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in

= −
−π π

( )

! " # = − =
π
θ π π
$ % =& θ+ θ =& + =

∴ () = ( π
) = −π

$ & ' ( )=() ' *


'
+ =
'

= − = − = =

' '
! + = + =
' '

( ,) = ( ,) '
'
,= = +
= #

= ⋅ ' = + &#! ( )=() ()= +& &=(

∴ * ' " =

- . ' ' ' / 0 1 ' 2 /3 ' 0 '


− . 0 0 3 / 1 2 4
- 5 6 7 5 -

8 /' 0 1 2 #( ) = (3) =

9/ ( 3) ≤ =91= ≤2≤ 9 ≤1≤ 2 =


- - 6
= ' '3 = × =
− − 5 5 7

5 . : & / () . : &
+ +
/ ()
+ +
− −
( + + ) ( + + ) ( + + ) ( + + )
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written permission.
'
( ) ↔ ,( ) ( )↔ −' ,( )

. ,( )= + +
' +
( )→−' + +
=
+ +

) !

(;) = − & & &% ; &


;+ ;+-

;+ = ( ; ) ';
π<

;
π
( ; ) '; = π ;+
'; −
;+-
';

;=− + 3 & ' ;" - &


;
3& & 3= + / = '; = (
;+-
∴ = '; = # − =
;+

7 . + ' ' / ' & (5 − <


-) Ω 03 &
)& ( ((π + (( )
55 $ )($ 7 )$ )$

>= 5 − <
- = ?: − @
1 #? : = 5# " )& ( ((π A (( ) = / & (ω + α)

9= / ?: = × ) × 5 = )($

B & & 0 & + ' &

+< Ω <Ω

− (
(C (C
+<
− + + −

+<
(
− <Ω Ω
(

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written permission.
Ω <Ω

(
(C (C
(C <Ω Ω
− + + −

(
− <Ω Ω

= (× =
+< +<
:

D + + ' ' & & 0 & + '


C0 ' & E & ' "( . &

E = (

( )

; &
3' & 3 + & / &

$ & & ' "(


& ' & + ' + & + & 0 ' '
' & & & & + + ' ' & + + / &
0 ;
. & % / &
C−( B
=
)((
'
=
'C )((

' = )((Ω

E & ' ' 0 '0 ' + & ' ' 0 ( BC


(−( B
=
((( + )(( ( BC

6- (C )((Ω
= =7 /
)((

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written permission.
6 . / ' & % + ' ' + & &

%Ω 660

6%Ω

((Ω

)(F ((F )%F ( %F

0
( + 660 )

% 0
+ + +
660 6%Ω C C ((Ω C
6% − − 660 −

((Ω

& & + + & C


C =C ( (% ) ( − 0 ) = (( ( + 660 + 0 )#
(((( 0 = (( + (( × (( 0 = (( + (((( 0
((
− (((( 0 = (( 0 =− = −
(((( ((

C = (( + 660 + 0 = (( + (( = )(
((
C )(
? = = = )(Ω

( . & & & ' ' & & + 0


−( B
= ≥ ( BC
)((
( < ( BC
%Ω
+ +
(C

. & & &


(/ 6-/ 7 7B/ 7 /

(−( B
= =7 /
% + )((

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written permission.
3 / &
( + 6( + ) )
!( )= & ' 03 (ω ) . '3
( + )( + -) ( + 5 )
3 / ;
ω= ' ω= ' ω=- ' ω=5 '

E '3 3 /
3( ) = !( <ω) (ω + !( <
ω) )
3( ) 0 ;
!( <ω) & 0 ;

!( <
ω) =
( −ω )
+6 ω +5
ω + ω +6 ω + 7
ω=- ' &
!( <
ω) = (
3( )=(

. 2 0 & / +& 0
+ 0 . /0 & /0 &
+&
5 7 D (

( ( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( (
( ( (
( (
( ( (
( (
( (
(
(
(
. 7 & /0 +&
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written permission.
- / ' & & (1 2 >) = ( - 5 )) / / &

12 12 12 12> 12>
12> 12> 12 12> 12> 12> 12>

3
;
(( ( (
( ( (

( (

/ & 3; 3; 3; 3;
. / / & 3 ' 3

5 ' + & &

:G

& & & '


' && && :G "(
&& :G" ' " " && :G" ' " "(

H = :GH
= :G+ H
H = :G+ H
:G " ' ' "
H =
I & '
H =
:G " ' " "(
H =H
I & '
H =H
. & '' && & &
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written permission.
) = ( -) − ( ) + & + & (?J ) ;
/ ; 0
< ; <- < ; < < ; <- < ;
- - -

= ( -) −

( -) ?J
-
< ; <-

( ) ?J ; >

. & // ?J < ; <-

7 & & / ' & & & . + ' 0


& & ' '( )= ( −-
+( ( (((π ) /
& & & , "(/ + C " /
MΩ

)C
'


& & C
' &
+

π
/C π/C π/C 5 π/C

B 3& / && ' ' /


K E ' & 3 +
J & & ? /' 3

D + + & ' & 0 / 0


& 0 && ' + * ( )= ω + ω
' Lω ω < - ' + +

& 0 /
" DI /
' / +"( I /
3
0

+ + / = ( (( %+
' ' ' ( − 3)
' ' '

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written permission.
6 . & > J ' K ' 3 / / + .

