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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMATED BEVERAGES FILLING AND PACKING

MACHINE

ABSTRACT

This project is directed towards the design of automated beverages filling and packing .Initially
bottles are placed on the conveyor then they are moved to Filling mechanism which consists of
hopper and solenoid valve for withdrawing correct quantity of fluid.The next stage is Cap
placing mechanism where we used Cap feeder mechanism which will place the cap directly on
the bottle neck.The next stage is compactor mechanism where the piston inside the cylinder
reciprocates to place the cap perpendicularity to the bottle neck. The final stage is cap tightening
mechanism for which we have used 360deg gripper mechanism which will hold cap rotate it to
fit tightly on the bottle neck.This machine is used for mass production. All the parts include
conveyor, Fluid filling, cap placing, compactor and cap tightening mechanisms are modelled and
assembled in a 3D CAD called SOLIDWORKS. Each operation must take 0.12micro sec to get
the production rate of 125bpm

The structural analysis of the chocolate machine frame is done by applying three different
materials namely Ductile iron, 6061 alloy and Alloy steel for 5000N loading conditions. We
infer that the Alloy steel has obtained less stresses compared to the other materials .As 6061
alloy is failed for load because the stresses induced are greater than the material yield strength.
Alloy steel material has yielded less stresses compared to their material yield strength. So the
best material for the frame would be Alloy steel. Also displacement is less for alloy steel
compared to remaining two materials.
INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATED BEVERAGES FILLING AND PACKING
MACHINE

Bottle packing machine consists of different parts

 Stepper motor
 Solenoid valve
 Material handling equipment
 Belt conveyors
 Cap filling mechanism
 Cap placing mechanism
 Compactor
 Cap tightening mechanism

MATERILAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT:

Fig: Industrial mezzanine.

Material-handling equipment is equipment that relate to the movement, storage, control and
protection of materials, goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing,
distribution, consumption and disposal. Material handling equipment is the mechanical
equipment involved in the complete system. Material handling equipment is generally separated
into four main categories: storage and handling equipment, engineered systems, industrial trucks,
and bulk material handling.
Storage and handling equipment is a category within the material-handling industry. The
equipment that falls under this description is usually non-automated storage equipment. Products
such as pallet racking, shelving, casters[ and carts, among others, belong to storage and handling.
Many of these products are often referred to as "catalog" items because they generally have
globally accepted standards and are often sold as stock materials out of Material handling
catalogs.

Engineered systems:

Fig: engineered system.

Engineered systems are typically custom engineered material-handling systems.


Conveyors, Handling Robots, AS/RS, AGV and most other automated material-handling systems
fall into this category. Engineered systems are often a combination of products integrated to one
system. Many distribution centers will optimize storage and picking by utilizing engineered
systems such as pick modules and sortation systems.

Equipment and utensils used for processing or otherwise handling edible product or ingredients
must be of such material and construction to facilitate thorough cleaning and to ensure that their
use will not cause the adulteration of product during processing, handling, or storage. Equipment
and utensils must be maintained in sanitary condition so as not to adulterate or contaminate
product.

Industrial trucks

Fig: industrial truck

Industrial trucks usually refer to operator driven motorized warehouse


vehicles, powered manually, by gasoline, propane or electrically. Industrial trucks assist the
material-handling system with versatility; they can go where engineered systems cannot. Forklift
trucks are the most common example of industrial trucks but certainly aren't the extent of the
category. Tow tractors and stock chasers are additional examples of industrial trucks. Their
greatest advantage lies in the wide range of attachments available; these increase the truck ability
to Material handling and efficiency

Types of material-handling equipment

Bulk material-handling equipment is used to move and store bulk materials such as ore, liquids,
and cereals. This equipment is often seen on farms, mines, shipyards and refineries. This
category is also explained in Bulk material handling.
On-rails transfer cart

On-rails transfer cart is a kind of material-handling equipment. It moves on


the rails and can transfer heavy cargoes or equipment with the weight 1-300t between the
workshops or warehouses in the factory. It is widely used in the line of metallurgy, coal, heavy
manufacturing, automotive assembly, etc. Its power can be AC or DC. DC Power has rail
transmit power and battery power, while AC power includes cable power and slippery touch line
power. In addition, there is the manual rail transfer cart or towed rail transfer cart, also called
motorized transfer trolley.

Cantilevered crane loading platform

Cantilevered crane loading platforms are temporary platforms attached to


the face of multi- storey buildings or structures to allow materials and equipment to be directly
loaded on or shifted off floor levels by cranes during construction or demolition. They may be
fixed or rolling and a variety of designs are used including fully fabricated and demountable
types. The platforms are supported on needles (cantilevered beams) anchored to the supporting
structure.

CONVEYORS:

Conveyors are another form of material handling. Conveyors can be used in a


multitude of ways from warehouses to airport baggage handling systems.

Some types of conveyors are unibilt, power and free, chain, towline and roller conveyor.
Belt conveyors

Belt conveyor

A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system (often


shortened to belt conveyor). A belt conveyor system is one of many types of conveyor systems.
A belt conveyor system consists of two or more pulleys (sometimes referred to as drums), with
an endless loop of carrying medium - the conveyor belt - that rotates about them. One or both of
the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. The powered
pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler pulley. There are
two main industrial classes of belt conveyors; Those in general material handling such as those
moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to transport
large volumes of resources and agricultural materials, such
as grain, salt, coal, ore, sand, overburden and more.

Today there are different types of conveyor belts that have been created for conveying different
kinds of material available in PVC and rubber materials.

