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1 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

PROOF OF DESIGN (POD) – THE DFM/CE BOOK FOR


PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS, ASSEMBLIES, AND ALL
MANNER OF OTHER THINGS TECHNICAL (PART 3)
Revision 3 provides more detailed supplier evaluation/qualification guidelines,
checklists, procedures, and requirements. It includes PCB/PCBA operational
information, Manufacturing Operations Procedures, Failure Analysis
information, requirements, and details. It has a complete section on Lean
Manufacturing – plus much more DFM/CE and other vital information for those
needing/wishing/wanting/desiring to manage processes instead of reacting to
results as poor quality and reliability.

by

MoonMan

The MoonMan without DFM/CE The MoonMan with DFM/CE

Product without DFM/CE Product with DFM/CE

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FORWARD (advance – or move positively in one direction – or never move backward - or


never do it over – or never effect defect and have to correct it): THIS BOOK IS ABOUT
DOING IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME, ON TIME, EVERY TIME, AT THE LOWEST COST. THIS
SIMPLY IS DONE BY MANAGING PROCESSES INSTEAD OF RESULTS. Nike says Just do it.
MoonMan says Just do it but do it right. MoonMan also says let’s Boogie (MoonMan’s
expression for let’s move forward or let’s get it on) and get down to it. You should ask the
MoonMan about product with DFM/CE above.

IMPORTANT NOTES:

THOUGH THIS BOOK FOCUSES MOSTLY ON ELECTRONICS, WITH PRINTED CIRCUITRY


AT ITS CORE, ALL THE PRINCIPLES APPLY TO ALL APPLICATIONS WHETHER
TELCCOMMUNICATIONS, AUTOMOTIVE, MEDICAL, MILITARY, AEROSPACE, OR
WHATEVER PRODUCT DEMANDING QUALITY AND RELIABILITY.

THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED TO BE USED ANY WAY ONE SEES FIT. IF YOU NEED TO USE
ANY INFORMATION HEREIN – SIMPLY COPY AND PASTE IT INTO YOUR DOCUMENTS OR
PROCESSES.

THIS BOOK IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR SEPARATE PARTS TO FACILITATE USE BY ANYONE
WITH A COMPUTER SYSTEM CAPABLE OF MANAGING IT. EACH PART SHOULD BE
LOADED SEPARATELY TO ENSURE COMPUTERS WITH LIMITED RESOURCES CAN READ
AND USE THE FILES. EACH PART (PODDFMCE 1 -4) HAS A SEPARATE TABLE OF
CONTENTS AND EACH PART BEGINS ON PAGE ONE.

THIS BOOK IS WRITTEN USING MS WORD 97 AND APPEARS TO BE UNIVERSALLY


ACCEPTABLE TO ALL. I TRIED WRITING IT USING XP PROFESSIONAL BUT IT DID NOT
TRANLATE EXACTLY TO 97.

THIS IS PART 3... IT CONTAINS 94.6MB (99,202,560 bytes). YOU NEED TO ASSESS YOUR
COMPUTERS' CAPABILITIES AS AMOUNT OF RAM, HARD DRIVE CAPACITY, AND VIDEO
CARD.

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POD - DFM/CE PART 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION PAGE
12.0 PCBA MANUFACTURING OPERATION PROCEDURES 4

12.1 SOLDER PASTE AND STENCILS 5


12.2 STENCILPRINTING 19
12.3 A FEW WORDS ABOUT THROUGH HOLE TECHNOLOGY 57
12.4 SMT COMPONENT PLACEMENT 60
12.5 REFLOW SOLDERING 124
12.6 WAVE SOLDERING 160
12.7 HAND SOLDERING 202
12.8 WINESCO REPAIR/REWORK 234
12.9 SRM4 REPAIR/REWORK 246
12.10 BGA REPAIR/REWORK 264
12.11 MSD AND VACUUM SEALING PROCEDURES 350
12.12 LIQUID SOLDER MASKING PROCEDURES 366
12.13 PANELIZATION AND DE-PANELIZING 385
12.14 FINAL ASSEMBLY (SYSTEM OR "BOX" BUILD) 389
12.15 CLEANING AND CLEANLINESS 399
12.16 INSPECTION AND TEST 407

NOTE: PCB FABRICATION PROCEDURES ALSO AVAILABLE ON A CUSTOM BASIS THOUGH I HAVE MANY
OF THESE FOR VARIOUS SHOPS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. HOWEVER, THERE ARE SO MANY
PROCESSES AND DIFFERENT WAYS OF DOING THEM, I CANNOT POSSIBLY INCLUDE THEM HEREIN.

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12.0 PCBA MANUFACTURING OPERATION PROCEDURES


As part of any good quality system or program, clearly written procedures must be developed,
written, and used to train people to do their jobs properly. Then, they must be empowered to do
them while accepting accountability for their performance. Management must assure performance
measurements are made in as close to real time as possible so immediate feedback is available to
everyone to continuously improve what everyone does. This, then, feeds back to the DFM/CE
process. DFM/CE, within a total process management system, would not be effective if everyone in
the organization was not trained, then empowered and made responsible, to work in accordance
with these procedures they help write.

I wrote the following procedures at some of the finest companies in the land. They include H-P,
Celestica, UASC, Nortel/Arris, and many others. Actually, I began "writing" photo documents, as
H-P (now Agilent) began naming them. I started this when digital photography began - in 1990 with
my trusty Canon "ZapShot." Actually, I began using 35mm cameras and scanning images before
then.

It's not that I enjoy writing procedures. It's just that this must be done especially when working as a
new product development, process, or manufacturing support engineer. So, here they are for your
reading, viewing pleasure, and use - as you wish.

NOTE: THE FOLLOWING PROCEDURES ARE BUT A FEW I'VE WRITTEN OVER MANY
YEARS. THERE ARE SO MANY MORE (ISO, PCB FAB, QUALITY, INSPECTION, SALES,
ENGINEERING, ETC.), IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO INCLUDE THEM ALL. HOWEVER, IF YOU NEED
ANY OTHERS JUST LET ME KNOW AND I'LL PROVIDE A LIST AND WHATEVER YOU
REQUEST.

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12.1 SOLDER PASTE AND STENCILS


In the early days, all things SMT were crude by comparison with today's technology though we still
have a long way to go, but that's the way it's always been. The following information provides
something of a history of solder paste and stencil evolution:

SOLDER PASTE
Solder paste has been with us for a long time. Early on, I used it first in hybrid thick film
applications. Later it was used in military SMT applications in mid to late 1970's. In the early 1980's
it was beginning to be formulated for commercial applications with a bit more sophistication though
still somewhat of a witch's brew.

I worked with some folks, in the dark ages, creating our "special" formulations as little was
available from proven, qualified suppliers. We thought we were doing great but compared with
today's product, we had nothing. It did work reasonably and we could claim a "proprietary" status
hoping to bring in more business.

Later, consulting with many OEM's and CM's, I assisted in the evaluation and qualification process
for about every solder paste supplier available at that time and since. I'm not advertising for anyone
but one company stands out. That is Indium and their SMQ family of solder pastes. I also have
qualified, happily, various Kester and Alpha formulations.