( − −.
) ( − −.
) −. −.

( : / + µ/ & ' )( / ' M&


/ . 0 ' & / / / &
' & 0 / /
((µ/ ( µ/ µ/ )( /

:+ + 7-( / & / + / 3 0 +& &/


&% (µ/ 0 / ; ' + + .
& ' ; - ' --- $
0 / / + 3 03
( -N B5 -N 6( (N D 7N

. 3 9I ' ' (6 $ . 0 C C
&' & /$ ? 0 '

+)C


C
+

−)C

( 6Ω Ω ( 6% Ω %Ω

- '& + / 0 ' & & & '


/ / + / + & 9MM / & & ' & / '
'
( )
(C

)C

( ( ( / (/ )
−)C

5C )C DC (C

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written permission.
5 , & & + + '&
( )= (ω ) + - (-ω ) ' ( )= (ω −φ )+ - (-ω − φ- ) + ) ()ω )
. + / ' 03 $ /

( )

/
( )
: '

& φ & φ + - & φ- + )

& φ + - - & φ- & φ + - & φ

) . 0 '+ / ' & // 3 ' ' +/ ' & &


K ' / 0 0 '+ E& + 0 '+
E 3 0 '+ $ 0 '+

7 & ' ' / . 0 0 3


/0 * ' ''
- - O

9( '' ) = 9(K) + 9( ..K) + 9( ....K) +


- ) 5

= + + + = + + +

5
= + + + = = × =
5 5 - -

5
B !

−) −- (
= ' " -
( (

) A 6 A-( BA ) BA

) -
! " #
(

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written permission.
−) − λ −-
& & * λ =( =(
(−λ
( −) − λ ) ( −λ ) + 7 = ( )λ + λ + 7 = (
λ = −)λ − 7 ' λ- = −)λ − 7λ = −) ( −)λ − 7 ) − 7λ
λ- = )λ − 7λ + -( = 6λ + -(
3 & & & * #∴ -
= 6 + -(

D . ' & & ' 3 ' / + =%


= +3 +; '% & . & ∇⋅ =(
(

$ % ∇ =


( )
I ∇ =


( )
=


(% ) = K %
( + ) +

= % ( + ) +

∴, ∇ =( ( + )=( =−

6 . / / / ( )= -
−6 + 5 +) 7

) 5 57

19 ! ( )= -
−6 + 5 +)

=( )=( 3 - − D + 5=( " 5


P( ) = 7 − D# P( ) = − D < (# P5( )= 5− D>(
K & ( ) / / / "
∴ . / / / -
− 6× + 5× +) = )
' / / / 7
∴ ( 7 ) = 7- − 6× 7 + 5 × 7 + ) = 5

-( ' *
' 3( )+ '3 ( )+3 '3
( ) = δ( ) 3( ) = (−
=− ' =(
' ' ' = (−

'3
. / &
' = (+

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written permission.
' 3( )+ '3 ( )+3
' '
( ) = δ( )
+ −' /
3( )− 3 (() − 3 =
(() + 3( ) − 3 (( ) + 3( )=
+ + 3( )+ +5=
−- −
3( )=
( + + )
, ' & /
3( )= − −
− −
()
'3 ( ) − − −
= + −
'
'3 ( ) = − =
' +
=(

- C − C = 7C C −C

? C Ω C ?

?
?
? − (C
? Ω
+
?
+ −
)C C C

)C C -C 7C

C −C 7
= = = - #E & & + 3 % /
+ C −C 0 & "-
? C Ω C ?

?
?
? − (C
? Ω
+
?
+ −
)C C C

C C
≡ C
− + -
C
C

C = + - + C = ) + C #C − C = −)C

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written permission.
- / + 0 + & ? &
/ / / ' /& & & &

Ω ?

+ +
(C − <Ω -C
− −

& & & &

( DF 5F F DF

B 7 + (? 5 + B(?
9 ' /& & & & "C " =
?A ?+ (? + )
(−- B B? 7 + (?
= = #C"-A ?"-A =
+? +? A? +?
'9 (? + ) (B( ) − ( 5 + B(? ) (? + )
= =(
(? + )
5
'?