The belt consists of one or more layers of material. Many belts in


general material handling have two layers. An under layer of material to provide linear strength
and shape called a carcass and an over layer called the cover. The carcass is often a woven fabric
having a warp & weft. The most common carcass materials are polyester, nylon and cotton. The
cover is often various rubber or plastic compounds specified by use of the belt. Covers can be
made from more exotic materials for unusual applications such as silicone for heat or gum rubber
when traction is essential.

Chute Conveyor

Fig: chute conveyor

Fig: wheel conveyor


Fig: roller conveyor

Fig: gravity roller conveyor


STEPPER MOTOR:

A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full
rotation into a number of equal steps. The motor's position can then be commanded to move and
hold at one of these steps without any feedback sensor (an open-loop controller), as long as the
motor is carefully sized to the application.

Fig: stepper motor

SOLENOID VALVE:

Fig: solenoid valve

A solenoid valve is an electromechanically operated valve. The valve is controlled by


an electric current through a solenoid: in the case of a two-port valve the flow is switched on or
off; in the case of a three-port valve, the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports.
Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold.
Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics. Their tasks are to shut
off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many application areas. Solenoids
offer fast and safe switching, high reliability, long service life, good medium compatibility of the
materials used, low control power and compact design.

Besides the plunger-type actuator which is used most frequently, pivoted-armature actuators and
rocker actuators are also used.

ACTUATOR:

An actuator is a type of motor that is responsible for moving or


controlling a mechanism or system.

It is operated by a source of energy, typically electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure,


or pneumatic pressure, and converts that energy into motion. An actuator is the mechanism by
which a control system acts upon an environment. The control system can be simple (a fixed
mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g. a printer driver, robot control system), a
human, or any other input.

ACTUATOR TYPES:

Hydraulic:
A hydraulic actuator consists of a cylinder or fluid motor that uses hydraulic
power to facilitate mechanical operation. The mechanical motion gives an output in terms of
linear, rotary or oscillatory motion. Because liquid is nearly incompressible, a hydraulic actuator
can exert considerable force, but is limited in acceleration and speed.

The hydraulic cylinder consists of a hollow cylindrical tube along which a piston can slide. The
term double acting is used when pressure is applied on each side of the piston. A difference in
pressure between the two side of the piston results in motion of piston to either side. The term
single acting is used when the fluid pressure is applied to just one side of the piston. The piston
can move in only one direction, a spring being frequently used to give the piston a return stroke.
Pneumatic:

Pneumatic rack and pinion actuators for valve controls of water pipes

A pneumatic actuator converts energy formed by vacuum or compressed air at high


pressure into either linear or rotary motion. Pneumatic energy is desirable for main engine
controls because it can quickly respond in starting and stopping as the power source does not
need to be stored in reserve for operation.

Pneumatic actuators enable large forces to be produced from relatively small pressure changes.
These forces are often used with valves to move diaphragms and so affect the flow of liquid
through the valve.

Electric

An electric actuator is powered by a motor that converts electrical energy


to mechanical torque. The electrical energy is used to actuate equipment such as multi-turn
valves. It is one of the cleanest and most readily available forms of actuator because it does not
involve oil.

Recently, new type of actuators which can be actuated by applying thermal or magnetic energy
have drawn many interest and attention and in many commercial applications, due to their
superior and unique properties (i.e. more compact, lightweight, high power density and
economical).[1]These actuators are using shape memory materials (SMMs), such as shape
memory alloys (SMAs) or magnetic shape-memory alloys (MSMAs).

Mechanical

A mechanical actuator functions by converting rotary motion into linear motion


to execute movement. It involves gears, rails, pulleys, chains and other devices to operate. An
example is a rack and pinion.

In engineering, actuators are frequently used as mechanisms to introduce


motion, or to clamp an object so as to prevent motion. In electronic engineering, actuators are a
subdivision of transducers. They are devices which transform an input signal (mainly an
electrical signal) into motion.

Examples of actuators

 Comb drive
 Digital micro mirror device
 Electric motor
 Electro active polymer

FILLER:

 Considerations in selecting a filler


 Basics of liquid filling technologies
 Types of filler

Considerations in selecting a filler :

Types of product to be fill…..???

 Viscosity of liquid
 Paste or solid
 Stable or unstable
 Volatile or non volatile
 Explosive or not
 Hot or frozen
 Large size or small size container (jar) used
 Glass bottles or plastic bottles or metal cans
 Shape
 Neck size

Way the product is measured to be filled…..???

 By volumetric method
 By weight method
 By level controlled filling

Desired speed of the operation…..???

 Relatively slow manual operation


 Semiautomatic
 Fully automatic

Basics of liquid filling technologies :

 Liquid Volumetric Filling

1. Dosing filling
 Measure Cup filler
 Piston filler
2. Level controlled filling
 Gravity filling
 Vacuum filling
 Gravity vacuum filling
3. Time controlled filling

 Weight fillers

Types of filler:

1. Over Flow Liquid Filler


2. Servo Pump Liquid Filler
3. Peristaltic Liquid Filler
4. Time Gravity Liquid Filler
5. Piston Liquid filler

1. Over Flow Liquid Filler :


This type of filler is perhaps the most widely used machine in small bottle filling
operations because it handles a wide range of thin, free flowing liquids as well as liquids
with medium viscosity.

Figure : over flow liquid filler

Working :

 The supply side (dark blue) of a two part nozzle is used to pump product into the
container. When the container fills up to the target fill height, the excess product and
foam is forced out of the container (red arrows) via the return side to the original product
source tank.
Figure : working of over flow liquid filler

Advantages :

 High performance,
 Easy to clean,
 Easy to operate,
 Expandable at low cost,
 Offers greatest flexibility at lowest cost.

