You are on page 1of 20

CXC Mathematics Study Guide

Topic 1: Sets

Finite set

A finite set is one in which it is possible to list and count all the members of the set i.e.

D = {Days of the Week}

Infinite set

An infinite set is one in which it is not possible to list and count all the members of the set i.e.

E = {Even numbers greater than 5}

Equal set

Two sets are equal if they both have the same numbers i.e.

F = {20, 60, 80}

G = {80, 60, 20}

Therefore F=G

Equivalent set

Two sets are equivalent if they have the same number of elements i.e.

F = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

G = {10, 12, 18, 20, 22}

Therefore n(F)= n(G)= 5


Complement of a set

The complement of a set B, written B’, is the set of all the members of the universal set, which

are not elements of the set B.

U = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19}

B = {5, 11, 17, 19}

Therefore B’ = {3, 7, 9, 13, 15}

Intersection of a set

The intersection of two sets is the listing of elements that are in both sets.

The Venn diagram below shows A ∩ B, where ∩ means ‘intersect’.

U = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16}

A = {4, 6, 8, 10, 12}

B = {2, 10, 12, 14}

Then, A intersect B, A ∩ B = {10, 12}

Note: A ∩ B’ = {4, 6, 8} and, A’ ∩ B = {2, 14}


Union of a set

The union of two sets A and B is the set of elements that are in A or B, or both. The Venn

diagram below shows A ⋃ B.

Example

If, U = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16}

A = {4, 6, 8, 10, 12}

B = {2, 10, 12, 14}

Then, A union B, A ⋃ B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14}

Note:

(A ⋃ B)’ = {16}

And,

(A ⋃ B)’ = A’ ∩ B’

A’ ⋃ B’ = {2, 4, 6, 8, 14, 16}

And,

A’ ⋃ B’ = (A ∩ B)’
Elements of a subset

Example 1:

In a class of 35 students, 25 studied Mathematics, 30 studied English Language and 20

students studied both Mathematics and English language. Determine the number of students

who studied:

(a) Mathematics only

(b) English Language only.

Let, M = {students who studied mathematics}

E = {students who studied English language)

Given information:

n(M) = 25

n(E) = 30

n(M ∩ E) = 20

From the given information, it can be deduced that,

n(U) = n(M ⋃ E) = 35

Using a Venn diagram:

Using Formulae:

(a) Number of students who studied Mathematics only

n(M ∩ E’) / n(M only) = n(M) – n(M ∩ E)


= 25 – 20

=5

(b)Number of students who studied English language only

n(M’ ∩ E) / n(E only) = n(E) – n(M ∩ E)

= 30 – 20

= 10

Example 2

At a youth club of 40 members, 25 like football, 20 like cricket and 5 like neither football nor

cricket. Determine the number of members who like:

(a) both football and cricket

(b) football only

(c) cricket only.

Let, F = {members who like football}

C = {members who like cricket}

Given information:

n(U) = 40

n(F) = 25

n(C) = 20

n(F ⋃ C)’ = 5

Let x represent the number of members who like both football and cricket, that is,

n(F ∩ C) = x

Then, the number of members who like football only is represented by,

n(F ∩ C’) = 25 –x
Also, the number of members who like cricket only is represented by,

n(C ∩ F’ ) = 20 –x

Using a Venn diagram:

Solving:

(a) Members who like both football and cricket

n(U) = 25 – x + x + 20 – x + 5

since n(U) = 40, then

40 = 25 – x + x + 20 – x + 5

40 = 25 + 20 + 5 –x + x – x

40 = 50 – x

x = 50 – 40

x = 10

that is, x= 10 members

(b) Members who like football only

n(F ∩ C’) = 25 –x members

= 25 – 10

= 15

(c) Members who like cricket only

n(F’ ∩ C) = 20 –x members
= 20 – 10

= 10

Quiz:

Question 1

Describe the shaded region (lined region) in each Venn diagram below, using set notation only.

Solution: (A U B)’

This notation means, the compliment of A U B. In this case, compliment (‘) means

everything outside of the sets A and B.

Solution: A ∩ B

This notation means, A intersect B. That is the section that is common to both A and B.
Question 2

(a) Use the Venn diagram above to determine how many elements are in each of the

following sets.

