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Geometry Condition Survey

Report Submitted By –
Pronob Kumar Ghosh
Std ID: 1204011
Group No: 01

Submitted to –
Professor Md. Shamsul Haque
Assistant Professor Sanjana Hossain

Department of Civil Engineering

Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology

1.1 General
Pavements form a greater part of our society’s infrastructure system whose proper functioning is
essential for development. Similar to other types of infrastructure assets, pavements deteriorate
over time. Therefore, there is the need to find ways to preserve these capital intensive assets to
ensure they perform as expected. This need resulted in the development of periodic and routine
maintenance activities undertaken by Departments of Transportation (DOTs) nation wide.The
level of repair and rehabilitation done on the roads depends on the physical condition of the road
at a particular time in relation to its acceptable and operable condition. Thus, the condition of
pavements is monitored regularly and this is known as pavement condition monitoring. These
condition monitoring surveys play a vital role in pavement management since it provides valuable
information that forms the basis of repair and rehabilitation activities. The information given to
management staff is usually in the form of condition ratings of specific sections or an entire
pavement network based on which sound and informed decisions are made. Road surface or
pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot
traffic, such as a road or walkway. In the past, gravel road surfaces, cobblestone and granite sets
were extensively used, but these surfaces have mostly been replaced by asphalt or concrete. Road
surfaces are frequently marked to guide traffic. Today, permeable paving methods are beginning
to be used for low-impact roadways and walkways.

1.2 Scope of Study

Roadway condition survey is very important to be performed because the study gives a proper
view of present road condition and thereby increase the efficiency and life of roads, provide
comfortable traffic movement for a particular section and development of infrastructures.
In our country, the management of pavement condition is not very up to mark. There is a
considerable lack of roadway maintenance infrastructure and funding. As a result, maintenance
works become lengthy and improper. There are possibilities that variety of unusual impediments
arise along with the structural susceptibility of roadways.
Hence to understand and overcome the problems related to roadway survey, study of the present
roadway condition is required. A road starting from Panthapath to Russell Square in Dhaka was
chosen for survey. A variety of standard scientific parameters have to be considered and noted.
The study should also include some unusual roadside activities which may lead to overall
detrimental effect on the level of service and road-user safety.

1.3 Purpose of the study
1.3.1 General Purposes
 Scientifically study and observe pavement surface condition.

 Determining the geometric layout of the roadway and point out any drawbacks of the
following general protocol

 Pedestrian crossings, presence of non-motorized vehicles, disabled traffic signals,

accessibility problems.

 To observe whether the infrastructures and space provided for usage are being properly

 To observe the level of illumination in the road during night and determine its sufficiency.

 To determine the current conditions of road markings, signs and whether they are being
helpful for pedestrians and road users.

 Track performance of various pavement designs and materials.

1.3.2 Design Purposes

 Geometry: Inclinometers measure the forward or back tilt of the vehicle for gradient and
the side-to-side tilt of the axles for cross fall.

 Texture: Accelerometers remove most of the vehicle motion relative to the road to provide
a stable inertial.

 Transverse profile: This data is used to determine the average, maximum and minimum rut
depth, the standard deviation and the distribution of rut depths.

 Longitudinal profile (roughness): The International Roughness Index (IRI) is calculated

from the longitudinal profile.

 Skid Resistance: A freely rotating test wheel is applied to the road surface under a known
load. A controlled flow of water wets the road surface immediately in front of the wheel,
so that when the vehicle moves forward, the test wheel slides in a forward direction on a
wet road surface. The force generated by the resistance to sliding indicates the wet skid
resistance of the road surface. The results of this testing are averaged to determine the skid

1.3.3 Improvement Purposes
To allocate limited maintenance budget rationally, it is important to know the traffic volume
carried by a particular roadway section in order to decide the importance of the road and fixing its
relative priority.
 To examine the existing operating/service condition of a roadway section.

 To check the need (warrant) traffic control devices.

