ina coqrehensiveseries of charts
acd+&bles.Numericalvaluesarepresented
forbuc’kling
coefficients of
flatplateswithvariousboundary
conditions
andappliedloadings.The
effects
of plasticity
areinco~ratedinnondimensionalbuckling charts
utilizing
thethree-parazeter
description
of stress-strain
curves.

INTRODUCTION

His “Ikmdbook of StmcturalStability” presentsa rathercoqreken-


siveretiewandco.~ilation of theories&ail
experi=iental
datarelstingt-o
thebuckling arid
failure of plateelementsencounteredin theairf~.
~ =et theanticipateii ceedsof thosewhowouldusethisrew.e~: aadcorri-
pilation,it appearedbest.tQ adopta handbookstyleof presentation.
Thersterial isnotintended as a textbook
inwhichtF&ez@ELsls is often
on ther~themticaldevelowent of dif~erent
typesof relatedproblenz. $r
Neitheris it intendedto>orpete tiththef~ar aircraft-c&pany .-
structuresmcualswhichgenerdJypresent designinfo?nr~tion,
empirical 7
data,andmetkais of extending resultsbeyondthescopeof theoriginal
report.
‘Thishandbook
attezptsto coverthegenerallyneglectedareabetween
thetext-k andthestxwctures ranual.Noattempt istie topresent an
exhaustivecoverage
of mathematical
techniqueswhichareof greatimpor-
tanceIn thesolutionof buckling
prablers”.This=terialhaBbeenwell
presentedin several
excellentbooksandpapers whichareincludedin the .
referencelist.Thesubject of colunns
is comprehensively
treatedin
severalbooksand,therefore,theinclusionof suchmaterialin this
reviewdidnotappearto bewarranted.
Thispresentationprimrilyconstitutes
a critical
retiewof devel-
opwsntsconcerning
bucklingandfailureof,plateele=ntssincethe
early1940’s.Thisdatehnebeenselected sincethelastcomprehensive
reviewof thisnature(ref.1) appeared
at tlwttime.

----- —- ———._ —

In theraintextof thi~report,
thevarious
factors
appearing
in
thegeneralbuckling-stress
equation

ha 12
ucr(cm7==) = qij (1;
121- (b
~e2))
(

arecritically
examined
fromthes~.dpointof theirtheoretical
develop-
mentanQtheagreement
of-theory
withtestda’a.
In tbesection
entitled
“EasicPrinciples”a briefreview of the
Lasicxmthematical
principles
involvedin solutionof bucklingproblem
la given.Theprbaryobjecti--einpresentingthismaterial is to
acquahtthereader withtheapproximate
methods usedinordertobe
ableta indicatetheaccuracy
of tkeresultscfparticular solutions
discussed insubsequent
sections.
Tnthesection entitled
%uudary Conditions”
theini’lu=.ce
of the
geometric&nm&ry conditio~supontkebuckling
stresstsdis~sed et
somelength.It isindicated thattheuseofa freeunloaded edgeina
plateinvolvesPoisson’sratiointhecompressive
b??ckling
coefficient.
Assan example,
thebucklingcoefi’icients
forplatecolu!ms,flanges,and
simplysupportedplatesaredetermice5
fromtheoryto dezmnstrate
the
effectafvarious boundary
conditions
uponthebehatiorof suchelements.
Also,theth&e-parar&er method
ofrmthe-~tically
describingstress-
strainrelationsispresented
inan introductory
mannerinthesection
entitled“Stress-Strain
Relations
in.theYieldRegion.”Useof this
methd affordsa considerable
simplification
inthepresentationof
resultsof ineLsticbuck’ing
theories.
Theeffectsof exceeding
theproportional
limitofa rmterialare
incorporated
ina plasticity-reduction
factorq. Because of thenri-
ouatheoriesthathavekeenrecently
advancedtogether
withthefact
thatno onepublication
hasreviewed
theconflicting
assumptions
of –.

* !

.- -... -—..- ——-. I


,,. .,-:p . . . . . J
... ..- f:.

Theeffect of claddin&
u~n theL.ickling
stressof flatplaheshas . ..
keentreate~hy an extension
of inelastic-buckling
theory.In tl:esec-
k; tionentitled“CladdingReduction a simplified
Factors” treat..mnt
of
. .. buckling
of cladplatesispresented iri
whichvaluesforthecladding
Correction
factor~ arederived.
Thebaclc~~?dfordeterringtheelastic-kuckllngcoefficient
k
haskeenwelldocumented.Tkerefore,
thelastsectionsercconcerfied
withthebuckling
coefficients
fora largenumberof cases.Thepresen-
tation
consi6ts,
fortt.e?m6tpart,ofa straightforward
cataloging
of
results
intheformof buckling-coefficient
charts.
Theappendixhasbeenorganized fcrunimpededuseinanalysis and
designandforthisreason RO referencesappearinthisportion of’the
repOrt.Thereferences are examinedindetailin thepertinent. part of
themaintext.Theliterature is reviewed
anddiscussedbothas tocon-
teutandapplicationto theparticular problem.Experimentalevidence
Ispresented
whereittend6to Substantiate onethecryamng several
whichmayhavebeenadvanced on a particular
phaseof thebuckling prob-
lem;plasticity-reduction
factors areperhapsthemastconspicuous e~m-
pleof this.Thus,therecozzzendation fora particular
theoqy is gen-
e- supported
byexperimental data.
The=& textalso containssomenewmterialdeveloped duringthe
courseof thiscompilation.
Although
suchmaterial
is importanttothe
unification
of priorresults,
ithasnotbeenconsideredof sufficient
consequence
tomeritseparatepublication.
Therefore,
wkensuchmate-
rialdoesappearinthishandbookitisin a detailed
form.
Thissurvey
wasconducted
under the sponsorship
andwiththefinan-
cialassistance
of theEational
Adviso~CommitteeforAeronautics.

-IS
.

Ar areaof ribcrosssectioa,
sq in.
a longdimension
ofplate,
usually
unloaded
edgefnuniaxial
compression,
in.
b shortdimension
ofplate,
usually
loadededgeinuniaxial
compression,
in.

——— —... - —

()
. .
..-.

I
cl. ..c4
]
.

❉ D platecross-cectioa
rigidity,
Et3/12(1
- V2),lb-h.
!
D1 plastic
platecross-section
rigidity,
E6t39,
b
/ lb-in.
E Young’c
dulus, psi
secent
mdulus, O/c
tangent
mdulus, du/de
secant
andtangent
rzodulus
forcladplates,
respectively

ratioof totalclaading
thickness
to totalplatethickness
shearnmdulus

cmuient
ofinertia

3= (%/E)(1- Vez)(1- Vq
K mdifiedbuckling
coefficient,
kx2@(l - V2)
k buckling
coefficie~t
i“
L length
ofplate,in.
M bending
moment
applied
inplaneofplate,
in-lb
i
;* N axialload,lb/in.
e
n. numberoflongitudinal
halfwavesinbuckled plate;also,
d shapeparameter
forstress-strain curve
.
.
P normalloadappliei
in plane of plate,atb,lb
} P nornul
pressure,
psi
4

—.. - ... . .—. --- -. —. .-J.


..... -,-T-
, .. ..

!
i-,
,.
. .

i;.G---; veo+\)~
~ shesrlouding,
lb/in.

6= E2+ ve(flb/A)2
R strezs ratio

t thickness
of plate,W.

u= - ks- %+ + ks-
(%+ )/( )
w potential
energy,
in-lb
w displacement
nomal toplaneofplate,
in.
X,y,
z coordinates
y.l+3pf
a + 6M)
edgeangle,deg;also,12M/(Pb

& = fi(b/A)L/2
*
$ ratioof cla~ding
yieldstress
to core stress,‘cl/acore$
also,loadingratioforplatewithvaryingaxialbad,
Maxhmlload/14imim71
lead

Y shearstrain
normalstrain;
also,ratioof rotational
rigidity
of plate
e~gesti?fener
toro~=tionalrigidity
ofplate
..
plasticity-reduction
factor
cladding
reduction
factor
total-reduction
factor,qfi

bucklehalfwavelength, in. .
v inelastic
Poisson’s
l%tiOj V = Vp - ~p-J’e)(%/E) for
orthotropic
solids

-.
. ——
.- .— —
—— ,-————-
,.. ,
. ...’....
....

~ 1/2
intensity,~x2+ ~y2- axay+ 3T,
stress ) , psi
(
~o.7JJo.85 stress mdulus,o.p.=d 0.85E,
at secant respectively,
psi

T. shearstress>
psi
~ angleofdiagonal
support radians
taplatewidth, or deg

Subscripts
:
A,B values
at station
A andstation
B; seefig.30
av average
b bending
c compression
c1 cladding
proportional
limit
cr critical
orbuckling
e elastic
P plastic
pl proportional
limit
r intraverse
ribof compressed
plate
B shea”r
Sm shearon infinitely
longplate
X,y directions
of loading
+. loadings
producing
tension
loadings
producing
compression
.

● ✎✎
. ~u:,.:if:c,::s:
. ...
“--’-

c c h!!.pd

F free
. Ss s iqiy suppurtei
(hinged)

Insketches
acccnyanying
figures,
supported
edgeswithelustic
rota-
✎ tiofial
restraint
areshwn shaded.Unshaded
loaded
edgesaresimply
sup~orted.
Unshaded
unloaded
edgesarefree.

BASICPRINCIPLES
General
Renarks

Thetheoretical bucklingstress ofa flatstructural ele~~ntisthe


stressatwhichan exchange d stable equilibriumconfigurations
occurs
tet-~enthestraight and.theslightly bentform.Itmarkstheregionin
whichcontinued applicationof loadresults inacceleratedgrowthof
deflectionsperpendicularto theplaneofthe~:ate.Itsimportance lies .—
in thefactthatkuckling initiates thephysi~-~.l
processeswhichleadto
eventualfailure of theplate. 74<
*..
Themathe.=tical” solutionofparticular kuckling
problemsreqtires
thatequilibrium andboundary conditions be satisfied.Thiscanbe
accozplishe~by integration
of theequilibrium partialdifferential
equa-
tionof theflatplateor by useof mathematical n&thodswhichmaynot /
completelysatis&theboundary or equilibriumconditions. Theformer
solutionsareexactwhereas themethods basedgenerallyon ecer~ inte-
gralsareapproximate althoughusually veryaccurate. Theneedfor t
approximaterithodsarisesfromthefactthatexactsolutions canbe
foundforonlyalimited numberof buckling problemsof practical
importance.
In thissection,a briefoutline
of themethods
of analysis
of
▼ buckling problems
ispresented.Forextensivediscussions
of thevari-
ousmethodsofanalysisandtheirapplication
to a widevariety
of prob-

lems,reference
to thelooksof Timshenko,
Sokolrdkoff,andDleich
✌ (refs.2tok) issuggested.


Equilibrium
Differential
Equation
Thegenemlformofthedifferential
equation
describing
theslightly
bentequilibrium
conflgumtion
ofan initially
flatplatewasderived
by
StQvell
in thefollowing
form(ref.5]:
.


.+- —.—— . -—-. — —— ,--——.
.
,..
.,. ..’

I ,

I
(2)
.

. inwhichtheconstants
aredefined
as:

cl= 1- (3/4)
(a+=,)’
~ - ..(%/’s]

( /2)~-(%,’s]
C2 = 3u~Tai

*
C=j=l- (3/4)
py’-’)k
-’
(w’
s] (3)

C4= 3ay7ai
( I’)p(’a

t
t
Thesedefinitions
oftheconstmtsare&sed on theassumption
thatno
elastic
unloadingoccursduring process.Furthermore,
thebuckling a
valueof Misson’sratioeqwl to 11’2was
assured
forboththeelastic
andinelasticrangee.
range,%.~% = 1,and,therefore,
In the elastic fora32loadings —.=
C1.C3=C5=I and C2 = C4 = O,andequation
(2)reduces
to the
familiarequilibriaequationfortheelastic
case:

. &=&+2&+3
ax4
. .
.
(4)

—- . ..._. ____ —_. ._. _— .,.


~. ~ ..— . ..— —.- -. .---- —..
8 krdingrigidity whereasthe elastic
of D‘ = l?L3/9, valueis
D = Et3/12(1
- Ve2).
.
Thesolution
of individual
buckllngprohle=s canbe mostreadily
handledby selection
ofappropriatesolutionsof equation(2),insertion
of properboundary
conditions,
andminimization to obtainthebuckling
d stress.h thisconnection,thebuckling stresses fors@ly supported
pletecolumns,compressed
flanges,
andplatesareconsidered in some
detailin thesectionentitled
“BoundaryConditions”to illustratethe
differencesinb~ckling
behatiorof tkse structuralelezients.

Knergy
Integrals
Sinceexactsolutions
to equations
(2)and(4)canbefoundfor
onlya llmited
numberof bucklidproblems
of practical
importance
approximate
solutions
genemllyutilizing
ener~ integrals
havefound
tideapplication.
Thepotentialenergy of theplateanditsloading systemis repre-
sentedby thedifferenceof twointegrals. Thefirstintegr~of equa-
tion(5)representstheincrease in strain energy duetabending and
tuistingoftheplatedurir~thebuckling process, whereas thesecond
integralrepresents
energy associatedwith rrembranestresses resulting
fmm lateraldeflection. If thepkte edgesarefixedduring buckling,
thelatter rermesents
themembrane ener~. If theedgesexperience a
relati.~shif~,thesecond integralrep~esents thewo=koftheexternal
loadingsystem. t ..
Thegeneralenergyintegralforpkteswithsimplysupported
edges
wasderived
by Stowell(ref.5) fortheinelastic
case:
.:.
1

.-
+
J

(5)

,.—— ——— — — — ..~—————— -..—— .—. . .—---


. . ..

~-’-’-” ‘ “-- #--


.

,
,

I restraints
of magnitude
c along t!.o edgesof th!plate,tlien tt~e
strnin
enerm inthesercstrnintm
isaddedtoequation (5). Thesetermshave
theform

‘ oJ \QY/y=yo

where y. Istheedgecoordinate.

Fortheelastic
case,equation
(5)c-k simplified
to

dxdy-

(6)

Soluttons
h principle,
of aU thedeflection functionssatisfying
thegeo-
metricboundaryconditions
of theproblem, thepotential
ener~ AM will
be zeroforthatfunctionwhichalsosatisfies theequilibriumdifferen- .
tialequation. Thisfunctionwouldbe an exactsolution
of theproblem.
Sinceexactsolutionscank-efoundinonlya lfmited numberof cases,
theener~integrals areof greatusefulnessinfindingapproximate solu-
tionswhichsatisfythegeometricbcmndsry conditions
exactly
andthe
differential
equationapproximately.Thus,oftheseveral~.ctions
satisfyingthegeometric
boundarycotiitionsbutnotnecessarily thedif-
ferentialequation,
thefunctionforwhichtheener~integral Isa mini-
xmnnconstitutes
tkebeetapproximatesolutionof thedifferentialequation.
Probablythebestlmmunenergymethodfordetermining
thebuckling
stressof thinplatesis theRayleigh-Ritz Themethodcon-
procedure.
sistsof thefo~ouingsteps:
. (1]Thedeflection
surface ofthebuckled plateisexpressed
in
expended
fom as thesumof an infinitesetof functions
having
undeter- .
minedcoefficients.
Ingeneral, eachtermoftheexpmsionmst satisfy
thegeometrical
boundaryconditionsof theproblem.

,—-— .-— —- — .—— —— - -—


z (3)Thisminimizingprocedureleadsto a set of lineu.r
horzogeneous
equations
in theundetcr.i~c2coefficients.TheseequationshRvenoll-
~ vanishing
solutionsonlyif thedeteralr%ntof theircoefficient
vanishes.

, i
Thevanishingof thisstability provides
determintint theequation
that
f rnybe solvedfortheb!!cklingstress.
Whentkesetof fuctionsuse~is a completesetcapabls
of repre-
. . senting
thedeflection,
slope,arid
curvatureof anypossible
platedefor-
mation,
thesolutionobtained
is,inprinciple, exact.Since,however,
theexact.
stability
de’termlnant
isusuRllyinfinite,a finite
determinant
yielding
approximate
results
isusedinstead.
Thebucklingstresses
obtainedby theapproximate
methodarealways
higherthantkeexactsolution althoughtheynaybeveryaccurate.This
is 8 resultof thefactthatthedeflectionfunctionapproximates
the
truebuckleshapeandtherefore the~tentialeneraresulting fromuse .—
of theapprox~tingfunction isgreater thanzero. Ifthedeflection
fumctianisthetrueone,thenanexactsolution to thedifferential
equationis obtained.
If a deflection
function
ischosen whichsatisfies
thegeometrical —
boundaryconditions
approxtitely,
it ispossible toobtaintuckling
2 stresseswhichapproach
theexactsolution fromthelowerside.This
canbeaccomplishedbya revision
of theRayleigh-Ritzprocedure
known
as theLagrangian
multiplier
method.
TheIagmngian multipliermethod
followsthegeneral procedure
out-
linedfortheRayleigh-Ritzmethodwithbutonesignificant cluznge.The —
restriction
instep(1)thatthekaundary conditions
be satisfiedby
everytermof theexpmsionisdiscafied andisreplaced by thecondition,
thattheexpansionas a wholesatisfies
theboundsrj
conditions. This
condition
ismathematicallysatisfied
in step(2),during theminimization
process,
by theuseof Iagrangian.titipllers.
Theadvantage of theI.agrangian
multiplier methodliesin thefact
that,withtherejection of thenecessity of thefulfillmentof boundnv
conditionstermby term,thechoice of an expansionismuchlessrestricted-
. Forexample,in theclamped-plate compressionproblem,a simpleFourier
expansionnayke usedinstead of thecomplicated functionsusually
assured
4 in theRayleigh-Ritzanalysesof thisproblem.Ftihermore, theorthogo-
. nalitypropertiesof thesimpleFourier expansion leadtoenergyexpres-
sionsof a simplicitythat1s instnment.alinpermitting accurate
computations.
c

.—-——~— -r-~——---- .—.