Examples :

 Sauces,
 Syrups,
 Light gels and shampoos,
 Foamy cleansers and chemicals,
 Water and other non carbonated aqueous beverages.
Application:

This type of filler is best suited for liquids with low to medium viscosity.
liquids with solid particulates not exceeding 1/16" can also be filled. Note that overflow
fillers are the machine of choice in handling very foamy products at higher speeds.

Servo Pump Liquid Filler :

 This is a very versatile filling machine capable of filling nearly any type of product that
can be pumped. Each nozzle has a dedicated servo controlled pump that can deliver thin
liquids, medium and thick viscosity liquids, and liquids with large particulates.

Figure : Servo pump liquid filler

Working:

 The filler's master computer independently tracks the rotation of each pump head so that
it knows precisely how much product has been delivered. When the target fill volume is
reached, each pump and nozzle is instantly shut off, resulting in high accuracy fills of
your valuable products. The computer stores all fill parameters in memory for fast
changeovers.
Figure : working of servo pump liquid filler

 Advantages

computer control & Operator setup is greatly simplified. The design also lends itself very
well to sanitary applications due to the ease of automatic cleaning.

 Examples
The servo filler is found in all industries from pharmaceutical, cosmetic, dairy, chemical,
food, etc. Both thin and thick products, and also very large particulates can all be filled
on this machine. Cosmetic creams as well as thick, chunky sauces at pasteurized
temperatures can all be filled.
 Application:

It is extremely flexible and designed to fill almost any product in any fill volume. Even
55 gallon drums can be filled.

Peristaltic liquid filler :

 This filler is the machine of choice for high value; small volume fills at very high
accuracy. It is primarily suitable for aqueous and other light viscosity products.

Figure: Peristaltic liquid filler

Working:

The peristaltic pump makes intermittent contact on only the outside of the surgical (product)
tubing so that the product only touches the inside of the tubing. The filler's master computer
independently tracks the # of rotations of the peristaltic pump head so that it knows precisely
how much product has been delivered.
Figure : working of Peristaltic liquid filler

When the target fill volume is reached, the pump stops and the remaining product fluid does not
drip out due to pipette action. The computer stores all fill parameters in memory for fast
changeovers.

Advantages:

Fluid path is disposable; easy cleanup and elimination of cross contamination problems.
Accuracies of 0.5% are achievable for fill volumes less than 1 ml.

Examples:

Pharmaceutical preparations, fragrances, essential oils, reagents, inks, dyes, and specialty
chemicals.

Application:

Specifically designed for high value, small volume fills at very high accuracy.
Suitable for aqueous and other light viscosity products.

Time Gravity liquid filler:

This is the most economical type of filling machine for a limited range of
applications. This filler is best suited for liquids with very thin viscosities that do not
change with ambient temperature or with batch variation.
Figure : Time gravity liquid filler

Working:

The product bulk supply is pumped into a holding tank above a set of pneumatically
operated valves. Each valve is independently timed by the filler's master computer so that
precise amounts of liquid will flow by gravity into the container.

Figure: working of time gravity liquid filler


Advantages:

This is the most economical type of filling machine for a limited range of applications. It is
especially well suited for corrosive chemicals.

Examples:

Water, solvents, alcohol, specialty chemicals, paint, inks, corrosive chemicals i.e. acids and
bleach.

Application:

This type of filler is best suited for liquids with very thin viscosities that do not change with
ambient temperature or with batch variation. Although this type of filler is used predominantly
on products that do not foam.

Piston liquid filler:

The piston filler is one of the oldest and most reliable types of fillers used in the packaging
industry. This filling machine is best suited for viscous products that are paste, semi paste, or
chunky with large particulates.

Figure : piston liquid filler


Working :

The piston is drawn back in its cylinder so that the product is sucked into the cylinder. A rotary
valve then changes position so that the product is then pushed out of the nozzle instead of back
into the hopper.

Advantages:

This lower cost conventional technology is easy to understand for most users. Fast fill rates are
achievable with fairly thick products. Warning: this technology is nearly obsolete with the advent
of servo positive displacement fillers.

Examples :

Heavy sauces, cosmetic creams, heavy shampoo, gels, and conditioners, paste cleaners and
waxes, adhesives, heavy oils and lubricants.

Application:

These piston fillers are built to meet food grade standards and can also handle various chemical
applications.
INTRODUCTION TO CAD

Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as computer-aided design and drafting (CADD),
is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation. Computer
Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting with a computer. CADD software, or
environments, provides the user with input-tools for the purpose of streamlining design
processes; drafting, documentation, and manufacturing processes. CADD output is often in the
form of electronic files for print or machining operations. The development of CADD-based
software is in direct correlation with the processes it seeks to economize; industry-based
software (construction, manufacturing, etc.) typically uses vector-based (linear) environments
whereas graphic-based software utilizes raster-based (pixilated) environments.

CADD environments often involve more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical
and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials,
processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions.

CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space; or curves,
surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) objects.

CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive,
shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many
more. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies,
advertising and technical manuals. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that
even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by
engineers of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major
driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and
software), and discrete differential geometry.

The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is often called computer-aided
geometric design (CAGD).Current computer-aided design software packages range from 2D
vector-based drafting systems to 3D solid and surface modellers. Modern CAD packages can
also frequently allow rotations in three dimensions, allowing viewing of a designed object from
any desired angle, even from the inside looking out. Some CAD software is capable of dynamic
mathematic modeling, in which case it may be marketed as CADD — computer-aided design
and drafting.

