Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

27

THE ANNALS OF “DUNĂREA DE JOS“ UNIVERSITY OF GALAŢI


FASCICLE VIII, 2010 (XVI), ISSN 1221-4590, Issue 1
TRIBOLOGY

POWER LOSSES ESTIMATION


IN PRECESSIONAL GEAR
Ion BOSTAN, Valeriu DULGHERU, Ion BODNARIUC
Technical University of Moldova, Dept. Theory of Machines & Machine Parts,
Republic of MOLDOVA
dulgheru@mail.utm.md

ABSTRACT
Having established the estimation relations of power losses in basic
kinematical joints, it becomes relatively simple to establish the estimation relation of
kinematical precessional transmission efficiency which, on the whole, is equal to the
product of the two components (efficiency of sliding bearings and gear efficiency).
On the basis of the obtained relation, an algorithm for the estimation of power
losses in the kinematical precessional transmissions will be elaborated. Also a series
of graphs for various geometrical and kinetostatic parameters will be produced. This
thing will be useful to designers who will estimate quantitatively kinematical
precessional transmissions at the phase of design.

Keywords: precessional transmission, friction coefficient, slipping

1. INTRODUCTION fabrication technologies for the crown gears of the


satellite block. The utilization of toothroller gearing
The planetary precessional transmissions in kinematical planetary precessional transmission is
represent a new principle type of the mechanical almost impossible because of small dimensions of the
transmission. The specific of the relative sphere- teeth. In such a case, it is reasonable to utilize the
spatial movement of the precessional gearing tooth-tooth continuous gear. The teeth of the central
elements makes the sliding friction persist. The study wheel have nonstandard convex-concave profile
of the contact between two working surfaces of one described by parametric equations according to the
gearing is very important, because the duration of the fundamental theory of the precessional gear [1].
gearing running, its reliability and efficiency depend The teeth of the planet gear are shaped with a
on the materials behavior, from which the prehension circular arc profile (Fig. 1).
elements are produced. The study of the contact in the
kinematical precessional gearing has a major
importance, because in the kinematical precessional
gearing there is slipping friction, which leads to big
power losses and to big heat elimination in the γ
contact zone. rr

2. ANALYSIS OF POWER LOSSES IN


KINEMATICAL PRECESSIONAL
TRANSMISSION r h

Power planetary precessional transmissions have


been largely studied. To exclude the sliding friction in
the gearing of the power precessional transmission,
the tooth-roller gearing has been utilized, which
replaced the sliding friction by rolling friction of the a) b)
gearing. This fact allowed increasing the efficiency, Fig. 1. The tooth profile of the central wheel (a) and
and provided a solution to problems related to satellite wheel (b).
28
THE ANNALS OF “DUNĂREA DE JOS“ UNIVERSITY OF GALAŢI
FASCICLE VIII, 2010 (XVI), ISSN 1221-4590, Issue 1
TRIBOLOGY

Tfr.ang
δ Output haft
Crank-shaft RZ
β
RC RD
RA RB RE RF

d1

d3
d2

d4
d1

d5
Tfr.A Tfr.C Tfr.D Tfr.B
Tfr.E Tfr.F

z1
z2 Satellite
Tfr.ang

Fig. 2. Structural model of the


kinematic precessional reducer

The geometry of the circular teeth profile in 3. ESTIMATION OF THE


normal section is marked by: KINEMATICAL PRECESSIONAL
rd – teeth radius of sphericity;
GEAR EFFICIENCY
γ − angle of inclination of flank (technological
parameter to ease the removal of the satellite from the
To determine the losses in the gear it is necessary
cast);
to carry out the study of the frictional coefficient
rr – radius of notch (to reduce the possibility of
dependent on:
appearance of tension concentrator at the flank);
h – parameter which is determined by the shape of the − various kinetostatic parameters;
central wheel tooth. − geometry of gear elements;
In planetary precessional transmissions that − material of the friction torque elements.
represent a rather complicated mechanism, the total The sliding friction is predominant in the „tooth-
power losses are determined as the sum of power tooth” kinematical precessional transmission. Research on
losses in the friction elements. For this purpose, the frictional coefficient demands the estimation of the
ample analysis of the kinematical precessional sliding velocity in the gear, of the forces that drive in the
transmission has been carried out, from the point of gear and of the lubrication conditions.
view of energy losses. On the basis of the performed The kinematical study of the precessional gear
analysis, a structural model of the kinematical was performed in order to estimate the sliding
precessional reducer was elaborated (Fig. 2). It allows velocity. Several analytical calculi of precessional
the determination of power losses in the friction gear sliding velocity for various geometrical
torque. parameters have been done using MATHCAD
Structural analysis of the kinematic precessional software: z1, z2=10…50, δ=0…30°, β=2…5°,
transmission conducted to point out basic friction θ=1.5…3.5°.
torque, which allows the determination of
transmission efficiency. This fact allowed us to 391.536
VelocityViteza
of point E
punctului E
400
estimate quantitatively the power losses sources in the
kinematical precessional transmission. The block 350