 To determine the type of improvement measure need to be taken.

1.3.4 Planning Purposes

 To develop access route management practices as needed.

 To provide GIS mapping and data.

 To update data requirement.

 To finalize locations of access routes.

 To collect additional data on access routes.

 To survey new Access Road.

 To conduct field survey and document new access routes.

1.3.4 Other Purposes

 Estimation of highway usage

 Measurement of current demand of a facility

 Estimation of trends

 Economic feasibility evaluation

1.4 Objectives of Our Roadway Condition Survey
1.4.1 Geometric Condition
Geometric condition study includes the following observation.
 Geometric layout of roadway. To draw roadway we need road length, width, no. of lane,
median height and width, shoulder height and width etc.

 Geometric layout of intersections. For this geometric measurement and position of

channel/islands. Dimension and location of pedestrian refuge is needed.

 Surface condition of roadway.

1.4.2 Operating Condition

Operating condition study includes observation of:
 Location and width of side roads in goggle map.

 Roadside land use pattern (residential, commercial etc.)

 Loss of effective width at different locations due to loading/unloading, illegal parking,

construction utility etc.

 To show location of bottlenecks.

 To show various control devices like Road sign, Marking, Signal, Speed breaker.

 To find density of road obstructions (manholes, speed breakers, potholes etc.)

 Density of side roads.

 Finding out the faults of that intersection and making proposals to remove them

 Planning for reducing congestion and minimize delay in intersection.

 To make some recommendations for the betterment of the existing situation of our
study intersection.

 Layout of street lightening system.

2.1 General
This paper will visually inspect and evaluate the flexible pavement failures for maintenance
planning. It is quite important to examine and identify the causes of the failed pavement to
select a proper treatment option. Based on previous experiences, obtained through literature
reviews, systematic guidelines for evaluation of damaged pavement are proposed to provide
useful information for maintenance work. The study consisted of two tasks: the first covered
the visual inspection of the existing pavement failures, whereas the second investigated the
actual causes of these failures. As a case study, Obeid Khatim road in Khartoum was selected
for investigation. An intensive field work was carried out on the existing pavement condition
of this road. It was found that most of the damaged pavement sections suffered from severe
cracking and rutting failures. These failures might have been caused by fatigue failure on
pavement structure due to the movement of heavily loaded truck-trailers. The damage could
also be attributed to poor drainage, inadequate design and improper pavement materials used.
Roadway condition survey includes different conditions of the roadway like condition of the
pavement, intersections, medians, signal, sign, markings, islands, Management of pedestrian
crossing etc.
The main objectives of this paper are to: 1) review the pavement rehabilitation and maintenance
treatments applied on Ontario provincial highways over the last twenty years, focusing on
observed pavement performance records of individual treatments versus age, construction
costs and predicted performance curves, 2) analyze pavement life-cycle costs and overall long-
term performance of the typical pavement structures used in the past, and 3) compare the
pavement performance curves of specific pavement maintenance and rehabilitation treatments
applied to these low-volume roads.4) of the Request for Proposals document are: 1.To
establish, by county and nationally, the lengths and areas of various categories of non-national
roads requiring remedial works, and 2.To review existing pavement management systems and
recommend a system suitable for use on the non-national road network. Roadway condition
survey is very important for some features.
 Estimation of the overall condition of the roadway.

 Repair of the existing signals, markings, Islands, roadway surface etc.

 Increasing the efficiency of the roadway.

 Estimating the cost of the total repairmen of the roadway.

 Increasing the safety of the roadway.

In this report, I will try to discuss & analyze different empirical findings from various case studies
related with roadway condition survey studies. For identifying the condition of the roadway, we
have to determine the condition of pavement, median, marking, islands, pedestrian crossings,
signals etc.
2.2 Definitions
Intersections: Intersection can be defined as the place or point where two or more things come
together; especially the place where two or more streets meet or cross each other. Mainly they
depend on the amount of roads come together in intersections. Based on the number of roads 3way,
4way, 5way etc. The principal objectives in the design of at grade intersections are:
 To minimize the potential for and severity of conflicts,

 To provide adequate capacity,

 To assure the convenience and ease of drivers in making the necessary maneuvers.