,..
... ., ,,

ThLslWi!IOi&Itd
i.tS
fi~~IliCZLiO:l
iOSpec
tticprO*L~VIG
isU,:..:
rit;wl
WA HU (Wr. 6). l%cyhivetreatei
by h.dimlsky ~kckgranl~im mul.
tl.
-
plierr=tlxxl
ina namer inwhichit ispossibletoobtuinupproxIz&Le
solutionsforiothupperandloxerbourds.As dewrmin:~nts
of lli~!ler
orderarz usedto o!.:.ain
betterapproxlmitioas,
taththeup>erandl~wcr
boundsapproachthetme bucklingstrcsc.Thu6,theIagrangianmlti-
pliermethodraybeusedto ohtsd.nresults
tithir.
anydesired
degreeof
, accuracy.
Inadditiontotheaboveprocedures whichsrebasedonenergyir.tc-
. grals,othermethodsof obtaining approximatesolutions
of buckling prob-
lemshavebeenuse~whichinvolve theequilibriumdifferentialequation.
~CtiOnS which&&:lsfythegeorr~trical tiundary
conditionsexactly are
usedto sat~sfy
t~.egoverning differential equation
approxkately by
processes
thatleadto integration of thesefucctions.Galerkln’s =thod,
finite-difference
e.~uations,relaxation techniques,
anditeration aresome
of thenumerical
nethods thatcanbeused.

KUNDARYCONDITIONS

Thenature
of thebuckle rattern
ina relatedependsnotonlyupon
thetypeof appliedloading butalsouponthe=%er in whichtheeds=s
aresupported.Thisis illustrated infigure1 inwhichthes&me-al
compressive
loadingis seen to generate
threetypesof bucklepatterns
on a longrectangular
platewithdifferentgeo~’tricalboucdarycondi-
tions.Thesingle waveisrepresentativeof coluzn behatior,
thetwisted
waveis representative
of flangebehatior,
andtkemultiple-bucklepattern
58representative
of platetehatior.
N indicate them=nne=in whichtine
geometric
boundarycondltio-=
mathe-tically
influencethebuc’klingbehavior
an~alsotodamnstrate
thesolutionof theequilibriumdifferential
equation(eq.(4))forsome
particular
cases, theplatesshowninfigure1 cueanalyzed.I!o-..f
conditions
vhichc~cterize simply sqrporte~
vi~ecolumns,~ges,
andplatesareconsidered. ●

-. Wthemtical&ialysis
.
Theequilibrium
differential
equation
forelastic
buckling
of a
d
unlaxially
compressed
platecanbecbtained
fromequation
(4)in the
form
.

(7)

-.. -.—.— . .. .. .. . . .- .. . --- -.—— - . .- . -.—


——— .
-,, .,,.
...!
.J.
;

T!, isES.5UT.*2,3
.&Ild~h~’refore
;

w= c1
. (

uhere
. . .—
(9)

(lo)

. (m

Thecoefficients
cl to C4 areto be dete.nzined
by thegeometrical
bmndaryconditions
alongthe‘&nloadei
edgesof theplate.
Fortiewidecolumn,
tkeunloaded
edgeslocated at y = tb/2 are
free,andconsequently
theedgeEmQent6
andre-iuced she?~s must be zero.
Therefore, .

.
.
.

*
Fortheflange,theunloaded
Ii
A~ + 2(1 -Ve)zz-

edgeat y = O isassumed
ax~ytib/2
1

to he simply
*O
(1’)

. .
supported
andthatat y b is free: ●

... . . .. .—— .— .—
A:- ;,:‘.
.,.,..”)”,‘;:;

.
(W)y=()
=o

(=+veG),=o,b=o
&+2~-’e)-]y=b=0
. .

Theplateisassumed
tobe siMPly
suppmtedalongtheunloaded
ed~es” —
located
ai y = ~b/2:

(w)y~b/2
=o

()
a’%
—+,,22
*& ~2 ~*~/2 = 0
.

of theseboundary
Incorporation conditions
intothesolution given
by equation
(8)leadsto thefollowing
implicit
expressions for kc.

Forthecolumn,

1
. for the flange,
1
#p sinh&cosp - ~%coshtisln~= O (16)
.
andfortheplate
.
. .
[itanh{~/2) +j3 tan(5/2~-1=
O (17)
d

. .
where #-

5=&2 - ve(xb/A)2
.

,-—. —— .-—. ._ ----- — .-—.—_


!.,

~lebucklingcoefficient
fora sixplysupported
flange
wasderived
(ref.
~,yt,w@@st andStowell 8) in theform


kc = (6/Lr2)
{
(1
- ‘e)i[fib/A)2/6]} (18)

kc=0.83 -0.93ve+L34(A/fib)2+
0.10(xb/A)2 (19)

Forthe s*W supported


plate

kc= [m +(b/AjJ2 (a

Anticlastic-titure
AS my be seenfromthesolutions intheprecedingsection, the
,,U:klingcoefficientfor thesimply supportedplatedependsupononly
~d 1s independent ofRissontsratio, whilethecoefficientsfor
‘J/A
the@ de column andflmgearefunctions ofboth Ve and b/L ThiS
~5tufitionisnotlimited totbecaseof 6fmple support
alonebutper-
~tl,vtoa~ degree of rotationalrestraintalongtheW-A ed=s of I
~ ~lfitec Theinfluence of v= upon ~ istraceable to thereduced-
te- atthefreeedgesof flanges
~~lemr andcolumns.Boundary condi-
such
til)rl~ as simplesupportdo notImpose t herequirement
of zero
~ettuc~she= ~ong theunloaded edges, whicheliminates
the Ve influ- “
,ntofrom therelationship for kc.

me valueof thecompressive
buckling
coefficient
foranelement
~mtdinin6 unloaded
edgedepends
a free Fora verynarrow uponthedegree ofanticlastlc
developed.
~~lrV/LtUL~ elementsuchas a be&m,complete

,--- .——
enbiclastlccurutureoccurs anithelending rigiditiy
iu slc.plyEI. ?01”
a relativelyvitie
Btrip,t?ma:iticlaztic is suppressed
CU-JatIJre so t?.t~t —.
thecrosssectiofireraizsrelntlve>yflatexceptfora highly laculize;
Curlingat thefreeeigesvkre the~tress distribution
rermrapges itself
. to satisfythegeometricalbow-simycomiibions.Therestraint of ant.i- —
. cksticcurntureres-dts inm increase inbending stiffIMss. Fora
verywideele~ent, tkek.::.<irg
stiff~ess
approaches EI/(1- v2);this
limitingconditionis~.r-~::
as cylindrical
kending.
.- Platecolumns
andflanges
my oft-enhe relatively
narrow,
inwhich
casethebendingstiffness
liesLctweenthelimitingvaluesdiscbssed.
Thiseffectcanteacccunted
forby useoffigure2. —

STRESS-STRAIN
R!21ATIONS
INYIELDRIGION
Three-tineter
Description
ofStress-Stmin
Curves

Stress-strain
cumesareof f’undanental
iqcmtanceinthecosrputa-
tionof inelastic
buckling
stresses.Thenumberofdesire
chartsrewired
forthemny materialsa~-ilable
andthevariousallowabie
stresses~or
thesemterialsat nomalandelevate~temperatures
canbetrewmdous;ly
reducedbyuseof a nondimensional
mathematical
description
of stress-
strainrelations.
RambergandOsgod(ref.9)haveproposed a three-pszaneter
repre-
sentation
of stress-strain
relationsintheyieldregion whichFRSfound
wideapplication.TY.eir
e~uationspecifiesthestress-straincurveky
theuseof threepar==ters:ThemduluEof elasticity E, thesecant
fieldstressCO-7 corres~nding to theintersectionof thestress-
stralncurveanda secantof 0.7E,andtheshapeparameter n which
describes
thecwxa:uzzeof thekneeof thestress-strain curve.The
ebapepa.raceter
isa function of ‘Jo.7~d ~0.85J thelatter stress
corresponding
toa secantof0.55Eas shownin figure 3(a).Theshape
~ter n ispresentti infigure 3(b)as a function
oftheratio
‘0.7
/‘0.85”
. . Thethree-paraceter
method
is base~on theexperimen~lobservation #
thatformny mterialsa simple
~wer lawdescribestherelationbetween
m theplastic
andelasticcomponents
of strain.Eyuseof this fact,tke
.- following
nondimensional
equation
canbederived:
n
Ee=
=0.7 e
+2A
()
7U0.7
(a)
.

.
tire nond~rwmio::al
ThequalitiesM-/l?~.yan: u/C(-J,7 andccmsc~uefiLly
tk nondimensional
stress-struin
curves shornin figureh canLeplottei.
i Therefore,
thestress-strain
curwxof ranyffi%erials my be foundwith‘
! theaidof figy?e
h providingE, n, ahd =0.7 areknownforthespe-
,
cificmterials.

Moduli
Inelastic
Forinelastic-tickling
problems,
tilemodulus
ratiosEe/E,Et/E,
canbe co~”~ted
and Et/Esappear.Theseratios innondimensional
form
byuseof equation
(21).SinceES= u/c,itfollowsdirectly
fromequa-
tion(21)that

~~ = 1+ (3/7)
@o.7)n-1 (22)

Since~ = du)de,
differentiation
ofequation
(21)leadstothe
expression *

“. E~ = (23)

Fronequations
(22)and(23)it follows
that

Et/Es= (%%)/(%)
1+ (3m\u/%.7)n-l
(24)
~+ (3/7)
n(u/uo.~)n-1

areusedinsubsequent
Thesequantities seetions
concem,ed
with
inelastic
buckling.

Inelastic
Poisson’s
Ratio
Poissen’s
ratioforengineering
mterialsusuallyhasa valuein
theelastic
regionof between
1/4and1/3and,ontheassumption ofa .
plastically
irlcompressible
i$otropic
solid,
assuresa valueof 1/2in
theplastic
region.Thetransitionfromtheelasticto theplasticvalue
isnxxtpronounced
intheyieldregionof thestress-strain
curve.Since
● ✎

.-—--—. — .-—— — .-— ..—


is of sorei:uport:mce
in ir.elastic-iucklit:~
proLlc%s.
Gerard andWildhorn,w..;::K
ot~.ers,
havestudieJ thisproblem on
severalalu~dtuum
alloysandhuveshornthatPoisson’c ratiois seriously
. affectedby misotmpyof thematerial(ref.10). ForrmterklsUMCII
.
canke consideredtote orthotropic
(e.g., hating thesmc properties .-
alongthey- .?U_d
z-~e6iflotied 810ngtkle x-is) the rolbW@ rehtion

., describesthetransitionIntheyieldregion:

v = ‘P - @sIE)~p
- ‘e) (&j)

ti thisrelation,‘P is thefullyplastic valueof Poisson’s


ratio.
!
For isotropic
rmterialsVp= 1/2, ukreas fororthotropic
materialsVp
I
,
is generally
different
froma valueof 1/2.
I

Itisevident from thebuckling stress


expression thattworaterials
whichdifferonlyintheirvalues ofPoisson’s ratioshould havedifferent
* buckling
stresses. As a rule,however, thevalueof v= istirtually
constant
fora material whoseproperties m3ychange as a resultofheat
treatment,
detailsof composition,orarcou.nt
of cold-work. I
I
The USUEL1
mgeof ye for EOst technically inportant
structural
mterialsis I#sween
0.25 and0.35.~Lere are exceptions,however.One
of themostextrer~
~terialsIsberyllium, forwhichUdy,Shav,8nd
Wulgerreportatiue of 0.02(ref.n).
Intheinelastic range, presmblybecause of anisotropy,numerical
values of v havebeenfoundwhichme considerably inexcess of the
theoretical upperlimitof 0.5,whichisderived on tke assumptionof
incompressibilityof- isotropic =terial.Forexa@e, Gerardand
Wildhorn obtainedvaluesof v as Imge as0.70forseveral high-strength
aluminum alloys (ref.
10),vhile~n andRussell reporteda value
of 0.77forcanzercially puretitanium sheetand0.62forFS-lh=gnesium
- alloy(ref. 12). Stang,Greenspan, andNewcanalsoobtained dataat var-
iancewiththetheoretical valueof 0.5forplastic strains(ref.13).
Thesethreereports cover a large varietyofalloys, deformedbyvarious
*
total.strains inbothbarandsheetstock, andshould be consulted
for
morecomplete data.
.-
.

0-

~-— -— - .— —. ._

-...-—- —— . . . .,__ ___ . .-. ..—-- ---- —. - .. .- —--- ~. . ~. .


t

PLASTICITY-RZHK’TICW
FACTURS
Inelastic-Buckling-St
.-ess
EquatSon
I
,
Theelastic
buckltng
stress
ofa flatrectangular
platecanbe
. expressed in theform
,.
~2E ~2
‘Cre= (26)
12(1- Ve2)()
b

Whenthebuckling
stress
exceeds
theproportional
limitof theplate
material,
thetermsinequation (26)whichareinfluenced are ~, E,
and v. Thebucklingcoefficientk depends uponthetypeofloading,
thebucklewavelengthas affected
by thegeometrical featuresof bound-
aryconditions
andaspect ratio,
thestress level,andPoisson’s ratio
in thecaseofplateswithfreeedges.Theelastic MUIUS E iS altered
by thereduction
intendingstiffnessassociated
withinelastic behatior.
Poisson’s
ratioin theyieldregionexhibitsa gradual transition from
theelasticvalueVe to8 valueof 1/2for8 plastically incompressible
isotropic
material. ●

Forsimplicity
of calculation
alleffects of exceeding
thepropor-
tionallimit-are
.&nera12y
incorporated
in a singlecoefficient
referred
to as theplasticity-reduction
factorq. Bydefinition

~ = aq~cre (2’7)

,Substituting
equation
(27)intoequation
(26),

(28)
.

Since q =“1 In the elastic range,equation


(28)isperfectly general
. . anditisnotnecesssxy to distinguish
betweenelasticandplastic
buckling
. !Ihevalues of k @ ve arealwaystheelastic values
sincethecoefficient ~ contains allchangesin thosetermsresulting
0-
frominelasticbehatior.

.
I
/

.—_ ___ _. - -—
3J *IL...
,,. i.
.\ f.,..
J:, ;. : .-

Thetheoretical
andexperimental
determinations
of thevnluesof q
appropriate
tov’.trious
typesof loadings
andtiund[lry
conditionerlIQVC
reaulte~
i3extensiveliteratu~e.Theassumptions
underlying the‘v%riau$
, theories
differwithrespecttoplaatlcltylaws,Btress-strainrelaticws,
and.buckling
mdelsused. Inordert~avoidpossible confusion indis-
.
cussing
thevarioustheories,itappearsdesirable
toresortto tke
expedient
of comparing
theories
withtestdatafirst.
.-
Rather
preciseexperimental
dataexistforplasticbucklingof
colurms,
sinplysu~ortedflanges
andplatesundercompressiveloads,
andelastically
sup~rt.ed
plates
undershearloads.Forpractical
alundnum-a~oy
columsundercompression,
itisa well-known facttk=t
theexperimental
failing
stress
is closely
approximated
by theEuler
formula
withthetangentnmdulus
substituted
fortheelasticmodulus.
.
s In figure5, testdataforbuckling
of sl.mply
supported
flanges
undercompression areshownincomparison
withthetheoretical
values
as derivedby Stowell(ref.14)according
to themethodofGerard
(ref.15). Excellent agreent is obtained.
In figure
6, test dataofPrideandHeimerl (ref.16]andPeters
(ref.17)forplastic bucklingof sinply
supportedplates
undercovres-
sionareshownin co,xparison
withthetheoriesof Bijleard(ref.18),
Handelman
andPrager(ref.19),H.yushin (ref.20),andStowell (ref.5),
andthe~thodof Gerard(ref. 15). Pooragreement isobtainedbetweea
thetestdataandtheflowtheory of Handehn andPrager,whereas relat-
ively goodagree~entis obtained
forthedeformationtheoriesof tke
othqrswithStowell’stheoryinbestagreer~ct.
Infigure7, testdataforplastic ticklingof elastically supported
platesundersheerareshownin comparison withthetheories of Bi~laard
(ref.18),Gerard(ref.21),andStowell (ref.5). Itcanb.cobs_.ed
thatthemethodofGerard, whichis basedon themaximum-shear plasticity
lawto transforman axial.
stress-strain
curveintia shearstress-strain
curve,is in goodagreementwithtestdataon aludnum alloys.
On the-basis of theagreercntwithtestdata,thevaluesof q
● recommendedforusewithequation (28)appearintheappendix. Also,
-“ nondimensionalbuckling chartsderivedthroughtheuseof thesereduc-
. ~tionfactors appearinfi~es 8, 9,and10foraxially .compressed
,?.
flangesand plates and for shear-loaded
plates.

