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Topic 1: Sets

Finite set

A finite set is one in which it is possible to list and count all the members of the set i.e.

Infinite set

An infinite set is one in which it is not possible to list and count all the members of the set i.e.

Equal set

Two sets are equal if they both have the same numbers i.e.

Therefore F=G

Equivalent set

Two sets are equivalent if they have the same number of elements i.e.

F = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

Complement of a set

The complement of a set B, written B’, is the set of all the members of the universal set, which

Intersection of a set

The intersection of two sets is the listing of elements that are in both sets.

Union of a set

The union of two sets A and B is the set of elements that are in A or B, or both. The Venn

Example

Note:

(A ⋃ B)’ = {16}

And,

(A ⋃ B)’ = A’ ∩ B’

And,

A’ ⋃ B’ = (A ∩ B)’

Elements of a subset

Example 1:

students studied both Mathematics and English language. Determine the number of students

who studied:

Given information:

n(M) = 25

n(E) = 30

n(M ∩ E) = 20

n(U) = n(M ⋃ E) = 35

Using Formulae:

= 25 – 20

=5

= 30 – 20

= 10

Example 2

At a youth club of 40 members, 25 like football, 20 like cricket and 5 like neither football nor

Given information:

n(U) = 40

n(F) = 25

n(C) = 20

n(F ⋃ C)’ = 5

Let x represent the number of members who like both football and cricket, that is,

n(F ∩ C) = x

Then, the number of members who like football only is represented by,

n(F ∩ C’) = 25 –x

Also, the number of members who like cricket only is represented by,

n(C ∩ F’ ) = 20 –x

Solving:

n(U) = 25 – x + x + 20 – x + 5

40 = 25 – x + x + 20 – x + 5

40 = 25 + 20 + 5 –x + x – x

40 = 50 – x

x = 50 – 40

x = 10

= 25 – 10

= 15

n(F’ ∩ C) = 20 –x members

= 20 – 10

= 10

Quiz:

Question 1

Describe the shaded region (lined region) in each Venn diagram below, using set notation only.

Solution: (A U B)’

This notation means, the compliment of A U B. In this case, compliment (‘) means

Solution: A ∩ B

This notation means, A intersect B. That is the section that is common to both A and B.

Question 2

(a) Use the Venn diagram above to determine how many elements are in each of the

following sets.

(i) (A ∩ B)’ = 18 + 16 + 24 = 58

(ii) (A U B)’ = 24

(i) (A ∩ B)’ = A’ U B’

(ii) (A U B)’ = A’ ∩ B’

Questions 3

(ii) Calculate the number of visitors who went on the ‘Lightning Bolt’ slide only.

300 = 70 + x + 2x + 80

300 = 150 + 3x

3x = 300 -150

3x = 150

x = 150/3

x = 50

Therefore, since 2x persons went on the Lightning bolt slide only, replacing x for 50 we get:

Question 4

A survey is conducted with 39 students, as to what activities they part-take in over the

18 went to parties

x did both

3x did neither

Parties only = 18 – x

Solving for x:

15 – x + x + 18 – x + 3x = 39

33 + 2x = 39

2x = 6

X = 6/2

X=3

Relations

The equation, y= 5x+2, is a relation. A relation is defined as a set of ordered pairs that abides

to a specific rule.

So with the equation, y= 5x+ 2, the specific rule that applies to it is:

When, x = 3

y = 5(3) + 2

y = 15 + 2

y = 17

That is the ordered pair in this case is, x =3 , y = 17 i.e. (3, 17)

Functions

A function is a relation in which each member of the domain (this is the set of x values) is

mapped to only one member of the range (this is the set of y values), that is, a one to one

mapping. A function is also defined in terms of a many to one mapping; this is where more

than one x values in a domain are mapped to only one y value in a range.

Linear Functions

Linear functions are those of the form, f(x) = ax + c, where, a and c are integers, and linear

Therefore, y = ax + c

a is the coefficient of x

Therefore, y = ax + c = mx + c

Where, m is the gradient of the line (ratio of the vertical rise over the horizontal run)

Having stated the form of linear functions, below is an example of how to draw linear

functions.