Figure 2.1 Panthapath Signal (left) & Ideal Signal (Right).

Islands: A traffic island is a solid or painted object in a road that channelizes traffic. It can also be
a narrow strip of island between roads that intersect at an acute angle. If the island uses road
markings only, without raised curbs or other physical obstructions, it is called a painted island.
Traffic islands can be used to reduce the speed of cars driving through. Nose treatment is an
important factor for islands. It helps for turning the vehicles.

Figure 2.2 Panthapath Island (Right) & Ideal Signal (Left).

Traffic signs: Traffic signs or road signs are signs erected at the side of or above roads to give
instructions or provide information to road users.

Figure 2.3 Traffic Sign

Traffic lights: Traffic lights also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, signal lights, stop lights
and robots, are signaling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings and other
locations to control competing flows of traffic.

Figure 2.4 Traffic Light.

Roadway markings: Road surface marking is a kind of device or material that is used on a road
surface in order to convey official information. They can also be applied in other facilities used by
vehicles to mark parking spaces or designate areas for other uses.

Figure 2.5 Panthapath road marking (right) & Type of Road Marking (left).

Pedestrian crossings: A pedestrian crossing or crosswalk is a designated point on a road at which
some means are employed to assist pedestrians wishing to cross. They are designed to keep
pedestrians together where they can be seen by motorists, and where they can cross most safely
across the flow of vehicular traffic.

2.6 Pedestrian Crossing of existing road (left) & Ideal condition (Right).

Median: It is a narrow area of land that separates the two sides of a big road in order to keep
traffic travelling in different directions apart.

Figure 2.7 Median of existing road (right) & Ideal median (left).

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Roadway surface condition: Road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down
on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway. In the past,
gravel road surfaces, cobblestone and granite sets were extensively used, but these surfaces have
mostly been replaced by asphalt or concrete. Road surfaces are frequently marked to guide traffic.

Figure 2.8 Roadway Surface Condition.

2.4 Roadway condition in Dhaka city:

Most of the roads of Dhaka city are not in good condition. There are same roads in Dhaka city
which need immediately reconstruction. Different classes of roads are seen in Dhaka city.
Roadway markings, signals, pedestrian crossings, medians are seen in the roads of Dhaka city. So
our description will be the real conditions of those elements of the road way. This section provides
the conditions of the roadway surface, traffic signals, signs, markings, pedestrian crossings and
their proper using conditions.

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3.1 Survey Procedure
An ideal Roadway condition Survey has following sequence.

Figure 3.1 Survey Procedure.

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3.2 Roadway condition survey methods:
There are two basic methods are available for conducting roadway condition survey.

i. Manual survey
ii. Automated survey
These two surveys are also commonly combined to provide a more complete pavement condition

Figure 3.2 Types of Roadway Condition Survey.

1.Manual Pavement Condition Surveys :
While the use of automated pavement condition surveys are becoming more and more common,
many agencies still rely on manual pavement condition surveys to provide their pavement
condition data. There are two basic methods for conducting manual pavement condition surveys,
walking and windshield surveys. Walking and windshield surveys are also commonly combined
to provide a more complete pavement network survey.