(i) (A ∩ B)’ = 18 + 16 + 24 = 58

(ii) (A U B)’ = 24

(b) Determine which set notation is the same as:

(i) (A ∩ B)’ = A’ U B’
(ii) (A U B)’ = A’ ∩ B’

A’ ∩ B’ above, is the same as (A U B)’.

Questions 3

A water park has 300 visitors on a certain day. Of that 300,

70 went on the ‘Jamaica Bobsled’ slide only

2x went on the ‘Lightning Bolt’ slide only

80 went on neither slide

x went on both slides

(i) Create a Venn diagram to illustrate the information.


(ii) Calculate the number of visitors who went on the ‘Lightning Bolt’ slide only.

Since n(U) = 300, then

300 = 70 + x + 2x + 80

300 = 150 + 3x

3x = 300 -150

3x = 150

x = 150/3

x = 50

Therefore, since 2x persons went on the Lightning bolt slide only, replacing x for 50 we get:

Lightning bolt = 2(50) =100 persons

Question 4

A survey is conducted with 39 students, as to what activities they part-take in over the

Christmas Holidays. It was found that:

15 had Family dinners

18 went to parties

x did both

3x did neither

(i) Calculate the value of x.

Family Dinners only = `5 – x

Parties only = 18 – x

Solving for x:
15 – x + x + 18 – x + 3x = 39

33 + 2x = 39

2x = 6

X = 6/2

X=3

Topic 2: Relations, Functions and Graphs

Relations
The equation, y= 5x+2, is a relation. A relation is defined as a set of ordered pairs that abides

to a specific rule.

So with the equation, y= 5x+ 2, the specific rule that applies to it is:

When, x = 3

y = 5(3) + 2

y = 15 + 2

y = 17

That is the ordered pair in this case is, x =3 , y = 17 i.e. (3, 17)

Note: y = 5x+ 2 , is the same as, x → 5x+ 2

Where, x → 5x+ 2 reads ‘x is mapped to 5x+ 2’.

Functions

A function is a relation in which each member of the domain (this is the set of x values) is

mapped to only one member of the range (this is the set of y values), that is, a one to one

mapping. A function is also defined in terms of a many to one mapping; this is where more

than one x values in a domain are mapped to only one y value in a range.
Linear Functions

Linear functions are those of the form, f(x) = ax + c, where, a and c are integers, and linear

means a straight line.

Recall that, y = f(x)

Therefore, y = ax + c

Where, y is the dependent variable

a is the coefficient of x

x is the independent variable

c is the constant term.

Note also that, y = mx + c, equation of a line

Therefore, y = ax + c = mx + c

Where, m is the gradient of the line (ratio of the vertical rise over the horizontal run)

c is the point at which the line intercepts the y axis.

Having stated the form of linear functions, below is an example of how to draw linear

functions.

Example

Draw the graph of the linear function, f(x) = 3x + 2, for the domain -2 ≤ x ≤ 2.

Method 1

Substitute the values given for x in the domain (-2, -1, 0, 1, 2), in the function, solving for the

respective f(x)/ y values.


Given, f(x) = 3x + 2

Then, f(-2) = 3(-2) + 2 = -6 + 2 = -4

f(-1) = 3(-1) + 2 = -3 + 2 = -1

f(0) = 3(0) + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

f(1) = 3(1) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5

f(2) = 3(2) + 2 = 6 + 2 = 8

Therefore, the set of (x, y) values to be plotted and connected in forming the linear function

are:

{(-2, -4), (-1, -1), (0, 2), (1, 5), (2, 8)}

Method 2

This method involves finding the x and y intercepts, that is the point at which the graph

crosses the x and y axis. A linear function written in its correct form, that is, f(x) = mx + c,

states the y intercept, c [in (x, y) form is (0, c)]. So, to find the x intercept, substitute 0 for y

in the function and solve for x.


Given, f(x) = 3x + 2

Y intercept (point of intersection on the y axis) is, (0, 2)

X intercept (point of intersection on the x axis) is, y = f(x)

y = 3x + 2

0 = 3x +2 (substituting 0 for y)

3x = -2

x = -2/3 or -0.66

That is, x intercept is (-0.66, 0)

Using the x and y intercepts, (-0.66, 0) and (0, 2), the graph is plotted below.