Ω ? ?

+
+ + + +
(C − <Ω

-C ≡ (C C

-C
− −

& & & &

B( (? + ) = ( 5 + B(? ) (? + ) #) (?A ) = (- + )? )
)? + ( = 7 + (?#5")?#?"( DΩ

-- . + + & & 0

- BC

%Ω

((%Ω

β = ((
(%Ω

≈ (( ≈ (( ≈ ( ≈ (

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written permission.
C

((% %

(%
((%

GC: - B ( + ) % − ((% ( ) − ( B= (
= 66µ # = β = ( 66/ # = /
7/ ( ((% QQ % )
∴ = = 7Ω#; = β = 7%Ω# ∴ = =5
7
((% ;=
; == ; QQ = Ω# = = (5 )
+5 +
; =? + (%
≈ (

-5 . 0 ' & :. 3 / + 03

( ( (
= ( ( + ( #3" ( ( ()
- ( ( - -
-

3 ' . 3 / & 0
≠ (# = (# - ≠ ( = (# ≠ (# - ≠ (
= (# ≠ (# - = ( ≠ (# = (# - = (

. & 0 3/
=

( (
= ( (
- ( (
(
= (

( (
& 0 3 / = ( (
( (
3 / 0
≠(
& 0 ' /
≠(
& 0 3
- & 0 ;
/ ' 0 ;

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written permission.
-) . ' + / +&& &

− M81

H 1
2
:G H 1(
&

= = ( = ( = (
= =

H = ( H = H = ( H =

= ( =

= ( = ( = =
= ( = (

H = ( H =
H = ( H =

= (
=

=( 3=H
= + /
= 3=H

=(
= =( = + ++ '

H=( H=

=(

-7 . , / + R "( &
K< ω) ( ω) ω .
(
5

ω = ()
=
ω

ω
ω
&
ω ( )= ( −
= ) + =( + )
ω −<
ω ω
<
+
ω

−- -

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written permission.
-B : 3 ' &

'+ = ( ) '+ & * &


3 ( = '3 = + *
( -

∞ %
3 = +( − %)
% =(

∞ %
3 ( = + ( −% ) =
% =(
J
+ (() =

+ (() = E & + * &


∞ % +− +− =(
3 = + −%
% =(
(
+ + + (( ) =

+ =(

-D . '0 &% 3 / 0 & '

+ G( + ) 2( )
?( ) -
+ + +

G" ' "( B) G"- ' "( B)


G"5 ' "( ) G" ' "( )

+ !( E ) K( E ) = E- + + ( + %) + +%
-
( + %)
( + %)
( + %) − ( + %) (

( + %)

+%
, 3 / & ( + %) − ( + %) = ( =
+%

+%
+ ( + %) = ( = =

+% = 5 % =
. = ( B)

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written permission.
-6 . & &
?

? +
+)C
+ −
+ −

−)C

= '
-'
(? +? )

+ -' = '
?

-' = '
?

+ = '
-'
(? +? )

?
C( E = − υ ( )
? +
E
? E
CJ ( E ) = − C (E)
(? E+ )
. & * &3
?
' +

5( . () ' 3( )= ( τ ) & (-τ ) 'τ . 3 /


−∞

/ ' 0 0 ' /
/ ' 0 / ' 0

3 = τ & -τ 'τ
−∞

E & 3 ' ' / & / 3 /

: 0 0 ' ' / %

3 = G& -τ 'τ < ∞


−∞

3 0 ' ' . E3 / 0
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written permission.
5 ' 0 & ' & 0 / ' / )//
& 0 / & () . / / / & +
'0 ' ' & 0 / 0
55// )(// 5 --// ) ((//

5 + / / + $ / +
(% Ω ' 55(C ' / + D(% Ω ' -) C ,
/ + 5(% Ω / '
-B C -D-C -65C 5(7C

5- . & 3 + '0 &% & 3 /


)(
+ 03 !( )= . + / + 3 /
( + 6) ( + ) )

( D' -' -5 ' 5) 7'

55 '3 / / // % & & ; & & '& .