CAD is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of
buildings, from small residential types (houses) to the largest commercial and industrial
structures (hospitals and factories). CAD is mainly used for detailed engineering of 3D models
and/or 2D drawings of physical components, but it is also used throughout the engineering
process from conceptual design and layout of products, through strength and dynamic analysis of
assemblies to definition of manufacturing methods of components. It can also be used to design
objects. CAD has become an especially important technology within the scope of computer-
aided technologies, with benefits such as lower product development costs and a greatly
shortened design cycle. CAD enables designers to lay out and develop work on screen, print it
out and save it for future editing, saving time on their drawings.

Types of CAD Software

2D CAD
Two-dimensional, or 2D, CAD is used to create flat drawings of products and structures. Objects
created in 2D CAD are made up of lines, circles, ovals, slots and curves. 2D CAD programs
usually include a library of geometric images; the ability to create Bezier curves, splines and
polylines; the ability to define hatching patterns; and the ability to provide a bill of materials
generation.

3D CAD

Three-dimensional (3D) CAD programs come in a wide variety of types, intended for different
applications and levels of detail. Overall, 3D CAD programs create a realistic model of what the
design object will look like, allowing designers to solve potential problems earlier and with
lower production costs. Some 3D CAD programs include Autodesk Inventor, Co Create Solid
Designer, Pro/Engineer Solid Edge, Solid Works, Unigraphics NX and VX CAD, CATIA V5.
3D Wireframe and Surface Modeling
CAD programs that feature 3D wireframe and surface modeling create a skeleton-like inner
structure of the object being modeled. A surface is added on later. These types of CAD models
are difficult to translate into other software and are therefore rarely used anymore.

Solid Modeling
Solid modeling in general is useful because the program is often able to calculate the dimensions
of the object it is creating. Many sub-types of this exist. Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG)
CAD uses the same basic logic as 2D CAD, that is, it uses prepared solid geometric objects to
create an object. However, these types of CAD software often cannot be adjusted once they are
created.

SOLIDWORKS
Solid Works is mechanical design automation software that takes advantage of the familiar
Microsoft Windows graphical user interface.

It is an easy-to-learn tool which makes it possible for mechanical designers to quickly sketch
ideas, experiment with features and dimensions, and produce models and detailed drawings.

A Solid Works model consists of parts, assemblies, and drawings.

 Typically, we begin with a sketch, create a base feature, and then add more features to
the model. (One can also begin with an imported surface or solid geometry).
 We are free to refine our design by adding, changing, or reordering features.
 Associativity between parts, assemblies, and drawings assures that changes made to one
view are automatically made to all other views.
 We can generate drawings or assemblies at any time in the design process.
 The SolidWorks software lets us customize functionality to suit our needs.
INTRODUCTION TO SOLIDWORKS :

Solidworks mechanical design automation software is a feature-based,parametric solid modeling

design tool which advantage of the easy to learn windowsTM graphical user interface. We can

create fully associate 3-D solid models with or without while utilizing automatic or user defined

relations to capture design intent. Parameters refer to constraints whose values determine the

shape or geometry of the model or assembly. Parameters can be either numeric parameters, such

as line lengths or circle diameters, or geometric parameters, such as tangent, parallel, concentric,

horizontal or vertical, etc. Numeric parameters can be associated with each other through the use

of relations, which allow them to capture design intent. Design intent is how the creator of the

part wants it to respond to changes and updates. For example, you would want the hole at the top

of a beverage can to stay at the top surface, regardless of the height or size of the can.

Solid Works allows you to specify that the hole is a feature on the top surface, and will then

honour your design intent no matter what the height you later gave to the can.several factors

contribute to how we capture design intent are Automatic relations,Equations,added relations and

dimensioning.

Features refer to the building blocks of the part. They are the shapes and operations that

construct the part. Shape-based features typically begin with a 2D or 3D sketch of shapes such as

bosses, holes, slots, etc. This shape is then extruded or cut to add or remove material from the
part. Operation-based features are not sketch-based, and include features such as fillets,

chamfers, shells, applying draft to the faces of a part, etc.

Building a model in Solid Works usually starts with a 2D sketch (although 3D sketches

are available for power users). The sketch consists of geometry such as points, lines, arcs, conics

(except the hyperbola), and splines. Dimensions are added to the sketch to define the size and

location of the geometry. Relations are used to define attributes such as tangency, parallelism,

perpendicularity, and concentricity. The parametric nature of Solid Works means that the

dimensions and relations drive the geometry, not the other way around. The dimensions in the

sketch can be controlled independently, or by relationships to other parameters inside or outside

of the sketch.

Several ways a part can be builded like

1. Layer-cake approach :

The layer-cake approach builds the part one piece at a time ,adding each layer,orfeature,onto the

previous one.

2. Potter’s wheel approach :

The potter’s wheel approach builds the part as a single revolved feature. As a single sketch

representing the cross section includes all the information and dimensions necessary to make the

part as one feature.


3. Manufacturing approach :

The manufacturing approach to modelling mimics the way the part would be

manufactured.Forexample,if the stepped shaft was turned a lathe ,we would start with a piece of

bar stock and remove material using a series of cuts.

In an assembly, the analogue to sketch relations is mates. Just as sketch relations define

conditions such as tangency, parallelism, and concentricity with respect to sketch geometry,

assembly mates define equivalent relations with respect to the individual parts or components,

allowing the easy construction of assemblies. Solid Works also includes additional advanced

mating features such as gear and cam follower mates, which allow modelled gear assemblies to

accurately reproduce the rotational movement of an actual gear train.