The earliest evaluation criteria were based primarily on:

1) Formulation as tin-lead (63/37) sometimes with 2% silver as (Sn63 Pb35 Ag2)


2) Percent metal to binder ratio (87% metal in a 13% flux binder)
3) Viscosity in the range of 900,000 centipoise
4) Spherical solder balls
5) Mesh size through which solder paste could pass (first based on using silkscreen stencils)

"MODERN" SOLDER PASTE FORMULATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS

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The following procedures I wrote for H-P Spokane:

SOLDER PASTE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

Purpose
This document's purpose is to define and standardize the minimum operating and maintenance
procedures for the solder paste management process.

Scope
This procedure's scope applies to all solder paste application at the TMO PCA, Spokane shop.

Theory of Operation
Solder Paste is applied by placing a stencil over a printed circuit board with apertures where the
solder shall be left on the board. A squeegee is used to spread the solder paste over the stencil
and deposit it in the stencil apertures. The process's success is dependent on stencil alignment,
solder paste quality, and printing equipment used.
References
HP Health and Safety Manual
http://hpehs.corp.hp.com/ehs/stds/hs_man/535-000.htm#1.

Material Safety Data Sheets:


Isopropyl Alcohol
Solder Paste

PNP Training Instructions:


Filename: Q:\SPOKANE\PICKPLAC\PNPINSTR.SAM

Chemical Safety

Solder Paste
The stencil printing process involves the use of lead in the form of solder paste. Lead is a known
toxin. It is required that safety glasses and rubber gloves be worn whenever the paste is handled.
Paste handling includes moving the paste from stencil to stencil, stirring paste, cleaning stencils,
and replenishing paste on stencils. Any time there is a possibility that solder paste shall come in
contact with the operator that operator SHALL wear gloves.
Refer to the MSDS for solder paste for more safety information.

Lead Waste
Dispose of spent solder paste in the designated 55 gallon hazardous waste accumulation barrel,
(covered and labeled container) ONLY.

Dispose of lead impregnated wipes and used gloves in the small trash compactor. When trash
compactor reaches capacity place the sealed bag in the designated 55-gallon hazardous waste
accumulation barrel (covered and labeled container) ONLY.

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Compressed Air

NOTE: AT NO TIME SHALL STENCIL APERTURES BE BLOWN OUT WITH COMPRESSED


AIR IF PASTE IS PRESENT IN THE APERTURES. REMOVE PASTE BY WASHING AND
WIPING ONLY. BLOWING SOLDER PASTE FROM APERTURES COULD CAUSE THE LEAD
PARTICLES TO BECOME AIR-BORN.

IPA
Isopropyl Alcohol is used in the solder paste process to clean off misprinted boards, clean stencils,
and wipe down the process area. It is required that safety glasses and rubber gloves be worn
whenever the IPA is being used. Refer to the MSDS for Isopropyl alcohol for more safety
information.

Material and Supplies

Reference the process router for the correct solder paste to use for each of the individual PWB,s.

NAME DESCRIPTION SUPPLIER PART NUMBER


Solder Paste Indium SMQ92 no-clean Indium Corporation of 8090-1402
paste America
Indium SMQ62 Indium Corporation of 8090-1273
America
Delta no-clean Qualitek International, Inc. 8090-1158
Texwipe Technicloth Lint Free Wipes for circuit Not Specified Not Specified
boards and stencils
Isopropyl Alcohol Used to clean stencils, and Not Specified 6030-0010
misprinted boards
Rubber Gloves Not permeable by solder Not Specified 8650-0031
paste or IPA.
Spatulas Plastic Spatulas with rounded Not Specified Not Specified
corners

Equipment

NAME DESCRIPTION
Pump can for Isopropyl Alcohol The can is used to store and dispense IPA
Air gun dispenser Used to dispense solder paste from tubes
Trash Compactor used to dispose of gloves and wipes
contaminated with solder paste

Cleaning Equipment and Area

Shift Maintenance
The following maintenance items shall be completed once every 8 hours during the time when the
production line is running.

Put on protective gloves

Clean solder paste from squeegees using plastic tool, alcohol and Texwipe.

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Wipe down the work area

Dispose of spent solder paste in the designated 55-gallon hazardous waste accumulation barrels
(covered and labeled containers) ONLY.

Clean stencil. (Refer to Stencil Cleaning.12.2 of PNP Training Instructions)

Return Stencil to storage. (Refer to Stencil Storage 12.1.2 of PNP Training Instructions)

Dispose of rubber gloves and Texwipes in trash compactor

Do any maintenance required in the printer documentation.

Solder Paste Receiving and Handling


Solder paste shall be moved as quickly as possible from receiving to the refrigerator in the surface
mount center.

Upon receipt of a new shipment of solder paste from the supplier all new paste shall be put into the
refrigerator and the older paste put on top. This helps to ensure that paste gets used in a first in
first out order. (FIFO)

Syringes and cartridges shall be stored tip down with the older solder paste stored to the front.
Solder paste Temperature

Store solder paste in a refrigerator at a temperature between 35 and 50 degrees F. (-20 degrees to
+5 degrees C)

Dispose of any solder paste that has exceeded its expiration date in the designated 55-gallon
hazardous waste accumulation barrels.

All new containers of solder paste shall be brought up to ambient room temperature (+/- 5F) before
being used. When a solder paste container is empty and properly disposed, replace it immediately.
There shall be sufficient solder paste removed from the refrigerator for any production day.

Use the temperature probe to verify solder paste is up to room temperature.

Insert the probe into the solder paste until it touches the bottom of the container.
Wait for temperature reading to stabilize. Temperature is displayed in degrees F. It shall be within 5
degrees of room temperature.

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PROCESS CONTROLS AND MONITORS

Solder Paste Handling Guidelines


The following guidelines shall be followed at all times during the solder paste process. The quality
of the solder paste is dependent on the guidelines, as it the print quality, and ultimately the board
quality.

SOLDER PASTE REFRIGERATED LIFE AT ROOM STENCIL MIX BEFORE


LIFE TEMPERATURE LIFE USE?
INDIUM SMQ92 6 MONTHS 2 MONTHS 8 HOURS NO
INDIUM SMQ62 6 MONTHS 2 MONTHS 8 HOURS NO
DELTA SN63 6 MONTHS 2 MONTHS 8 HOURS NO

Gloves SHALL be worn whenever solder paste is being added or removed from a stencil, and
whenever misprints are being wiped.

New solder paste shall be used at the beginning of each shift and spent solder shall be thrown
away at the end of each shift.

Paste shall reach room temperature prior to use. Consequently, paste shall be removed from
refrigeration at least two hours before printing. Rapid warming of paste on top of ovens is strictly
prohibited. It is much better to print with cool paste than to ruin the paste by heating it on the oven.

Paste taken off a stencil that has life remaining shall be put into a clean storage container with a
clean lid each time it is re-stored. The container shall be labeled with the paste type, date used,
and shift during which it was used.

Keep spatulas and plastic scrapers free of dried paste by cleaning them with IPA after each use.
Airflow over the paste is detrimental to paste printability. Keep paste from the direct path of a fan or
other sources of direct airflow until after reflow.

Printed boards shall be reflowed within 4 hours of when they are printed. Mark the time that each
board is printed on the edge of the panel.

Misprint Organic Copper Coated boards shall be re-printed and through the reflow process within 4
hours of when they are washed. Mark wash time on the edge of the panel.

Paste retainers shall be used at all times on squeegee holders that have retainers. When paste
retainers are not standard equipment fold the excess side paste into the paste bead at least once
every 20 minutes.

Syringes and cartridges shall be stored tip down.