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3.2.1 (a)Walking Survey:
Walking surveys are completed by a rater who is trained to rate distresses according to the agency’s
distress identification specifications. The rater walks down the side of the pavement and fills out
a pavement condition form that describes the amount, extent, and severity of each distress present
on the roadway. Walking surveys provide the most precise data about the condition of the rated
pavement (Haas, 1994), provided the raters are well trained an experienced. However, only a
sample of the pavement 14 network can be surveyed because of the amount of time a walking
survey consumes. For example, the pavement network could be represented by only surveying the
first 100 ft of each mile. Some of the methods used by agencies to select a site for the sample
include: sample at fixed distance intervals, make a predetermined random selection, and have the
rater pick a “representative” sample. Random selection can sometimes be difficult to accept
because the pavement under review may have a considerable amount of distress, but the random
sample has, for example, recently been patched. However, selecting a more “representative”
sample will distort or bias the data about the condition of the pavement network (Haas, 1994).
Under the theory of random selection some of the samples will have more distress than the
pavement actually has and some of the samples will have less distress than the pavement actually
has. Therefore, the overall condition of the network will average out, provided the sample size is
large enough.
3.2.1 (b)Windshield Survey
A windshield survey is completed by driving along the road or on the shoulder of the road. The
pavement is rated by a rater through the windshield of the vehicle. This method allows for a greater
amount of coverage in less time; however, the quality of the pavement distress data is
compromised. The entire network could possibly be surveyed using this method or samples may
still be used.
3.2.1 (c)Walking + Windshield Survey
Combining a walking survey with a windshield survey is a good method to achieve detailed
pavement distress data and complete pavement surveys on a greater 15 percentage of the network.
Haas (1994) states that this method is acceptable only if the same procedure is used on every
section in the network, and a random method is used for selecting the sample where the walking
survey will be performed.
3.2.2 Automated Pavement Condition Survey
Over the past two decades the concept of a fully automated pavement condition survey has grown
closer to a reality through research and major technological advancements. The automated
pavement condition survey vehicle and some types of data it is capable of collecting are described
in this section. Also, surface distress surveys and technology used in completing them are
discussed. Lastly, pavement condition survey protocols are examined.

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3.2.2 (a)Automated Pavement Condition Survey Vehicle
One of the most important parts of an automated pavement condition survey is the data collection
process. This process is completed by technologically complex vehicles traveling down the road
at highway speeds collecting and storing data. There are numerous types of automated pavement
condition survey vehicles available and some utilize different kinds of data collection technology;
however, generally they are similar in the fact that they are all trying to achieve the same final
result, accurate pavement condition data. The type of data collected by automated pavement
condition survey vehicles and the technology used to collect it are discussed below.

Figure 3.3 Automated Pavement Condition Survey Vehicle

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Some Following Features are to be considered in survey.
1.Surface Distress
Surface distress data are collected automatically using downward facing cameras aimed at the
pavement surface. Either analog-based area-scan cameras, digital area-scan cameras, or digital
line-scan cameras are used to capture a continuous image of the pavement surface as the data
collection vehicle travels down the road. The images are then analyzed to determine the type,
extent, and severity of any surface distress that is present. Each type of camera previously listed is
discussed in greater detail later.
Rutting data are collected automatically by the pavement condition survey vehicle in real time.
There are a few different types of technologies that are employed to collect rutting data. The use
of a rutbar and a laser transverse profiler are discussed in detail below. A rutbar is a vehicle
mounted subsystem that uses ultrasonic transducers or lasers to measure the transverse cross
section of a roadway. The rutbar has as few as 3 or many sensors that are closely spaced and cover
a full lane width. Some rutbar system software can produce graphic displays, plots, water ponding
depths, reports, and calculations as to what quantity of asphalt would need to be milled to level the
How rough a road feels to the passenger when riding down the road is commonly referred to as
“ride”. There are several indices used to describe ride; however, the index used presently by nearly
every state is International Roughness Index (IRI). IRI is a statistic used to estimate the amount of
roughness in a measured longitudinal profile (AASHTO, 1999). IRI is computed from a single
longitudinal profile using differential equations and algorithms. The longitudinal profile is
measured using a laser or other device to measure the vehicle’s height above the roadway. An
accelerometer is also used to measure the vertical forces caused by surface deformities 18. The
longitudinal profile and the vertical force data are used to calculate IRI for the roadway. The IRI
calculation is completed in real time
Texture data are an important measure of drainage and skid resistance for a pavement surface
(Roadware, 2004). Texture data can be collected using a vehicle mounted module that uses high
frequency lasers to measure the mean profile depth of the road surface macrotexture. Texture data
are gathered in real time. Correlation studies conducted by Roadware Group Inc. have produced
an R2 of 96% with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard sand patch
method for texture measurements (Roadware, 2004).

