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Settlement of piles founded in rock may be computed as per IS 8009 (Part II) considering the

value of in-situ modulus of rock mass.

709.3.5 Resistance to lateral loads

709.3.5. 1 The ultimate lateral resistance of a group of vertical piles may be taken as the
passive pressure acting on the enclosed area of the piles. Such passive pressure may be
calculated over an equivalent wall of depth equal to 6D and width equal to L + 2B.


D = Diameter of pile

L = Length between outer faces of pile group in plan perpendicular to

direction of movement.

B= Width between outer faces of pile group in plan parallel to the direction
of movement.

The minimum factor of safety on ultimate lateral resistance shali be 2.5.

709.3.5.2 The safe lateral resistance of pile-group must not exceed the sum of lateral

resistance of individual piles. The safe lateral load resistance of individual pile depends on the
modulus of horizontal sub-grade reaction of the foundation material as well as the structural
rigidity of pile. Appropriate rational method of analysis using soil modulus as recommended
by IS:2911 may be used to calculate the same. For safe lateral load resistance in load

combination I of Clause 706.1.1, the deflection at scour level shall not be greater than 1.0
percent of pile diameter. Checking of deflections in other load combinations is not required.
For a group of vertical piles, confirmation of capacity of group by load testing is not required.
For single pile the horizontal load test may be performed in accordance with IS:291 1 Testing .

shall be for free head condition for piles having free standing shaft above scour level upto the
pile cap. For conduction test at scour level, it will be necessary to drive a larger diameter
casing upto scour level so that the test pile above is free to deflect. The deflection at scour
level may be measured directly, or may be calculated from deflection measured at higher

(ground) level assuming that the pile acts as structural cantilever from the point of fixity.

The point of fixity can be taken from the analysis performed for the design or calculated by
simplified method given in IS:2911.

709.3.6 Uplift load carrying capacity

709.3.6. 1 Piles may be required to resist uplift forces of permanent or temporary nature when
used in foundations subjected to large overturning moments or as anchorages in structures,
like, underpasses subjected to hydrostatic uplift pressure.


709.3.6.2 The ultimate uplift capacity may be calculated with the expression of shaft
resistance/skin friction only, of the static formulae for compression loads and applying a
reduction factor of 0.70 on the same. In case of rock, the socket length shall be measured
from 0.3 m depth to actual depth of socket. The weight of the pile shall also be taken
as acting against uplift. Pull out test shall be conducted for verification of uplift capacity.
Factor of (2.5/0.7) = 3.5 on the ultimate strength shall be used.

709.3.6.3 The uplift capacity of pile group is lesser of the two following values:

- the sum of the uplift resistance of the individual piles in the group, and
- the sum of shear resistance mobilised on the surface perimeter of the
group plus the effective weight of the soil and the piles enclosed in this

surface perimeter.

709.3.6.4 Piles should be checked for structural adequacy against uplift forces together
with other co-existent forces, if any.

709.3.6.5 The minimum factor of safety on ultimate uplift load calculated on the aforesaid
basis shall be 2.5.

709.3.7 Piles subjected to downward drag

When a soil stratum through which pile shaft has penetrated into an underlying hard stratum
compresses due to its own weight, or remoulding, or surface load etc., additional vertical
load is generated along the pile shaft in such stratum. Such additional load coming on pile

may be assessed on the following basis:

i) In the case of pile deriving its capacity mainly from friction, the value
of downward drag force may be taken as 0.2 to 0.3 times undrained
shear strength multiplied by the surface area of pile shaft embedded in

compressible soil.

ii) In case of pile deriving its capacity mainly from end bearing, the value
of downward drag force may be considered as 0.5 times undrained
shear strength multiplied by the surface area of pile shaft embedded in

compressible soil.

iii) For a group of piles, the drag forces shall also be calculated considering
the surface area of the block (i.e., perimeter of the group times depth)
embedded in compressible soil. In the event of this value being higher
than the number of piles in the group times the individual downward drag
forces, the same shall be cosidered in the design.

iv) This reduction in capacity of pile is in the ultimate capacity