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Optimization of Radiation Shielding Concrete for Radiotherapy Treatment


Room at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University

Article  in  Key Engineering Materials · August 2016


DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.705.338

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Key Engineering Materials Submitted: 2016-03-30
ISSN: 1662-9795, Vol. 705, pp 338-344 Accepted: 2016-04-11
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.705.338 Online: 2016-08-15
© 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

Optimization of Radiation Shielding Concrete for Radiotherapy


Treatment Room at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University
DEBOJIT Sarker1,a, ARNAB Biswas1,b, Dr. Md. MIZANUR Rahman1,c
and Muhammad MOHSIN Mehedi1,d
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET),
Dhaka, Bangladesh
a
debojitmom@gmail.com, barbbiswas@gmail.com, cmizanur@ce.buet.ac.bd,
d
mohsin790@gmail.com

Keywords: Concrete Material Technology; Ionizing Radiation; Radiation Protection, Radiation


Shielding Concrete; Radiotherapy.

Abstract. The objective of this study is to recommend optimized shield design from the shielding
viewpoint for installation of the Cyclotron, Cyberknife and Linear Acceleration (LINAC) facility at
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The shield
design for Cyclotron, Cyberknife and LINAC has been performed considering ICRP-103 (2007)
recommendations for occupational and public dose limits. The optimized design parameters for
Radiation Shielding Concrete (RSC) with hardened density of 2.35 gm/cm3 are: 254 cm thickness of
RSC as primary barrier for LINAC on both side of the source, 198 cm and 178 cm thickness of RSC
on parking side and earthen side wall for Cyclotron, a maze wall of thickness 198 cm and 122 cm
RSC for Cyclotron and LINAC, 168 cm and 152 cm thickness of RSC from opposite to the maze
wall, slab thickness 152 cm excluding a false ceiling of thickness 122 cm with RSC having a
functional story height of 503 cm for LINAC, 122 cm and 259 cm slab thickness of RSC for
Cyberknife and Cyclotron. The use of RSC in the shield design of wall and roof shows that it limits
radiation exposure of staff, patients, visitors and the public to acceptable level, thus optimizing
radiation protection.

Introduction
Concrete that is composed of Portland cement, sand, aggregate (stones, gravel, etc.), and water, is
one of the most widely recognized materials used in the construction of commercial buildings.
Currently ordinary concrete (density about 2350 kg/m3) is widely used for superficial and
orthovoltage radiotherapy rooms [1]. As of now the usage of rays such as x-rays and gamma-rays is
increasing in various fields from medical applications to food industry. Subsequently, protection
from their negative impacts became crucial issue. There are three general rules for protection:
exposure time, distance, and shielding. In most cases, shielding is the main rule to be performed [2]
although materials such as lead and iron are effective anti-ray shields, mechanical and economical
considerations limit their usage to some special areas [3]. Then again, concrete is paramount
material utilized for radiation shielding in the facilities having radiation generating equipment and
radioactive sources [4]. The problem of shielding against ionizing radiation has always attracted a
great deal of attention. RSC provides better solution for this problem.

The biological shield reduces the level of gamma radiation and neutrons to optimized dose limits.
The biological shield may contain some heavy materials such as iron and steel punching. The
biological shield consists of many centimeters of very high-density concrete [5-12]. The concrete
shielding features may fluctuate relying on the mixing of the concrete. Aggregates are the
predominant component (about 70-80% of the whole weight of normal concrete). The density and
compressive strength of concrete cement paste are affected by several parameters like water cement
ratio, use of admixture, curing, cement type, etc. [13]. Curing is the process to endorse hydration of
cement, and consists of a control of temperature and moisture movement from and into the concrete

All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of Trans
Tech Publications, www.ttp.net. (#69162696, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET), Dhaka, Bangladesh-21/08/16,18:46:36)
Key Engineering Materials Vol. 705 339

[14]. Appropriate curing application has substantial impact on density and compressive strength of
concrete. The density of normal weight concrete lies within the range of 2.2 to 2.6 gm/cm3 [15]. The
optimization of RSC density to improve structural efficiency (the strength to density ratio), reduce
transportation costs, and also enhance the hydration is accomplished by this study. Through
hydration process, concrete gains strength, become denser and loses its porosity.

(ASTM C 637-98a 2003), “Standard Specification for Aggregates for Radiation-Shielding


Concrete,” in conjunction with (ASTM C33/C33M-11a 2013), “Standard Specification for Concrete
Aggregates,” gives general guidance regarding the requirements and considerations for aggregates
used in RSC, including specific gravity; mineralogy; density; grading; deleterious substances;
soundness; organic impurities; abrasion resistance; and, depending on the aggregate type, fixed
water content and water-soluble material [16,17]. The utilization of aggregates of the highest
possible density in the concrete mix is an effective measure in shielding enhancement. So far
adequate experiences is acquired in concretes for shielding goals, as Bangladesh has to benefit from
its own experience relying on the abundance, cheapness and potency of the local materials.