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5. Position Orientation
Many pavement condition survey vehicles have a position orientation system. A position
orientation system collects curve radius, grade, and elevation data automatically (Roadware,
2004). These systems can also be used to provide roll, pitch, heading, velocity, and position data.
The position information can be used to compensate for motion, which may have an effect on other
sensors on the vehicle.
6. Falling Weight Deflect meter

The Falling Weight Deflect meter is an impulse deflection device that lifts a weight to a given
height on a guide system and then drops it. The falling weight strikes a specially designed plate,
transmitting the impulse force to the pavement to produce a half-sine wave load pulse that
approximates that of an actual wheel load. The magnitude of the load can be varied from 1,500 to
24,00 pounds (680 to 10,886 kg) on devices commonly used on roads and streets by changing drop
height and the amount of weight. The load is transmitted to a 11.8 inch (300 mm) diameter load
plate, and a strain type transducer measures the magnitude of the load. Deflections are measured
using up to seven velocity transducers or linear variable distance transducers that are mounted on
a bar and automatically lowered to the pavement surface with the loading plate.

7. Walking Profiler G2
The Walking Profiler (WP) G2 is a precise measurement instrument for collecting and presenting
continuous paved surface information. The WP G2 meets World Bank Class 1 Profilometry
requirements and produces outputs including profile, grade, distance and International Roughness
Index (IRI).
The WP G2 samples the pavement surface at a walking pace. As the built-in data acquisition
module collects and stores the data, the results are displayed in real time for simple and quick data

8.GPS based survey

Figure 3.4 Walking Profiler.

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8. GPS Survey
The idea behind a GPS data collection process for road attributes was that GPS units would be
installed on log trucks, with the consent of the contractors. Data would be collected during normal
business activities. The units would be initialized in the morning and left on during an entire
business day. Therefore, the data collected during numerous round-trips between the woods and
the delivery point would reflect local traffic conditions, time-of-day, and any alternate routes
chosen. By compiling data from several days of multiple round-trips, a realistic sample of travel
times and speeds was obtained. For those roads frequented by log trucks, an impressive amount
of data could be collected without any additional effort beyond turning on the GPS receivers at
the beginning of each day, and uploading data files at day's end. This procedure offers many
advantages, but clearly does not resolve all the difficulties in attributing a road database with
travel time information. Several of the advantages have been noted earlier, foremost being the
automated manner in which data can be collected. With low-cost GPS units, a single person can
coordinate data collection (installing units, uploading and correcting data) for a small fleet of
vehicles. The GPS points collected provide evidence useful in updating both road locations and
attributes. The frequency of round-trips provides a sample of travel times that can reflect varying
traffic conditions across times during the day and days of a week. Collecting data during
numerous trips alleviates misinterpretations of travel time due to unusual circumstances such as
delays due to accidents.

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4.1 General
To accomplish a smooth process of data collection, a wholesome knowledge regarding the
survey area is required, which is described below along with the process of data collection.
 Location: Panthapath to Russel Square

 Date: 28th April 2017

 Time: 08:00 am to 12:00 pm

 Weather: Sunny Day.

 Method: Photographic Survey Method (Manual- Walking)

 Equipment: Tape, Camera.

 Number of Enumerators : Three

4.2 Location and Data Collection

The data were collected in the Panthapath road in between Green Road-Panthapath intersection
and Mirpur Road- Panthapath intersection. Eight groups were appointed to collect traffic volume
data in three different point of the corridor. On the basis of reconnaissance and pilot survey
conducted beforehand, a place was selected to collect the data.