Assumptions
of Inelastic-Buc?Xng
Theories
Thestateof knowledge
up to 1936concerning inelastic
bucklingof
platesandshellshasbeens~rfzed by Tiimmkenko (ref.2). The=:Q
,
ei’?or<s
rc?crt.c’l “Jere
tl:cv-ei~ vlthatl~iii~)t.s t-o modifyLk!vari-
ca[~c.~~ccd
ousL-erldiu~-rrfirest of td::~
tcrl:s e~:l~litriu~,
dlfrcrentltil e.~u~tionE
by t!.c!
I useof suitak,lc
plasticitycoefficients
determiried frome~.eri.rental
date
on columns.Alt?.oIIgh
suchsenier~fricalefforts rfit witha reasonet~le
i degreeof success,thetkoretical deterntinatlon ofplasticity-re~uction
factorsforflatplates hasbeenechleved within recent yearsas the —
resultof thedevelopzxmtof a Satisfactory
inelestic-kuck~ing theory.
Becausesuchdeveloprxmtsarerecent andbecauqe thevarious theories Iave
notbeen,as yet,adequately treatedintextbooks,thefollowing dis-
CUS6LOnconcerningthe.assu~ptions
andreSLiltS of theVEiriOU6 theories is
presentedin souedetail.
Mathematical
theories
of plasticity
arephenomsnological
innature
sincesuchtheories
generally
proceed
fromtheexperirr~ntally
determined
stress-strain
relations
forsimpleuniaxial
loadings. Intheelastic
range,stress
W strain arelinearly
relatedby theelastic
mdulus.
At strains
beyond
theproportional
lfm~t,
a finitestress-strain
rela-
tioncanbeusedin thefora

or an incremental
relation
canbeused

h either
relation
thesec~tmodulusEs or thetangent tiulus %
varies
withstress
andappliesas longas theloading
continues
to
increase.
Unloading
usual.ly
occursalongan elastic
we parallelto
ttie
initial
e-tic portion
of thestress-strain
curve.
Inthebucklingprocess,forexample,thestress stateisc&sidera-
blynrmecomplexthansimpleuniaxialloading.Therefore, formulation
of
suitablestress-strain
lawsforthree-dimensional
stress statesbeyond
theproFortiorsl
limitformsoneof thebasicassumptions C* thevarious
phsticity theories.
Ease3on generalizations
of equation (3) which
involvefiniterelations,
deformation
t~s of stress-strain lawshave —
beenad-ted. Similar generalizations
of equation(30)involving incre-
mentalrelations
arereferredtoas flow-type
theories. h boththeories,
unloadingoccurs
elastically.
Theuseofthevarious plasticity
theoriesisgreatly
facilitated
by theintroduction
of rotationa~y
invariant
fimctions
todefinethe
three-dimensional
stressandstrainstates;
suchfunctions
aretermed
stressandstrain
Intensities.Theassumption
thatthestress
intensity
isa uniquely
defined,single-valued
function
of thestrain
intensity

.. . . . .. . . ... . ___ _. ._. .. .. . . .___ —— - -—— ——. . .. .-—


fora @ven rzterial
wt.en
thesLress intensity incre%ses
(loadin~)
ur.i
is elastic
Wtenitdecre-fies
(unloading) is a second
of thefunda%entsl
hypotkesefi
ofplasticity
theory.
Thedefinitions
.of,the
stressw.dstrainintensities
tkeoretlcali.v
canLechosenfro.na f~all%y
of rotationally
invariant
fi,anctior.s.
Two
suchfunctionsreferre~toas diemQximLK-shear
lawend-octahedral-skar
Iawhavebeenfoundtobe of considerable
usefuheseforcorrelaLin3
stress dataonductilezterials.Thus,troth
of theselaws.h.aveteen ——
assumed toapplyin various
solutions
forinelastic
buckling.
Inorderto obtainsolutions tovariousplasticity problerrs,adiii-
tionalassurzptions
are~-nerally er@oyed.Theseordinarily include the
assun@ionthatthepri~cipal axesof stressandstraincoincide andthe
assunrption
ofpksticTsotropy. Wtherrmre,thevariation of Poisson’s
ratiofromtheelastic valuetothevalueof 0.5fora plastically incom-
pressible,isotropicsolidisnmstpronounced in theyieldregion.Some
solutions
account forthe instantaneous
valueof Poisson’s ratiowhereas
othersassumea valueof0.5forboththeehsticardplastic region.
The latterissumptioaservesto sirplify
theanalysis considerably.
Correctionsfortheuseof thefullypl.astic value of Poisson’sratio
cangeneraUybe incorporated in thefinalresults.
Alltheforegoing assumptionsformthebasisforsolution
of plas-
ticityproblems
in geneti. Forthespecific
probleaof inelastic
buckling,
It isnecessary tamakeanadditional
assumption
concerning
thestressdistribu~idnattheinstant ofbuckling.
From thestandpoint
of classical
stability
theory,ttte
buckling
load
is theloadatvhichan exchang@of stable
equilihriurr
configurations ●
occursbetweenthestraightformandthebentform. Sti.ce
theloadrezains
conskntduringthisexc.Wnge,a strainreversal
mustoccuron theco~vex
sideand,therefore,tkebucklingnndelleading
tothereduced-mdulus
conseptforcolumnsiscorrecttheoretically.
%icticalplatesarxi COIUMRSinvariabw containinitial
@erect-
ions of somesort,and,therefore, axialloadingandbendingproceed
simultaneously.
In thisczse,thebentformis theonlystable confi~-
uration.Sincein thepresence of relativelylargeaxialcompressive
stressesthetendingstresses aresmll, no strainreversal
occursand
theincremental
bending stressesintheinelastic rangearegivenby
equation(30).

Sincefailing
loadsobtainedfrom testson ahuninum-alloy columns
areclosely approxinuited
bytheEulerbuckling equation withthetangent
modulussubstituted
fortheelastic modulus,certain of theinelastic-
tucklingtheories
assumetheno-strain-reversal,or ~.gent-nmdulus,
modelas thebasicbuckling
process andthenproceed to solutions byuse
of equilibrium
equations
basedon classicalstability concepts.

------ .. —— - .. .. --- ,- ~— -——— ------- — - -. ..,—


::;..-;, ‘x .;
f;.:
1.

Inelusiic-
ikcklirrg
i-~.eori~s
Different
invectlgntcrs
hnveusedvarious
onesof t},ose
assuwLions
di.~cussed
above,In ordertoindicatethemaJorassuimpkions
underlyirl~
eachof tl:e
theories,
ELsunrary
is present~a
in table1.
.
Historically,
EiJlaardappezrstohavekeenthefirsttoarrive
. at 6Qtisfactor~theoretim~solutions
forinelast.ic-buck~ing
theories
.- (ref. 18). Hisworkis thenestcomprehensiveof allthoseconsidered
inthatheconsiders kth incre.~ntal
anddeforrztiontheoriesandcon-
cludes thatthedeformation
typeis correct
sinceit leadsto lowerine-
lastic bucklingloadBth&nareobtainedfromincrerzntaltheories.Eis
workwasfirstpublishe~ in1937.!Ihis pnperancllaterpublications
include solutions
to.wnyi.@ortnnt inelastic-buckling
problem.Hov-
ever,thisworkappears tohaveremained unknoum
tonestof thelater
investigators.
Ilyushinbrieflyreferredto Bijkard’sworkandthenproceeded to
derivethebasicdifferential equationforinelastic buckling of flat
platesaccording tothestrain-reversalrdel (ref.20). Thederivation
of thisequation isratherelegant andwasusedby Stowell, who,however,
usedtheno-strain-reversalmdel (ref.5). Thedifferential equation
obtainedby BiJlaardreducesto thatderivedby Stawell by setting
v . 1/2 intheformer.Handelrxm andFrager,
duringthistime,obtained
solutionsto severalfnelastic-buckl.ing
groblemsby useof incremental
theory(ref. 19). Testdata,suchas shownin figure 6, indicate that
theresults of incremental
theories,regardlessof thebuckling model,
aredefinitely unconsemtive, whereasdefomtion-type theories arein
relativelygoodagreerent.
,
Alltheforegoing theoriesweretzscdon tteuseof theoctahedral-
shearlaw. Eovever, testdataon theinelasticbuckling
of aluminum-alloy
platesin shearindicatedthattheresultsof theabovetheories were
unconservative.Gerardusedthemaximum-shearlawin placeof the
octahedral-shear
lawto transformaxialstress-strain
curvesto shear
stressandfoundgoodagreezent withthealuuinum-alloy-plate
shear-
buckling
data(ref. 21.).
.
Tc sumarize,then,theassuruptions
whichleadtothebestagreement
betweentheoryandtestdataon inelastic
bucklingof aluminum-alloy
flat
platesundercompression
andshearloadingsincludedeformation-type
.. . stre~s-strain
laws,stressandstrainintensities
definedby theoctahedral-
. . shearlaw,andtheno-strain-reversal
modelof inelastic
buckling.Althos.$
theremaybetheoreticalobJectior-is
todeformationtheories
as a classand
theuseof a no-strain-reversal
modelinconjunctionwithclassicalsti-
bilityconcepts,testdatado suggest
theuseof resultsobtainedfroma
theorybasedon theseassurrgtions
inengineering
applications.Thechoice
,oflawsto transformaxials‘ress-strain
datato shearstress-straindata

!
.— —-.— - -.— -— —-- - .
,
*.>

-,I} -:-..,.),
:.,.;.i,:l .—
-, .. .
~

de~ends
upontj:e
de~ree
of currc::,:l
G:lObt.::irtczl
b::”dc%!rleachor th,JJs
L’” -
lawswlihpolyaxial
test,
dntufor ir.iivldwd
I:LLtF:rlfLIs.

Factors
UsedinCo:qm&it.icms
.
As already inilicated,
thelnelastlc-kuckl~ng
stress
u.~y bc cox-
. putedbyuseof plasticity-reductfonfectorsappropriate
to thebound-
aryandloadin~ conditions.ThefacLar3incoqymate
alleffects of
exceeding the proportion92
lizxit
upon k,,E,a~d v. Forconveaienee
in.preparing desi~ chartsforinelasticbuckding,
thecriticalelastic
strain canbe used:

tz
Ecr =
+
k#
()
1#)5 (31)

Frcmequations
(28)end (31)

Ucr* V%r (32)

Therecommended
valuesof q sregivenintable2. Forcowressive
loads, thevaluesof q derivedby Stowell
forinfinitelylongplates
exceptinthecaseof platecolumns (seerefs.5 and22)havebeencor-
rectedtoaccount forthetistant~leous
valueof Poisson’s
ratioaccording
to a methodsuggested
by Stowe12.
andPride(ref.23). Thusj

,=,8(+) (33)
k-v2)
where qs is theoriginal
valuegivenby Sti#ell.Equation
(33)is the
formof theplasticity-reduction
factorstkatappears
intable2 sndhas
beenuse~to constmctthenondimensional
buckling
charts
of figures8,
. 9, andlo.
.
Forlongsimplysupported
platesundercoxzbined
axialco~ression
. andbendingBijlaard
foundtheoretically,
bya finite-difference
approach
.- (ref.24),that

—. — —.-. — -. —
,.. . ,,7 .,,

.*- . . . . . . :, ..-& ~?

t}.e
plasticity-red.uction
factor
fcraxialcompression. Equation
(Zl))
r~luces
tO tMs valueforaxialloudalofie,
since a = O forthiscase.
Forpurebendingu = 2 andequation(34)is equalto theplasticity-
reiiuction
factorfora hingedfb.nge.
. Todetermine theinstanta~eous value ofPoisson’sratio,equation(25)
.
canbeused. Forthenond~nencional bucklingchartsthetheoreticalfully
. plasticvalue of 0.5wasas3um4forPoissonts ratio,as wasassvcedby
.
Stowellinhisdeterminations oftheplasticity-reduction factors.Stowell
andPridereported on computationstie usingequation (34)insteadof
v = 0.5 andshowed thattherewaslittle difference
betweenthetwocurves
forflanges andsimply supportedpliates(ref.23). Bijlaardtookexception
to thisreport(ref.25);however, thedifferenceswere slight,
as wns
pointedoutby Stowell andRride, anditcanbe assured forpracticalpur-
posesthattheplasticity-reduction factorsshownintheappend~ixaresat-
isfactoryforgeneral desi~ andanalysis.

&mStrUCtiOn
Of Nondimensional
BUC~Ilg(%Sl_tS
Thenondimensionalbuckling-stress
chartsof figures
8, 9,and10
wereconstructed
fromthebasicnond~sionalstress-strain curves
of
figureh andtheplasticity-reduction
factorsshownintheappendix,
incorporating
themethod of critical
strainsas depicted
throughequa-
tions(31)and(32).Sincethere islittle differenceamongthenwzeri-
calvaluesof thebuckling stresses
thatwcxildbe obtained
forthe
plasticity-reduction
factors applicable
toa longckuxpedflangeandto
a hug platewithanyamuntof edgerotational restraint,
tkesecases
weregroupedintoonee@oying thereduction factorforthesiuplysup-
@rtedplate, whichis theaverageof thethreefactors.

CIADDIM3
RRXCTIONFACTORS
Eaiic%inciples

Thepresence of claddingon thefacesofplatesmy haveanappreci-


. ableeffect on thebuckling stresssincethecladdingraterial,which
usually has lower mechanicalstrengththantheplatecore, is locatedat
theextreme fibers of thephte crosssection(fig.11)wherethebending
. strains duringbuckling attaintheirhighestvalues.
.
Buchertdetermined
buckling-stress-reduction
factors
forcladplates
whichincludeplasticity
effects
aswellas reduction
dueto cladding
(ref.26). However,
it ispossible
todetezminea reduction
factor
for

.- —---- —.-. -- --- -— ——---- -. .—-. — -- —. -- .—— .


-. . ., .,.,
.. ..’L ..I. ‘L-il
~.
.“.”’;

claddind
<a;:
:..
- !J..lt
lxiy
& uciltli~”tli~-i
L:(tl,e
inclzstic
t)uc}:lic~
stress
t~yiel~a i’innl
bucklifi~
strc:s
forL1.eclmipl;ite
tl~:~t
a~reesquite
close~withtketestdata. Thecladdir~greductio~l
i’uckrs
maytlhc:.
kc ..._—
usedwiththeexi.stin&
inelasti.c-bucKLix~
curves
of fig~es8, ~, aT.A
13.

. —.
, Theformofbuckling eqmtionco~mdy useifor detercinin~ t!:c
bucklingstressof a bureflatplatewithanytypeof loading andlm~n~~ ““-
arysuppcrts isgivenas equation (28).Forclaiplatesthisexprec~ian
. isusedtofindc nominal buckling stress,wliere
thethic!v.ess
is tt~t
. of thetotl-.l
plateandtheraterial propertiesarethoseof thecore.
Theactual’bucklingstressof a clad@ate thenmy be foundby applying
a simplentczerical
multiplier fi to thisstress.Thisrultlplier,
termedthecladding reductionfactor becauseitreducestheratioo: the
nominalcorestress to thebuc’klingstressof tkecladplate,is a fxnc-
tionof therelative coreandcladding stresslevels
andtherespective
mduli of thecoreandcladding materials. Tkeclad-plate
buckling stress
canbe foundfrom 1

acr = <ucr (35)

E tinenominal buckling
stressexceeds
tk.e
proportional
limitof
thecore =terial,thenthenominalbucklingstressforthecladplate
my be foundby usingtheappropriate
valueof q, theplasticity-
reductionfactorof thecoremterial.Valuesof q maybe obtained
fromtheclad-plate stress-strain
curveshowninfigure12,thederi-
vationofwhichisdiscussed belo-w.,
It shouldbe notedthattheplasticity-reduction
factordepenti
uponthestress levelandconsequentlyrequiresan estimteof thefinal
bucklingstressof theplatebeforeequation (28)canbeusedto fi~~
ffcr.Thecladding reduction
factorhasbeenfourdtobe of sucha -ture,
however,thatlittleerrnrisinmlvedinfirst~inding thenominalbuck-
lingstressandthenmultiplyingitdirectly by thecladdingreductiaa .“

fact-or
to findtheactualbucklingstress of tlce
cladplate.Theprod-
uct qfiis ~T$whichwasdetermined by Buck.ert.
Table3 containsalisting
of the=riouscladdingreduction
fac-

✎ torsdeteminedinsubsequent
portionsof thissection.Inthetable,
allplatesarelor&andsti,ply
supported. R.allcasesforwhichtke
✎ cladding stressUcl exceeds
proportional-limit thenoninalbuckling
☛✍ stressUcr thecladding
reductionfactorisequaltounity.Theymn-
tity p %sdefined ~ cr,ad f istheratioof thetotal
as P = aclci
cladding
thickness
to theclad-platetotalthi-kness.

-——.- —— — —. -—. --—. .-


..
........
....-. . .. .
:.”,”:1 7

DcrfvaLion
Or CoreStress-ZkrEln
Curve
Tkecorestress-strein curve My be derived
froma skress-str8fn
curvefortheentire cladp~%teus showninfi=ve12. Usingthenoti-
tionof fl~e 11,inuhtcha sectiofi ofa cladplateisshown,thetotal
axialloadactingon thesection isdetermirtible
ikon

.
(36)
. .