Example

Draw the graph of the linear function, f(x) = 3x + 2, for the domain -2 ≤ x ≤ 2.

Method 1

Substitute the values given for x in the domain (-2, -1, 0, 1, 2), in the function, solving for the

Given, f(x) = 3x + 2

f(-1) = 3(-1) + 2 = -3 + 2 = -1

f(0) = 3(0) + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

f(1) = 3(1) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5

f(2) = 3(2) + 2 = 6 + 2 = 8

Therefore, the set of (x, y) values to be plotted and connected in forming the linear function

are:

{(-2, -4), (-1, -1), (0, 2), (1, 5), (2, 8)}

Method 2

This method involves finding the x and y intercepts, that is the point at which the graph

crosses the x and y axis. A linear function written in its correct form, that is, f(x) = mx + c,

states the y intercept, c [in (x, y) form is (0, c)]. So, to find the x intercept, substitute 0 for y

Given, f(x) = 3x + 2

y = 3x + 2

0 = 3x +2 (substituting 0 for y)

3x = -2

x = -2/3 or -0.66

Using the x and y intercepts, (-0.66, 0) and (0, 2), the graph is plotted below.

Quadratic Functions

a is the coefficient of x2

b is the coefficient of x

c is the y intercept

Example

Draw the graph of the quadratic function, f(x) = x2 – 2x -3, for the domain -2 ≤ x ≤ 4.

Solution:

The set of (x, y) values to be plotted and connected in forming the graph representing the

quadratic function, parabola (a smooth curve), are found by substituting the values given for

x in the domain (-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3), in the function, solving for the respective f(x)/ y values.

Given, f(x) = x2 – 2x – 3

Therefore the set of (x, y) values are: {(-2, 5), (-1, 0), (0, -3), (1, -4), (2, -3), (3, 0), (4, 5)}

Equation of a line

In this instance, the graph of a line is given and the question requires finding the equation of

the line.

Example

Solution:

Recall, c is the y intercept (the point at which the graph crosses the y axis), which is the point

(0, 2)

That is, c = 2

Now substituting the (x, y) coordinates of any of the other four points on the graph, along

That is, using the point (1, 5), substituting 1 for x, 5 for y, and 2 for c

Yields, y = mx + c

5 = m (1) + 2

5=m+2

m=5–2

m=3

Y = 3x + 2

Question 1

(i) f(x) = 2x + 3

(ii) f(x) = 6x

Solutions:

(i) Substitute the values given for x in the domain (-1, 0, 1, 2), in the function, solving for the

Given, f(x) = 2x + 3

f(-1) = 2(-1) + 3 = -2 + 3 = 1

f(0) = 2(0) + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3

f(1) = 2(1) + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5

f(2) = 2(2) + 3 = 4 + 3 = 7

Therefore, the set of (x, y) values to be plotted and connected in forming the linear function

are:

(ii) Substitute the values given for x in the domain (-1, 0, 1, 2), in the function, solving for the

Given, f(x) = 6x

f(-1) = 6(-1) = -6

f(0) = 6(0) = 0

f(1) = 6(1) = 6

f(2) = 6(2) = 12

Therefore, the set of (x, y) values to be plotted and connected in forming the linear function

are:

Question 2

Find the equation of the line which passes through the points A (2, 4) and B (8, 10).

Solution:

y = mx + c

4 = m(2) + c

4 = 2m + c —- eq(1)

Substituting (8, 10) for x and y respectively

10 = m(8) + c

10 = 8m + c—- eq(2)

eq(2) – eq(1)

10 – 4 = 8m – 2m + c – c

6 = 6m

m=1

Substituting m = 1 in eq(1)

4 = 2m + c

4 = 2(1) + c

4=2+c

c=4–2

c=2

Hence the equation of the line passing through points A (2, 4) and B (8, 10) is:

y = mx + c

y = (1)x + (2)

y=x+2

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