Figure 4.1 Location of Geometry Condition Survey.

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5.1 Data interruption
Data has been taken keeping mind about two parameters.
 Geometric
 Operational

Geometric condition analysis:

The vital part of geometric condition analysis is to describe detail of road way; (both longitudinal
and cross sectional).
Geometric layout of roadway includes road length, width, no. of lanes, median height, width,
shoulder height, width etc.
Table 5.1 Dimension of Road Section from Panthapath to Russel Square

Panthpath to Russel Square

Road Width Median Median Shoulder Shoulder

(ft) Height (ft) Width (ft) Height (ft) Width (ft)

40 1.5 6 1 14
32 1.5 4.25 1 14
23 10" 5 1 14

Table 5.2 Dimension of Road Section from Russel Square to Panthapath.

Russel Square to Panthapath

Road Width Median Median Width Shoulder Shoulder

(ft) Height (ft) (ft) Height (ft) Width (ft)

40 1.5 6 1 14
32 1.5 4.25 1 12
23 10" 5 1 12

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In our geometry condition survey, Panthapath to Russel Square & Russel Square to Panthapath
both have 3 lane. In the following Figure 5.1 is shown.

Lane 1

Lane 3 Lane 2

Figure 5.1 Number of lane of existing roadway.

5.2 Visual Inspection

In our survey, existence roadway facilities are given below.
5.2.1 Median
 Unplanned activities and lack in monitoring can increase median effective area .Like
unplanned ornamentation with tree can hamper road by extension .
 Median condition is poor.

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Figure 5.2 Median Condition of Road.

5.2.2 Side Road Condition

Location of Side road and dimension from Panthapath to Russel Square are given in Table.
Tabel 5.3 Location of Side road.

Location Of Side Road From Panthapath to Russel

Side Road Width (ft) Inspection
1 19 Wide
2 19.5 wide
3 19 wide
4 10 Narrow
5 20.5 Wide
6 10 Narrow
7 13 Narrow
8 12 Narrow
Side Road facilities inspection below-
 Connection between side road and main road is too rough.
 Maximum side road too narrow.
 There are some construction or other activity exists beside side road.

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Some visual photo of side road are below.

Figure 5.3 Condition of Side Road.

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5.2.3 Dustbin Condition
 Dustbin are haphazardly exists.
 They are open and creating odorous environment.
 It creates main problem of pedestrian to pass the road.

Some visual photo of dustbin are below-

FFigure 5.4 Dustbin Condition.

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5.2.4 Road control Device
Traffic Signal:
 All types signal are present here
 But they are not operative.
 Again manual control is dominant

Visual inspection are given below.

Figure 5.5. Type of Traffic Signal

Figure 5.6 Traffic Signal Condition Survey.

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5.2.5 Road markings
All types of marking was present. But-
 In several places has worn out
 lateral and parallel markings were there
 Violation of markings are frequent

Visual Inspection are given below.

Figure 5.7 Road Markings of Roadway.

5.2.6 Lighting Condition
 LED lighting condition.
 Both side opposite.
 In median the trees are so dense and high as light can not spread out properly at night.
Some visual inspection are below.

Figure 5.8 Lighting condition Of Road.

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5.2.7 Drainage Point
 Most of them are blockage condition.
 Some are broken.
 Many are non-functionized.
Some visual inspection are below.

Figure 5.9 Drainage facility.

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5.2.8 Land Use Pattern
 Maximum building are commercial.
 There are too many hospital beside road.
 School, Restaurant facility are also available.

Visual inspection are below.

Figure 5.10 Land Use pattern.

5.2.9 Skid Resistance

We used pendulum method for measuring(skid resistance tester-portable)

Figure 5.11 Skid Resistance Measurement.

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Some following inspection are below.

 We found our value to be 90

 This implies good skid resistance
 We tried to make worst scenario by adding water.
 Road texture was rough.

5.2.10 Parking Facility

 There is no parking facility here.