Quadratic Functions

Quadratic functions are those of the form, f(x) = ax2 + bx + c

Where, a, b and c are all integers

And, f(x) or y is the dependent variable


a is the coefficient of x2

b is the coefficient of x

c is the y intercept

x is the independent variable

Example

Draw the graph of the quadratic function, f(x) = x2 – 2x -3, for the domain -2 ≤ x ≤ 4.

Solution:

The set of (x, y) values to be plotted and connected in forming the graph representing the

quadratic function, parabola (a smooth curve), are found by substituting the values given for

x in the domain (-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3), in the function, solving for the respective f(x)/ y values.

Given, f(x) = x2 – 2x – 3

Then, f(-2) = (-2)2 – 2(-2) -3 = 4 + 4 – 3 = 5

f(-1) = (-1)2 – 2(-1) – 3 = 1 + 2 -3 = 0

f(0) = (0)2 – 2(0) – 3 = 0 – 0 – 3 = -3

f(1) = (1)2 – 2(1) – 3 = 1 -2 – 3 = -4

f(2) = (2)2 – 2(2) – 3 = 4 – 4 – 3 = -3

f(3) = (3)2 – 2(3) – 3= 9 – 6 – 3 = 0

f(4) = (4)2 – 2(4) – 3 = 16 – 8 – 3 = 5

Therefore the set of (x, y) values are: {(-2, 5), (-1, 0), (0, -3), (1, -4), (2, -3), (3, 0), (4, 5)}
Equation of a line

In this instance, the graph of a line is given and the question requires finding the equation of

the line.

Example

Find the equation of the line above.

Solution:

The equation of a straight line is, y = mx + c

Recall, c is the y intercept (the point at which the graph crosses the y axis), which is the point

(0, 2)

That is, c = 2

Now substituting the (x, y) coordinates of any of the other four points on the graph, along

with the value for c (2) in the equation, solve for m.

That is, using the point (1, 5), substituting 1 for x, 5 for y, and 2 for c
Yields, y = mx + c

5 = m (1) + 2

5=m+2

m=5–2

m=3

Therefore the equation of the straight line is:

Y = 3x + 2

Question 1

Draw the graphs of the linear functions:

(i) f(x) = 2x + 3

(ii) f(x) = 6x

for the domain -1 ≤ x ≤ 2.

Solutions:

(i) Substitute the values given for x in the domain (-1, 0, 1, 2), in the function, solving for the

respective f(x)/y values.

Given, f(x) = 2x + 3

f(-1) = 2(-1) + 3 = -2 + 3 = 1

f(0) = 2(0) + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3

f(1) = 2(1) + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5

f(2) = 2(2) + 3 = 4 + 3 = 7
Therefore, the set of (x, y) values to be plotted and connected in forming the linear function

are:

{(-1, 1), (0, 3), (1, 5), (2, 7)}.

(ii) Substitute the values given for x in the domain (-1, 0, 1, 2), in the function, solving for the

respective f(x)/y values.

Given, f(x) = 6x

f(-1) = 6(-1) = -6

f(0) = 6(0) = 0

f(1) = 6(1) = 6

f(2) = 6(2) = 12
Therefore, the set of (x, y) values to be plotted and connected in forming the linear function

are:

{(-1, -6), (0, 0), (1, 6), (2, 12)}.

Question 2

Find the equation of the line which passes through the points A (2, 4) and B (8, 10).

Solution:

Using the equation of a straight line:

y = mx + c

Substituting (2, 4) for x and y respectively

4 = m(2) + c

4 = 2m + c —- eq(1)
Substituting (8, 10) for x and y respectively

10 = m(8) + c

10 = 8m + c—- eq(2)

eq(2) – eq(1)

10 – 4 = 8m – 2m + c – c

6 = 6m

m=1

Substituting m = 1 in eq(1)

4 = 2m + c

4 = 2(1) + c

4=2+c

c=4–2

c=2

Hence the equation of the line passing through points A (2, 4) and B (8, 10) is:

y = mx + c

y = (1)x + (2)

y=x+2