Dividing
thisexpression
by tucoreyields
,
=1 -f+pf
5/ocore (37)

where $ = ‘cllacore”

!Ums,thecorestress-strain
currecanbeconstructed by plotting
tF&corestressdeterrzined
fromequation(37)at eachvalueof strain
forwhichthecorresponding
clad-plate
stresswasfound.(Seefig.12.)
~.einitial.
slopeof thecorecurve,
whichisthesarze as theinitial
slopeoftheclad-platecurve,istheelasticmdulustobe usedinthe
noril.n.=1-buckling-stress
equation.Sincethebucklingstress refers
to
thecoreruiterial.,
Ucorewasreplacedby itscounterpart Ucr in the
succeeding
derivations.
~ical values
of f foralcladplateappear in tablek forsev-
eralaluninum
alloys.Duchert
showeda valueof acl= 10,~ psifor
ll(X)-KL4alloy
(ref.
26). However,
thecladdingstresstillvarywith
thecladding
material,
ofwhichdifferent
typesareusedon different
alloycores.
.

Comparison
of ‘Tkeov
and@erfm_ent
Thetotal-reduction
f8ctor,defined
8s theproductoftheplasticity-
. andcladding-reduction
fnctors,hasbeenplot-ted
in fi,-.re
13 as a func-
tiffn
of stressforboththetestdataandthetlfeory ir,
thecaseof axially
. compressed
plates.Wo mterialsarerepresented, eachwitha different —
. . percentage
of cladding
thl.ckness.
purthe~ore,thefirst(202h-T@L sheet) I
isa sirrply
supported
platewhereasthesecond(~zk-~ sheet) isa long
colum. Plasticity-reduction
factorsforthesetwocaseswere obtained
frontable2. Itis instructivetonoticetheclosecorrelationforthe
colunncase,forwhichthetangentmdulusistheapplicable plasticity-
reduction
mdulus. Thisfo~owstheprediction of thesimplifiedtheo~,

.--—— ——— .-—-—- --- ..—


,,
,
‘,/,. , ,.. l“\... :.:

Derivations
ofSimplified
Cladding
Reduction
Factors
Buchert
derivedexpressions
forthetotal-reduction
factorforfist
simplysupportedrectangular
plates
subjectedto several
typesof lce.iings.
In thefollowingsections
arepreriented
derivations
of simplified
cla.iding
reductionfactorsthatyieldbuc’kling
.stres6es
atallstresslevels z~’rely
by mLtLplyingthenGzinalstress(elastic
or inelastic)
bythecladding
reduction at tkt stress.Thisisdofie
factor by separating
theclad.iing
effectfromtketotal-reduction
factorbyusingtherelationship fi= ~/~.
tiedplatesin coqression.-
Case1. LongSs!lySuppo Buchert
derived
for ~ at a==> upl (ofthecore)(ref.X):
theevressiori

(*)

where

~ = (3f%/Es)
[1A) + (3/4)(%/%] “

Fora bareplatef = O and ~= q,ufiich


give
.
.

. (39)

.
(cf.table2). Then

i
-. ,.-.
1
5= l+3r

3 1.+

—---
+{[l+(mJEs]
(,&,E=jl p,,,+(,,4)(2,,++w]~f’
“1+11A)+ (3/4)

.
(%/%]1’2

——
) (Q)

.=
I
.
.
.

. . <= ‘
2(1 + 3f){
(l+3Pf) +*p+39f)(4+313fp2} (41)

be written
vhich JllSy

-(8[+i~- [$vfm + 3,f)l}”2)

If it iS ass-d that 9W/(1+ 3Pf)<<4, thefoUowingsiaple


expres-
sionisobtained forthecladding
reductionfactor: *
(42)

(c)Forl.arge
stresses,
P-O mdtheretore

1 (43)
?=—
l+sf

(42) ad (43) m=r infi~ 13 ~nthefo~of qT= Tfi>


Equations
(( wherethey,
maybe seentoagreeclosely
withthetotal-reduction
factor
andthetestdata. .,-

. . Case2. Platecolumns.-
Thederivations
of I forshortandlong
platecolumns
followthefomnusedincase1 forthesupportedplate
uithoutanysimpli~ing Theresults
assumptions. areshownin table3.
. W COlumn curveisplotted
infi~e 13 int~~efo~ qT= vi>whereit
.- is seentoagreeclosely
withthedataandwithF!uchert’s
theory.
Case~. Langsimply
supported
plates Buchert
inshear.- (re&.
26)
showsthat ~ forshearona longsimply
supported
plateis

. .- . _ -. —.--— -.—.—.. ..—— — . ...—- -- —


.-

,
.,

.
wherethenodal-li[,e
slopeof theshearbuckles
isobtaine~
from the
@licit equation
.

The&nLmm-energy state occurs foruncladelsstic


plates
when
a-l I~, andthereislittle yeason toexpecta significantly
different
valueforcladplates.Consequently, thisvalueof a isassuredin
thefollowing
development:

C5T EsE

M .wpa+p3T/%)+*iJ
4(l*3f) (45)
,.

(a)When acr< ~c13 Ipfi=lq=l.


.
. (b)Theplasticity-reduct~on
factor
for a=r>dcl isderivable
fromthetot.al-reductian
factor
in theform
.
.-
,= (E8,8E)f
+(~ps)
+-+]
-..
-,,.. . ,. :

.
.
. where Y . 1+ 3pf.
:=—
1:3f

The expression in braces


Ihi-

deviates
(E@)++ - (@.)]
4+(qEJ+3/~-(%iq

about2 percentfromunityfor
1
(47)

f . 0.10 andfor $–>0.2,u~ch willbein theneighborhood of the


proportional limitfortypical structural
aluminumalloys.Consequently,
ittillnotintroduce an appreciable
errorto consideritequalto unity,
inwhichcaseequation (42)forthecompressedsimplysupported
plate
F=ldstrue.
(c) Forlargestresses,
$-+0, and therefore {= ~.
l+3f

KEKLINGOF FIATILECTMGUIAR
PLATES
UNDERCOMPRESSIVE
LOADS I

In the precedingsections themathe=tical endphysicalbackground


fortheflat-plate buckling probleahasbeenpresented. Itwasshown
thatbasicequation (1)canbe usedforthesolution of bucklingproblems .
pertainingto flatrectan~ platesundervarious typesof loadingsin
theelastic andInelzstic rangesby suitablechoiceof reductionfactors
andbuckling coefficients. Considerations
thatinfluence thedetermina-
tionof k havebeenanalyzed in thesections
entitled “Easic.Principles”
and“Boundary Conditions.’!Theplastici@-reductionSM cladding reduction
factors
werediscussed in thesections “Plasticity-Reduction
Fac~ors”and
‘CladdingReductionFactors.”h thissection, andinthoseto follow,t%.e
. bucklingcoefficient k wi~ be discussed anditsnumerical valuesfor
various
loading andboundary conditionsti12be presented.

. Historical Background

. _ inves-kigated
thebucklingofa simp~ys-~pported
flatrec-tangu-
● ✎
larplateundertxialloadingintheelasticrangeusingtheenerw
method(ref.27). He obtained
theexplicit
formfor ~ forthistype
of l~dingandsupport:

kc = ~a/nb)+ (nb/a]2 “ (48)

..—. — . .- ----- . . .—. — . — —- . . - -— —. -—


.. .
,,,,, ,, :.. j: : :. -——-

Tiw..,sI.w2s tr~tcdt].wnerou~ niiitiMAI


. ,-nsesot’h)”l(t i 1,;; :.I;..1 t?,UI,~I{Uy .—
cOrtd~tiOI15
Ut~liZf:lg bo~h bk eIi.2.-~ up~rc:tct: ar,d Llk4:solul-iott 01’t~.e
differential equntion (ref.2). liiil constructed Q churtof kc covisY:ng
thecomplete rzn.ge ofpossi~;?:til&X:~’;~ conditiol]s fOr f~i[l~]@’k~iIl+i:
. simplyc“j~port~~d, clampedor freeCir;c: on one st.ie, awl simply Guppor!&
. or ck,peded~~son theother, withthe lomhi C:WS either clumped or
. simplysupported (ref.28).
. . Lundquist
and%owe~ presentedtk’efirstunifiedtreatrentof tkc
compressive-buckling
problemintheiranalyses,by boththedifferential-
equation
andenergyrethods,
of thecasesof supportedplatesandflanges
withsimplysupported
lomlti
edgesandwithvarying degrees
of elastic
rotational
restraint
alongtkesupprkd unloadeii
edges(refs. 8 and29).
SteinandLibove,inconsidering
co~bined
longitudimlandtransverse
axialloads,covered
theeffects
of c~~ing alongtheunloaded
edgesot
plates(ref.~).
rectangular

Valuesof Compressive-Buckling
Numerical Coefficients
*
forPktes
Figure14 isa sumarychartdepicting thevariationof ~ asa
~CtiOn Of a/b fOrVSriOUS limithgconditions
Of edgeSupportand
rotational
restrainton a rectangular fht plate.It isapparentthat
forvaluesof a/b greater thanfcmrtheeffectof rotational restraint
alongtheloaded edgesbeccmes negligible
andthatthecl~ed plate
wouldbuckleat tirha12.ytinesamecompressivebad as a platewith
siqpl.y
supportedloadededges.
.
Supported
Plate,~~ws Elastically
Restrained
,,
Against~otation
.
Thebehavior
of compressedplateswithvarioua amuntsof elastic
.
rotationalrestraint
alongtheunloaded edgescanbe understood by .—
exminingtherelation betweenbucklingcoefficient andbucklewave
length.Forplates supportedalongbothuriloa.ied
edgesthecurves
. appearin figure
15forrotational restraintfromfullclamping (e= =)
+. (~= O). From thisfigure,
tohingedSUppO1’tS which1s takenfromthe
reportby Lundqulst
andStoveI-l(ref.29),it ispossible to seether~-
ner inwhich~hebuckle wavelengthdecreasesas rotational restraint
increases,andthevalueof A/b for a minimum value of ~ canbe
seento increase
from2/3fore-lamped edgesto 1.00forhingededges.
Thelowerportionsof thesecurvesandtheportions to theleftof tke
mininum~ lineformthefirstarmsof thecurves of ~ as a function

. ——
. --- - -. - -. - .. .. --—..... —.-— —___ — — ____ ___ —.— .—
!&:;,~,~;“il.>~

i of a/b,as in ?X&me16. Forco.~)leieness,


.
i tr~nsttimsfrom1 to 2, 2 to 3, . . . n ta
included
infigure 15. Theintersections of theseIi’ties
withtl.ecurves
of ~ againstA/b correspon~ tothecuspsortthecurves of figure
16. ‘

Plates
WithUnequal
EdgeRotational
Restraint
Figure15 canalsobeusedwhenthereareunequalrotational
restraints
alongtheunloaded
edgesof a plate.Thiscanbe doneby
determining
the & valuefor$he e on eachunloaded edge.Theeffec-
tivevalueforuseinequation(l)canthenbe foundfro=

(49) -

Theaccuracy of thismethod hasbeerIdemonstratedby Lun.iquistandStowell


whocompared results soobtati.edwiththevalues obtained by solting
directlywiththeequations usedby themforthegeneral caseof ro’ca-
tionalrestraint
-. (ref. 29).
Theelastic restraintsaremathemticallyequivalent to a series of
unconnectedtorsional springs.Sincethisdoesnotriecessarily conform
to thebehatior of theusualedge~r or stiffenerofa flatpanel,
it isnecessary to evaluatetheeffective singlespring stiffness of the
actual.stiffenerinordertouseeither figure15 or figure 16. However,
it fs notnecessary to determinethisstiffne=sto a highdegree of
accuracysincetheinfluence of E upon & embraces a large range of
sttffnessratios} as is shownin figure1? forinfinitely longplates.
Whenthestiffener rotationalrigidityhasbeenfound,e naybe con-
putedlzyforming theratioof thisrigidity tatherotatiord rigidiw
. of the@ate.
.-
.. RorntestdataGerardwasableto construct
a chartof k for
lo~gplatesas a functionofb/t forstrongandweakstiffeners
(-f. 31andfig;18). Above b/t=200 itisseentbatnnststiff-
. enerswilleffectively
clmzptheplateedge.
.
.- Supported
Flanges
WithZlastic
Rotational
Restraint
i
amng ~, A/b,-d e aredepicted
Therelationships forflanges
in figure19. Itshouldbe notedthatthesecurveswereconstructed
for
a @isson’sratiovalueof 0.3,whichalsoapplies
to thecurvesof &
as a function
of a/b infigure20. Thedeterminationof ~ forother
valuesof v isdis$ussed in thesection
entitled“Boundary
Conditions.”
.
.

..——- —-,- -——


I
-.-.
. . .. ..... ..&
..}:: .-..-/.. ,4 “>,.

Thc~lTUISitiO!l lh~S fO1’1 tO 2, ~ tb 3, . . . n ~ n + ~ buckl~:,:LW


shorninfigure 19. %Jever,it should benotedthaktherinimuznlizc .
doesnotintersect thecurvefora hir~ged flange(c= O). Forthiscase
thereisonlyoccbuckle whichextends thefulllength of t?.e
I’lange.
As inthecaseof theplate,thetheoretical restrafnt
actionon ttLe
unloadedsupportedeiige
of theflangeisassumed tobe a series’ofdis-
. connectedtorsionalsprings,andit isnecessaryinthiscasealsoto
determinetheeffectiverestraintfortheedgestiffener inordertouse
thecurves of figures
19and20. However, as fnthecaseof supported
plates,it isnotnecessary todeterminec tooaccurately, as figure17
b. shows,since& is relatively insensitive
to largevariationsin c.

EffectofIateral
Restraint
on Buckling
h theusualbuckling-stresscomputations
theplateanalyzed is
assumedtobeunrestrainedagainstdistortion
in itsplaneurilerthe
externalloadsapplied.However,forlongitudinalcompressive
loadson
a rectangular
plate,theedgesparalleltotheloadswouldtendto ~ve
a~rt as a result
of thePoisson’sratioexpansion. Ifthismtion
shouldbe restrained
to anyextent,forceswouldbe developed
transverse
tatheapplied bad whichwouldinfluencethelongitudinal
stress tkat
thephte tightWithstandbeforeitwouldbuckle.Iftheinteraction
conceptisemployed,it 5sapparentthatthetransversecompression
uculd
loyertheperniissible
longittiinal
stressbyan amuntthatcould.be
‘ foundfrominteraction-curves
utillzingstressratios.
Iftheplateedges.&erest~inedby rigidstiffeners
heldIn place
~transverseribseachwitha section
area ~, thebalanceof transverse
forces
requires
that . ..

(50) ‘

Thedirections
of ax, Uy,and Crr are shown infigure2L. Theec@va-

lenceof transverse
strain
requires that

. (5U
r.
.
. .
assuming
thattheribs”and
plateare of thesamemterlal. Fromequa-
tions(!%3)
and(51),thetransversestressbecomes

“,. —

—~ . ..-— —-- — “--—.————

.
k

.’ Fromthispointitisa sirple rotter


todetermtfie
tt.e
reduced
,-. longitudinal-buckling
stress.Thismy keexpressed
in te=5 of the
..: newvalue of thebuckllngcoefficient
~ es showninfigure 21,which
s isa modificationof curves
presented
byArgyris
andDunne(ref.32).
1
.
.
BWXZNG OFZ’IAT
RECTANLUUR
HATESUNDERSII!WR
LOADS
. Historical
E!ackground
. .

SouthwellandSkan computedthecritical
shearlosdfora flatrec-
tangularplatewithsimplysupportededgesandwithffiededgesby means
of tkebucklingdifferential
equation(ref.33). Tinxmhenko
investigated
shearbucklirgalso(ref.2);however, heusedtheenergymethodand
obtaineda critical
loading6.5 percent.
higher
thantheexactresultof
SoutbwellandSkan.
Stowel.1
deteqmi.nedshear-buckling
coefficients
forinfinitely long
supported
plates withtheedgeselasticallyrestrained
agair~trotation
(ref.%). Heutilized thedifferential
equation
foran exactsolution
andtheenergyintegrals forplotting
purposes.StoweHpresented his
results
in thenannerof Southwell andSkan,whoplottedthebuckling
coefficient
asa function of A/b forlongplates.Thisisthesame
procedure
usedby I.undquistandStowellforcompressive
loadlngon plates
ofanylength(refs. 8 and2g).

mtricatihtisptric Modes
Thesolutionsobtalned~Southwell
andSk- (ref.33)andby
!J!imshenlm(ref.
2) pertained
to a buckle
formtemedthesymetricmode
becauseof the~etxy of themodeshapewithrespecttoa diagonal
acros6theplateat thenode-line
slope.SteinandNeffexminedthe ‘
antisynmetric
buckletie forsimplysupported
plates
andfoti thatit
u hasa lowerbucklingstress,
within rangeof a/h values,
a stall. than
doesthesymmetric-tie(ref.35). Steinaiid
Neffalsorepeated
Timoshenko’s
calculations
forgreaterprecision
andobtsined
an esti-
=ted errorof 1 percent.
.. Budiansky
andConnorinvestigated
theshortclamped
plateforlmth.
. symmetric
andantisymetricbucklemalesusingthelagrangian
mltiplier
.. method(ref.36). Except
fora smallrangeof a/b values,
tie wasshowntoyieldthelower bucklingstress.
tkesymmetric

. ..
— .—. —.-.—r.
Numerkal Values
ofShe4r-Duckllng
Coefficient
r Theplotof k~,as a fmctim of a/b appears
infigure22. It .—
maybe seenfromthecurveshozthesymzitric
andnntisynmetric
modes
alternate as a/b increases.
withoneanotk.er Forlongplatesthe
valueof ks my be foundfromfigure
23(a),inwhich ksm appears
as
. a function
of c.