 All parking are illegal.
 Illegal parking makes road width narrow.

Visual inspection are below.

Figure 5.12 Parking Facility.

5.2.11 Footpath Condition

 Footpath size is enough.

 But the distress is common in footpath.
 Construction material is kept there.
 Somewhere dustbin available.

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Visual Inspection are given below.

Figure 5.13 Footpath Condition.

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6.1 Conclusion
 In average a width of 9 m has been maintained
 Shoulder height and width in average is 1 feet.
 Median height and width in average is 1.5 feet and 1.7 meter
 An important parameter is that along our chain age we did not find pedestrian crossing.
But later measurement shows for pedestrian facility height of median is about 1’.that is
less than average height.
 Confinement of buildings has reduced shoulder with about .5 meter
 Average interval for pedestrian rod passing is 25 m
 Along our whole section only one u turn facility is provided
 Presence of many side roads along arterial road is enough a cause to reduce safety,
efficiency and capacity
 Main vehicles emerge from side road is NMV and CNG auto-rickshaw.
 The orientation of some of them are even opposite to the lane direction
 Even public school entrance present in one of it which can cause both hazardous situation
for vehicle and pedestrian.
 On average 3m width has reduced from actual width.
 Reduction in shoulder is on average .4m
 Increase in median influencing area is about 6”
 Unplanned Side confinement in shoulder contributes to further reduction in effective
 This ultimately affect roadway width as pedestrian abandon footpath
 Unplanned ornamentation with tree can hamper road by extension.
 Construction material placement compel users to avoid median when crossing a road
 Major factor for disturbing road capacity is side road
 All types signal are present here. But they are not operative. Again manual control is
 Some signal has not power connected. Several are obstructed by objects. Thus the are
totally ineffective
 In several places marking has worn out
 Tiger marking, lateral and parallel markings were present to some extent
 Violation of markings are frequent
 We found our value to be 90

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 This implies good skid resistance
 We tried to make worst scenario by adding water.
 Road texture was rough

6.2 Limitations

 Visual survey doesn’t provide exact measurements.

 Odometer has to be used continuously which was not possible.
 Not enough man power for performing the survey.
 Running vehicles create problems when measurements are taken.
 Various institutions didn’t allow us to go to roof that’s why in some cases we didn’t get
the exact pictures.

6.3 Recommendation for further study

 Before surveying a clear view can be achieved from google map. This will help to
understand in what place more specific data is required.
 It is better to choose a holiday and early in the morning for surveying.
 Again top view gives clear idea about the system. So some of the numerator should
choose an upper place and may guide the others from there.

6.4 Recommendation for development of roadway condition

 The main disease is illegal parking. So frequent investigation and enforcement has to be
applied for better traffic condition.
 For widening effective width shop and construction material from median and footpath
need to be removed
 As commercial buildings are profound we should conduct a survey for stablishing
service road
 Traffic markings has to be renewed properly within routine interval
 Blocking of channel near channel should be strictly monitored
 Side confinement of property line causes reduction in shoulder. This ultimately affect the
road width. So property line confinement, Utility pole should be removed from footpath.
 Dustbin can be properly maintained.
 No construction material is allowed in footpath.

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1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traffic_island
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Road marking
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/taffic light
4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traffic_road surface
5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/drainage facility
6. https://www.slideshare.net/ToufiqRiifath/toufiq-rifath
8. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271833617_Roadway_Condition_Study

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A.1 Panthapath Signal Detailing

A.2 Roadway Cross Section, Median Dimension, Drainage Point Measurment.
A.3 Detailing of Channel in Panthapath Signal.
A.4 Russel Square Detailing

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A.1 Panthapath Signal Detailing

35 | P a g e
A.2 Roadway Cross Section, Median Dimension, Drainage Point Measurement

36 | P a g e
A.3 Detailing of Channel in Panthapath Signal.

37 | P a g e
A.4 Russel Square Detailing

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