Solder paste is a shelf life item and shall be managed as a FIFO supply

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Kneading Solder paste

CAUTION: ALWAYS WEAR PROTECTIVE GLOVES WHEN HANDLING SOLDER PASTE AND
ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL.

REQUIREMENTS

Start with a new container of solder paste at the beginning of each shift.

Knead solder paste whenever taking paste from container or tube and placing it on the stencil.

Knead solder paste after 5 minutes of inactivity. Use a five-minute timer if available.

Put paste back in container and wash stencil if it shall have 10 min. of inactivity. On DEK , if delay
anticipated, clean screen’s followed by 2 knead strokes and checking bricks.

Knead solder paste whenever adding paste with the air gun dispenser. Do not add paste to try to
refresh dry paste. Dispose dry solder paste in a designated 55-gallon hazardous waste
accumulation barrels.

Kneading is defined as 8 passes of the squeegee across the stencil or four passes for SMQ62.
Kneading is not necessary for SMQ92 solder paste.

SUMMARY
Solder pastes are the glue "holding" it all together, once reflowed. It must be evaluated, qualified,
stored, and used properly to ensure solder joints acceptable. In the preceding procedures, you can
see much is required. Much also is overlooked that must not be. Follow, first, supplier
recommended requirements. Then, perform exacting evaluations to ensure the "glue" works for
you.

STENCILS
Before modern stencils, we used silkscreen "technology" much as used to print legend on bare
PCB's and tee shirts. This definitely was crude and solder paste, or whatever medium, was
stenciled by near artists using rubber blade hand squeegees. It got jobs done involving hybrid thick
film circuits to very early PCB/SMT requirements.

A little later we began making and using metal foil stencils but they to very limited though did the
job well enough, with some effort, on early SMT product. SMT stencil printing machines were just
being developed and produced. They too, had very serious limitations though, again, did the job
well enough considering what needed to be done.

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I created the following images, over twenty years ago, showing early stencil design considerations:

You can see stencil evolution in the first figure with mesh screen and flexible mask becoming
extinct. We used step down stencils early on because of serious transitions taking place from 1206
and 50 mil pitch devices getting smaller. Some design requirements still apply especially
concerning step down requirements and applications.

What's important in stencil printing (that differs from screen-printing) is providing a consistent paste
volume on every solder termination pad. Process windows vary in proportion to pitch.

NOTE: MORE THAN 60% OF ALL DEFECTS ARE RELATED TO SOLDER DEPOSITION.
A major key is maintaining process parameters as temperature, humidity, squeegee pressure and
print speed, and paste parameters and condition. One example is if all paste was removed from
the stencil, after 4 hours and new material was added, it completely changes paste chemistry.

From IPC 7525, the following image is presented showing key stencil design requirements as
aspect and area ratios:

Things have greatly changed as CPI.

ADDITIONAL STENCIL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


As with all successful product design, DFM/CE must be used at the earliest PCB design phase. For
stencils, this is no less important as much data is derived from the design process and used to
create stencil artwork. The data is used to image and etch stencils and for use in automated optical
inspection (AOI) ensuring the stencil meets design intent.

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My thanks to Mastercut Technologies for the following design criteria:

Dimensions
Because of the nature of the etching process and the undercutting at the edges of the resist pattern
on the surface all dimensions, tolerances and configurations are functions of the thickness of the
material being etched, the material and to a lesser extent, the process variations.

In the section on tolerances and materials which follows, tolerances, overall pattern sizes, etc.
These are generally applicable to equipment, processes, metals and configurations currently being
used. They do not, however, express the ultimate capabilities of the photo chemical machining.

For dimensions such as slots, corners etc., there are a few guidelines for designers which express
practical limitations as the dimensions under consideration approaches the thickness of the metal.

Relationship of Hole Size to Metal Thickness


As a general rule, it is normally stated that the diameter of a hole cannot be less than the metal
thickness. This relationship however, does vary as the metal thickness changes. A more exact
relationship might be as per the table below.

Relationship of line width to metal thickness. (Fig. 1 & 2)


Generally speaking the width of metal between holes is not a particular problem in Photo Chemical
Machining. However, when this space is the remaining surface area in a large field of slots or
holes, there are limitations as to how small the metal width between holes can be. This relationship
is as follows:

Metal Thickness (t)

Space between holes (W)


Less than .025mm At least 1.25 times metal thickness
.127mm or over At least 1.25 times metal thickness

Metal Thickness (t)

Smallest Hole Diameter (D)


Less than .025mm Must be determined by test run
.025mm - .127mm At least 1.25 times metal thickness
.127mm or over At least 1.25 times metal thickness

Relationship of Hole Size to Metal Thickness


As a general rule, it is normally stated that the diameter of a hole cannot be less than the metal
thickness. This relationship however, does vary as the metal thickness changes. A more exact
relationship might be as per the table below.

Metal Thickness (t)

Smallest Hole Diameter (D)


Less than .025mm Must be determined by test run

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.025mm - .127mm At least 1.25 times metal thickness


.127mm or over At least 1.25 times metal thickness

Relationship of line width to metal thickness. (Fig. 1 & 2)

Generally speaking the width of metal between holes is not a particular problem in Photo Chemical
Machining. However, when this space is the remaining surface area in a large field of slots or
holes, there are limitations as to how small the metal width between holes can be. This relationship
is as follows:

Metal Thickness (t)

Space between holes (W)


Less than .025mm At least 1.25 times metal thickness
.127mm or over At least 1.25 times metal thickness

Etching
After exposure, the panels are developed leaving the image as bare metal. Etching is achieved
using a heated acid solution. The panels are passed through the etcher on a conveyor at various
speeds to achieve dimensions required. After etching the photo resist is stripped using a alkaline
solution.

Relationship of inside corner radius to metal thickness (Figure 3)


In general, the smallest corner radius is directly proportional to the thickness of the metal ie., for
metal thickness or .05mm, corner radius would be a minimum of .05mm.

Relationship of Inside Corner Radius to Metal Thickness (Figure 3)

Outside corners tend to etch more sharply than inside. Therefore, radii of less than metal thickness
are obtainable. As a general rule outside radii are considered to be at least .75 metal thickness, (t).

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Relationship of Bevel to Metal Thickness.

Etching one side - (Figure 4a) an etchant attacks the material laterally as well as vertically. The
result, therefore, is the condition of etch configuration for a hole which is known as the "Bevel".

As a rule of thumb, for material with a thickness (t), the bevel (A) would be approximately .75t.

Etching two sides - (Fig 4b) assuming that the material is being etched equally from two sides, it
can be easily seen that the bevel is appreciably reduced.

As a general rule, when etching from two sides, the bevel (A) is approximately .4t.

Inspection

Once the panels have been stripped and cleaned the parts are passed to our Q.A. Department to
be inspected with various measuring equipment to ensure that dimensions and tolerances
specified have been maintained.

NOTE: A MUCH BETTER INSECTION PROCESS USES AOI, INSTEAD OF OPTICAL


COMPARITORS, AS THIS DIRECTLY CORELATES INSPECTION FINDINGS TO GERBER OR
ODB DESIGN DATA.

After final inspection the parts are packaged ready for delivery to the client.

ALPHA TETRA STENCIL FOIL TECHNOLOGY


I had the pleasure of researching and using sample Tetra Foils in prototype operations at H-P
Spokane. We had over 3,000 active stencils, in DEK frames, in our huge inventory using more
space than I knew. The following is a brief excerpt from a proposal I wrote to management
concerning the Tetra Foil system:

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1.0 PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of this outline is to provide basic information concerning an exciting and very useful
new tool for our SMT stencil printing and storage requirements.

The scope of this outline extends to all H-P SMT manufacturing operations and to immediate and
long term process and product quality improvement possibilities.

2.0 INTRODUCTION
Alpha Metals, Inc., part of the Cookson Industries Group, has made H-P manufacturing an offer it
cannot refuse. Based upon their capability to provide “frameless” stencil foils (only the print
medium without frames) and a support system capable of assembling foils into “on demand”
frames, or those only needed for specific production runs, Alpha has rendered a proposal for our
consideration.

The Alpha proposal provides H-P the opportunity to use their system for a 60 day period at no cost.
The exception is we buy the foils used to apply solder paste – at a greatly reduced price compared
with conventional foil/frame technology.

This proposal, should it be accepted, provides H-P the opportunity to “test to break” Alpha’s
system. If the system doesn’t break, and provides certain expected benefits, H-P will reap many
benefits.

1) Massive gains in storage space as only foils require simple, less cumbersome storage
capabilities. As there are no frames to store, a 5 fold increase in storage space is immediately
available.

2) The system relies on a simple assembly mechanism to insert foils into frames for particular
production runs. Operators easily will be trained.

3) Cleaning is as straightforward as foil into frame installation and uses the same cleaning system
H-P currently employs.

4) Either Fuji or DEK frames and their parameters may be used (I suggest using only DEK as
outlined later).

5) There is no traditional mesh interface between stencil foils so frames provide much better
tension and retention capabilities consistently over time.

6) Foils cost about ½ that of current foil/mesh/frame types currently used.

7) Alpha owns patents and licenses to all patents and other requirements.

8) Alpha licenses this technology to other stencil foil fabricators including PSI – our current
supplier.

9) Alpha’s foil fabrication facility, in Santa Clara, is close and offers AOI inspection capabilities
based on downloaded Gerber files matching board and assembly design parameters.

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10) Delivery times will be the same as currently provided as the foil fabrication process is the
same.

11) Stencil design and fabrication parameters are the same as current – chem milling, laser cutting,
and all attendant features exactly match current requirements (step downs hybrids, electro-
polishing, and required aperture profiles, as examples)

12) Did I mention storage gains?

The Alpha Tetra is a revolutionary stencil management system that, unlike the traditional epoxy-to-
mesh stencil: eliminates the need for a dedicated frame for each stencil, provides superior print
quality and performance, and saves you valuable manufacturing floor space. The result is
substantial time and cost savings. This unique equipment along with our patented stencil foil
design is only available through Alpha. All Tetra supplies are guaranteed. Equipment failures
resulting from defects or worn parts will be replaced at no cost.”

Equipment consists of two frames per line, two loading terminals per line, and assoicated
accessories. Accessories consist of a stencil washing chase, a work station with storage
capabilities for 150 stencils, and a stencil archive with storage capacity for 400 stencils (if
required). Again, all this at no cost during the evaluation/qualification phase (is this stuff free upon
acceptance by us?).

As there is zero cost for the system elements (see quotation dated April 20, 1999) needed for
evaluation and qualification, a purchase order needs to be generated and forwarded to:

Curt Wright
Sales Mgr.
Eclipse Marketing
6240 E. Lake Sammamish Pkwy, N.E.
Redmond, WA 95082.

Another purchase order must be generated to buy at least two foils, representing our finest designs
and production requirements. Each foil costs $245 each for chemically milled types including
electro-polishing and with one hour of free CAD data editing time ($45/hour for each additional
hour.

NOTE: STEP DOWN TYPES AND LASER CUT PLATES ARE PROVIDED AT A HIGHER COST.

All equipment and stencils are designed to work with our 265 GSX machines. It is suggested, as it
will be outlined later, we concentrate on DEK frames.

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STENCIL IMAGE EXAMPLES


The following images show typical stencils along with micro-stencils used for repair, rework, and/or
modification:

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PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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12.2 STENCIL PRINTING

PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of this document is to provide the trainers and trainees on the pick and place line with
DEK stencil printing machine operation procedures.

The scope of this document extends to all PNP operators and associated personnel as everything
done on the DEK affects all other operations in this area.

These instructions are to be used as a training vehicle, and no deviation shall be allowed. If there is
a modification to be made to this document, it shall be brought to all the trainers to gain consensus,
before being changed. The new revision date shall be noted on the bottom of all pages of this
document.

SAFETY, ESD, AND MATERIAL HANDLING

Follow all ESD procedures

Emergency stop buttons located on the front corners of the machine. DO NOT HESITATE TO USE
THEM WHEN NECESSARY.

After raising the print head cover, the red safety bar shall be inserted before working inside the
machine. Remember to remove the safety bar before trying to lower the print head.

CAUTION: BOARD CLAMPS, IN THE MIDDLE OF BOARD TRANSPORT RAILS, HAVE RAZOR
SHARP EDGES.

Solder paste is hazardous. Wear gloves when handling or working with it. If solder paste gets on
skin, immediately wash with soap and water. See the MSDS for more information.

Dispose of paste and contaminated waste in designated containers.

The alcohol used in cleaning solder paste dries the skin. It is required that protective gloves be
worn to prevent alcohol from getting on your hands.

Handle boards only by their edges to prevent contaminating solder surfaces.

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ESD as required in all areas – self explanatory Don’t hesitate to use E-Stop when required

Don’t get caught under here – there’s but a single support other
than the print head support mechanism Prevent solder defects by handling PCB’s properly

Board edge clamps are RAZOR sharp & VERY dangerous Always wear gloves when handling solder paste

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21 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

STENCIL PRINTING PROCESS - PRELIMINARY


Before starting stencil printing operations, ensure the following requirements are met:

Safety, ESD, material handling as required

Machine working as required

Inspect inside machine before proceeding – any items (tools, broken pins, etc.) or material (mylar,
solder paste, rags, etc.) that might be a safety hazard or cause machine damage – remove items
or material before proceeding – call maintenance if machine parts damaged or broken.

Always look inside machine before starting any job Get the crud out as well as unsafe material

Broken pin problem now eliminated? If broken pins found, notify engineering immediately

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22 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

WHAT TO BUILD
SOPT (Setup Optimization) list - determine PCA to be built

Staging area - locate PCAs to be started – verify correct number with SOPT list

You know where this is You know where this is. Are required boards there?

CAUTION: SOME PCAS DIFFER BY ONLY ONE DIGIT – ENSURE SOPT LIST, ROUTER, AND
PANEL LABEL IDENTICAL

Count panels and routers - one router - each panel - ensure quantities match SOPT – if not, check
with logistics

If a panel has one or more skipped images - router has decreased build

If routers, panels, and images do not match - contact material logistics

Barcode routers - staging area - read all routers to be started before taking into PNP area

Take bar-coded routers and panels to DEK on appropriate line

Read router to determine what process and what side of PCA shall be processed. Also, determine
solder paste types, special fixtures, and/or special processes that shall be followed.

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23 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

NOTE: USE REQUIRED SMT FLOW CHART AND OPERATION NUMBERS TO ENSURE
"FLOOR SHIFT" SOFTWARE WORKS PROPERLY.