.
=fectofPlateLengthon Buckling
Coefficient
When k~ isplotted asa functionof a/b forinfinite andzero
valuesof e (clamped andhi.nged
edges)as showninfigure 23(b),it
my be seenthatthereis little differencebetween thetwocurves.
Thissuggests a rapidmethod
of computingtheshear-buckling coefficient
foranyvalueof e. Thecoefficient forthespecified E isob-ti~
fromthecurw=cf &= as a function of e (fig. 23(a)), whichisa
replotof the-minimum ks line(n= m) of figure 24. Also,theratio
ks~ksmisfoundfromfigure 23(b).Then k~ forthespecified a/b
and E maybe foundby computing theproduct of thesetwonumbers.
Estimationof thecorrectvalueof ksI&= willbe relatively freefrom
errorbecause of theproximity
of thetwolimiting curvesinfi~e 23(b).?

PLATES UNDERBEND~W2
BUCKLIMOFFLATREC711GUIAR LOADS
#
.’
Historical
Background
. .
Timmhenkoinvestigated
thebucklingstresses
forflatrectangular —
platesundercombined
longitudinal
andbendingloadsusingenergyinte-
gralsandobtained
valuesfor kb thatagreewe~ withlatercalculations
of higher (ref.2). Schuette
precision andMcCullochanalyzed
longplates
underpurebending
tithsupportededgesandelasticrotational
restraint
(ref.37). Johnson
andNoelalsoinvesti~ted thebuck31ngQfplates
underlongitudinal
axialloadandbending (ref.38),andNoelanalyzed
platesforlongitudinal
bending
plussxial-loadcombined
withtransverse ‘
=ial load(ref.39).
.
Numerical
Values
of Bendin~-Buckling
Coefficient
.
● ✍ me relations
betweenbucklewavelength
andbuckling coefficient
for=ious valuesof rotational
restraint
appearinfigure 25 together
withthewave-length
transition
lines.Thecurves of ~ as a function
26. It isof interest
of ajb areshownin figure to notethatthe

,,. .b

.. ___ .—.. .— -- -— .—-—--- . -—— — .—


4

valueof kb forinfinite
pl.te6isroughly
slxtinesas greatas the
plate~ forallvalues
valueforthesupported of rotational
restraint.

BUCRLING
OFFIATRSC3XMWLAR
PIATES
UNDERCOM31NED
LOADS
.
General
Background
.
. .
Flatrectangular
platesfrequently
aresubjected to combinationsof
elementary
loadings.Ithasbeencommon practiceto considerelementary
loadings
inpairsandtodetermine an interaction
curveor curves forthe “
combination.
Eowever,tworecentpaperstreattriplecombinations of the
elementary
loads,
so thatan interaction
surfacein stress ratiosis gen-
erated,
andby takingapp~priatesections(e.g.,letting oneof the-
stkess
ratiosequalzero)it ispossibletoreproduce theinteraction
curves
thatk“ere
derivedpreviouslyintheliterature. .
Interaction
curvesforthecodination ofbending,shear,andtrans-
versecompression
on longplatesweredeveloped
by Johnsonandlhcbert
(ref.&.O),
andNoelConstmcted tbetwo-dtinsiond sections
of the6ur-
faceforlongitudinalbending,
longitudinal
compression,
andtransverse
(ref.39). Thebackgrounds
compression forthevariouscombinations
of
loadings
arediscussed inthefollowingparagaphs.Interactioncharts
areshownin figures27and28, in whichsections
of thetriplestress-
ratiosurfaces
appear.
A sumzaryof
theloadingC~ditiOn6
discuese~
inthefo~owingpars-
9gmphsappearsintable5. Interaction
equations
whichexistfora few
casesareincluded
in thetable. t
,r
Biaxial
Compression -
Tinnshenko
derived a relatlon
betweenthelongitudinal
andtransverse
edgestressesactingonarec~r plate~tbuckling
(ref.2). This
relationwasenluatedforthelowest possible
combination
of stresses
by
meansofa chartthatMUStbe drawnforeach a/b mlue underconsidera-
tion.As oneMsltingcaseof plateproportion andloading,!lEhmshenko

✎ denmnstrated
thata square plateloaded
by equal.
biaxial
strecseshasa
bucklLngcoefficient
of 2,or halfof thatfora uniaxially
loadedsquare
✛✎ plate. e
✎ ✎
Libove
andSteinevaluated
buckling
underbiaxialloadings
by the
energy
methodforrectangular
platessupport@in several
differentnan-
nersandpresented
theresults
incharts of a/b
of -~ as fWnction6
forvarious
valuesof kyjwhere *

—...— - .---— .,,, —. —- .“--!-


. ..:
.

I
qf
()
I&D
=kx —
b%
(53)
s*D 1
~Y=%~ I
() 1
and ax and Uy =e thetwostresses
acting
on theplateatbucklira
(ref.30).
No simple
interactionexpressions
existforthestress ratiosin
thegeneralcasefortheloadingsemdsupports investigated
byLibove
endStein.However, forsqusrepanels,or forlongpanelsthatbuckle
In square
waves,it canbe shokm,fromTircoshenko’s
results,that

Rxt~=l

Noelconsidered
marecomplicated
loading
conditions
andpresente~
dak fromwhichinteraction
curvesuybe constructed
forbiaxial
loadtis
foranyvalueof a/b (ref.39). Noel’s
curves
appe=in figure
28.

Shear andkimalStress
Bye,pplicationof
theener~method,StowellandSchwartzexamined
theconditions
underwhichbuckling
willoccurona long,flat,rectan-
gularpanelwithedgeselastlca~restrained
againstrotationunderthe
sinmltaneous
action
of shearandnozmall.
stresses(ref.41). ~ey derived
theinteraction
re~tionship thestre3sratios
between h“ thefo-im

.~+F@= 1 ‘ (55)

Theyalsoderived an expression
forthestressco~bination
at
bucklingthroughuse. eqyation
of thedifferential andtestedtheinter- .,.
actionequationforseveralvaluesof restraint
coefficient
e. The
agreementwiththeinteractionequtionwasfoundtobe excellent,
asa
consequenceofwhichtheinteractionequation
written
aboveraybe
appliedtothisloading caseforallvaluesof restraint
coefficient
andmy be usedwhentheaxialloadiseither compression
ortensioc,
protidedtherestraintcoefficients
arethesameonbothedgesandtie
panelis infinitely
long. i
!
....

.— .. ..- —
.

..

Theproblemof~etci%inln~ critical loadin~combinations


fa?d.cur
anitransversenorml stress was solved by ~ltdorf
andHouLolt byboth
tt.e
energymcttiod
ud thedifferenti~l equation
(ref.42). Tti~signifi-
cantresultof thisworkisthedemonstration thatroughlyhalfof tl:e
critical
shearstressraybe applied toa transversely
compressed
pmel
.
.
without
lcx~ering
itspermissible compressive-buckling
.atress.
.
Thisworkwasdoneon infinitelylongpanelswiththelongedges
. supportedandelastically
restrained
againstrotation.Therestraint
. coefficient
wasfoundto exertan appreciable
(although
notverylarge)
. effectuponthecriticaLloadingcombination.Theresults
forthistype
of loading,conseque~tly,
do notlendthemselves
to thewriting
ofa
simpleexplicitinteraction
equation
betweenthestressratios.The
curveswereplottedby Batdorf
andHoubo2tforbothcompressive
andten-
siletransversenomalloadingsin cofiination
withshearovertheentire
=nge of restraint
coefficients.
Thetwopreceding loading ~onditionswerereexamined
forsimply-
supportedplatesof finitea/b by Batdorf andSteinwiththeuseof
theener~equations (ref.43). Theyshowed thattheparabolicinter-
act~onexpressionof StowellandSchwartz (eq.(55))agreeswiththe
interactioncurvesforfinite valuesof afi forshearpluslongitudi-
nalcompression(ortension) (ref.41). However, thecurvederivedfor
infinitelylongpanelsundershearandtranm’erse loading
requiresmxli-
ficationfor finitevaluesof.a/b. Fora square paneltheparabola
agreeswithther!ndifiedcurve, whilethesimple+dge-supportcaseof
EatdotiandHoubolt (ref.-k2)maybeusedfor a/b.=k. Thetransition
regionfromthemdifiedcurves to thosefor a/b=m liesbetween
thesetwotiuesof a/b.
TheMge shearstress thatmaybe superimposed
uponthecritic~l 1.
Compressi-
stresswithout lowering
thepermissible
cwressfvestress
c forinfinitely
long panels isnotpossibleforsqmreplates.= fact,
itappears
tobe possible for.infinitely
longplates
only.

Bending
andHOrmSl
Stres;
Tirmshenko
determined
thecriticalcombination
ofbending
andnor-
,. =1 stressesacting
on simplysupported
fl%z.rectangular
plates
using
theenergymet?xd(ref.2). He determined
thebuckling
coefficient
as
a function
of a forseveral ratiosofmoment
losdlng
toaxialloading
. forpanelswithvariousvaluesof a/b.
.
JohnsonandNoelbroadened
thescopeof theproblemhy
including
elasticrotational
restraint
alongtheunloaded
compression
edge(ref.38).
Theirresultswereplotted
as kb versusA/b forallvaluesof restraizt
.

— .— . . ..
—.

-- ——-
Lo ?iACA
V! 5751

coefficient.
Onecharti6 rquiredfOreachof theloading
rntios(lon-
gitudinal
loading“tomomentloading),
of.which
fourvalueswerechosen.
Theloading
ratio.isde~icedby”
.
.
. ~.— 12M
Pb+6M
.
.
(56)
. Pb=6(2-G)
M al

where P isthelongitudinalload,M isthebending nxment,and b


Is thepanelwidth.TheyalSOplOt kb asa function of a/b forthe
casesof simplesupport
andclampingoftheunloadedcompression
edgeof
thepanel.In addition,theeffectof fti}~y
of thetioadedtension
edgeisdepicted forvarious
valuesof u..% a plotof kb vers= ab
inwhichthehinge~ andfixedcasesaredrawqon thesanegraph.It is
apparentthatedgefixitydoesnotbecomeimportant
untilu falls
below7/4,whichcorresponds
approximately
toa Pb/M of 1 ormore.
..
Grossmanexaminedbending in cofiination
withtransversecompression
usingtheenergy method(ref.4f+).He foundthatforinfinitea/b tke
bendingstressmtio canbe 0.9at thesametir&thatthetransnrse com-
pressivestressratiois 1. He alsoprovides a graphof thestress
ratiosforseveralvalues of 8/b; however,apparentlyonlytheinfi-
nitelylongplateiscapable of withstandingbendingstresseswithout
bucklingwhilethetransversestressisat itscritical value.Thisis
similartotheresult fourdby Batdorf ti Ste~~forshearandtransverse
compression
(ref.45).
NoelprotidesInteractionc&ve&forsimply suppertedre&angular
platesloadedin longitudinal
bendi~,longitudinal compression,
and
transverse
compression(ref.39]. Ibrthelimiting caseof no transv&rse
, loadingtheyagreewiththeresults ofJohnsonandHeel(ref.38),and
whenthelongitudinalcompressionvanishes
theyagreewiththoseof
Grossman(ref.44). Consequently,theirchartscanbe usedforbothof
. theseloadingcombinations.~.ecurves appem in figure28.
. Thedataof Johnson
andNoelandoflibel
wereobtained
fromequa-
.-
tionssolved
forinfinitevaluesof am andwereapplled
to finite
=luesof 8/b by useof theidentity
/
A/b=’amb
/ (57)
.-
.
.


.-. —.. .... -—-. . -. ----- . -—. —.- -——— .—


l%i~procedure
raybe qtiestioned
for62311aspectratios;
hc.yever,
it
maybeJustificiby co~arison
witil
theworkof Timx:~enko
(longitudi-
nalco~ressionamlbending)andwithtk.e
workof Grossman
(transverse
compression
andbending),
withwhichtheresultsofJohnsonand Nuel
andof Noel6howgod agreex.e;.t..
● .“

r Berziing
andShearStress
TLmoshenkoreportstheresult ofanalyzing
a rectangular
flatplate
todetermine thecritical
combinationofbendingendshearstresses
(ref.2). He usedtheefier~ mthodand.plottedthebucklirzcoeffi-
cient,of thepanelas a fhctionof theshearstressratio.Tinecoeffi-
cient, whendividedby th& forthebending loadalone,becomes
the
bending stressratio,andthesetof curves protided
by Ttishenkofor
various ~ues of a/b becomes an fiteraction
chart,fromwhichitnay
be seen that theinteraction
equationisa unitcircle:
*

R~2+Rb2=l (*)
Themnge of a/b forwhichTinm&enko plottedthecurvesisfrom0.5
to 1.0. However,
thecurves as a,b increases,
loopbackO% themselves
thusindicatingthatlarger
valuesof a/b wouldyieldcurvesfalling
withintheplot. The~imun variationof stress
ratios abmt thevalues
obtainablefrm thecircular
interaction
equationis7 percent,withthe
equationvaluesthehwest (andhencether.stconservative)
of all.
8
Bending,
Shear,:and
Transverse
Compressfbn
JohnsonandBuchert utilized
theLagran&ian multiplierrethodto
determine
thecritical co~binations
ofbendtng, shear,and transverse
compressive
loadson rectangular
flatplates of infinitea/b (ref.40).
Theresultsappear as interaction
surfaces inthethreestress ratios~,
R6,and ~. Thetwotypesof mpportfortheplatearesimple support
alongbothlongedgesandsimple support along thetension (dueto
bending)
edgewithclamphgalongthecompression (duetobending) edge.
Sectionsof tlii interaction-surfaces takenperpendiculartoanyof
thethreestress-ratio sxesyieldplanestress-ratio curvesthatagree
withtheresults obtained directly forthesecasesinprevious publica-
tions.Thisistzmeonlyof thesimply supported plate,of course,
since
nothing hasappeared intheliterature forshearplusbending of plates
withthecompression edgeclamped.Theinteresting resul~
ofa shear
Stress ratio equal. tO l.~, tith Rb eqwil to 0.5, isrevealed(fig.27(b)),
as wellas thecombination of,Rc = 0.94,Rb = O.X$ and Rs = 0.43.
42

Transverse
CGrpress
ion
.
Theworkof Ircel(ref.39)on t~Le
pmb~em~f lonEl
~udiru~~
~XOWl
{I‘:{
~on@tudinalcompression,
andtransversecoripression
LQShccrlt~[xc’’jfi”’”
. in thesection
on conibinc,i
bendingandfiorc-al
stress.me pertlni~rl~
- interaction
curvesappearinfigure 28.
.

Combined
tielastic
Stresses
Stowell utilizedtheconcept of an eqtivalent=stress ~tensftfl ‘“r
combined stressesapplied
in consbnt ratio during loading in t~l’:I:,,.]nLl-
ticrange(ref.45). He examined theproblem ~rlt[cu~
ofdete~ni~gtl.c ,,r@
combinationof shearandlongitudinal compression in elastically s’l~]
-. flatrectangular plates
by usingtheenergymethodto detemnfnc tl;c
bUC~llgstresses. rnQ theseresfit~, stressratios werep~otte?d
,directly fromthetheoreticalresults andwerealsocorrected for‘i’e
changesin effectivemadulus.Wornthis,Stowell CODClUd~that~jt]’
little@mor thefollowing stress-ratioequation isapplicable:

[1
2
(ES) ()
Es ps
(ya
% 2+ %— =1
% ai
() ‘S ai
()

In equation(591s(Es)p.isthesecant modulus at a = acr forWrd i


,
compression, Es~~ iS thecorresponding
() secant ~ti= forput?a a~)nnr)
~
,
~ (%)=i is’thesecant
rmdul.usror the effective stress of the‘m- :

bindldngathcW&; (~)ai=
~(”~+3T’)~3.$+~]’’2*g’” ‘
s~~i~y of thisexpression tothatforthee&tic caseis apPnret]t;
. ti fact,in theehsticrangetheexpression
r~ucesto theeq~tion‘or
.
elasticloads.
.
. recentinvestigation
A ofpeterson long ~gwe tu&5 lo~ded f~
tQrSiOEl t~t a StEss.mtio eqwb~ion
and compression (ref.17) fidic~tes
of thefoxq ●

R&+R#=l
(60)
.