diagram of power losses in the kinematical


precessional transmission is shown in Figure 3. 300

3
V E ⋅10
mm/s

ψ 250

Power losses in the kinematical


precessional reducer 200

Power losses in Power losses in the Power losses in the 150

the gearing bearings of the bearings of the


crank shaft outlet shaft 140.79
100
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
1 ψ 400

Fig. 3. Block diagram of power losses in the reducer grade

Fig. 4. The sliding velocity graphic for the number of


Further on, the study of power losses in each, revolutions of the leading shaft n a.c.=3,000 min-1
previously presented, joint is described.
29
THE ANNALS OF “DUNĂREA DE JOS“ UNIVERSITY OF GALAŢI
FASCICLE VIII, 2010 (XVI), ISSN 1221-4590, Issue 1
TRIBOLOGY

Fig. 5. Laboratory installation „Amsler A 135”.

For the examined variants, experimental 4. ESTIMATION OF THE FRICTION


investigations will be carried out regarding the friction MOMENT IN THE CRANK SECTOR
coefficient of the materials couples. The experiment
has been carried out on the laboratory BEARINGS OF THE INLET SHAFT
installation„Amsler A 135” presented in figure 5,
which is placed in the laboratory of Machine The shaft diameter was defined (the fitting bore
Elements, „Gh. Asachi” Technical University, Iaşi, of the sliding bearing) d1, in order to estimate the
Romania. Plastic grade Hostaform C9021 [2] and friction moment in the crank sector bearings of the
steel 40Х have been used as testing materials. inlet shaft. Then, the sliding velocity of the
Efficiency estimation of the precessional gear kinematical joint „crank-satellite wheel hub” will be:
πd n πd 1 n1
was carried out as result of an ample research on the Vrel = Vint ± Vsat = 1 1 ±
60 60× z2
[ m / s ] (5)
sliding coefficient of the precessional gear according
to the geometry and materials of the gear elements, where n1 is the inlet speed.
and various kinetostatic parameters. The friction moment of bearings C and D (Fig. 2)
Efficiency is defined by the relation: is defined by the relations:
Ties d1
ηang = (1) T frC = RC ⋅ μ ⋅
2
[ N ⋅ mm] (6)
Ties +T fr. ang
d
Ties =
Ft ⋅ d m4
(2)
T frD = RD × μ× 1
2
[ N × mm ] (7)
2 where μ is the sliding friction coefficient;
where: RC – reacting force in bearing C;
Tfr. ang. –gear moment of friction; RD – reacting force in bearing D.
Ties – outlet moment of torsion; The summing friction moment in the sliding
Ft – gear tangential force bearings of the satellite wheel is defined by the
Ft = Fn / cosαw ; relation
Fn – gear normal force; T fr. satΣ = T frC +T frD [ N ⋅ mm ] (8)
dm4 – average diameter of the gear wheel crown;
αw – gearing angle (20…70o).
5. ESTIMATION OF THE FRICTION
Determination of bearings’ mechanical losses MOMENT IN THE INLET SHAFT
To estimate the losses in the kinematical BEARINGS
precessional transmission bearings, the following
basic notions have been established: For bearing A of the inlet shaft, its diameter is d2,
ƒ Vint- velocity of the inlet shaft; mm.
ƒ Vieş- velocity of the outlet shift; Sliding velocity in the bearing A is:
ƒ Vsatel- satellite velocity; πd 2 ⋅ n1
ƒ z1; z2- number of teeth of the gear elements. Val A =
60
[m / s] (9)
Satellite velocity is defined by the relation:
Vsatel = -Vint/z2=- Vieş⋅i/z2. (3) and the friction moment in bearing A is:
Relative velocity of the satellite friction bearing. d
Vrel= Vint± Vsatel= Vint±Vint/z2= Vint(1±1/z2), (4) T frA = RA ⋅ μ ⋅ 2 [ N ⋅ mm ] , (10)
2
where i is gear reduction rate. where RA is the reacting force of bearing A.
30
THE ANNALS OF “DUNĂREA DE JOS“ UNIVERSITY OF GALAŢI
FASCICLE VIII, 2010 (XVI), ISSN 1221-4590, Issue 1
TRIBOLOGY