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24 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

POD DFM/CE - REVISION 3


25 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Fill out placement logbook - PCA being started

Determine if rest of line setup and ready to run - no excessive delays are encountered because of
setups, missing parts, etc.

If PCA placed on hold it is the operator’s responsibility to determine and follow procedures

Reference On Hold process

Fill out the book Check the rest of the SMT line before proceeding

STANDOFFS AND TEMPLATES


Required Fuji standoff templates - to set standoffs on downline Fuji equipment - double sided
boards

Check standoff data base – determine if premade Fuji standoff template available

If no pre-made Fuji standoff template - create - using Plexiglas sheet

Clean old markings off Plexiglas with alcohol

Wipe down both sides of Plexiglas with antistatic spray

Place Plexiglas over side of board with parts on it - align tooling holes - keep aligned while tracing -
trace around images/parts with marker and indicate location

Turn Plexiglas over - mark this side as “up”

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26 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

STENCILS
Get stencil (s) for PCA - stencil library

Obtain tooling number from router, or stencil report for production assemblies or documentation for
proto assemblies

At stencil library terminal - part search (F5) if in part search mode - if not - change search (F6) -
change to part search mode – part search (F5)

Type tooling number - enter/return

F4 (alpha character = locations carousel #2)

Retrieve stencil from position shown in the location field

Stencil library/location terminal database One stencil library location

Get the right stencil & be sure it is clean Verify the right stencil number and name

Once stencil retrieved - verify tooling number – F10 (keyboard)

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27 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

If stencil missing - check “stencils to be repaired log” - training manual storage location, or stencil
cleaner, or on other lines

Ensure stencils properly placed back in storage when finished

Obtain tooling number from stencil

Stencil library terminal – part search (F5) if in part search mode. If not – change search (F6) -
change to part search mode - then part search (F5)

Type tooling number - enter/return

F4 (alpha character = locations carousel #2)

Verify tooling number correct - place stencil in position shown in location field

F10 (keyboard)

Return stencils to proper location Inspect stencils to ensure they are clean and undamaged

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28 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

SOLDER PASTE
Solder paste - hazardous material - wear gloves when handling paste - dispose of paste and
contaminated waste in designated containers

Solder paste types - 8090-1158 - Qualitek Delta solder paste jars - unless router says otherwise

Solder paste types - 8090-1273 - Indium SMQ-62 solder paste jars - used when router indicates

Solder paste types - 8090-1289 - Qualitek Delta type 615D syringes - used in PNP inspection as
required by process documents and minor solder repairs on misprinted panels

Indium solder paste and specifications Qualitek Delta solder paste and specifications

Solder paste stored - refrigerator - temperature - 35 to 50 degrees F

Solder paste shelf life - not used if older than expiration date

Solder paste removed from refrigerator - brought to room temperature +/-5 degrees before use -
warm-up area – one jar per line - Qualitek and SMQ-62 and one cartridge of Qualitek staged
before use

When jar or cartridge taken from warm-up area - replace with one from refrigerator

Before using a new jar - use temperature probe to verify temperature - room temperature +/-5
degrees

NOTE: IT IS ESSENTIAL SOLDER PASTE VERIFIED TO BE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE


BEFORE USING

Use fresh jar of solder paste - start of each shift - when stenciling board with extra fine pitch - jar in
use four or more hours - anytime jar producing unacceptable prints

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29 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

DEK 265GSX
Turn power on - rotate main power switch clockwise - quarter turn (switch located on lower front
right side of machine)

When prompted by computer - press green system button to initialize machine (button located on
control console)

Use router - identify tooling number to be loaded - file name same as stencil tooling number minus
dashes - be sure to load tooling number of side to be processed on double sided boards

With main screen status displayed (F6) - if different screen displayed exit (F8) - back to main
screen.

Machine power on System button to initialize

Main screen status Load data

Load data (F2)

Keyboard - type filename - (example T123456) - if stencil filename not in database - call PIM

When correct filename highlighted - load (F1) - to load data file - exit (F8) - return to main screen
Load data file - before loading stencil

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30 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Determine if PCA requires tooling change

Last data file ran Select new data file

NOTE: DEK’S WITH FINE PITCH AUTOFLEX (FPA) DO NOT USE MAGNETIC STANDOFFS –
GO TO SQUEEGEES SECTION OF THIS PROCEDURE

Use tooling number - search template database - determine if DEK magnetic standoff template
available for board side being built

If no template in database - skip to install squeegees part of this procedure – If template found -
continue setting magnetic standoffs

Change Tooling (F6)

Head (F2)

Wait until "raise head using 2-button control" message appears in message status window - press
and hold in two green buttons on machine front - until head in full up position

Remove red safety bar (print head support mechanism) from its holder on machine front

Install red safety bar - front left machine corner in corresponding female receptacles - black arrow
facing operator - pointing up

WARNING: BOARD CLAMPS IN MIDDLE OF BOARD TRANSPORT RAILS - RAZOR SHARP


EDGES

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31 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Use two button control to raise print head Remove safety bar

Correctly install safety bar (print head support mech) Razor sharp board clamps exposed

Select required magnetic board support template

Place template over raised board support pins

Place magnetic standoffs in template openings-to insure accurate locations

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32 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Required tooling pin template Place template over non-FPA pins programmed up

Place required magnetic pins as required in template All pins in place as required for specific job

Stencil cleaning paper roll in required position Remove and replace safety bar in its holder

Verify stencil cleaning paper roll has not been dislodged

Remove red safety bar - secure it in its holder

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33 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Head (F2)

Press and hold in two green buttons on machine front - until head fully lowered

Press head (F2) Lower print head into position

Press green system button Exit (F8)

Press green system button to clear red system power down (safety interlock) message

Exit (F8)

When job completed, remove magnetic standoffs and template so that magnetic standoffs do not
interfere with autoflex pins

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34 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

SQUEEGEES
Determine size squeegees required

½ panel size printed circuit board - 350 millimeters (large squeegees)

Large (1/2) panel 350 mm squeegee on top


1/3 panel size printed circuit board - 200 millimeters (small squeegees)

Small (1/3) panel 200 mm on bottom

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35 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

From main status menu - setup (F6)

Setup squeegee (F4)

Change squeegee (F1) - print head moves to machine front

Lift printer cover

Setup (F6) Setup squeegee (F4)

Change squeegee (F1) Lift print head cover

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36 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Place rear squeegee into holder - tighten screws finger tight

Rear squeegee - mounting screws farther apart than front squeegee - squeegee has slot - matches
with pin in holder - prevents installing squeegee backwards

Place front squeegee into holder - tighten finger tight

Close printer cover

Press green system button

Continue (F1)

Verify front and rear squeegee pressures set - 10kg

NOTE: SOME PROGRAMS MAY BE SET TO 11 OR 12 KG - IF PRESSURES NOT SET


CORRECTLY - CALL PIM OR MAINTENANCE

Verify front and rear squeegee pressures set to 6 kg

NOTE: SOME PROGRAMS MAY BE SET TO 7 OR 8 KG - IF PRESSURES NOT SET


CORRECTLY - CALL PIM OR MAINTENANCE

Rear squeegee placed in holder and hand tightened Front squeegee placed in holder and hand tightened

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37 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Close printer cover Press green system button

CALIBRATE SQUEEGEE REFERENCE HEIGHTS

WARNING: DO NOT PERFORM THIS PROCESS WITH STENCIL IN MACHINE - DAMAGE


SHALL OCCUR

NOTE: THE ABOVE WARNING IS APPLICABLE EVEN THOUGH THE SOFTWARE DOES NOT
PERMIT CALIBRATION WHEN STENCIL INSTALLED

Perform calibration each time clean set of squeegees installed

NOTE: THIS ENSURES LOAD AMPLIFIER ON SQUEEGEE ASSEMBLY STAYS IN SYNC WITH
SQUEEGEE PRESSURES FOR EACH STENCILING PROCESS

Calibrate heights (F2) - setup squeegee menu

Display prompts - ensure correct squeegees fitted

Physically verify correct length squeegees installed for correct program

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38 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

When correct size squeegees fitted and verified - continue (F1)

If correct size squeegees not fitted - exit (F8) - reload correct size squeegees - at this point -
operator press calibrate heights (F2) - restart process

CAUTION: NEVER PRESS RESTORE DEFAULTS (F3) - MAINTENANCE AND ENGINEERING


USE ONLY

F1 – continue key pressed - print carriage positions squeegees over front rail board clamp pressing
front squeegee onto board clamp to calibrate the reference height - followed by rear squeegee

During calibration - display prompts – calibrating pressure heights – do not open covers

Process lasts 30-45 seconds – with no error indicators

If error displayed during calibrations - call machine technician or engineer immediately

After completion of successful calibration - exit (F8)

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39 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

INSTALL STENCIL
Load stencil software (stencil = “screen”)

Again, ensure correct stencil (s) for job

If present, remove any shims on stencil’s long side

Using permanent marker, darken fiducials before proceeding (DO NOT WAIT UNTIL AFTER
INSTALLING STENCIL IN MACHINE AND HAVE TO REMOVE IT TO DARKEN)

CAUTION: AGAIN ENSURE NO FOREIGN MATTER ON ANY STENCIL SURFACE – PREVENT


INADVERDANT PIN CONTACE AND IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE TO STENCIL AND PINS – AND
ENSURE EFFECTIVE PASTE PRINT HEIGHT/AMOUNT

Lift printer cover

With etched writing (corresponding to PCB tooling hole side - LEFT) - slide stencil onto chase rails
until screen frame about even with rails – just past red laser mark

Lower the printer cover

Press green system button to clear red system power down (safety interlock) message)

Ensure correct stencil for job Darken fiducials before loading stencil

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40 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Insert stencil Stencil in position just beyond laser sensor

Change screen (F5) - observe machine pulling stencil in and clamp in position

Exit (F8)

VERIFY PROGRAM
Mode (F1) - change mode to step

Exit (F8) - machine automatically adjusts rails and board support pins - per the board’s program

Run (F1)
Auto board (F1)

Ensure board properly marked only panel edges – not on images

When prompted by display - load board - slide a board onto conveyor rails - most of board to be
supported by rails - tooling holes shall be on board’s trailing edge (left facing) - match stencil and
program - press confirm (F1)

Mark information only on panel edge – not images Correctly load board on conveyor

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41 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Board fiducial location Board fiducial on split screen located and identified

Step (F1) - step (F1)

Board fiducial #1 - near center - left half of monitor split screen – displays good contrast

NOTE: MOST PROGRAMS USE ROUND FIDUCIALS ON DIAGONALLY OPPOSITE BOARD


CORNERS - CORRESPONDING “DONUT” FIDUCIALS ON STENCIL BOTTOM - THESE
PROGRAMMED AS CIRCLES - WHEN STENCIL DOES NOT HAVE “DONUTS” - PADS AND
APERTURES TAUGHT AS RECTANGULAR FIDUCIALS - SOME BOARDS USE VIDEO
MODEL - ON A CUSTOM BASIS - PROGRAM LISTS COORDINATES FOR FIDUCIALS USED -
IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE WHAT FIDUCIAL TAUGHT - CONTACT PIM

Step (F1) - move to board fiducial #1 - if position not good correct as follows

Step (F1) - to move to stencil fiducial #2 - if position not good correct as follows

Step (F1) - to move to board fiducial #2 - if position not good correct as follows

Step (F1) - to move to stencil fiducial #2 - if position not good correct as follows

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42 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Red arrow pointing to board fiducial Red arrow pointing to stencil circle fiducial

Red arrow pointing to board fid on split screen Red arrow pointing stencil aperture fid on split screen

If position close to edge or partly off monitor - adjust (F4) - increase (F6) - or decrease (F7) - move
image right or left in X-axis - roughly center fiducial - next (F4) - select Y-axis - press increase (F6)
- or decrease (F7) - move image up or down if necessary - image not needed to be perfectly
centered - shall be well away from edges - press exit (F8)

If fiducial not visible - search step (F5) - begin manual spiral search pattern - repeat until fiducial
found - adjust per above to center image - search reset (F6) - may be pressed at any time to return
to original position

If fiducial not found - error message - or cannot find fiducial - refer to troubleshooting tips
before calling maintenance, PIM, or process engineering

Step (F1) - machine saves new information - steps through all four fiducials - verify their finding
Exit (F8)

NOTE: WHEN PROGRAM VERIFIED, VISUALLY VERIFY STENCIL APERTURE TO BOARD


PAD ALIGNMENT – SEE ONLY COLOR OF PADS – NO PCB GREEN SHOWING ANYWHERE
– USE PASTE LOAD (F3)(F2) COMMANDS FROM SECTION 3.12. (FOLLOWING

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43 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

PROCEDURE) AND SQUEEGEES MOVE TO MACHINE’S REAR PROVIDING THE REQUIRED


VIEW WHEN PRINTER COVER RAISED

Conductor patterns clearly visible through apertures Conductor patterns clearly visible through apertures

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44 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

LOAD SOLDER PASTE


Refer to router to verify type paste to be used

From main menu - paste load (F3)

Manual load (F2) - squeegee head moves back out of way – eases paste loading – allows view of
solder termination area alignment through stencil apertures

Raise printer cover

Using only specified spatula – knead paste in jar and load solder paste onto stencil - spread paste
out across blade’s width - minimize knead stokes needed to level paste log

Close printer cover

Press green system button

Continue (F1) - print head returns to front

Exit (F8)

Specified solder paste spatula with chamfered edges so as not to


Raise printer cover scrape plastic contaminates from jar into paste

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45 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

“Kneading” solder paste in jar Carefully applying solder paste on stencil

KNEAD SOLDER PASTE

NOTE: UNPOPULATED BOARDS (WITHOUT COMPONENTS ON EITHER BOARD SIDE) MAY


BE USED FOR KNEADING - WITH MYLAR FILM - POPULATED BOARDS (FOR EXAMPLE -
SECOND SIDE OF SMT-6) CANNOT USE MYLAR - ESD REASONS - UNPOPULATED BARE
BOARD USED - OR DUMMY BOARD

Place panel on mylar Cut mylar to fit panel

Mylar - hard for machine to find fiducials – cut/clearance mylar around global fiducials (DON’T CUT
IMAGE) - help recognize pads as fiducials - use eraser - remove shine from mylar surface - to
press mylar tight against board surface - remove 1/8” mylar strip - both narrow board ends

NOTE: IT IS IMPORTANT NOT TO HAVE ANY MYLAR HANG OFF ANY BOARD SIDE

Using a blank dummy board - board program temporarily edited to run without fiducials as follows

Main menu - setup (F6) - edit data (F3)

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46 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

CAUTION: IN EDIT MENU - BE EXTREMELY CAREFUL NOT TO PUSH WRONG BUTTONS -


MAKING CHANGES IN WRONG PLACES - USING NEXT AND PREVIOUS MOVES THE
CURSOR FROM ONE BOX TO ANOTHER - USING INCREASE AND DECREASE CHANGES
THE VALUE WITHIN A GIVEN DATA BOX - IF DATA CHANGED IN THE FIRST BOX
(PRODUCT NAME) BY ACCIDENT - OPEN KEYBOARD TRAY AND PUSH ENTER TO RESET
NAME - IF MACHINE PROMPTS TO COPY INSPECTION FILE - NO - F9 - IF ANY OTHER BOX
CHANGED BY ACCIDENT - OR IF UNSURE ABOUT ANY CHANGE MADE - RELOAD
PROGRAM - BEGIN EDITING AGAIN

Scroll down - next (F4) - or scroll up with previous (F5) - until alignment mode highlighted

Scroll up or down through choices using increase (F6) - or decrease (F7) - until non-vision
displayed

Exit (F8) - do not press save (F2)

From setup menu - mode (F1) - until auto mode displayed

Exit (F8)

If prompted screen not changed - use screen (F1)

NOTE: THIS MESSAGE DOES NOT APPEAR WHEN PROCEDURES FOLLOWED PROPERLY.

Run (F1)

Load board (with mylar) onto rails on machine’s left side

Ensure knead cycle done (two print strokes instead of one) - knead paste (F6)

Board moves to machine’s right side for unloading - screen prompts to unload board - carefully
unload board - screen changes to load board prompt - if it returns to main menu - press run (F1)

Repeat kneading process - minimum of 4 print strokes total

Examine print - incompletes and bridges - or other print defects as mis-alignment more than 25%

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47 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Load board correctly onto conveyor Solder paste kneading – simulation with cover open

Low magnification print inspection Higher magnification print inspection

After completing kneading (on mylar) - perform automatic screen cleaning before running real
boards - exit (F8) - press clean screen (F4) –

NOTE: TO INCREASE PROCESS SPEED - PRESS CLEAN SCREEN (F4) - BEFORE


REMOVING KNEADING BOARD FROM RAILS - THIS CAUSES DEK TO GO INTO CLEAN
MODE AUTOMATICALLY - MACHINE WIPES STENCIL BOTTOM - AND VACUUM PASTE
FROM APERTURES - FAILURE TO DO SO CAUSES PASTE TO BRIDGE ON SUBSEQUENT
BOARDS.

If 2 fiducial vision used to knead - proceed to stencil print boards

If non-vision mode used to kneading - reset program to 2 fiducial.

Setup (F6) - edit data (F3) - scroll to alignment mode - press previous (F5) - change mode to 2
fiducial using increase (F6) - exit (F8) - do not save (F2)

If at any time wrong data entered into program recover by reloading program

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48 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Exit (F8) - return to main menu

STENCIL PRINT BOARDS


After setup and kneading complete - and vision reset to 2 fiducial - use auto mode - automatically
print boards - step or single modes allowed

REMINDER: ENSURE 2 FIDUCIAL VISION IS SELECTED BEFORE PRINTING REAL BOARDS

From main menu - run (F1)

When prompted to load board - load board onto rails on machine’s left side - continue (F1) -
machine completes print cycle automatically - when prompted to unload board - remove from
machine’s right side - machine prompt resets to load board

If machine does not find board or stencil fiducials - refer to troubleshooting

Use magnifying glass to inspect every board for incompletes, bridges, and stray solder paste -
inspect paste alignment paste to pad - if paste more than 50% off pad (non fine pitch)25% fine
pitch and XFP - print rejected and washed - use microscope or vision system to complete FP and
XFP pad inspection

Mark line number, technology (example - 6B), assembly number (last three digits as 10857-68002 -
857-002), and time on all boards - if panel has skips - mark skip number - if SMQ solder paste
used mark SMQ on first panel - on first panel mark first – last panel mark last - (EXAMPLE – L1 6B
857-002 ”time” skip # SMQ 1ST or LAST)

CAUTION: BE CAREFUL NOT TO MARK ON BOARD’S IMAGE AREA

Run (F1) Load board correctly

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49 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Write only on panel edges only with fine tip pen Inspect actual print (up to 25% misregistration allowed)

Machine automatically (only in auto mode) wipes stencil bottom on programmed frequency - stencil
can be cleaned on demand by pressing clean screen (F4) - during this cycle - do not interrupt
process

If delay exceeds10 minutes - knead blank or dummy panel every 10 minutes to keep paste active -
remember - clean screen after running mylar boards - before running actual board

Three hour window from stencil to reflow - do not stencil print more boards than can be processed
in this time - boards not reflowed during this time shall be washed - loaded boards may be waived
by process engineering or PDA - contact them before scraping parts off and washing

Wash the stencil and squeegees after two hours of use or on jobs lasting more than two hours

Wash squeegees at least every two hours and when changing paste types

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50 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

CLEANUP
After completing build, or when a long delay is anticipated (when unable to kneed paste at ten
minute intervals), clean off the stencil and squeegees, and return paste to jar as follows:

CAUTION: DO NOT USE MYLAR SHEETS INSIDE MACHINE

From automatic running menu - exit (F8) - then setup (F6)

Setup squeegee (F4) - change squeegee (F1)

Lift printer cover - remove squeegees - wipe off excess paste

CAUTION: USE CARE HANDLING SQUEEGEES - AVOID DAMAGING BLADE EDGES

Close printer cover - system button

Continue (F1)

Exit (F8)

Change screen (F5) - machine brings stencil machine front

When prompted - lift printer cover - remove stencil – remove solder paste from screen - plastic
scraper or spatula - return paste to jar - remove ALL remaining paste from screen - lint free cloth
and alcohol - clean remaining paste from the scraper or spatula and around jar

Wipe up any paste drips inside machine - lower printer cover and press system button

Dispose of any lint free cloths and gloves in the hazardous waste bin

Clean stencil in stencil cleaner

Clean squeegees by wiping - clean in stencil cleaner

CAUTION: USE ONLY LINT FREE CLOTH OR PLASTIC TO CLEAN METAL BLADES. DO NOT
USE METAL SPATULA FOR THIS OPERATION

Clean up station

Clean up any solder dropped on floor

BOARD SUPPORTS - SUPPLEMENTAL

CAUTION: IF BOARD SUPPORT MAGNETS WERE MANUALLY PLACED, THEY SHALL BE


REMOVED AFTER COMPLETING PRINTING THAT BUILD. FAILURE TO REMOVE MAGNETS
CAN CAUSE DAMAGE TO SUBSEQUENT BOARDS, OR TO THE MACHINE.

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51 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Return to main menu - exit (F8) - until main menu screen appears

Head (F2) - press and hold two green buttons on machine front to raise printer head
Install safety bar under the print head

Push down all the AutoFlex pins - if desired - to make removing the plastic template easier

Remove magnets and template

Remove safety bar and return to holder

Head (F2) - press and hold two green buttons to lower head

Press system button to clear cover interlock message

Turn power off only when required

NOTE: TURNING POWER OFF IS NORMALLY DONE ONLY ON WEEKENDS (AFTER


COMPLETING CLEANUP), OR TO RESET MACHINE IN ORDER TO CLEAR COMPUTER
PROBLEMS.