,.
4

i“-.

ag?ec=sli@KLybetter wit.11
thetestIiatu(fig.29)thandoestkemdi~icd I .._
Ff4ratmla
of Stowell (ref.45). Actually,tlie data yieldslightly
hifjler i
stress-ratiocmi-oination.s
tli2n
do ei~herof interaction eluations
(59)or
(@), tiththediscrepncy i,,crea~ing
l~ithdeereasir@ stresslevels.For
. .
. stresces
whollyin theelastic rangethedataareasmuchas lCQpercent
. higher(thatis, Rb is0.4instead of 0.2for &- equalto 1). The
dataalsoagreeclosely withe theoreticalcurveobtained by Ekx3iansw,
. Stein,andGilbert forlongsquare tubesloadedelastically intorsion
.
. . andcompression(ref. 46).– -

EFFECT
OF PRESU~@01{
BUCKGIG3 FL4TPLATES
OF RECTANGULAR
Rangeof Published
Results

Theeffectofnormal pressureon thelongitudinalcompressive-


bucklingstressof a rectangularflatphte hasbeeninvestigated for
bothsimply supported andclanpededges.Levy,Goldenberg, and .
Zibritos’~(ref.47)analyzed thesimply supported
plateusingthe =
largedeflectiondifferentialequations ofVonI&r&. Theplatelength.
wasfourtimesthewidth, wkiich
placesit in thelong-platecategory.
Thedatar%feal a rise in longitudinalcompressive-buckling
stress for
thisconfi~tionwhichincreases withpressure. However,thisrise
E%yW realizable onlyina plateof suchproportions endloading because
of tkesignificantdifferenceinwaveformsof thelongplateundercom-
pressiveandpressure loadings.It maybe intuitivelyevidentthatwhen
thereislittle difference betweenthesewavefoz%i, suchas fora short
plateundercombtie~ lor~itudinal
compressionandnorml pressure, there
raybe a reduction intheco~ressive:buc.klingstressoftheplate.No
dataareavailable in thiscase,however.
.
Longitudinally Corcpressed
LongSimplySupported
Plates
Highnormlpnessure =s foundto increase thecompressive-buckling
stress~nsiderablyforthelongsimply supported platetested by Levy,
Goldenberg, (ref.47).. Forexample,
and Zibritosky whenthdpressure
. appliedtoa platewithlengthfourtimesthe@.dthreached24.03Et4/b4,
thebucklingstresswas3.1 timesthatforzeronormal pressureon the
. phte. Levy,@lderiberg,andZibritosky alsoshowed thatmorethanone
. equilibrium
configuration
oftheplatewaspossible When’norml pressuzze
wasapplied,withtheconfigurationatanyinstant dependinguponthe
previousloadinghistory.Theplatecouldbeeither buckledor unbuckled
undervariousspecific
combinationsof axial load and 110~1 pressure.

,—— ..—. . .—n,


-.

Lcm.gitudinally
Compressed
LongC1.n.mped
Plates
Wmlley,Corrick, smdLevyanulyzeda lox~itudinnlly
co.rpressed
10T1c
c~ei plate(ref.43). Forthiscasetheeffect ofpressure
wasnotso
prcmxncel as forsimplysupported
ewes. Theratinmmbueklir.c
loadfor
. a pressure 44
of 37.75tt~u wasfoundtobe1.3timesthstforno norxul
. pressure. Also,forcti~edplatesthebuckle pattern
wasfo’~ti
to he
* uniqueforanyparticular combination
ofpressureandaxiallcmding.
.

SPECW*CASB
Useof Elastic-Buckling-Stress
Expression

It hasbeenshownthattheelastic-buckling
stress fora~ flatrec-
tangularplateof constant
thickness
canbecomputed usingequation(%)
forvariousloading find
boundary
conditions.Therearealso flatplates
of interest
toaeronauticalengineers
thatareneither rectar~arnor
of constant
thichess.By suitablechoiceof thebuckling coefficient
anddefinitionof theplatethickness
andproportionsIt is pssibleto
utilizeequation(26)to compute
thebucklingstressesfortheseplates
also●

Axially
Compressed
PlateWithVariable
Loading
andThiclmess.
Pines and Gerard inve~clgatedtheproportionsofa simply supported
flatrectangular plateundervsxying axialloadingtodetemiaean effi-
cientthicbessvariation forminimum weight(ref.49). Theplaterigid-
ityvasassmedtobe proportional to theaxialloadinorderto satisfy
equation (26)at anyspanwise station.Theloadvariation alongthe
plateuasassured to be producedby shearstressessmallenough to have
negligible influence uponthebuckling characteristics
of theplate.
R.rrthernore,theairloading on a typicalwhg develops a coveraxial
loadir~ thatclosely follovsan exponentialvariationthatdecaysfrom
.
therootoutboard.Thiswi~ dictate maximumaxialloading on theco~r
at theroot,whichis depicted as stationA in figure30,inwhicha
sketch of thetapered plateis showntogether wcfth
theloading andplate
. thickessvariations thatfollovasa result of theassumptions madeby
. PinesandGerard.
Results
presented
intheformof thebuckling coefficient
as a ftinc-
tionof a/b forvariousvaluesof thelogarithm
oftheloadingratio
(Y-_ lotiing,~inimm loting)reveal littleincrease
ofbuckling
coefficient
untiltheloadingratiobeginsto exceede (thebaseof
natural
logarithms)
(fig.30).
.
Axially PlateWithVarieble
Corpresscd Loading
and
.
. Thickness
cons-ant
Theproblemofdeterminingthebuckling stressof an axiallycom-
pressedflatrectan~larplatebasinvestiga~edby Libcve, Ferdmin,and
Peuschfora simplysupported
platewith’ cozstant
thickness anda linear
axialloadgrdient(ref.~). Theyplotted theeffective buckling-
stresscoefficient
asa fumctionof the.loading
ratiofor various values
. of a/b. Forthesakeofuniformity of presentation,
theircurves have
.. beenreplotted
hereintheformof ~av asa function of a/b for
3 variousvalues
of theloadingratio,includingnegative values(tension
atoneedge)as largeas -3. Tke.securvesappearin figureS1.
Thebuc’kling
coefficient
-~av appliesto theaverage
axial
loadingon tkeplate,whichisequalto (oA+6B)~ with UA assumed
tobe thelarger of thetw endloads.Theaverage plateloadis
(uA/2)~+(1/P)].~iswtit. rapidc~~=isontiththe~c~ing
stressof a platewithconstant
axialload,whichis thecurvefor
S = 1 infigure 31.
LmR dateswillbuckle
at theendatwhichthemaximum
loadis
applied,~f=r
which ~ isequalto 4.

parallelo~ Panelsin Compression


Anderson inv&tigatedcompressive bucklingofa flatsheetsub-
dividedintopanels bynondeflectirg supportsthatforma parallelogram
griduorktier thesheet(ref.51). Onesetof supports (allequally
spsced)runslongitudina~y, andtkLeothermm at an angleq to the
nomal.,or transverse,direction.Thelongitudiml. spacing
of thediag-
. onal.supportsis a, andthetransverse spacinqof thelongitudinal
sup-
.- portsis b. Euckling coefficients
wereplotted as functions
of a/b
fof%othlongitudinal corspresgion
andtransverse compression’for
various
vahmSOf theangleQ (figs. 32(a)and32(b)).tiaddition, inter-
actioncurves wereprovidedforcombinations of thesetwoloadingsin
theformof, buckling-coefficient
combinations forvariousvaluesof q
(fig.32(c)):
.

:.r- !:? m; f,. :


L’ii

,:
.
.
i

coefficient
The transverse-buckling isnotso severely af’~eci.ed
I’y
V, sincek increasesfrom4 ‘to~ as q increases
fromzero to joO.
For q equalto60°, k is9at a/b=l.

. Parallelo&am Plates
-.
Witt~ick-determined
thelxc?di ~ stressofaparallelogran plate
withclazpededgesundertheactionofuniform compression
inocedirac- .-
tion(ref.52). Hiswork differs fromtheworkof Anderson(ref.~)
in thatspecified
rotational
boundary conditionsareappliedto tke
plateinthiscase.BothWtttrlck a~dAndersoaemployed
tkeener~
apgroachinobllq~ecoordinatesto obtain
solutions. Resultsarepre-
sentedintheformof curvescf %kebuckling coefficientk= as a Fazc-
tionof a/b. Wittrickpresenteddataforedgeangles of 00 (rectar~~-
Iarplate),~“, and47 as shQwnin figure 33(a),in ‘vhich
thepbte
geomet~isdepicted.
Guest(ref.53) andGuestandSilberstein (ref.~) analyzed
sirply
supported paral.lelcE.~m
pla~~s undgrlongitudinalcompression
and,fora
rhoffibicplateof 3@ edgesagle, deteru...ed
t~~t ~ =’5.60.Wittrick
also analyzed clarped
parallelogram platieifishearandobtained
the
results shounin figure33(b)V(,ref, 55). Hasee%waanalyzed
buckling
or
clamped rhombicplatesin shear(re~. ~)j forwhichbuckling coefficients —
appearinthetablebelow.Thegeneral plategeor~tzyoffigure
33(b) —
# applies M thiscase.

1
Et, deg. . 0 15 20 w 35
-m
. ks ● . . . 14.7 21.0 ‘6.6
L 40.0 51.0
?
-
*
1.
IYiangular
Plates
‘Ike
:ucklingof trien.@ar plates
undervariouslea@:-and
edgescp-
portswasinvestigated by Voinowsky-.Krieger
(ref.57),Klit&hieff(ref.7J”
(refs. 59 to 61), and CoxandKlein(ref.
Wittrick 62). Woinowsky-YXicgPu
ccrptedthebuckling stress ofa simplysupported
equilateral
triangular

..
._ , .-
t

Fk Le unteruniforv.
cc,~rczs
3..n
smlfcna,d kw Laequal> when1.Ec base
istakene;ualLO b inequ2”.icn
s? thetri~r.yle (X,. Klitchieff
:nv~’sti~~t
ed thek.xklin~
of rig?,
t--,
-w~e Lsoscelcs
tria:>d=llar pla=s
‘.’it.11
pureshearofithe0rVr,0;J2nSl
side3upplied
soas toproduce cOm-
?ressicnalGP<thealtitu~e
up>ntlie kypotenase.Wittrick evuluated the
bucklingcoefficient forshearapplieiso as to produceeftkr coqm2s-
sienor tension alorg the alti%lude
cadalsoincluded tk.eeffectsof nor-
.--1stressesapplied
to t!.b’”e;ual
le~sof L?.e CoxandKlein
triangle. ..-.—
&nalyzcdbucklinginisosceles
trlanz~es
of a~yvertexanglefor normal
stress aloneandforshearalone.
Thebuckling
coefficients
presented
in tinis
sectionaretobe used
inconjunction (%). ‘l’rLe
titkequation ~eo~etryof a triangular
plate
issho%~.
infigure34. ThedataofcoxandKleinappear in figure3k(a)
foruniformco~re~aion
andinfigwe34(b)forshearalongtheequal -.
legs.Eothsimplysupporte~
andchwed -es werec=,sidered. The
results
of CO%and~ein agreewiththedataofWi.ttrickforri&ht-an@e
isosceles
triangdar
plates,‘~hich
appe=intable6. ‘R,e shearbuc-kling
ks+ and ~- refertopuzze
coefficients shearloadingswhichproduce
tension
andcompression,
respectively,
alongthealtittie upon.thehypote-
nuseofthetriangle.
For.she=andnorml stress
on a right-angle
isosceles
platethe
interaction
equatien

( )
2
2T +U + A(1 - U2] = 1 (61)
‘cr+ + ‘cr. acr

in whichu“=
applies, (%+-- k~ )/(ks++ k6-.
)

Research
Division,
College
of Engineerir!!,
NewYorkUniversity,
. NewYork,R.Y.lOctober29,19.34. “

4-
.
,
-,.
.. .

..
.
.

.
Froccduresforthecomputationof theelastic
andplasticbuckli::~;
stressesof flatplatesbasedon general
plate-bucklir~
equation(1)mre
summarizedin thiseectica.me factorsappeari~g
inthisequationare
brieflydiscussedandchartsarepresentedfromwhichnurerical
values
of thesefactorsmy be obtained.
Theelemeritary
loadingssuchas coqressionj shear,
andbending
frequently
areconsideredinprelizdnary designbyusir~thebucklir~
coefficients
forthe13miting cases(infinitevaluesof ah, ckping
or hinging
of theplateedses, andsoforth).Forconvenience table7
has beencompiled
containingthewalues of tkebuckling
coefficients
thatpertainto so~eof theselimitingcases,whilefigure14displays
thecurvesfor ~ asa function of a/b fordifferent combinations
of llmiting
edgeconditions.
.-.. “,
......
PhysicalPropertiesofYsterials ●

The bucklir!!stress of a flat plateisdeterminedwhentheIoadir&,


plategeometry, andcaterial aresFeclfied. Theloading
dictatesthe
particular charttobe usedto findthebwkMng coefficient k, and tke
plate a/b andedgerestraintlocate thenunerical
valueof k tobe
found fromthatchart.Foran unclad plate(fi= 1)whichbuckleselas-
tically (~= 1), Ucr canbe fourid directly
fromequation(1)if E is
known * Theeffects of cladding ~~dplasticitydependuponthetypeof
loading andthestress levelandtherefore require
a moredetailedkncul-
edgeof thestress-stmfn characteristicsofthematerial.
.
Thethree-parameterdescription
of stress-strain
da- c-be useif
. = a convenientge~eralizedapproach
inbucklingproblems. Withthis .
~tkod figure3 can be employedtofindtheshapefactorn. Since2,”
uoa7,and n canbe readily (seetable8 foraveke values
determined
“o of n),nondimension~ curvesareavailable
fromfigure 4. It iS to be —
r.
notedthat$in~ny cases, plastic,-buckling
chartshavebeenpreparei
fromwhichtheplnstic-bucklingstressmaybe determinedifoneknows
E; U0.7) md n.

.
?
!l%e
0.1loys . neu”designat.ions.
areusedWm3ughcmt
tMf3 reportawl t.ke
I tableisinclu+ed
forusewithLkevarious
references.Characteristics
. 1 of theckddicgusedon se;’eral
structural
aluminum
alloys
areshe-min
~ table4.
I
.- i
. Poicson’s
ratiobeyond
theproportional
limitc= be calculated
Usfng Vpl = 0.5 in th~ expression
I
i-

1
v =
( ‘ve)(ES/E)
Vpl- Vpl (Al)
.
Frequently
buc’kling
stresses
areco~~tecl
usingtheequation

ucr= fiq~(tfi)2 (A2)

‘whereK = h2/1.2(1
- @). me expression
K/k canbe foundas a func-
tionof v infi~e 35.
“i
[

I Compressive
Buckling

1“
- Forplates,kc appears
Plates. inflgue16 Interms-ofafb
and e andinfigure 15 internsof A/b ad E. Foran infinitely
lo~gplate,‘~ rfiybe foundfrcnfigure
1~ in tees of E alone.
Wcen e is notthesameforbothumloadededges,thegeclzetric
mean .-.
of the & values foreachedger&ybeused(eq.(49)).

1 Theplastici,m-reduction
portededgesis
factorfo$& longplatewithsimply
sup-

.
1 w%~lefora longclamped
plate

Izelastic ~tresses
plate-buckling maybe calculated
usingthenondiren-
sionnlchartof figure
9.
[
I

.
.

Theeffect of “lateral
restraint
in reducing & maybe detem~ned
of Ar/at)
fromfigure21 forv=~’~es andtk.e effectsof thickness
taz-r
andaxialloadvariationmaybe calculated‘withtheaidof figures
.V
and31.
Thegaininbuckling stress
withobliquityof theloadededges:s : —
sho’vnin fi~-e33(a)forclaE@ parallelogramplates,vhilefigure32 .—
depicts buckling fo:largesheets
coefficients divi~e~intoperallelcgran
panels by nondeflectkg
supports.Fordataon triangular
plates,fig- !
m,34(aj raybe usedto find ~.
‘The variationin & with b/t forstiffezedphtes
withtors~cnally
weakor strongedgestiffeners
&~earsinfigme18. Because
of tkesparse
dataa=ilable, no recG~.endatica
canbemadecomse.rning
theeffectofnor-
malpressureuponbuc-kling.

F .- Forfhlges, ~ naybe foundin figure


of.a b acd c andiafigure19 as a function
v = 0.3. Foran infinitely
lonGflange,
20 as a fucction
of A/b and E for
fi~xe17 contains~ as a
function of varyingv appears
of e alone.Tkeeffect infigureZ.
- Theplasticity-reiuction
factor
fora long hingedflang~ is
.
J
. .

.“ ~ = @s/E)(1- Vez)/ (1 - &) (A~)

Fora longcl’a~dfla%ge,

. ..’
!-J].
t

For flange c.lxkling factors wkn ~cr B upl~ it rayh“


reiuction
permissible touseequation.(&O).Alth,.P@lthisfuctor‘;asnotco.~ute.J
. in thesection e~titled
“Cl@cling
!hxluctionFactors,”
itappears tobe
. reasonnb:e by coxp~riso~
withtl.e
i’ectorsforpletescmdcolurms.
.
Platecol.ums.-
Fc5r
platecolums.,
thebuckingstress
raybe deter-
minedusingfigure
2(a). -,
Fore sh~rtplatecolun (L/b< 1) tkeplasticity-reduction
factor
i.s

(A7)

Fora square
platecolwzn(L/b= l),
,.

(A8]

,’
Fora longplatecolum (L/b~1), theplasticity-reduction
factor
is
8
IIS (%/E)@ )/
- V=2 (I- - ~) (A9)

The claddingrduction factorfor shortplatecolurns


inwhich

4-

. 3f) (Ale)
.
..
..-”
andwhen UcrB ~Pl equaticm
(4C)kol~struewhichisalsoapplicable
.
,- to long plate colu!!sat all stresslevelsabove 6=1.

Shear Buckling
The shear-buc.kliri-stress coefficient
as a function
of a/b is
shcwninfigure 22J%I. clmpd Endhingedplateedges.Forlongplates,
,
... .

.1
.

.
. withtheai~ OS tke nondtrenslocal chart of ?igure 10. “ -

Thec“ladding
reduc%ion
factorfor GCI< acre ap~ is givenby
equation
(42),andfor Ucrs Cpl equation
(LO)holdstrue.