Finally, drawings can be created either from parts or assemblies. Views are automatically

generated from the solid model, and notes, dimensions and tolerances can then be easily added to

the drawing as needed. The drawing module includes most paper sizes and standards.

A Solid Works model consists of parts, assemblies, and drawings.

(1) Part: Individual components are drawn in the form of part drawings.

(2) Assembly: The individual parts are assembled in this region.

(3) Drawings: This contains detailed information of the assembly.

HISTORY OF SOLIDWORKS :

SolidWorks Corporation was founded in December 1993 by Massachusetts Institute of


Technology graduate Jon Hirschtick; Hirschtick used $1 million he had made while a member of
the MIT Blackjack Team to set up the company. Initially based in Waltham, Massachusetts,
USA, Hirschtick recruited a team of engineers with the goal of building 3D CAD software that
was easy-to-use, affordable, and available on the Windows desktop. Operating later from
Concord, Massachusetts, SolidWorks released its first product SolidWorks 95, in 1995. In 1997
Dassault, best known for its CATIA CAD software, acquired SolidWorks for $310 million in
stock.

SolidWorks currently markets several versions of the SolidWorks CAD software in addition to
eDrawings, a collaboration tool, and DraftSight, a 2D CAD product.

SolidWorks was headed by John McEleney from 2001 to July 2007 and Jeff Ray from 2007 to
January 2011. The current CEO is Bertrand Sicot.

Solidworksversions :

Name/Version Version History Value Release Date


SolidWorks 95 44 1995
SolidWorks 96 243 1996
SolidWorks 97 483 1996
SolidWorks 97Plus 629 1997
SolidWorks 98 817 1997
SolidWorks 98Plus 1008 1998
SolidWorks 99 1137 1998
SolidWorks 2000 1500 1999
SolidWorks 2001 1750 2000
SolidWorks 2001Plus 1950 2001
SolidWorks 2003 2200 2002
SolidWorks 2004 2500 2003
SolidWorks 2005 2800 2004
SolidWorks 2006 3100 2005
SolidWorks 2007 3400 2006
SolidWorks 2008 3800 July 1, 2007
SolidWorks 2009 4100 January 28, 2008
SolidWorks 2010 4400 December 9, 2009
SolidWorks 2011 4700 June 17, 2010
SolidWorks 2012 5000 September, 2011
SolidWorks 2013 6000 September, 2012
SolidWorks 2014 7000 October, 7, 2013

SOLIDWORKS 3-D MECHANICAL DESIGN APPLICATIONS :

SolidWorks Standard

SolidWorks Professional

SolidWorksPremium :provides a suite of product development tools mechanical design, design


verification, data management, and communication tools. SolidWorks Premium includes all of
the capabilities of SolidWorks Professional as well as routing and analysis tools, including
SolidWorks Routing, SolidWorks Simulation, and SolidWorks Motion.

SolidWorks Education Edition :provides the same design functionality but is configured and
packaged for engineering and industrial design students.

DESIGN VALIDATION TOOLS :

SolidWorks Simulation is a design validation tool that shows engineers how their designs will
behave as physical objects.
SolidWorks Motion is a virtual prototyping tool that provides motion simulation capabilities to
ensure designs function properly.

SolidWorks Flow Simulation is a tool that tests internal and external fluid-flow simulation and
thermal analysis so designers can conduct tests on virtual prototypes.

SolidWorks Simulation Premium is a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) design validation tool
that can handle some multiphysics simulations as well as nonlinear materials.

SolidWorks Sustainability is a product that measures the environmental impact of designs


while they are modeled in SolidWorks.

CAD PRODUCTIVITY TOOLS :

SolidWorks Toolbox is a library of parts that uses "Smart Part" Technology to automatically

select fasteners and assemble them in the desired sequence.

SolidWorks Utilities is software that lets designers find differences between two versions of the

same part, or locate, modify, and suppress features within a model.

FeatureWorks is feature recognition software that lets designers make changes to static

geometric data, increasing the value of translated files.


WORKING OF BOTTLE PACKING MACHINE

The bottle packing machine consists of


1. Fluid filling mechanism
2. cap placing mechanism
3. compactor set
4. cap tightening mechanism

Initially bottles are placed on the conveyor then they are moved to Filling mechanism which
consists of hopper and solenoid valve for withdrawing correct quantity of fluid.The next stage is
Cap placing mechanism where we used Cap feeder mechanism which will place the cap directly
on the bottle neck.The next stage is compactor mechanism where the piston inside the cylinder
reciprocates to place the cap perpendicularity to the bottle neck. The final stage is cap tightening
mechanism for which we have used 360deg gripper mechanism which will hold cap rotate it to
fit tightly on the bottle neck.This machine is used for mass production.

SPECIFICATION OF THE MACHINE

Consider same power supply to both machines.


In new application machine there are three steps require completing the process.
Production rate of that machine is 125 bpm.
We consider production rate is 125bpm.
So we calculated that,
Each bottle required time=60/125=0.48micro sec. One bottle has three steps, Each steps required
time =0.48/4 =0.12micro sec.

