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Wind Power

The Z72 turbine specification

The Z72/2000 (figure 1) is a wind turbine with a nominal power of 2 MW and a rotor
diameter of 70 meters. The specifications are given in table 1.
The turbine is designed according to IEC61400 wind class IB with exception of the tower
(for this project class IIB), defined by an annual average wind speed at hub height
between 7.5 and 8.5 m/s and a maximum turbulence intensity of 16% at 15 m/s wind
speed.

The turbine has a direct driven multi-pole synchronous PM generator which is fully
integrated in the structural design. The advantage of this design is:
• A minimum of moving parts unlike a conventional turbine with a gearbox
• Low maintenance needs
• High efficiency due to the use of permanent magnets (no rotor losses and
adherent cooling systems)
• Weight reduction

Figure 1: Z72 wind turbine

Wind Power
Runderweg 6, 8219 PK Lelystad, The Netherlands
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Use is made of a single multiple row roller bearing on which the hub is mounted on one
side and generator carrier and –rotor on the other side. The stator is mounted on the
opposite side of the carrier which on its turn is mounted on a compact casted nacelle
frame. The advantage of this design is the relative big diameter the load path follows
contrary to the traditional designs with a mainshaft hence reduces weight.

The rotor speed during power production is variable. The matching between the available
aerodynamic torque and the produced electromechanical torque of the generator is
determining the rotor speed. The torque-speed curve is programmed in the frequency
converter controller and the inverter is adapting the generator stator current in response
to the measured generator power frequency.

The AC-DC-AC converter located in the tower base allows the generator to operate with a
variable speed while the power is fed into the grid with a constant frequency of 50 Hz (or
60 Hz for the countries where this applies). It furthermore assures an average constant
power output for wind speeds above rated. The power factor at the grid side is
controllable at standstill as well as operating. Above rated wind speed, the blade pitch
control maintains a more or less constant rotor speed between admitted boundaries.

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM


The single line diagram is given in figure 2. The cabinet of the low voltage frequency
converter also houses the main circuit breaker. The auxiliary power supply for converter,
turbine control, nacelle and tower lighting and high voltage equipment is housed in a
separate cabinet. This cabinet also houses the men-machine interface (a 6 inch touch
panel) and data communications equipment.

The hardware of the Z72/2000 control system is built up in a modular manner. The
control and safety functions take place in the same area or space where the needed
measurements and control or safety actions are performed. The following functions are
performed:

Functions of the PLC in the rotor Functions of the PLC in the nacelle
Monitoring of rotor hardware Monitoring of nacelle hardware
Interfacing with second or (emergency) Yaw control
protection system
Periodic execution test second protection Wind speed and direction (2x)
system measurement
Blade pitch control Main bearing temperature monitoring
and alarm/trip
Manual blade pitch control Generator stator temperature monitoring
and alarm/trip
Measurement of blade angles Cable twist monitoring and alarm/trip
Check of synchronisation of blade angles Tower top acceleration monitoring and
alarm/trip
Measurement of rotor speed Control of ventilation system
Control of pitch bearing grease system Control of grease pumps of main and
yaw bearing
Rotor alarm and trip handling Monitoring status parking brake
Can bus communication with nacelle Monitoring status security pin

Wind Power
Runderweg 6, 8219 PK Lelystad, The Netherlands
Wind Power

The PLC in the AC-DC-AC converter


Control of generator stator electric
characteristics (AC voltage, current
cos(ϕ) and power)
Communication to nacelle PLC (data
transfer; fault alarm, ready message)
Grid connection and disconnection
Monitoring of PLC hardware
Interfacing with converter
STX Management System
Can bus communication with nacelle
Power and reactive power monitoring
Alarm and trip handling

Figure 2: Single line diagram

Wind Power
Runderweg 6, 8219 PK Lelystad, The Netherlands
Wind Power
Table 1: Technical specification

Rotor Generator
Type 3-Bladed Type Synchronous
Horizontal axis Nominal power 2000 kW
Position Up wind Voltage 660 Volt
Diameter 70,65 meter Field excitation Permanent magnets
Swept area 3920 m² Protection IP 54
Rotor speed Variable Cooling Air
Nominal 23 rpm Insulation class F
Power regulation Pitch control Manufacturer ABB Finland
Rotor tilt angle 5°
Service brake
Blade set Type Maintenance brake
Type LM-34-P3 / UM70 Position At hub flange
Blade length 34 meter Calipers Hydraulic 4 pieces
Tip chord 0,97 meter
Root chord 3,05 meter Yaw system
Aerodynamic profile NACA 634 – 632 xx/DU-FFA Type Active
Coning 1,3 ° Yaw bearing 4 point ball bearing
Material Glass fibre reinforced epoxy Yaw drive Four electric motors
Surface gloss Semi-matt 5-15 Yaw brake Hydraulic controlled friction
ISO 2813 brake
Surface color Light grey RAL 7035 Tower
Manufacturer LM, Umoe or others Type Tapered tubular tower
Hub height 65 & 80 meter
Inverter system Surface color Light grey RAL 7035
Type Voltage source inverter Surface gloss Semi-matt 5-15
Control Micro processor ISO 2813
Cooling Water / air cooled
Grid coupling AC-DC-AC Safety system
Type Independent pitching
blades
Transmission system Activation Redundant electrical –
Type Direct drive mechanical by battery
back-up
Couplings Flange connections only
Masses
Controller Rotor 36 ton (with LM blades)
33 ton (with Umoe blades)
Type PLC (Bachmann) Generator 49 ton
Remote monitoring GarradHassan Scada system Nacelle 19 ton
Manufacturer STX Tower 65 meter 100 ton
Tower 80 meter 150 ton
Load supporting data
Hub Nodular cast iron
Main bearing Single cylindrical roller bearing
Generator carrier Nodular cast iron GGG.40.3
Nacelle Nodular cast iron GGG.40.3