ForclawedobliqueplatesfiKme32(b)~ be ussito find k~


whentheplateedgeangleis45°. Fortriargflar-plnte
shear-’ticklicg
coefficients
figure34(b)~y be used. Inadiition,
tilesection
entitle,d
“Special
Cases”should
be consulted.
,.,

,
Bending
Buckling
Thebending-bucklingcoefficientappearsin figure
% as a fuznction
of a/b and e endinfi~e 25es a function of A/b. Theplasticity-
reduction factorfor a siKp4supportedplateis thesaneas fora hinzed
me- Littleerrorshould be expectedinusingelasticallyrestrained
f-e phsticlty-reduction factorsf’orelastically
restrainedplatesin
beading.Forthesecasestheplastic-bucklkg chartoff@re 9 raybe
usedto find CTcr, whichistheEaximum co.qressivestresson theplate
section.In order.to firdtheccmrespondingrxxrent
itisnecessazy to i.
.
integrate thestress distribution,
forwhichpurpose thecurves of fig- !:.
ure 9 may be used.
#
Corbined
badi~g
Interaction
equations forvarious co-~tilations
o? compression,
shear,
andbending appearin table5. ~ieseexpressions arepresentedin-phi- ..
. calformin figures ~ axial28 for elastic com-
buc~ing.Forlongitudinal
.
pression andshearon a long rectangular plate,
withkothappliedstresses - ,
range,equation(6o)holdstrue:
in the inelastic
. .
~e2 + RE2 = 1 (~)

The plasticity-reduction
factorfora simplysuf~r+.edplatein ;om-
blnedcompression
andsu?ial loadvaries between
thatfora hingedfl%-$e
~d thatfOra SiEPIY GUppOrtC+dpht~ under=id COInpZWSiO!I}depemii~~
. .

Actually,utilization
of theplastic-buc?dingchartof figu!!e
9 forall
Cxcs Of coxbined
kcfidi~ anda.ial~O[fitO fir?dacr (aftmr whichthe
plateloadingmy be found by integr&ti~tk.ecross-section
stressdM- -.
tritution)
shouldgiveconservative
results.
On right-angle
i~osceles
triar+y.rlar
platesloaded
under shearand
co.zpressionas shown is the sketches in figures 34(a) ami 3h(b), equa-
tion(61)applies:

., .

( -) 2T
‘cr+ + Tcr
‘ ‘2
*U +
~ ~ U2) = ~
—(
Ucr - (61)

Table6 contains
nmericaivaluesOf ~ and ~ fordifferent
tws .
ofplateedgesupports.

I
,
::

-,;
*
.. ..-... ,-,i P.,,
,,-:
..1-.
.‘.. . f’. .

b’
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Curves NAcATN W2, 1943.
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10 Gerard,
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..
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1
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. .
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.- . . . . .
*

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.:”
*
-.. ..... .
.. ..:.’i “A:;, ;. . -i

41. Stcr.-ell,
Flbridge z, F~iwcrd
Z.,andSchwtirt. Z.: Critical
Strc3sfor
Low FlatPlatehlthElastically
s.~Infinitely Restrained
Edges
UnderConbl~zL
ShcnrandDirectStress. NAMWRL-3$0, 1543.
RX!AARR3Kt3.)
(F’ornerly
42.Batdorf,S. B.,atiHoukolt,
JohnC.: Critical
Ccr~binution3
of Shear
andTransverse Dirzct
Stressforan Infinitely
LongFlctFluteWith
. ~&es Elastically
Restmined
A@~st Rotction.RACATR 847,1346.
43.EQtdorf,S.B.,andStein, Manuel:CriticalCombinations
of Shear
andDirect StressforSimply
SupprtedRectangularFlatP@tes.
wcA n{ 1223,1947. -..
44.Grossran,Uorzz: ElasticStability
of SimplySupported
FlatRec-
tangular PlatesUnderCritical
t?cmbinations
of Transverse
doEPres-
slonandLcmgitudinalBending.Jour.Aero.Sci.,vol.16,no.5,
Pay1949,PP.272-276.
45.Stowell,
ElbridgeZ.: Plastic
Buc’kling
of a LongFlatPlateUnder
CombinedS~&arand Longitudinal
Coqression.lLtCA
TN 19, 1949.
46.Budiansky,
Bernard,
Stein,
Mknuel,
andGilbert,
ArthurC.: Buckling
ofa LongSquare
TubeInTorsion
andCompression.
NACATN i751,
1948. \

47.Levy,Samel,Golden%rg,
Daniel,andZlbrltosky,
George:simply
Supported
LangRectangular
PlateUpderCombir.ed
AxialLoadti
Xoml tiessure.NACATN 949,194. . .
48.Wcalley,RuthF!.,
Corrick,
Josephine
N.,endLevy,Sazuel:Clamped
LongRect~alarPlateUnderChibined AxialLaadandNorrBlPres-
sure.NACATN1047,1946.
.
49.Pines,S.,and&ard, G.: htebilityAnelysis andDeGigy.
of an
Efficiently
Tapered
PlateUnderCompressive
Loading.Jour.Aero.
Sci.,vol.14,no.10,Oct.1947,pp. 594-599.

. 50.Libove,
Charles,
Ferdmn,Saul,arsd
Reusch,
JohnJ.: ElatiicBuckling
ofa Simply
Supported
PlateUndera Compressive
Stress
thatVaries #
Linear~intheDirection
of Ioeding.NACATN 1831,1949.,
.
. 51 Anderson,
● RogerA.: CkrtsGivingCritical
Compressive
Stress
of Con-
tinuous
FlatSheetDivided
IntoParallelogram-SkiFed
Panels.NACA .
TN2392,1951.
52.Wtttrlck,
W.H.: Bucklingof Oblique
PlatesWithClamped ‘&lges
Under
UniformCompression.
Rep.94.182,Aero.Res.Labs., Dept.SUpply
(Melbowne),
kW. 1951. (lUso,Aero.Quart., Vol. 4, pt. 11,
Feb.1953,pp.151-163.)

..
. ..
.

. >3.
i,

24 Guest’,
● J.,andSil&rsLeit~,
J. P.O.: ;,Hoteor,theBuckling
of
SimplySqqmrte3%rallelo~ram
Plabes.Str~cturesand.
I.titcrinl: —.
. Hote20~,Aero.Res.Labs.,
Dept.Supply(Mel&~rie),M.y1953.
.
55. ‘JitiriCk,
‘?’.
H.: l!?~:~~irig
ofOblique
F:ztes
WithClamped
ZigesU~~er
UniformSkar. Rep.SM.210,Aero.&s. Labs.,
Dept.Supply
(Melbourriej,
June1953.
56. Hase@ra,M.: On B~skling
ofa ClampedRhonb16 Y%fnPlatein Shear.
Readers’Fom.m,Jour.Aero.Sci.,vol.21, no. 10, Oct. 1954,
p. 720.
s.: ~er dieBieL~ vonPlatten
>7. Woinowsky-Krieger, durchEinzelLns~e&
mit rechteckiger
.hfstandsftiche.
lr#.
-ArcMv,
”~l. 21,1953$ . --
pp.331-338.
*
58. Klitchieff, : ~ckl.ing
J. 14. ofa Triangular
Plateby Shearing
Forces.
Jour.Mech.andAppl.Math.,VO1.~, pt.3, 19Z, PP.257-253.
Quart.
59. Wittrick,
W.H.: B~ckJirgofs Simply
SupportedTriangular
Platein
Combtne&
Compression
& She%r.Rep. .SM.lm, Aero.Res.Labs., 1
Dept.Supply(Melbourne),
July1952.
60. Vittrick,
V. H.: Backling
ofa F?i@-.&.gled
Isosceles
Triangular
PlateinCo=klrA-C
oxpressianatiSiear(Perpendicular
Ed~es
S~ly Supported,‘$~tenuseClamped).Rep.@. 220,Aero.Res.
Labs.,Dept.Supply(Melburne),
Nov.1973.
61. Kittrick,
W. H.: F!uckling
ofa Right-Angled Isosceles
Triangular. . .’
PlateinCo~bine~ Co~ression andShear(Perper&cularSi~qS
Clamped,HypotenuseSimply~w~rted). Rep.SK.211,Aeti;Res.
Iabs.,rfipt.Supp2J’@elbowxe), Jwne 1953.

● 62. Cox, H. L.,and~ein,B.: ‘IkeBucklfrK


of Isosceles
Tria~mlar
Piates. ‘Jo~ur.
Aero~SCi.,vol.22,n:.5,MaY1955,pp.~21-325.
.
63.Cozzone,
F.P.,and%lcon,M.A.: Ncniimensionsl
Bucklir~
Curves-
.- TheirDevelopment
andApplication.
Jour.Aero.Sci.,vol.13,
no.10,tit.196, pp.511-517.
Co~sitionLimitsfor Alurdnun
64.Anon.:Chemical Alloys.AlcoaDati
,,
Sheet,
Aluminuzn
Co.ofLm.,Jan.4, 1955.
-
-.
.,
‘.”,
,,, ,
.

....— —.k.a —a-------.-.---, -.$--” , ,. ..,. ..

1’

TABLEl.- IImA9m--m THmRIEs

Invmtigator Btrom-strain
law PIMticlw law SuckliW umkl

BIJlaard Incrernentoll
anddcfor- Octahedral.
8hear No strain reverml
(ref. 18) mtion types,
v ins*tmeOus

Neudelnsm-prager Incrmentsl typ3, octahedral shear Strainreversal


(ref.
19) v instantaneous

Ilyushln Defommtlon type, Octahedral shear Stmin reversal


(ref.
~) v R 0.5

Stowell
(rof
8. ~ Deforsmtlon
@pe, octahedral shear No strsin
rcverml.
and34) v = 0.5 --
I

$4.
. .- —— -.. — —..
t=..
.,

. TABLE2.- PLAS’MCITY-RZLUCTION
FACTORSi
d
.

Loadir~ Structure v/d


Compression
Img flange,ofie
unlcz:ed ~
edgesimply
supportd
Longfla~e,oneunloaded
elge”
clsuzped
. 0.330+ 0.335
~ + (3Z@j 1/2

Longplate,bothunloaded O.~ + 0.250


~ + (3~/Es~1/2
edgessi.np~y
supported

Icing
plate,
bothunloaded
edgesCk7,F~ 0.352+ 0.32i~+ (~~,E~~l/2’

Shortplateloaded esa
coluxm(L/b<< 1) 0.291 + 3q/Esj
[(
b
Squareplateloaded asa ●

column(i@ = 1) 0.114+ 0.886


(~/Es) .

bng column(L/b>> 1) “ %/%


Shear 0.83+0.17@/E~)
. ‘e:g%%l:$;:;r::e:d=es
.
,.
.
.

t, -., -
.,--.,, ,.
.

I
TAILS3.- SU?WA.RY
GF RZIXX!!IOI-f
CLADDIK!2

Loading Ec~ > Ispl

. . +- 1 + (3Df’/4) 1
Shortplatecolurms --i —r
i l+sf l+3f 1

Img plate columns


1 1
li-3f ‘ l+3i?

Coxrpression
and 3pf
1 +- 1
I shearpanels I l+3f l+3f

TAELEA.- CLADDIKG TRzclcmss


FORALCLADP~TES
,:.:.
. IIIt
“,’,
iData
takenfromreference 6~ ii
.,:.
L I

..: I

MLterial Cladding Totalplate


designation mterial thickness,
in.
Tbtalc14dding
tlnicknes~,
f, in.
,.
I
I
. Alclad2014 6U53 <0 04.0
● 0.23!
. ●
2.040 .10 .

.
Alclad2024 12x <0.064 Old
>*@54 .OS
. .
Alclad7075 Allthicknesses 0.09
I I

..— ..—

.
.

.
.
.

. TABLE~.- COXBINiZ3
LQADIHG
CONDITIONS
FORWHICHINTERACTION
CU-fl.%
EXIST
,
.

nleory Loading
corcbir.ation Interaction
equation Figure
Bi=ialcompression
~ Forplatestir~t.
bucklein 28
squarewaves,Rx+~=l

Longitudinal
cml- Forlongp~lates,
%+~z=l ~
press
ionandshear
Lcmgitudina coE- Hone 28
pression
andbendfng1 I
Dsstic
Eending
andshear Rb2+Rs2=l 2’7
Bending,
shear;and None =7
transverse
comres6ion I
Longitudinal
cowression
Hofie I 28 I
andbendingand,
trans-
versecompression
.!1
.
nelastic --‘ess
hnlgi’cudinal
c%=. ion@+ Rs2.1 ,, 29
andshear
.,
4*

;-

. .

#-
s
.-

. . — ,. — --%.-...
.,,. -., .,
. . ..- L.. zI

.
.

‘mm 6.- EUCKIWO


CO!IFFICEJ’i’S
FORRIGHT-AHGLE
ISOSCEL2S
TRIANGULAR
PIATESLO&D 311D’EPENDENTLX
~{U?~ORMCOZtPRFSSION,
POSITIVE
SHEAR,
ANDNZXYiTIYE
SHE4.R
-.“
? ..
Edgesupports
(a) ●
’& %+ %.

AU edges simply 10.0 62.0 23.2


supported
Sidessimply
supported, 15.6 70.8 *.O
hypotenuse
claqed
Sidesclampe~:
hyp&- 18.8 80.0 44.0
enusesiE@ysupported
b
%ypotenuse = b Ln figure
34.

.
i“,:.

-.
.

.
.
. Ikadin.g I Rtge support Coefficient

Compressim SS on all edges ~ = &.o


HACA
Rep.733
C on all e3ges ~ . 6.98 (ref.29)
}

MICA
‘hi
r SSony=O, y=a, x=O

1
a Fonx=b ~ = 0.43
b
Rep.~b
L ~ Cony. =0, y=a, x=O
,P! 11! ‘“”
Fon’x=b L ~ = 1.2, ‘ref”8)

-...
Shear

—— SS on all” edges ks = ‘3.3’3IL4CATN 1222


1 ! ~ref. 35)

I t C onallefiges ks = 8.98~~CA~ Q3
(ref.43)
i t
B
I—.
n, 1 , .,. I

.
-
. Bending
.
-. SS on alledges
‘% = 23”9&A TN 1323
C onalledges h = 41.8.
I (ref=37) -
H
D :. -
.
.
t-,
. ..-.
. !. “.-.
L.i
. . .
~ll..i *“”.
,

i
-.
.

.
,
TABLE~.-VALUESOF SHAPEPAF#&’EX’ER”
n .FORSZVZZLEWGIXTi311K
MATI.RIALS
- —.
.
z..
Data takenfromreference 631
[

n Material

3 Gne-fourth
hardto full‘hard
16-8stainless
steel,.
withgrain
One-fourth
hard18-8stainlessst,e?l,
crossgrain
5 One-half
hardandthree
-fourth,s
hard18-9stiim.less
steel,
crossgrain

IMllhard18-8stainless steels cross grain
10 2024-Z’=nd707’5-T
alumin=-a12Gy skeetandext~=ion
2024X-T &urdnu%-&oysheet
2021L-350,
2Q24-~1,& ~2k-T86aluezinum-~llcy
sIieet
20-LO25 2024-T
ahuninu%-alloy
extmsions
SAE4130steelheat-trea’=d
up ta lCO,
CXXI
psiclti,=te
stress
~~b~ XX.*-Taluminu!-alloy
extrusions
SAZh130steelheat-tre~ted
abovela,~ psiultimate
stress
m SAE1025(mild)
steel
.
.
.
.


✎ ●

. , .._.. ...=
.——-.—. —_. ..-—
!“,.,.

:
-.
.
.

.
.
-A.
,.

TABLE
9.- DESIG:i4TIOl@ lwMINuM
FORWRCCIGHT -

Old I
14S, R301 2014
2017
X 2CX24
61s 6061
75s 7075
. ,.
.
I
:“ r.
.“7

.
.

,.. .

..
i.”(
t

I
z“

. —— x
.

.. .
.-.
.-. .

.
-.

Figure1.-Transition
fromcolumn
toplateas supports
areaddedalong
edges.Note changesinbuckle confiwatlons”
unloaded .
..

..
..,;
. . . . . . . ..
.,.”, 1
. —— ..
.—
.-r -. ..—
j

2s —

m —. .— - ----- -.. —— ----- .,

\
kc,4r
IA?-- 13 Pa @=m_.
kg=l~ - 0..P50.456
4 .30 ,426
. -— ...- —.—— —-,-. —-- 5.35
-. .- ,+
.395

W .. —-—— . . . ..— — .—. -— —— -> .—. -- .-

. ,! If
h Y J 4
f 2 3 4 .5
i/b @’b

(a)Platecohms with hingedloadededges. (b) Hi&d il.atqes.


Ucr = &n%3/(L/P)2. ..,
F
of plate columnsami flangesaa functionsof Fmlsx4 fs
F5.gurc2.- Compressive-bUcklW co~fficients s’
ritio.

I

. , -,-
,. .,
., ... --- -’

,-—~~
., “ e- . -. —-. -. —..-
.—

,. .-
)

“’~

~..
● ‘.

S=’.* --l c—
%m%

(a)Significant
stmm quantities
ona typical (b) Ikpendenceof shape factor
on
atre65-5train
curve. ~~t~o ao.~opo.ay
n = 1 + 1%(17/7)/io*
(’Jo
.To/%.
c>)

Mgure3:-Char=teri.stica
ofstress-utrein
curves
forstructur~
rdl.oys
depicthwqwmti%ies
usedinthree-parameter
method. .
,.

-. ..-. --- --— -.


.’,
— ~-. .. . . .. . .. .
“-’----,,

,’
.

12

n )
-i .
%?
40

8. .—

6
!

4 .—. .-
,..
.’

0
02 4 6 .8 # e M 16 18 20

Fl&rc 4.- Mondiwneional stress -Btraln curvee for v’kricm volues of n


for three-par+ter method.
,,
. . ,,.
-!
.

..