Each operation must take 0.12micro sec to get the production rate of 125bpm
DESIGNING OF AUTOMATED BEVERAGES FILLING AND CAPPING

DESIGNING OF AUTOMATED BEVERAGES FILLING AND CAPPING:

1. BOTTLE PLACING ON CONVEYOR

2. FLUID FILLING MECHANISM

3. CAP PLACING MECHANISM

4. COMPACTOR SET

5. CAP TIGHTENING MECHANISM

DESIGN OF BOTTLE PLACING ON CONVEYOR:

FIG: bottles placed on belt conveyor


Fig: conveyor frame isometric view

Fig ; conveyor frame different views


Fig : drawing view of conveyor frame

Fig: design of bottle of 220mm height of 1litre


Fig: belt conveyor with stepper motor

DESIGN OF FILLING MECHANISM

Fig: Different views of Hopper


Fig: Drawing view of Hopper

Fig: Design of solenoid valve


Fig: Different views of filling mechanism
DESIGN OF CAP PLACING MECHANISM

Fig: Different views of cap loader tub

Fig: Different views of spur gear


Fig: Different views of strip plate

Fig: Different views of cap feeder duct


Fig: cap feeder flow

Fig: Different views of cap feeder assembly


DESIGN OF COMPACTOR SET

Fig: Isometric view of Compactor set to place cap perpendicularly to bottle neck

Fig: Different views of bottle cap compacting mechanism


Fig: Isometric view of 360 deg Gripper mechanism

Fig: Different views of Gripper mechanism


TOTAL ASSMEBLY OF AUTOMATED BEVERAGES FILLING AND PACKING
MACHINE

Fig: isometric view of total assembly

Fig: Different views of assembly


FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING

INTRODUCTION TO FEM

Many problems in engineering and applied science are governed by differential or integral
equations. The solutions to these equations would provide an exact, closed form solution to the
particular problem being studied. However, complexities in the geometry, properties and in the
boundary conditions that are seen in most real world problems usually means that an exact
solution cannot be obtained in a reasonable amount of time. They are content to obtain
approximate solutions that can be readily obtained in a reasonable time frame and with
reasonable effort. The FEM is one such approximate solution technique.

The FEM is a numerical procedure for obtaining approximate solutions to many of the problems
encountered in engineering analysis. In the FEM, a complex region defining a continuum is
discretised into simple geometric shapes called elements. The properties and the governing
relationships are assumed over these elements and expressed mathematically in terms of
unknown values at specific points in the elements called nodes. An assembly process is used to
link the individual elements to the linked system. When the effects of loads and boundary
conditions are considered, a set of linear or nonlinear algebraic equations is usually obtained.
Solution of these equations gives the approximate behaviour of the continuum or system. The
continuum has an infinite number of degrees of freedom (DOF), while the discretised model has
a finite number of DOF. This is the origin of the name, finite element method.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FEM & FEA

FEA is an implementation of FEM to solve a certain type of problem. For example if we were
intending to solve a 2D stress problem. For the FEM mathematical solution, we would probably
use the minimum potential energy principle, which is a variational solution. As part of this, we
need to generate suitable element for our analysis. We may choose a plane stress, a plane strain
or an axisymmetric type formulation with linear or higher order polynomials. Using a piecewise
polynomial solution to solve the underlying differential equation is FEM, while applying the
specifics of element formulation is FEA, for example a plane strain triangular quadratic element.
INTRODUCTION TO SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION :

Solid Works® Simulation is a design analysis system fully integrated with Solid Works. Solid
Works Simulation provides simulation solutions for linear and nonlinear static, frequency,
buckling, thermal, fatigue, pressure vessel, drop test, linear and nonlinear dynamic, and
optimization analyses.

Powered by fast and accurate solvers, Solid Works Simulation enables you to solve large
problems intuitively while you design. SolidWorks Simulation comes in two bundles:
SolidWorks Simulation Professional and SolidWorks Simulation Premium to satisfy your
analysis needs. SolidWorks Simulation shortens time to market by saving time and effort in
searching for the optimum design.

Figure 46 : simulation example

Benefits of Simulation:

After building your model, you need to make sure that it performs efficiently in the field. In the
absence of analysis tools, this task can only be answered by performing expensive and time-
consuming product development cycles. A product development cycle typically includes the
following steps:

1. Building your model.


2. Building a prototype of the design.
3. Testing the prototype in the field.
4. Evaluating the results of the field tests.
5. Modifying the design based on the field test results.

This process continues until a satisfactory solution is reached. Analysis can help you accomplish
the following tasks:

 Reduce cost by simulating the testing of your model on the computer instead of
expensive field tests.
 Reduce time to market by reducing the number of product development cycles.
 Improve products by quickly testing many concepts and scenarios before making a final
decision, giving you more time to think of new designs.

Basic Concepts of Analysis:

The software uses the Finite Element Method (FEM). FEM is a numerical technique for
analyzing engineering designs. FEM is accepted as the standard analysis method due to its
generality and suitability for computer implementation. FEM divides the model into many small
pieces of simple shapes called elements effectively replacing a complex problem by many simple
problems that need to be solved simultaneously.

CAD model of a part Model subdivided into small pieces (elements)

Elements share common points called nodes. The process of dividing the model into small pieces
is called meshing.

The behavior of each element is well-known under all possible support and load scenarios. The
finite element method uses elements with different shapes.

The response at any point in an element is interpolated from the response at the element nodes.
Each node is fully described by a number of parameters depending on the analysis type and the
element used. For example, the temperature of a node fully describes its response in thermal
analysis. For structural analyses, the response of a node is described, in general, by three
translations and three rotations. These are called degrees of freedom (DOFs). Analysis using
FEM is called Finite Element Analysis (FEA).

A tetrahedral element. Red dots represent nodes. Edges of an element can be curved or straight.