Wind Power
Runderweg 6, 8219 PK Lelystad, The Netherlands
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Operational data Temperature


Cut in wind speed 3 m/s On operation - 20 °C - + 40
°C
Cut in wind speed after 20 m/s (10 minute average) On standby - 30 °C - + 50
cut out °C
Cut out wind speed 25 m/s (10 minute average)
Cut out wind speed 35 m/s (2 second average) Wind and site information
Nominal power 13 m/s (momentaniously) Maximum 2 s gust 70 m/s
Designed for wind class IB according to IEC 61400-1 Maximum average wind 10 m/s
speed
Power factor Controllable between 0.92 and Maximum flow inclination 8°
1.00 (terrain slope)
Power quality standard IEEE 519 Maximum 2 s gust 70 m/s
Power peak P < 1.03 Maximum z° 0.25
Power quality THD <4%

Table 2: Electrical specification

Power at 660 V and nominal grid conditions


Power factor at 25% load 1.00 (standard)
Power factor at 50% load 1.00 (standard)
Power factor at 75% load 1.00 (standard)
Power factor at 100% load 1.00 (standard)
Power factor standard Controllable between 0.92 and 1.00 leading or lagging
Power factor optional Controllable in a range to be agreed upon with the customer
Harmonic current distortion THD < 4%
Power peak P < 1.03
Flicker C=4
Inrush current at start up No inrush (0 A)
Controlled power up 30 s approximately
Controlled power down 12 s approximately other values optional
DP/dt control Optional

Drive train efficiency at nominal grid conditions


Efficiency at 25% load 93,0%
Efficiency at 50% load 94,5%
Efficiency at 75% load 94,0%
Efficiency at 100% load 93,0%

Cooling
Generator cooling Outside cooling by wind
Back to back cooling Air / water

Converter protection
Circuit breaker ABB
Surge arrestors 10 kA

Winding protection
Insulation class F
Analogue temperature 4 x PT -100

Wind Power
Runderweg 6, 8219 PK Lelystad, The Netherlands
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Earthing requirements
Earth resistance According to IEC
Depth electrodes Minimal 2 x 50 mm2 / Maximum resistance 2,5 Ohm
Ring electrodes Minimum 1 x 50 mm2
Foundation reinforcement Must be connected to earth electrodes

Transformer selection guidelines


Transformer rated apparent power 2500 – 2700 kVA, Xk 5 – 7
Rated frequency 50 Hz or 60 Hz
Rated voltage primary Maximum 50.000 V. (dependent on local grid)
Taps -7,5, -5, -2.5, 0, +2.5, +5, +7.5% on HV - Inquire for other
possibilities.
Connection type Dyn
Rated voltage secondary 660 V
Losses at nominal power 1,5%
Protection of LV side transformer LV surge arrestors. To be supplied with the transformer.
Static screen between primary and secondary windings to surpress
high frequency components propagation
Nominal power in secondary 2020 kW
winding

Short circuit current contribution of turbine


1 max To be measured
Dl / dt max To be measured
Rated voltage 660 V
Rated current @ cos (phi) = 1 To be measured

Wind Power
Runderweg 6, 8219 PK Lelystad, The Netherlands
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Grid requirements
Metering To be installed independent from turbine
Low voltage 660 Vac, +10% — -10%
Minimum frequency 96% of nominal
Maximum frequency 102% of nominal Other limits optional
Maximum harmonic voltage According to IEC
distortion 61000-3-6 and VDEW
on point of common coupling
(POCC), without turbine.

Power consumption from grid


At stand by 1,5 kW
At stand by – yawing 9 kW
During cut in active pitch & yawing Maximum 30 kW

STX Z72 POWER CURVE

Wind speed Power


m/s kWe Warranty curve
3.0 0
4.0 21 Pow ercurve
5.0 80 2500
6.0 202
7.0 335
8.0 516 2000
9.0 747
10.0 1016
11.0 1352 1500
kW

12.0 1755
13.0 2000
14.0 2000 1000
15.0 2000
16.0 2000
17.0 2000 500
18.0 2000
19.0 2000
20.0 2000 0
3.0
5.0
7.0
9.0
11.0
13.0
15.0
17.0
19.0
21.0
23.0
25.0

21.0 2000
22.0 2000
23.0 2000 m/s
24.0 2000
25.0 2000

Wind Power
Runderweg 6, 8219 PK Lelystad, The Netherlands
Wind Power
Annex 2: Tower base assembly

For the semi offshore application the main circuit breaker, transformer, converter,
cooling system, distribution and control cabinets are located in the tower. As the labor on
site should be minimized a transition piece is used between foundation and tower.
This transition piece is a tower section of ca 7 m length what should be assembled near
the port where shipment to the site will take place. The assembly is installing the
mentioned equipment in the transition piece, the cabling and connection of the cooling
system and testing. After that it should be transported in upright position to the barch for
installation on site. On ground level are located the transformer and the breaker. On the
first floor the converter and tower control box with control panel. The second floor is
suited for the use of a lift. For cooling of the converter and transformer seawater will be
used.

Transition piece with tower

Wind Power
Runderweg 6, 8219 PK Lelystad, The Netherlands