For bearing B shaft diameter is d3, mm. Ties


Sliding velocity in bearing B will be: ηl.a = . (20)
Ties +T fr.Σ
π ⋅ d 3 ⋅ n1
Val B =
60
[m / s] (11) Estimation of power losses in bearings:
In the sliding bearing of the crankshaft:
and the friction moment in bearing B is: Pfr.sat = T fr.satΣ ⋅ Vrel = T fr.satΣ ⋅ Vies ⋅ i (21)
d
T frB = RB ⋅ μ ⋅ 3 [ N ⋅ mm ] , (12) where i is the transmission ratio.
2 In the sliding bearings of the inlet shaft:
where RB is the reacting force of bearing B. Pfr.int = T fr.intΣ ⋅ Vint = T fr.intΣ ⋅ Vies ⋅ i (22)
The summing friction moment in the inlet shaft
bearings is: In the sliding bearing of the outlet shaft:
Pfr.ies = T fr.iesΣ ⋅ Vies . (23)
T fr.intΣ = T frA +T frB [ N × mm ] (13)
Summing losses at the time of sliding bearings
friction:
6. ESTIMATION OF THE FRICTION Pfr.Σ = Pfr.sat + Pfr.int + Pfr.ies . (24)
MOMENT IN THE OUTLET SHAFT
Efficiency of sliding bearings:
BEARINGS
Pies
ηl.a. = (25)
To define the friction moment in the outlet shaft Pies + Pfr.Σ
bearings the following geometrical and kinematical
parameters have been established: 8. MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY OF
− outlet shaft diameter d4, mm;
KINEMATICAL PRECESSIONAL
− average diameter of the axial bearing surface
d5, mm; TRANSMISSION
− sliding velocity of bearing E with the
diameter d4 will be: Having established the estimation relations of
power losses in basic kinematical joints, it becomes
πd × n
Val E = 4 2 [ m / s ] , (14) relatively simple to establish the estimation relation
60 of kinematical precessional transmission efficiency
where n2 is the outlet speed. which, on the whole, is equal to the product of the
The friction moment in bearing E is: two components (efficiency of sliding bearings and
d gear efficiency):
T frE = RE × μ× 4 [ N × mm ] , (15)
2 ηtr = ηl.a ⋅ ηang . (26)
where RE is the reacting force in bearing E. On the basis of the obtained relation, an
The friction moment in bearing F: algorithm for the estimation of power losses in the
d kinematical precessional transmissions will be
T frF = RF ⋅ μ ⋅ 4 [ N ⋅ mm ] (16)
2 elaborated.
where RF is the reacting force in bearing F. Also a series of graphs for various geometrical
The friction moment in the axial bearing Z is: and kinetostatic parameters will be produced. This
d thing will be useful to designers who will estimate
T frZ = RZ ⋅ μ ⋅ 5 [ N × mm ] (17) quantitatively kinematical precessional transmissions
2
at the phase of design.
where RZ is the reacting force in bearing Z.
The summing friction moment in the outlet shaft
bearings: REFERENCES
T fr.iesΣ = T frE +T frF +T frZ [ N × mm ] (18)
1. Bostan I., 1991, Precessionnye peredaçi s mnogoparnym
zacepleniem, Izd. Štiintza.
2. ***** Hostaform, Acetal’nyi sopolimer (POM), 2001 Ticona
7. ESTIMATION OF ENERGETIC GmbH, Frankfurt-on-Maine.
PARAMETERS IN THE
PRECESSIONAL TRANSMISSION
BEARINGS
The summing friction moment in the
transmission bearings is equal to components sum:
T fr.Σ = T fr.intΣ +T fr.cotΣ +T fr.iesΣ [ N × mm ] (19)
Then the efficiency of sliding bearings is defined
by the relation: