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Author: ➢ ACL - Major stabilizing ligament in knee.


➢ Twists to the knee can cause injury. Popping sound
Mark Adickes occurs and so does swelling. Knee becomes unstable.
➢ Surgery/ arthroscopy may need to be done. A graft is
done and healing takes 6 months. RICE.
➢ Rehab aim: Reduce swelling, regain ability to bear
Date:
weight, and regain range of motion.
NA / ➢ Bike, swim, jog, lift all after 2-3 months.
Accessed Nov 6, 2017 ➢ 6 months to heal, 10-12 months to come back to form
when playing sports.
➢ 95% success rate - surgery
➢ Lots of training for legs during rehab.
Where is it from?: ➢ Complications:
○ Infections(rare)
Houston, Texas. (US)
○ blood clots in leg
○ excessive swelling and bruising
○ stiff joints
○ graft failure(5% chance)
Type of document / Name ○ nerve damage(not severe)
of document: ○ vessel damage(not severe)
○ excessive pain(rare)
Article.
“Anterior Cruciate
Ligament (ACL) Relation to hypothesis:
Reconstruction.”
The issues named above are a key reason why this injury
needs to be reduced. Surgery is not a guaranteed success and
rehab is grueling. It takes a year to come back to full health and
Citation: play sports again. Some have never come back from an ACL
tear which ultimately ended their careers.
“Anterior Cruciate Ligament
(ACL) Reconstruction.” Helpful Quotes:
Mark Adickes, MD, Mark “... recreational athletes may take 10 -12 months depending on motivation and
Adickes, MD Orthopaedic time put into rehabilitation. The rehabilitation and overall success of the
Surgeon Sports Medicine procedure can be affected by associated injuries to the knee such as damage
Knee Surgery Houston TX, to meniscus, articular cartilage or other ligaments.”
www.aclreconstructionhous “Complications are not common but can occur. Prior to making the decision of
ton.com/anterior-cruciate- have this operation. It is important you understand these so you can make an
ligament-acl-reconstruction/. informed decision on the advantages and disadvantages of surgery. These
Accessed 6 Nov. 2017. can be Medical (Anaesthetic) complications and surgical complications.”
Author: ➢ Dr. Jason Dragoo conducted a study in which he found
out that college football players suffer knee injuries 40%
Jason L. Dragoo, Hillary J. more often on artificial surfaces compared to grass.
Braun, Jennah L. Durham, ➢ Dragoo - Professor at Stanford University School of
Michael R. Chen, Alex Medicine.
H.S. Harris
➢ Turf is consistent and provides a better player
performance, but is less safe.
➢ Dragoo found out in 10% of NCAA schools a rate of 14
ACL injuries per 100,000 “exposures.” Each practice,
Date:
scrimmage, and game counts as an exposure.
May 1, 2012 /
Accessed Oct 6, 2017
Relation to hypothesis:

Turf is a major cause to ACL tears. They can be removed as


well which can reduce the amount of injuries that occur. As turf
Where is it from?:
continues to dominate as the number one playing surface,
non-contact injuries have risen over time.
New York. (US)
Helpful Quotes:

“This doesn’t say there’s conclusive evidence that turf increases the
Type of document / Name injury rate, but maybe we can say it’s not as safe as we thought it
of document: was,” - Dragoo

Journal/ Medical Study.


“Football Knee Injuries “ACL injuries were 10 times more common during games than during
Likelier on Turf Than practices, and close to five times as common during scrimmages than
Grass.”
during regular practice. Athletes were also 1.39 times as likely to be
Vol. 40, Issue 5, injured when playing on modern artificial turf as they were when
Pgs(990-995) playing on grass.”

Citation:
“Dragoo said specialized footwear would help, along with ACL injury
“Football Knee Injuries Likelier
on Turf Than Grass.”​ Reuters prevention training.”
Health Medical News​, 1 May
2012. ​Science in Context​, link
.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A28 “Players are able to get a better grip on turf than on grass — perhaps
8187577/SCIC?u=elli85889&
xid=7ac981e2. Accessed 6 too good a grip, Dragoo explained.”
Oct. 2017.
Steven J. Karagneas ➢ An autograft or allograft would be done after an ACL is
torn.
➢ Six to nine month rehabilitation program.
➢ Prevention tips:
June 2004 / Accessed Nov.
○ Exercise Programs
27, 2017 ■ Balance legs.
■ Keep hamstrings and quadriceps at same
strength. Unevenness in strength can
Author works in Michigan. cause an ACL tear.
■ Work on jumping techniques to avoid
awkward falls.
○ Flexibility
Journal / Article ■ Keep muscles loose and strong.
“Avoiding ACL Injuries .” ■ Avoid muscle tightness.
○ Practice
○ Take Care of Your Body
Karageanes, Steven J. “Avoiding ■ Bring up injuries to coaches and trainers
ACL Injuries .” ​American
to reduce further injuries.
Cheerleader​, vol. 10, no. 3,
■ Rest up when needed.
June 2004, pp. 117–119. web.
■ Don’t stress tendons and ligaments.
a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail
/detail?vid=0&sid=becbde19-
a35e-4371-afaa-255b15d4c5a This document goes in depth on ACL preventions and ways
9@sessionmgr4007&bdata=J to avoid such injury. These involve stretching, exercising,
nNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ flexing, and resting. These relate to the hypothesis of how
==#AN=12871052&db=f5h. injuries can be prevented. And also, a main reason why we need
Accessed 27 Nov. 2017. to prevent this injury is because of the rehab time and
gruelingness and surgery. Allografts and autografts are not fun
to go through. Gaining a new part in your body will make it
tough for individuals to get used to, let alone play sports with.

“...every athlete's nightmare is tearing his or her anterior cruciate


ligament, or ACL. It's an injury that's benched professional basketball
players, stopped soccer players short and yanked cheerleaders off the
mat mid-season. Unfortunately, despite doctors and trainers trying to
prevent them, ACL injuries are still commonplace. Although they can
be repaired, an ACL tear is a sure season ender.“
NA ➢ Jump Roping can help prevent ACL injuries.
➢ ACL tears require surgery and a year of intense physical
therapy.
August 8, 1996 / Accessed ➢ Researchers tested the legs of 140 men and women.
December 17, 2017 ○ Found out that hamstrings need to be started early
on so that they become strong because:
○ The hamstrings act as “brakes” to keep pressure
off the ACL.
Journal / Database center ○ Without them, the ACL takes a hit when you cut
or pivot.
"No Weak Knees." ​Preven ➢ Work both sides of the leg.
tion​, vol. 48, no. 8, Aug.
1996, p. 30. EBSCO​host This document talks mainly about the usefulness of
, search.ebscohost.com strengthening your hamstrings. Since the hamstrings keep
/login.aspx?direct=true pressure off the ACL, it should be worked on early in life so that
&db=sch&AN=960722 they can keep pressure off the ACL and protect oneself from
7520&site=scirc-live. tearing it. A prevention method is jump roping and working out
Accessed 17 Dec. hamstrings to avoid intense rehab and surgery.
2017.

“​For either gender, though, ACL tears require surgery plus a year or more of
intensive physical therapy to get someone back to his or her sport.​”

“​Getting hamstrings started early is important, as they can act as "brakes" that
keep pressure off the delicate ACL. Without those brakes, the ACL takes the
hit when you cut to reach the cross-court shot or when you pivot to throw to
first at the company picnic's softball game. Muscles are very elastic and can
handle that kind of force. But if you stretch ligaments too far, they rip. And you
spend a lot of time in a physical therapist's office.​”

“​The perfect exercise: jumping rope (helps your heart as well as your
hamstrings). Other smart moves include the stuff your high-school gym
teacher used to have you do: Pick four spots on a square tile and jump on one
foot from one spot to another. Run in a figure-8 pattern. Run backward. In fact,
a different study by the same team found these gym-class-type activities
superior to weight training in teaching the hamstrings to respond quickly.
"These exercises aren't designed to build strength," says Huston, "but they
can help your timing in cuts and turns and get your legs acclimated to the
kinds of maneuvers that cause ACL problems.​”
Tamra B. Orr ➢ Laura Soto was a soccer player who tore her ACL. She
needed to get a graft from her hamstrings.
Nov. 2001 / Accessed ➢ Recovery was difficult and painful for her. She had to
January 9, 2018 wear a long brace.
➢ Soto had a soccer scholarship to Northern Michigan
University.
➢ Doctors and researchers are starting to call the ACL tear
Journal article an epidemic. Over 1000 ACLs are torn annually.
➢ Tips to keep knee strong:
○ Warm up before playing a sport
○ Don’t push through fatigue
○ Wear appropriate gear/shoes
Orr, Tamra B. "Needing Your ○ Build up hamstrings and quads
Knees." ​Current Health 1​, vol. ○ Learn to land properly
25, no. 3, Nov. 2001, p. 28. EB
SCO​host​,search.ebscost.com/
○ Do knee exercises
login.aspx?direct=true&db=sc
h&AN=5447653&site=scirc-l The document goes in depth about a real life event that
ive. Accessed 9 Jan. 2018.
occurred to a high schooler. She tore her ACL and had to go
through intense and painful therapy each and every day for a
year. The document also mentions prevention methods to help
people avoid what Laura had to go through because it’s an
epidemic according to doctors and researchers. This supports the
hypothesis because it talks about stretching techniques to avoid a
torn ACL and provides the grueling nature of rehabilitation.

“ "Proper prevention is a combination of building endurance and strength


through training, plus stretching and warming up the muscles," says Dr.
Navarro. Dr. Kevin Stone, an orthopedic surgeon and founder of The Stone
Foundation for Sports Medicine and Arthritis Research, agrees. "To avoid an
injury," he says, "you need strengthening, flexibility, and preparation. I always
try to communicate to my patients that world-class athletes train for their sport
and then cross train with activities like weightlifting, yoga, and so on. I also
believe proper nutrition plays a part," he adds. "It leads to good muscular
development and appropriate weight." ​ “

“​ Often the key to strong ​knees​ is doing regular ​knee​ exercises. Dr. Kevin Stone suggests the following:

● Quad sets: Leg straight out in front of you (either on ground or seated on the edge of a chair),
tighten thigh muscles focusing on inner thigh just above kneecap and hold for 5 seconds. Repeat
10 times, three to five times a day.

● Adduction sets: Sitting in a chair with ​knees bent to about 90 degrees and a pillow between
knees​, squeeze pillow evenly with both ​knees and hold for 5 seconds. Repeat 10 times, three to
five times a day.

● Leg raises: Stad with sets of 10 repetitions and work up to two sets of 25 reps.

Lying back on elbows with right ​knee bent and left leg out straight in front, tighten thigh muscle of left leg and actively
lift leg in front to the level of the opposite ​knee ​and then lower.
Lying on right side with legs out straight, tighten thigh muscle of left leg and lift to the side, making sure to keep foot
level with the ground.
Lying on stomach, tighten thigh muscle and lift leg behind you a few inches off the floor, then lower, making sure to
keep hips on floor.
Lying on left side with right leg bent and right foot on the floor in front of left leg, tighten thigh and lift leg toward the

inside, keeping foot level with ground. “


“ ​"I had to have surgery," Laura says, "and the doctor had to make a new
ACL for me out of graft from my hamstring biodegradable screws in my ​knee​."
Recovery has been difficult. The brace she had to wear reached from her
upper thigh to her ankle, and she dealt with a lot of pain. "For eight hours each
day, I had to put my leg in a Continuous Passive Machine, which would bend
my leg a little more each day. I would do it for four hours, rest, then do it
another four," she says. "It has been hard," she admits. "Soccer was my life,
and I'd had a scholarship to Northern Michigan University." Laura still goes to
physical therapy once a week and works with weights to strengthen her new
knee​ and the muscles around it. ​“

Carol Poster ➢ Most commonly injured knee ligament -- the ACL


➢ Preventing knee stress:
Dec. 1993 / Accessed ○ Warm up
January 9, 2018 ○ Avoid being careless
○ Watch out for fatigue and bad weather
○ Avoid ice, wet areas, or steep hills
Journal article ○ Walk in a moderate pace
○ RICE
This document shows ways to avoid stressing out your knee.
It also gives out information on ACL tears. It is the most
Poster, Carol. "Knee-Deep in commonly injured knee ligament. This is important because it
Trouble. (Cover Story)." keeps the knee intact and stable. It also helps the joint rotate.
Backpacker​, vol. 21, no. 9,
Which is why the epidemic of ACL tears is crucial to stop.
Dec. 1993, p. 31. EBSCO
host​, search.ebscohost.com/
login.aspx?direct=true&db “ ​Located inside the ​knee​, it prevents the tibia from being pushed forward
=sch&AN=9402235963&s with respect to the femur. In other words, it prevents your ​knee​ from bending
ite=scirc-live. Accessed 9 backward, plus it helps rotation stability. The ACL is the most commonly
injured ​knee​ ligament. You'll know you've hurt it when you hear a pop or snap,
Jan. 2018.
fall to the ground as your ​knee​ collapses, then feel an explosion of pain that
soon turns into a dull ache. The ache will subside after a while, and your ​knee
will swell and be tender, feeling as though it's going to give way when you put
weight on it. ​“