Methodology
Primary barrier thickness evaluation. The primary barrier is the fraction of the radiotherapy
room walls, floor or ceiling that can be irradiated directly by the primary (direct) beam. Barrier
thickness depends on:
• Distance to Point of Interest from Source (d)
• Target dose rate (P)
• Workload (W)
• Occupancy (T)
• Usage (U)

The transmission of the barrier required to reduce the primary radiation field to the dose limits
outside the barrier is given by [18]-

= Eq.1

Where, P (mSv/year) is the target dose outside the barrier (shielding design goal); dprim (m) is the
distance from X-ray target to the point to be protected, which generally varies between 3 to 6 m; W
is the workload, or absorbed dose per year at 1 m from the target (Gy/year); U is the usage factor,
the fraction of the beam-on time during which the primary beam is directed to the barriers and T is
the occupancy factor, a factor that takes into account for the occupancy of the area to be shielded. In
this study, the workload (W) is selected 2 Gy/patient based on the value given in ICRP-103 and
NCRP-151 [19, 20].

Tenth Value Layer (TVL) is the thickness of material required to allow 10% transmission.
Thickness of the barrier is then evaluated by applying the TVLs data, based on the energy of the
photons and type of shielding material. In this case, the number of TVLs is given by [20]-
= −log( ) Eq.2
For typical values of distances dpri, n ranges between 5 and 6, and the barrier thickness (t) is given
by-
= + ( − 1) Eq.3
The spectral changes in the radiation which interacts inside the barrier is regarded by first (TVL1)
and equilibrium (TVLe) tenth-value layers [21].
340 Key Engineering Materials VI

Radiation shielding concrete parameters. Portland-pozzolan cement was used according to


ASTM specification C 595 [22]. Low heat hydration requirements can be met with Type IV
Portland cement, which is most often manufactured to conform to ASTM Specification C 150.
Pozzolanic reaction does not occur until later, the early strength of concrete is reduced, with a
corresponding reduction in heat of hydration. Research on properties of RSC with different
aggregates or admixtures and the effect of high temperature on the performance of shielding
concrete are introduced [23]. Ice was introduced for mixing RSC to reduce hydration temperature.
Combination of two types of Coarse Aggregates (CA)- 19 and 12-16 mm downgraded stone chips
(Crushed stone) were used. Place of origin of the stone chips is located at Volagonj in Bangladesh.
Fine Aggregate (FA) (in this case- Coarse Sand) is brought from Durgapur (Mymensingh),
Bangladesh. Fineness Modulus (FM) of Coarse Sand found in Durgapur is 1.5, which satisfies
ASTM C 637 requirements for RSC [16]. High FM needs less cement, thus reducing construction
cost. Water reducing (Plasticizers) Chemical Admixture MasterPolyheed was used to control
setting. For 600 to 1200 cft casting, perception time with 50 labors was two 2.5 hours per day.

Slump and Density Test. Slump test was performed under ASTM C143 on every casting day with
every 30 minutes interval during casting. Slump maintained strictly 25 to 75 mm for medium
workability requirements [22].

Mechanical properties of concrete are highly influenced by its density. Strength and density
increases with maturity of concrete and percent void and absorption capacity decreases with time
[24]. One set (3 cylinders) sample taken for density test on every casting day. Concrete mass found
above 3920 kg for 8 x 4 inches cylinder. After 28 days curing, concrete specimens were taken out
from storage for density test according to specification ASTM C 642 [25], for each particular day.
Bulk density of fresh RSC varied from 2.39~2.47 gm/cm3. This gives Apparent density above 2.35
gm/cm3, key requirement for RSC. Typical values of Compressive strength (Cs) of hardened
concrete can be obtained from density (Ds) using correlation [24]-
= 8.6 + 2110 Eq.4

Radiation Dose at High Energy


Radiological wellbeing aspects in general and neutron dosimetry in particular, around medium and
high energy particle accelerators represent some unique challenges to the experts of radiation
protection. This is mainly because the sources of radiations are directional, dynamic and a mixture
of various types. In conventional dosimetry, measurements are done in the units of the quantities in
which the radiological protection limits are expressed. In the accelerator environment, estimation of
energy and angular distribution of radiations is preferred instead [26]. The probability of ionizing
radiation causing cancer is dependent upon the absorbed dose of the radiation, and is a function of
the damaging tendency of the type of radiation (equivalent dose) and the sensitivity of the irradiated
organism or the tissue's (effective dose) [27].

Following an intense debate for about a decade involving scientists, regulators and users, the ICRP
in 2007 has published its general recommendations in ICRP publication 103 [19], replacing the
previous 1990 recommendations. In this recent report ICRP has retained the concept of the tissue
weighting factor (wT) and the radiation-weighting factor (wR) but with modified values. Dose
quantities in SI units for external radiological protection is depicted in Fig. 1. The unit for dose is
sievert (Sv), and measures the effect a dose of radiation will have on cells of the body. Radiation
dose chart presented in Table 1 can be used for RSC optimization. RSC optimized dose rate (P) is
0.1 mSv as per ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable).
Key Engineering Materials Vol. 705 341

Fig. 1. Dose quantities in SI units for external radiological protection.

