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Lesson 1: Pedigrees

Standards *

HS-LS3-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of
expressed traits in a population.

Central Focus *

The central focus of this learning segment will be centralized around the conceptual
understanding of the inheritance of traits. Students will be expected to use their understanding
of dominance and the law of segregation of alleles to make reasonable predictions about the
transmission of traits from parent to offspring through the analysis of pedigrees. Through
inquiry, students will ask questions and gather and analyze data to explore the relationship that
exists between genotypes and expressed phenotypes. Using their data, students will construct a
scientific explanation for the observed distribution of traits in a given family or population.

Learning Objectives *

1. Students ought to be able to accurately interpret pedigrees displaying complete


dominance to distinguish between parents and children, males and females, siblings and
spouses, and individuals who do and do not express a given trait.

2. Students ought to be able to assign genotypes to all of the individuals in a given


pedigree using their understanding of probability and segregation of alleles.

3. Students ought to be able to justify their certainty of particular individuals’ genotypes


given their family history.

4. Student ought to be able to justify and communicate circumstances when they are
unable to determine with certainty, an individual’s genotype using evidence from a given
pedigree.

5. Students ought to be able to interpret a pedigree to determine if the traced trait is


autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive and must be able to defend their claim
using evidence.

Instructional Strategies/ Learning Tasks *

What teacher and students will be doing


Class will begin with a very short review “kahoot” covering terms and concepts associated
with complete dominance and Mendelian genetics. Using their Chrome Books, students will
submit their answers to each question. After the answers are reveled, I will ask students for
further explanation and/or justification. Vocabulary terms like segregation of alleles, dominant,
recessive, gametes, etc. will be incorporated into the review “kahoot”. The game will also
include sample monohybrid crosses where students will be required to determine the probably
of various genotypic and phenotypic outcomes.

I will introduce pedigrees using a PowerPoint presentation where I will discuss the
meaning of symbols used and the utility of pedigrees in a real world setting. Students will take
notes on the pertinent themes using the guided notes worksheet given to them. After explaining
the relationship between the symbols used in pedigrees, I will show the class a complete family
pedigree and ask if there are any individuals’ genotypes they can be certain of right away. I will
model the way I think through pedigrees while the students follow along with me on the board.
By using questions and eliciting answers form the class about the donation of alleles from
parent to offspring, the class will help me to assign genotypes to each member in the family
shown on the slide.

I will project the same sample pedigree students have in their notes onto the white
board. I will ask that students try to assign genotypes to each individual in the family in their
notes before rejoining as a group for explanation. I will invite one student to put their answers on
the board for the class while the remaining students will check his/her work. The student at the
board will justify his/her assigned genotype while employing the concepts discussed in class.

For the final pedigree, I will not explicitly tell students if the traced trait is caused by a
dominant or a recessive allele. Rather, working with partners, students will be required to
determine if the trait is autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Again, the class will rejoin
as a larger group to discuss potential explanations.

After completing the 3-4 large group examples, students will work in their smaller lab
groups to practice analyzing pedigrees. I will distribute half sheets of practice pedigrees to each
lab table, some tracing dominant alleles and some tracing recessive alleles. Using chalk
markers, students will draw pedigrees on their lab tables and will assign the appropriate
genotypes to each individual. I will circle the classroom to help struggling students and to ask
students for justifications for assigned genotypes. Once a group finishes their pedigree and has
their work checked, the pedigree practice homework will be distributed before students leave
the classroom.

Assessments *

There will be no formal assessment given during this lesson though there will be several
opportunities for informal formative assessment to gauge student understanding. The dialogue
between myself and my students during the whole class problem-solving portion of the lesson
will act as an assessment of their understanding and comfort with pedigrees. Likewise, as
students work with their lab groups to solve pedigrees using chalk markers, I will be able to
circle the class and formatively assess their work by asking for justifications for their
assignments.
Instructional Resources and Materials *

1. Kahoot: online, class wide learning platform used to review Mendelian genetics and
pertinent vocabulary.
2. Chrome books: used to access kahoot
3. Projector: used to project PowerPoint notes and practice problems
4. Guided notes worksheet: used for in-class note taking; coincides with PowerPoint slides
5. Half sheets with various pedigree problems, each tracing a different trait: used for the
chalk marker pedigree activity.
6. Chalk markers: used to draw directly on the tabletops.
7. Pedigree practice worksheet: distributed as homework to reinforce content

Accommodations and Modifications*

1. Though intended as a support for struggling students and students with IEP’s, guided
notes worksheets will be distributed to the entire class to support students when trying to
pull out key ideas and important vocabulary from instruction.

2. Opportunities for group work will be incorporated to not only provide additional resources
to struggling students, but will also provided gifted students with the challenging
opportunity to teach their peers.

3. Additional time for homework completion will be grated to those students with learning/
emotional disabilities per their respective IEP documents.