The software formulates the equations governing the behavior of each element taking into
consideration its connectivity to other elements. These equations relate the response to known
material properties, restraints, and loads.

Next, the program organizes the equations into a large set of simultaneous algebraic equations
and solves for the unknowns.

In stress analysis, for example, the solver finds the displacements at each node and then the
program calculates strains and finally stresses.

The software offers the following types of studies:

Study type Study icon


Static Modal Time History
Frequency Harmonic
Buckling Random Vibration
Thermal Response Spectrum
Design Study Drop Test
Nonlinear Static Fatigue
Nonlinear Dynamic Pressure Vessel Design
Analysis Steps :

he steps needed to perform an analysis depend on the study type. You complete a study by
performing the following steps:

 Create a study defining its analysis type and options.


 If needed, define parameters of your study. A parameter can be a model dimension,
material property, force value, or any other input.
 Define material properties.
 Specify restraints and loads.
 The program automatically creates a mixed mesh when different geometries (solid, shell,
structural members etc.) exist in the model.
 Define component contact and contact sets.
 Mesh the model to divide the model into many small pieces called elements. Fatigue and
optimization studies use the meshes in referenced studies.
 Run the study.
 View results.

Specific capabilities of SolidworksSimulation :

1. Static Analysis :
When loads are applied to a body, the body deforms and the effect of loads is
transmitted throughout the body. The external loads induce internal forces and reactions to
render the body into a state of equilibrium. Linear Static analysis calculates displacements,
strains, stresses, and reaction forces under the effect of applied loads.
2. Thermal Stress Analysis :

Changes in temperature can induce substantial deformations, strains, and stresses.


Thermal stress analysis refers to static analysis that includes the effect of temperature.

Perform thermal stress analysis using one of the following options:

 Using a uniform rise or drop in temperature for the whole model.


 Using a temperature profile resulting from a steady state or transient thermal
analysis.
 Using a temperature profile from Flow Simulation.

3. Frequency analysis :
If the design is subjected to dynamic environments, static studies cannot be used to
evaluate the response. Frequency studies can help you avoid resonance and design
vibration isolation systems. They also form the basis for evaluating the response of linear
dynamic systems where the response of a system to a dynamic environment is assumed to
be equal to the summation of the contributions of the modes considered in the analysis.

4. Dynamic analysis :

Dynamic analysis include:

 Design structural and mechanical systems to perform without failure in dynamic


environments.
 Modify system's characteristics (i.e., geometry, damping mechanisms, material
properties, etc.) to reduce vibration effects.

5. Buckling analysis :
Used to calculate the buckling loads and determine the buckling mode shape. Both linear
(Eigen value) buckling and nonlinear buckling analyses are possible.
6. Non-linear static analysis :
All real structures behave nonlinearly in one way or another at some level of loading. In
some cases, linear analysis may be adequate. In many other cases, the linear solution can
produce erroneous results because the assumptions upon which it is based are violated.
Nonlinearity can be caused by the material behavior, large displacements, and contact
conditions. We can use a nonlinear study to solve a linear problem. The results can be
slightly different due to different procedures.In the nonlinear static analysis, dynamic
effects like inertial and damping forces are not considered.

7. Drop test studies :


Drop test studies evaluate the effect of the impact of a part or an assembly with a rigid or
flexible planar surface. Dropping an object on the floor is a typical application and hence
the name. The program calculates impact and gravity loads automatically. No other loads
or restraints are allowed.

8. Fatigue Analysis :
Fatigue is the prime cause of the failure of many objects, especially those made of metals.
Examples of failure due to fatigue include, rotating machinery, bolts, airplane wings,
consumer products, offshore platforms, ships, vehicle axles, bridges, and bones.
Linear and nonlinear structural studies do not predict failure due to fatigue. They
calculate the response of a design subjected to a specified environment of restraints and
loads. If the analysis assumptions are observed and the calculated stresses are within the
allowable limits, they conclude that the design is safe in this environment regardless of
how many times the load is applied.

Results of static, nonlinear, or time history linear dynamic studies can be used as the
basis for defining a fatigue study. The number of cycles required for fatigue failure to
occur at a location depends on the material and the stress fluctuations. This information,
for a certain material, is provided by a curve called the SN curve.
9. Pressure vessel Design study :
In a Pressure Vessel Design study, you combine the results of static studies with the
desired factors. Each static study has a different set of loads that produce corresponding
results. These loads can be dead loads, live loads (approximated by static loads), thermal
loads, seismic loads, and so on. The Pressure Vessel Design study combines the results of
the static studies algebraically using a linear combination or the square root of the sum of
the squares (SRSS).
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF FRAME OF THE MACHINE

The structural analysis of the frame is done by applying 6061 alloy, Ductile iron and Alloy steel
the material which yielded less stresses than their yield strength is preferred.