−-
+ & ; & &/ )( × ( C/ I ' &
' & 5&/ * τ = (I/ ' '3 / /
+ C '&

( )/

"5&/

' = // '&
C
* τ
3 / /

5C )C (C 7C

-
5) $ ' 3 (((%+/ ' &3 ' & ' / ' / / / '
+ ; ' / ( ()/ & 0 & ' '
& + / ' & 0 +
' & / ' 03 & 0 (%9
' & ' /
− − − −
/ / / /
(( ) B) ( )( ( 5( )

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written permission.
57 8 0 / / 0 ' / ' * ' ; & 3
/ * ' ' C * &3 &
* ' 0 / ' / 0
+ +C + +
π π π C π
-
C

5B . & 3 + + '0 &% & 3 /


+5 +D
+ 03 !( )= . + θ & &
( + ) ( + D)
& ; 3 /
− -π −
θ = π− θ = −
5 5 -

π − π −
θ = − θ = −
5 5 -

! " # $ "
% & '

$ (C ' & & & ' & & %


0 + 0 '

/& & ' ' & -

) /& & ' ' &

5D $ (C '& & & ' & ' 03 B / & & '

- B ) B 6B

56 , / % 7C '& & & ' /& & '


' B- DC '& & & ' & & +

7C BC DC 6C

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written permission.
! " # $ "
% & '

. ' & 3 & 0 / ' & &


, I & ' & / 0 + 03

3( ) = ( (( , − / . + ' / θ ' &


-
/ ' 03 & + 0 / / M +

)( . E ' & & ," I


' &
// -// 7// //

) 0 ' / :C . / '
= / ' " / & / & / 3 +
5
&
B 5( B7 - )

(% )* $ "
% & "

+" " "# (% )* $ "


% & '

. & & / +
+
!& ( )=
+0

) !& ( ) '& /

" 0" "- 0" " - 0" "- 0"

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written permission.
− ω − ω
φ= −
β
− ω − ω
' φ '0 + > <0
β
0 '
0 ';
?KE 0
J +

)- . 0 '& / / / /

' - '

7 ' '
-

S" + / &/ & * & = × = ' &

+" " "# (% )* $ "


% & '

& & / ' +


C = (C C = C C- = -7C

C
?:
C- : '
C
1

)5 . & '

( 5) ( )( ( )) ( 7(

)) ? : = )Ω / & / '

B(($ B)($ D(($ D)($

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written permission.
)7 / / + 0
& / + &
,#" "%) -
)% ")" -
% ) . ///////// " "
" $"
" 0-
' % %
' % %

)B ( (( ) )6
=-) ' ( (( ) (7
= BD) ( (( )-- =

- 5 - -B B75

(( "
)6
=- ) ' (7
= BD)
--
= )6 (7
=- ) BD) = B75

)D J & + 0 & ??J?


$ & + , 11 T
, 2$ " ) " " $-
) 0 3%
4 " )%
4% 3 " " " ) % " ) #
"
* ' '0 +
' + ' /

)6 $ & + & / + ' +


0 T
("
%"$)
+0 3 , ' /
& M &

7( / ' / + 0 & /
+ &

5%
4 " %$ #" %
"$"
% " " )" # . % //
%6 %4
0 ++ 3 / & < 3 & &

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written permission.
7 ? < 5 & &3 &% & + 3 ? ( ' ?
( . / 3 ? -( . /0 ? (
? <
) 7 6 (

: /0 ? ( 0 '? ( 0 3
( A (3 " -(
A 3 " 5
"6 ' 3")
K & /0 ( )

7 #" -3 % #" 1 -3% )% % 6-


% , " -3% .
%
-%" - 6 4%-) ) )% %6-
% 0 $ " - !% %
6-% "
0""-#%-) 6"$ %
" 0 )% " .% " " ) #
%3 "% 3. 4 " ))
) )%
"% 3 % ""

$ & + / 0 / / + 0
+ T
. + +/ / & &3 ? /
+ ' & & / &
. + ' / 3 / /
& / U & /
. ' & & + 0<& ' ' ''
'& ' 0 + + /

7- ' ' . 3' &' / 0 9M ' 9M + ' 3


. & ' /
)/ . 0 0 3 3 / ' 3
5 7 B 7 6 7

/ ?

)E

9M 9 ) 9M

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written permission.
J 0 ' / /
. / & " 7( 7( " -7((
, 0 & " J V 9H?E

" -7(( − × × 5) × 5) " )B)

)B) B
∴. * ' 0 0 3" =
-7(( 7

75 . ' + + 0 // ; / 3 0 '+
+ '

"3 * $ "81 9
, ' 5(((
+ ((
? (((
E + )((
J D((

. / & + / 3 0 '+ +
(W 5W D W D7W

. 0 '+ " ( )((


' + " 6(((
9000
K & = 86%
10500

7) . + 0 + & % + % & * + '


+ 3 . + + 0 & / ' & & 3 8 +
0 & / / / /0 + + * ' ' 3 0 +

- 5 5 D

: & + ; 0 + +

- -

+ +

7 7
- " - - X -

. '0 E 3 Y

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written permission.
)
%
3 %3

Y " -

L Y
L

© All rights reserved by Gateforum Educational Services Pvt. Ltd. No part of this booklet may be reproduced or utilized in any form without the
written permission.