Language Demands*

Language Function: Interpreting pedigrees or visual representations of a trait passed from


generation to generation by articulating probable genotypes of each individual shown.

Vocabulary: dominant, recessive, pedigree, allele, genotype, phenotype, carrier, homozygous,


and heterozygous.

Syntax: students will be expected to understand, use, and interpret pedigrees. The symbols,
and their respective meanings must be understood and the appropriate notation for genotypes
must be used. The use of punnett square will also be needed to provide reasoning for particular
genotype assignments.

Lesson 2: X-Linked Inheritance (& pedigrees continued)

Standards *

HS-LS3-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of
expressed traits in a population.
Central Focus *

The central focus of this learning segment will be centralized around the conceptual
understanding of the inheritance of traits. Students will be expected to use their understanding
of dominance and the law of segregation of alleles to make reasonable predictions about the
transmission of traits from parent to offspring through the analysis of pedigrees. Through
inquiry, students will ask questions and gather and analyze data to explore the relationship that
exists between genotypes and expressed phenotypes. Using their data, students will construct a
scientific explanation for the observed distribution of traits in a given family or population.

Learning Objectives *

1. Students ought to be able to interpret a pedigree to determine if the traced trait is


autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive and must be able to defend their claim
using evidence.

2. Student ought to be able to differentiate between autosomal traits and sex-linked traits.

3. Students ought to be able to use the appropriate notation to indicate genotypes for traits
involving sex-linkage.

4. Students ought to be able to predict the probable offspring from a cross involving sex-
linkage using their understanding of statistics and probability.

Instructional Strategies/ Learning Tasks *

What teacher and students will be doing

Mirroring the previous lesson, students will be given a problem, and using chalk markers, will
diagram the pedigree and assign genotypes to each family member. However, whether the
traced trait is caused by a dominant allele or a recessive allele is unknown, so students will
need to collaborate with their team members to determine if the pedigree illustrates a dominant
trait or a recessive trait. During this time, I will be visiting each group to help them navigate a
problem at hand. I will also be asking student questions regarding the pedigree and will ask for
justification for assigned genotypes and selected inheritance pattern.

Students will then clear their desks and will take an independent, short “check-in” assessment
on pedigrees. The assessment will not be graded, but I will correct it and students will receive
individualized feedback on their work.

Following the mini “check in”, I will begin introducing sex-linked inheritance using a Google
slides presentation and an embedded video clip from the Ameba Sisters. Students will follow
along in the PowerPoint and video clip using their guided notes worksheet. When prompted,
they will complete sex-linkage problems on their worksheet independently or with the other
member of their lab table. Students will give answers when elicited by the teacher. Volunteers
will approach the board and carry out a given problem for the classroom. I will ask students to
explain their process and answers to the larger class.

After working through the several questions embedded in the slides presentation as a large
group, I will distribute the sex-linkage homework to each student before leaving the classroom.

Assessments *

Students will complete a mini “check in” focusing on pedigrees from our previous lessons. They
will be required to assign genotypes to all of the individuals in a given pedigree, determine if the
traced trait is caused by a dominant or recessive allele, and provide a written justification for
their claim.

Instructional Resources and Materials *

1. Chalk Markers: Used to draw directly on lab tables


2. PowerPoint- Notes are projected on the board for all students to follow along.
3. Amoeba Sisters YouTube clip – A short clip embedded into the PowerPoint that provides
a brief animation of sex-linkage.
4. Guided Notes worksheet: given to each student for note taking; coincides with
PowerPoint slides

Accommodations and Modifications*

1. An Amoeba Sisters YouTube video will be incorporated to help support ELL and
struggling students to acquire the content at hand using visuals.

2. Though intended as a support for struggling students and students with IEP’s, guided
notes worksheets will be distributed to the entire class to support students when trying
to pull out key ideas and important vocabulary from instruction focused on X-linked
inheritance.

3. Opportunities for group work will be incorporated to not only provide additional
resources to struggling students, but will also provided gifted students with the
challenging opportunity to teach their peers.
4. Additional time for homework and assessment completion will be grated to those
students with learning/ emotional disabilities per their respective IEP documents.

Language Demands*

Language Function: Predict the likely genotypic and phenotypic outcomes of a genetic cross
involving X-linkage.

Vocabulary: X chromosome, y chromosome, sex-linkage, x-linkage, dominant, recessive,


pedigree, genotype, phenotype, carrier, homozygous, heterozygous, and allele.

Syntax: Students will be expected to use the appropriate notation for X-linkage problem sets
and punnett squares. Understanding and interpreting pedigrees appropriately.

Title: Bean Lab- Color Blindness in Males (X-linkage)

Standards *

HS-LS3-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of
expressed traits in a population.