Table 1. Radiation dose chart (in µSv)


Background dose received by an average person over one normal day 10
Chest X-ray 20
RSC optimized dose limit, P (ALARA) 100
Shielding design goal for uncontrolled areas, P (NCRP 151) 1000
Shielding design goal for controlled areas, P (NCRP 151) 5000
Chest CT scan 7000
Radiation workers one year dose limit 50000

Results and Discussion


Shuttering was prepared as per specification i.e. waterproof, cleaned and shuttering oil applied.
Both coarse aggregates and fine aggregates were washed and kept into Saturated Surface Dry (SSD)
condition. Slump and density of fresh concrete was evaluated carefully. Thickness for both primary
and secondary wall was determined. For 6 MV and 18 MV photon facilities in LINAC, required
thickness is 2.1 and 2.43 m respectively, which is less than given thickness of 2.54 m. Secondary
barrier thickness for 6 MV and 18 MV photon facilities is 1.4 and 1.45 m respectively, while given
thickness is greater than this. RSC wall of LINAC can reduce radiation to an acceptable level.
Neutron shielding requires special care, as neutron can penetrate through concrete by scattering.
Fig. 2 shows elevation with dimensions (in feet, due to suitability for the sub-contractors) of
Cyclotron with a slab thickness of 259 cm. This mass concrete needed two stage shutter (with jog)
and four stage casting. Fig. 3(a) is taken from the ground level and semi-basement is visible, where
122 cm thick roof slab casting with RSC needed two stage constructions. Three electric vibrators
were used for casting [Fig. 3(b)]. Concrete may contain up to 20% entrapped air and the amount
varies with variation of mix design, slump, aggregates, and the amount of reinforcing steel used.
Concrete vibration can improve compressive strength. Vibration consolidates concrete in two
stages- first by moving the concrete particles, then by removing entrapped air. Construction phase
of LINAC walls (with maze, without roof slab) are visible in Fig. 3(c) and Fig. 3(d).
342 Key Engineering Materials VI

Fig. 2. Elevation with dimensions (in feet) of Cyberknife and Cyclotron.

Fig. 3. Construction phase: (a) Preparing Cyberknife roof slab for casting, (b) Use of vibrator on
Cyberknife roof slab, (c) LINAC wall, and (d) Use of MasterBuilder over old concrete.
Primary Barrier. Primary barrier will be approximately 3X thicker than all other walls. Primary
beam always directed through the isocentre.
For a 6 MV photon facility, Where,
Bpri = 2.9 10 , (From, Eq. 1) dpri= 7 m,
So, = 5.56 6 , (From, Eq. 2) = 50 2 270
For Concrete, = = 0.35 (ICRP-103)
Required thickness, = 0.35 + (6 − 1)0.35 = 2.1 . = 27 10 ,
For a 18 MV photon facility, T = ¼ , (NCRP-151)
Required thickness, = 2.43 . U = ¼ , (NCRP-151)
Key Engineering Materials Vol. 705 343

Secondary Barriers. Secondary barriers are required mainly due to head leakage, patient scatter
and wall scatter. Head shielding designed to reduce intensity by factor of 1000.
For a 6 MV photon facility, Where,
Bpri = 5.23 10 , (From, Eq. 1) d = 6 m,
So, = 3.28 4 , (From, Eq. 2) = 50 2 270
Required thickness, = 1.4 . (From, Eq. 3)
For a 18 MV photon facility, = 27 10 ,
Required thickness, = 1.45 . T = ¼ , U = 1, (NCRP-151)

Neutron Shielding. Fast neutrons are efficiently attenuated by materials rich in Hydrogen, in this
case- concrete. Required RSC roof thickness for 6 MV and 18 MV facilities are 2.23 m and 2.86 m
for primary shielding. For secondary shielding of LINAC ceiling, 1.18 m and 1.58 m thickness of
RSC is required for 6 MV and 10 MV facilities.

Conclusions
Radiation shielding concrete (RSC) is widely used in nuclear power plants, accelerators, hospitals,
etc. With the development of nuclear technology in Bangladesh, research on radiation shielding
material properties is of excessive importance. The effect of disparate durations of high
temperatures on the physical, mechanical and radiation properties of RSC must be investigated
before construction. RSC has not been globally used in radiation shielding yet, and study on its
properties is incomplete. Until now, researches on shielding concrete are mostly on the property of
its raw materials and concrete with different admixtures. There are no specifications and standards
for concrete mix design. Further studies on property of RSC have to be done and standards on
shielding concrete application should be established in Bangladesh.

Acknowledgements
The physical support and the technical contribution of Public Works Department, Dhaka- is highly
appreciable. My sincere appreciation is extended to Ripon Kumar Roy, ExEn, PWD, for his
invaluable support and advice on the physical properties evaluation. We would like to express our
sincere gratitude to Dr. Nurul Islam, Professor and Chief Scientific Officer, NINMAS, BAEC,
BSMMU. We thank Sumit Saha, Debasish Saha and Mohiuddin, for their continuous support.

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10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.705

Optimization of Radiation Shielding Concrete for Radiotherapy Treatment Room at Bangabandhu


Sheikh Mujib Medical University
10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.705.338

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