/
&
E
0“

O TBT DATAFRO/U20Z4-T4
CWCFOtW SECTIONS o
— THEORETICAL VALUES
[ref. , 14J

..
I

1111 1 1 1 I I
. Jv m m 40 50 t
.

.
. Figure5.- Com~isonof theoryande~riment forcmpressedsimply
supported
flanges. i
.-
.
-.
.

., I
.—.
-,,.
1 *’,

.—.
8-
T
‘J
‘=WN end PRAGI
(M t9)
<+ .—

ad \ ILnKW {ref.20)
\ mzutn (mf Jc7)
ZEST DAZA FROM 2024- T6 WARE TUBES *
\—
JnmELL(rel 5)
o PRIM and HEIMERL (rd. 16)
. PETERS hf. 17) F

al
t& ,ad
1

of theory
k’l~mretY.- Cofiq-mrison amlexperhwntfor comprcmmd
mpportedplates.

.. ___ -= ., f
-, .
‘1 ,
..’. ,, .,. ,,. .

.
—..—— — , -.-.
. —..,-- .- .,-> *._, ”.--. z ~,, . . .
,.

*’

40

\*
-4
i,.
r.

.8

.6

9
.4 ---

I
.2 —.. — Ll-
I o
! 0 5 1s 30 35 40

, rw, w’

of,daear
Fi@re 7.-comperition bucklingtheories
andtestdateforpla~:,c
I buckling
of compressed
elmtlcdl.ysupported
plates.
v,”
, ,
1
,, #

u
!’
~ -— .,. . ,.

I —.

2 I

I I I I I I -J-L
? L6 18
I
20

Figure8.- Churtof norulimms


ioml comprcmlve
buckling
stressforlong ,.1
L:
\.,
hln@-d flumTm. TI= (Eufl)(l
- Ve2)/(Z- v%).
,.

-. ....- ____ .. . .._ -. . .. . . . --——-———. . -— —— .--— ..-— . ...-


● ✌ ✎
☛ ✎
.
‘,, ,!

. .

/2 -
\
a
# -
i!
.’

.8

%& -“ ,
6

2 .
*

I I I I I I I I I
o 2 d & .9 lo Lt M 1.6 1. 2 I

Fdgure 9.- Chat or nondimmmional compres~ivebuckling atrcss ~or lonC


clamped flanges and for supportedpl@es with edge rotationalrestraint.

~= (%/++0..++(3Et/EJ]’/’}(l
- %2)/(1- ,2).

..- ..:

, II
.’ ,,

. .
,,
.
—-- b ,
4 —, -—.. - ...

.7 ! 1 , , 1 1 i 1 n2

‘l-”l,-’{---l&
3
.6 5
10
+ i 20
~50
.5
‘“”1””--’ ““-t”’-”--r242z2z>x”z>x”’ i I
,4 I -+--l #!5jjfz~p-.J.. -!
>~
i
V% I

~ -----

6 .-H
.3 — ,-— . ..- ,.$\’\\\\\yl .

El
‘:1
.
.2 - .-
p
!$

--.-. ,..v..,,i
“I
:1 ——

,1 —,.
_ -1_
~--r ‘T-
“ .-.,..
.1
~:.,

1
. - ----

/? ,
0 I 1 I I I I I I
(/ ./ ,.? .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0
I
::
.-.
~,
.:;;, (#e .
.-f
Fimme 10.- Chartof nomll
mensio]wlshearbuckling
stresm(orpnnelswLtll
LX@ rotatkmul rmtruint. q ● (E@) (1 - L# -v?. )
)/(’

I
.,
. —— . 1

i
.
,

----—- .--.. -”,. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .-,.,...,-, . . . . . . . . .

I
.-.
,,,~
. ,..:
-.
>

ff/2

‘1

ft/2

FiW’e I.lt - Cross section of CICU plute.

i ..
..
,. ,. *,.: ;;. , !.
f

..

q cf.ADmvG

.-
i

12.- Stress-str~in
Figure cu.wes
furcladding,
core,andalclad
combina- —
=l”-f+fif; $= acl-/acore”
tions ‘/score

. . . .. . ... .. .—. —.-—.


,,.
* ~.
. .—— - —.. —— —.. . . .

:!

.,
,.h
-.1
a— mm 1-

6 — -

VT
4 —o z+mrkm _

)
U*, hl

2024-TfJ4
(a) simply supported platevith (b)Long E%224-T3
pletcC.MXUM
3 percentcledding.Tc~t,c
Wre EWJIC M. pmcent cleailng.
on Z- andchannel
sect.
ionc.
Figure
13.
- Comparison
ofexperlmntml
@ theoretlca
cladding
reduction
factor~.

-!
.

.-. .. .

I
. ..
.,! “J-::,7,, -..,
1.,,

‘-—-,— WADED EVGESCLAMPED


LOADEDEDGES SIMPLY
Su?pot?m

9------

-----
Jllll~l!l I ! 1 i I I I
/ 2 J 4 ●

14.- Corcpressive-buckling
Figure coefficients
forflatrectangular
plates.
.

— -.. . . . ....-. ..— ——


..
. ......
... ,. .-.‘L

-J 1
..[.

76

Z2
k● .
68
r

64

60 *
fie

.—
45.67B9D L1 1.2 1.3 /Y 6

FISH 12.- Cocqmessive-buckli~~-s of platesas a func


tresscoefficient -
Cf A/b for various
Zliir; restraint.Fig-
amountsOr edgerotational
29.
ure takenfromreference

..-
..”.
:,
..

/5
.. i
M ---— t
I

. -
/3 -

Ez3
t

//

/0
.
9

8
k=
7

5
8
4

-
2 )
. .
/
.
.

% ‘
Figure16.- Compressive-buckdlng-st.ress
coeffi.ci~~t
ofplatesas a fuzc-
tionof a/b forvarioussmounts
of edgerotaticmal
restraint.

✍✎ v
——. .— --- -——. --- - ..- ... . .
.

- —-..*. .- ‘---,.... ! . . ..

u ./ #
/4 14
.
$y:o

.!2 ——— Ii?

lo m

FLAME
l& ‘,8 (J-m)
8 4

fz4wGE 14X7E

.6 6

4
ko.0,400
r ●0
.4

.2 —. 2
.

0
In
.“
m
,“
IcJn
---
lot

Fun? @
17.- Compressive-bucklingcoefficientsfor Infinltely long fhnL’cs
FlgurI?
end pl.ate8ae functions of edge rotational.restraint.

.—. — -,

I
1
.
. *
-! *
,’,

.Y.— —. .*.. —..* ----


—— ———4 --.——. . . .

i1I ●

I
!
-.
7W7SIONALLY
STRONG S?Wt7M9 ~DGES CLAMtWD
1- —.
(HAT)
(&496)’

. 6
WEAK SWFENER
.- I
5 .—
/

4 .I!.o?wEDGES
Slhmr
SUPFW?TED&=4.00)

3 :—-–
- +-4
!

I
1111111 \ ! I I 1 (
so Iwo i50 zoo 250 300

..
b/t t,
.,

. Figure 18. - Ccqre6slvc-buckl@ coefficient


forlonGructan@bm’ stiC-
..-
.:
ftm!d PIUW1O no a funeticm of b/t and ntiffencr tor~ioml rl@iiLy. !-,,

Figlu’cLukm l’ranrc.i’cruncc51.

______ .
—1. .“.

I 1,
.

w
4!7l———
.
.
4-I-L

I
7

. 5
..

4
.
.

Figure 19.- Compress


ive-buckling-stress
codficientof flanges
asa func-
tionof A/b forvarious.scountsof edgerotational.
restraint.

. .. :;,-,\.,., ii.:, ,.-
,.

\\

. .. .. ’i- “ ‘t
II

. . . .

. .. —-
t
m. . ...! -.—L.
azzE ////.’///,...////

LOUD EOGESCLAM%Z
1

/4 ------ -.-—
I

/3

—.. .

/0 ...— —

.9
I

!
1
t .

.5
I t
!$(A! ‘~
.5 ‘u [5 20’25 303 40 4-5 5

u,
b

Fimre
— 20.- Compress
ive-buckling-stress
coefficient
of flanges
as a func-
tion of a/b forvarious
~zounts
ofedgerotationalrestrcint.

. ..—. ——.— - ------ -—-. F.-.”- v, ,——- , ........ .-


*

----
.. 1.- b, 4
. .

,. : .-~-r--.-=.=-=,

E
i

.
6
.
F“— 1
5

3
.

I
I
.

R&we 21.. Compressive-buckling


coefficient
of flatpla”~s
restrainedcqsinst
lateral
e~snsion.Poisson’s
ratio
equ91S 0.3;~~x =
Wa’M” ‘W”

, ---- —.— -—. - -- .. . .-.?.. . ~~.., .-— ---- —


I

*
/5
.
.

/J

t
SYMMETRIC
MOE LAMPkD EDGES

* 9

AmfsYHMETRfc SYMM5%7C
MODE
7

/YVGED EDGES

!
5, / 3
I
5
I

. i
.
- 0/’3
. - Shesr-buckl~--stress
Fig~e 22. coefficient
of plates
as a function
of
. . a/b forckupe~sndhinged
edges.

. ., -------- ...—-. --. — 9.


——-. - -—
. ., .,
.,,..,-. -
i

I
i k,*898
ATE~W
. 9-
i
!

.
.
8‘

k%
7-

IQ m

-.-
.
0 2 4 6 ,8 m

. (b) k+s= as a q Jllctionof b/a.

~Qu= z3=- Curvesfor cstimtion of sh~=-buckli~ coifficimt of plmtes


with vsrious amnm% of eti&crotatioml restraint.

I.
. .

. /25
.
/20
.
.
. //..

1[0
\ ~ ~.... ......- —-------
.. : }s
.Q5

A2i9

S?5

9.0
k
85
t

z’

Zo

6S

.
6.0
.
. ●

55:
. I
.
- so I
#.68 A212Mt#5bg 20 ez 24
A,
b
Figure24.- Sheer-buckling-stress
coefficient
forplatesobtatned
Cfon
. analy.isof infinitely
10%’platee
as a function
of A/b forvarhms
aaounts ofcc@.rotational
restraivt.

\
J
..
.
..” -
--
.-. _
.. .
,,. .

52
1
I

-— . .—... I
~
. 51
.



45

a
47

45

43

4f
!\ \YI I\/! M42WW &bAr
39
k,
37

.
b
35

33

3/

.,
i
23
i
. i 27


J
t
t 25
.

23
,,1 I I I
!\ll.
I I ;: II

i 1354555’ 65Z3W S!!5 In5 /[5 m


. A/
i b
Figure25.- as a function
of A/b .-
restraint.
I -—
I

Izz%
56

. 52 ““-””’
.
.
I

-.-—— ?—
----- ---

kb
32-”
___-— ....
——— -----

24-
1 L
m-

/6
1

/2”

8 ,
.
. 4

.
.

e
=/b
F@.lre6*- wtii~-bucm~ coefficientof platesas a~function
of
of edgerotat ioml restra~t.
for}tiiom Sr.OuntS

_... —-- -3 ._
. ..— —----- -—----’-
.m
-..-—
+
c-)
..-,
., I .,i...-

‘4

0? 468 ro
Jo
. Ov
. l,’
.- .,. . . a
. J?
i., ,, t
< -—--:--”,-- -’ - . . . ---.——
,,
R= :! I IsJ“
6 —.. ~..~. !. .— .— -:. - . y
> ‘b i’ 1
8 . [ , ;... .. >.- ‘—-t- -; ~
I
foEi!i!!! I ! o
10 8
6/?=4 * 0

. (a)Upperandlo*r edgessir.ply
supported.
3

B
oz4u*nrz
o
~;
2 .-1--; —i +
II !.
# . 4 –-”
t
–f --- --i’
~“i;
#- —+. +.; 4
;iO* 1
, ._. L -.f
I,:t
1 ““ --

. Rc

Upperedgessimplysupported,
loweredgescls=peL
.
InteractIon
curvesforlongflatplatesuniier
variouE
cm--
binatlons
of compression,
bending,andshesr.
d
.
.!
1.
.. . .. .

0.2.4 -44W
Rr RY -

(a) a/b= 0.8. (b) a/ii = LO. (C) a/b= l.=.


10

%’
4

(d) a/b= 1.60. “ (e) a/b= 2.0. (f) a~b= 3.0.

e
.
.

(g) a/b= =.
Figure28.- Interaction
curves
forflatrectangular
plates
underconbir.ed
bin.xisl-compres
sionamilongitudinal-bend~ng
loadings.
Curvestaken
fromreference39.

. ...— _ .-—. -.. . .. . .. . ..-.


. .—
.!
., -,.,,
.,,...
,’, :.”1”. I ,“ .


● i
!
i.
. i

R=

TwZM57?CALCWVES ZEST RESULTS


~STIC FLAT PLATE
—---- ELAS?7CFLAr PtiTE
—.— E~ST1~ SQUARETuBE ● PLAST7CRANGE
—-- — /?=+/?==/ ● ELASW RANGE
.
Figure 29.- Cor.perison
of plastic interaction theory and test data for
cozbinedaxialcompression andshearon flatplates.Testsweremade
with2014.T6 squaretubes.

. .. ... —., . —%
.— .,- — . —..———————.—- .-. - -.

(
------- .-— ——

Eiz3
,- “ii’
—------
-—-
,

&l
6 -

5 ~

.
Fill I I
:o
% 5 10 Ls Sf2 25 30 Js 4D 45

o/b

Figure~.. Compress
ive-buckling-stress
coeff
Icientforn ElmplysupporLed
rectangular
flatpl.ute
of minimum
weight.‘Thickness
andl.ondl@vary
1

I
~–
.. 7.,.

-., ,,: .- l,l? :

i
f I
I

m
i
t’
——— -.. —A /
.
--:-- : ‘–
6 —i
-.. —-- 0 —— .—

+ *,rj 15 ~~!Z.=
i——
-J !—
5 — — —/ ——— Ss——— I.—
I
f
/fcm A7
u/b
{ =m
I / t I au
4

\
3

2
I I .
I
I
f

2 3 4
0/” .
.

load. C?av=

-. ----. w.--..—--. -.-~.


—---- ... ---- m. -...,-———-. —-.. —.-.
-+-i-
‘7?
.-.
.,,,
.-.--,..
.*

.
,- : ,*
-{s
. ---
,..
,.-

~a >

..

.,.

-.,
5

-.
.. db
.

. ..:+ (a) Lmd.lng inx-direction.


e.:;

I
#

[ II I .1 ‘3 I

.
uzib .

(b)Loading
iny-direction.
Figure3~m-Compressive-buckling
coefficients
forflatsheetonnon-
deflectingsupports
dlvlded
fitopmtielogem-shaped
panels.JKIJ
penelsidesnreequal.

—..— — —. — .. . .——— —~
.. +.
J .-
..:
..
,. L.
%--
. ...
.’
. . . .. ...,.: *“
.* ..,:- -. .-. y
.. -. -,
,,-
> .-
-.
----’<
“-
,.; ..
.-
. -.
f
-. ,,
/i .“ ,- .-,

. .

. .

4“.:

.4

.,
F..
P lQ/& ‘ 1-1

.-.
.
. ,.

.*. ....>-.-.
.
u
.. ...- .(
.. ; . . .. .4 : ..,=---6
.. --.:
“/0
.. .
. . -- .”.-
-. d
. . -. ... .
}.’

1-”:”““”=””
a,
,4

“- (c)C=b$nedz@”-=mrse los.di&.
i .“----- !, .’
--- .
-,-. z.
. -=we 32.- coIxckd,d. ~ -
.,”~ ;;”-”.” . . .. .
... ..
..- ,-.. .. - “a- .
f ,“.
4 .-: . ..

,-=:-.
,-.

-. .. .. . . . .
- .-
-. —.
.- 1
.—
..
.. .. ... ,-.
.-. .+ .
. .’.. ----- ..: .<.
F.
.. . . ..- .
.s -: .-. .. . -“.- . :. .
w+.- :7?
. .L. ,
T-’+L
.-
-
-., ----- ._.-;.-.. . .. -:

. ... . .
2C .-

i
I

. ..-----
.-
/s

s . . , i“ > 4 ;..
1 .... --r.g.--. .,” . ,. .
. ..
%. --= -. -..,. . :,
.... - . .:””%
,.-. ..
.!
.a#‘“--

{a)-tiwressim lciding. . ..-.


-
., -.”.
... , ., --,,.
.
,. ,..,-t.,
,.
.. . ..

;
.,
1
.,
. .,
1

k
) .

8A. . . .
.- .“
(b)Shem’1.oa&g. - “’ “-..
..
mgure33.-. Buddingcoefficient
“ofclamped
bblique
flatplstes.... --
.
.,
., .

-.
---
. . ... . ... —.
-Q*, .*

, ,

“ ‘—””--’~ —-—. . .. . . .
+ ---”----- .* ----- .,.+ -. ..., .._ ... ...,. - .,

60

so ‘

m .

30 —. —-—--4———

-,.

20 — .——

am

(a) W3iform compreEsicm.


I
10

0
0
, I 1
-

I
F ‘SW%.Y SIJPPOR7”D

----

O/b

(b) Shmr
,.,

Figure 34. - Buckling coefficients for iBo6celes trianguhr plates.


/ d-. .4-
.,.
—.,—. — . .. .- . . .

K/k

,0

H&we 35, - K/k M u Sunctlon Of Poj.snon’srutlo. K/k = #/12(1 - @) .

-..—— .. . . . ._, . . . .. . .