Central Focus *

The central focus of this learning segment will be centralized around the conceptual
understanding of the inheritance of traits. Students will be expected to use their understanding
of dominance and the law of segregation of alleles to make reasonable predictions about the
transmission of traits from parent to offspring through the analysis of pedigrees. Through
inquiry, students will ask questions and gather and analyze data to explore the relationship that
exists between genotypes and expressed phenotypes. Using their data, students will construct a
scientific explanation for the observed distribution of traits in a given family or population.

Learning Objectives *

1. Students will be able to predict the phenotypic and genotypic outcomes of a given sex-
linked cross.

2. Students will be able to analyze data to determine any patterns that exist in the offspring
of a cross involving an x-linked recessive trait.
3. Students will be able to use evidence and their understanding of inheritance concepts to
justify the claim that x-linked recessive traits are more common in males than in females.
explain why X-linked recessive traits are more coomon in male than females.

Assessments *

There will not be any high stakes, formal assessments given during this lesson, but there will be
opportunities for formative “check ins” via in class discussions and group problem solving.
Informal questioning and prompted activity questions will allow me to assess student
understanding while participating in the lab. During the lab, students will be working on a lab
activity sheet that requires that they answer several questions related to genetic crosses and
that they construct a scientific explanation for prevalence of colorblindness in the male
population. These activity sheets will be considered a formal assessment as they will be
collected, graded, and students will receive individualized feedback from me about their work.

Instructional Resources and Materials *

1. Different colored beans (and cups) to represent different alleles in the lab activity.
2. Projector to display the class data sheet.
3. Lab Activity Sheets

Instructional Strategies/ Learning Tasks *

What teacher and students will be doing

I will begin the class by having students take a short, 45-second visual test used to determine
colorblindness in affected patients by projecting the test onto the board. The projected images
test a person’s ability to distinguish between colors to identify a series of numbers hidden
among the colors. I will explain that traits like color blindness and muscular dystrophy are far
more common in the male population than in the female population. I will give the statistic that 1
in every 12 males are colorblind while only 1 in every 200 females are affected by
colorblindness. We will begin by asking, “why that might be?” . I will give students the
opportunity to pose potential scientific explanations for these real world phenomena.

I will bring students around the center classroom table to give a short demonstration and
explanation of the procedure for the inquiry-based lab students will be completing. I will explain
the goals of the lab, the various materials, and my expectations for the classroom before
allowing students to participate in the lab themselves.

Students will be using colored beans to represent the y chromosome and alleles of color
blindness and normal vision that are linked to the X-chromosome. Red beans will signify X-
chromosomes with the allele for normal color vision, white beans will represent X-
chromosomes with the allele for colorblindness, and speckled beans will represent Y-
chromosomes. Following the procedure outlined in their lab activity sheet, students will combine
beans in a cup to represent - each representative of a maternal and paternal genotype possible
for colorblindness. (Ex: 10 red beans + 10 white beans = ! ! ! ! = a female who is a carrier for
the colorblindness allele; 10 white beans +10 speckled beans = ! ! Y = a colorblind male etc).
Ultimately, students will create cups filled with beans to represent the 3 possible genotypes for
females and the 2 possible genotypes for males. Students will then pair one cup representative
of the maternal chromosomes with one cup representative of paternal chromosomes. Students
will randomly select one bean from each cup to simulate the random passing of only one allele
from each parent to offspring. Students will record the resulting sex and vision of their selected
offspring (Ex: student selects a red bean from the maternal cup and a white bean from the
paternal cup, the resulting offspring, ! ! ! ! , would be a female with normal color vision).
Students will repeat their trials 25 times for each combination of maternal and paternal
genotypes (6 in total). Data will be recorded in the data table provoded to students in their lab
activity packet. Students will calculate the percentage of each phenotype (sex and vision)
resulting from each cross. This data will then be analyzed to determine the why males are more
inclined to be affected by X-linked recessive traits.

I will be circling the classroom to help students address any procedural problems, calculate
phenotypic percentages, or navigate the post lab questions. I will ask for evidence based
explanations and will engage in a dialogue with each group about their proposed justification for
this real world phenomenon.

If students finish their work before the end of the period, they may turn in their lab. If work is not
completed, students may work on the post-lab questions at home and will return the lab the
following class period.

Adaptations and Modifications*

1. To help support student having difficulties interpreting the laboratory procedures, I will be
conducting a brief demonstration at the beginning of the class period to help
communicate lab goals and procedural expectations.

2. I will also be circulating the classroom to help support each small groups as they
complete the lab. I will help to clarify and help student to navigate prompted questions.

3. Students with IEP’s will be provided extended time to complete their lab per their
respective IEP agreements.

Language Demands*

Language function: Students will be able to use evidence and their understanding of
inheritance concepts to justify the claim that x-linked recessive traits are more common in males
than in females

Vocabulary: X chromosome, Y chromosome, sex-linkage, dominant, recessive, pedigree


genotype, phenotype, carrier, homozygous, heterozygous, colorblindness, and allele.

Syntax: Students will be expected to set up and complete x-linked punnett squares, using the
appropriate notation for genotypes.