CASE 1: APPLYING DUCTILE IRON MATERIAL TO THE FRAME

Study Properties
Study name Static 1
Analysis type Static
Mesh type Beam Mesh
Solver type Direct sparse solver
Inplane Effect: Off
Soft Spring: Off
Inertial Relief: Off
Incompatible bonding options Automatic
Large displacement Off
Compute free body forces On

Material Properties
Model Reference Properties
Name: Ductile Iron
Model type: Linear Elastic Isotropic
Default failure criterion: Unknown
Yield strength: 5.51485e+008 N/m^2
Tensile strength: 8.61695e+008 N/m^2
Elastic modulus: 1.2e+011 N/m^2
Poisson's ratio: 0.31
Mass density: 7100 kg/m^3
Shear modulus: 7.7e+010 N/m^2
Thermal expansion 1.1e-005 /Kelvin
coefficient:
Loads and Fixtures
Fixture name Fixture Image Fixture Details
Entities: 14 Joint(s)
Type: Fixed Geometry
Fixed-1

Load name Load Image Load Details


Reference: Top Plane
Values: 0 0 -9.81
Units: SI
Gravity-1

Entities: 9 Beam (s)


Reference: Face< 1 >
Type: Apply force
Force-1 Values: ---, ---, 5000 N
Moments: ---, ---, --- N.m
Mesh information
Mesh type Beam Mesh

Mesh information - Details


Total Nodes 551
Total Elements 533
Time to complete mesh(hh;mm;ss): 00:00:04
Study Results

Name Type Min Max


Stress1 TXY: Shear in Y Dir. on YZ 6.12425 N/mm^2 133.273 N/mm^2
Plane (MPa) (MPa)
Element: 186 Element: 77

Name Type Min Max


Displacement1 URES: Resultant Displacement 0 mm 0.678413 mm
Node: 1 Node: 162
Name Type Min Max
Factor of Safety1 Automatic 4.28806 54.4356
Node: 81 Node: 174

CASE 2: APPLYING 6061 ALLOY MATERIAL TO THE FRAME BY APPLYING


SAME BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

Material Properties
Model Reference Properties
Name: 6061 Alloy
Model type: Linear Elastic Isotropic
Default failure criterion: Max von Mises Stress
Yield strength: 5.51485e+007 N/m^2
Tensile strength: 1.24084e+008 N/m^2
Elastic modulus: 6.9e+010 N/m^2
Poisson's ratio: 0.33
Mass density: 2700 kg/m^3
Shear modulus: 2.6e+010 N/m^2
Thermal expansion 2.4e-005 /Kelvin
coefficient:
Study Results

Name Type Min Max


Stress1 TXY: Shear in Y Dir. on YZ 6.10928 N/mm^2 145.671 N/mm^2
Plane (MPa) (MPa)
Element: 442 Element: 77

Name Type Min Max


Displacement1 URES: Resultant Displacement 0 mm 1.19033 mm
Node: 1 Node: 162
Name Type Min Max
Factor of Safety1 Automatic 0.4286 5.47103
Node: 81 Node: 174

The red color indicates in the FOS result the frame is failing for load of 5000N load.

CASE 3: APPLYING ALLOY STEEL MATERIAL TO THE FRAME BY APPLYING


SAME BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

Material Properties
Model Reference Properties
Name: Alloy Steel
Model type: Linear Elastic Isotropic
Default failure criterion: Max von Mises Stress
Yield strength: 6.20422e+008 N/m^2
Tensile strength: 7.23826e+008 N/m^2
Elastic modulus: 2.1e+011 N/m^2
Poisson's ratio: 0.28
Mass density: 7700 kg/m^3
Shear modulus: 7.9e+010 N/m^2
Thermal expansion 1.3e-005 /Kelvin
coefficient:
Study Results

Name Type Min Max


Stress1 TXY: Shear in Y Dir. on YZ 6.13329 N/mm^2 128.705 N/mm^2
Plane (MPa) (MPa)
Element: 186 Element: 77

Name Type Min Max


Displacement1 URES: Resultant Displacement 0 mm 0.392513 mm
Node: 1 Node: 162
Name Type Min Max
Factor of Safety1 Automatic 4.82049 61.3089
Node: 81 Node: 174
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The structural analysis of the chocolate machine frame is done by applying three different
materials namely Ductile iron, 6061 alloy and Alloy steel for 5000N loading conditions.

Comparision of results for load of 5000N:

S.no Ductile iron 6061 alloy Alloy steel


Stresses 133.273 145.671 128.705
developed[Mpa]
Resultant 0.678413 1.19033 0.392513
displacement[mm]

From the above results we infer that the Alloy steel has obtained less stresses compared to the
other materials .As 6061 alloy is failed for load because the stresses induced are greater than the
material yield strength. Alloy steel material has yielded less stresses compared to their material
yield strength. So the best material for the frame would be Alloy steel. Also displacement is less
for alloy steel compared to remaining two materials.
CONCLUSIONS

 This project is directed towards the design of automated beverages filling and packing

 Initially bottles are placed on the conveyor then they are moved to Filling mechanism

which consists of hopper and solenoid valve for withdrawing correct quantity of fluid.

 The next stage is Cap placing mechanism where we used Cap feeder mechanism which

will place the cap directly on the bottle neck.

 The next stage is compactor mechanism where the piston inside the cylinder reciprocates

to place the cap perpendicularity to the bottle neck.

 The final stage is cap tightening mechanism for which we have used 360deg gripper

mechanism which will hold cap rotate it to fit tightly on the bottle neck.

 This machine is used for mass production.

 All the parts include conveyor, Fluid filling, cap placing, compactor and cap tightening

mechanisms are modelled and assembled in a 3D CAD called SOLIDWORKS.

 Each operation must take 0.12micro sec to get the production rate of 125bpm.

 The structural analysis of the chocolate machine frame is done by applying three different

materials namely Ductile iron, 6061 alloy and Alloy steel for 5000N loading conditions

 We infer that the Alloy steel has obtained less stresses compared to the other materials

.As 6061 alloy is failed for load because the stresses induced are greater than the material

yield strength.

 Alloy steel material has yielded less stresses compared to their material yield strength. So

the best material for the frame would be Alloy steel. Also displacement is less for alloy

steel compared to remaining two materials.


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