Turn power off by rotating main power switch - lower right front of machine - quarter-turn counter-
clockwise

TROUBLESHOOTING
The DEK stencil printer has many safety interlocks, especially the two e-stops, and front and rear
cover interlocks. Tripping any of these, even momentarily, shall cause the machine to stop
immediately, and display a red error or warning message. Most of these are cleared by releasing
the e-stop or closing the covers, then pressing the green system button on the control console.
Some messages have the options displayed to press continue (F1), or exit or abort (F8).

Fiducial not found


If contrast not good on screen fids – darken them with black marker – wipe off excess ink with lint
free cloth and alcohol.

This error often happens due to machine variations in stencil position, causing the fiducial to
appear too far off-center on the monitor. Adjust fiducial position as required.

Mylar makes it hard for the machine to find a fiducial. Cutting out the mylar around a global fiducial
solves this. Using an eraser to take the shine off the mylar surface and to press the mylar tight
against the board helps to read pads as apertures.

This error message also can be caused by loading the stencil or board incorrectly, or having the
wrong stencil, board, or program.

Some boards have apertures taught as fiducals. If the aperture is not clean enough, this error can
occur. Perform screen clean, and retry printing.

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52 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Sometimes, the machine will not find a fiducial if proceeding directly from auto mode using non-
vision to auto mode using 2 fiducial. Simply running through one cycle in step mode usually allows
printing without having to actually use the adjust feature.

System suspended while covers open


This message shows when the front cover or the rear cover is raised. It resets when both are
closed all the way.

Alignment out of range


This error is due to stencil being too far out of position. Remove and reload stencil, and try again. If
problem persists, call process engineering for help.

Board stuck in rails, board on rails, command timed out, or motor comms failure
These messages usually mean a board is stuck inside the machine. Raise the head, carefully
remove the board, lower the head, and press system button. Alternatively, push in an e-stop,
carefully remove the board, release the e-stop, and press system button. Message should clear.

NOTE: DETERMINE IF CONVEYOR BELT HAS COME OFF PULLEYS

Squeegee pressure error


This indicates a high or low squeegee pressure. This typically occurs during the initial kneading, as
the machine adjusts the pressure. Press continue. After one or two strokes each direction, this
message should not repeat.

Out of paper
Paper roll for stencil underside clean has run out, or fed improperly. Call line maintenance.

Program edited incorrectly


If it is suspected the wrong parameter in a program was edited, reload the data file. Unless save
was pressed instead of exit, original program shall be intact still. If program was altered on hard
drive, or if uncertainty exists, call process engineering.

Some AutoFlex pins are pushed down, but shall be programmed to stay up
From main menu, press setup (F6). Then press change tooling (F6), adjust (F1), then change
AutoFlex (F1). Now press reset (F3). Press exit (F8) four times. Machine shall reset AutoFlex pins
and return to main menu.

NOTE: DO NOT PERFORM THE FOREGOING OPERATION WITH TWO SIDED ASSEMBLIES –
ON THE SECOND SIDE – ONCE RESET IS HIT, ALL STANDOFFS ARE BROUGHT BACK UP
– INCLUDING THOSE PROGRAMMED TO REMAIN DOWN – RELOAD PROGRAM INSTEAD.

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SMARTSONIC STENCIL CLEANER


The Smartsonic cleaner is used to remove solder paste from stencils, squeegees and misprinted
panels. Caution – do not use the Smartsonic to clean a misprinted panel if the panel has
components on it.

Smartsonic safety
The 440-r detergent can cause skin irritation. Use of gloves is recommended. If concentrate gets
on skin, wash with soap and large amounts of water. If detergent gets in eyes, wash eyes in eye
wash for at least 15 minutes and then get medical attention. See the MSD's for more information.
To stop any operation of the Smartsonic cleaner, push the red emergency stop button.

NOTE: DOWNWARD MOVEMENT OF THE COVER shall BE STOPPED BY BREAKING THE


LIGHT CURTAIN. TO RESET INTERRUPTED OPERATION PRESS THE GREEN “+” BUTTON
ON THE FRONT OF THE MACHINE.

Smartsonic stencil cleaning


Remove excess solder paste from the stencil before placing it in the Smartsonic.

Place the stencil in the basket with the dirty side towards the rear of the machine and the longest
dimension of the stencil horizontal. Engage the top of the stencil frame in the upper retainer of the
basket, lift up and set the bottom of the stencil frame in the lower part of the basket.

Press the cycle start button to start the cleaner.

When the cleaning cycle is complete the stencil shall move to the front of the machine and stop.
The monitor shall say “main menu ready for process”

Verify that stencil is clean and place in storage cart to air dry. If stencil is needed immediately, blow
dry with air gun and verify that stencil is clean and dry before using.
Before end of each shift .put away all stencils in storage cart.

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Cleaning misprinted panels with Smartsonic

NOTE: DO NOT USE SMARTSONIC IF PANEL HAS COMPONENTS LOADED ON IT. DO NOT
USE SMARTSONIC IF PANEL HAS GLUE FROM GL2 ON IT.

Place misprinted panel in Smartsonic basket with dirty side to rear of machine.

Press the cycle start button to start the cleaner.

When the cleaning cycle is complete the basket shall move to the front of the machine and stop.
The monitor shall display “main menu ready for process”.

Remove the panel and wash it in the inline wash machine located in wave/wash area.

Inspect both sides of the cleaned panel for solder residue. Wash panel again if necessary.

All labels shall be replaced after wash. See label area in stores.

Squeegee cleaning with Smartsonic

Place dirty squeegees in Smartsonic basket.

Press the cycle start button to start the cleaner.

When the cleaning cycle is complete the basket shall move to front of machine and stop. The
monitor shall display “main menu ready for process”.

Remove squeegees from basket. Use air gun to blow dry squeegees if necessary.

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CONCEPTRONIC CLEANER
The Conceptronic cleaner may be used to remove solder paste from misprinted panels and
squeegees. The Conceptronic shall be used to clean misprinted panels that have components
loaded on them. The Conceptronic shall be used to clean panels that have glue from gl2 on them

CONCEPTRONIC CLEANER SAFETY


The chemicals used in this process are an irritant. If they get on skin, it shall be washed with soap
and water. If any chemical gets in the eyes they shall be flushed at the eye rinse station for a
minimum of 20 minutes and then the person should receive medical attention to ensure no further
damage is done. See Aquanox SSA MSD's for more information.

Use protective gloves to remove cleaned items from machine as they are hot (160° F.).

Conceptronic cleaner operation


The green ready light shall be lit to indicate that the cleaner is ready for a new process cycle.

Open door and load dirty panel or squeegees into basket

Close the door and latch both latches

Press the green start wash button

When the cleaning cycle is complete an alarm shall sound

Press the red acknowledge button and remove cleaned panels or squeegees from cleaner

Close the door and latch both latches

For misprinted panels perform the following process steps as required


If the panel has glue from gl2 process on it, wipe panel with a lint free rag that has been dampened
with “Zestron SD300 adhesive remover” to remove glue after Conceptronic wash.

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All panels that have been cleaned in Conceptronic cleaner need to be washed in the inline wash
machine located in the wave/wash area

After inline wash inspect both sides of the panel for solder and glue residue. Repeat wash process
if necessary

All labels shall be replaced after wash. See label area in stores.

Washed panels with tsops loaded on them need to be inspected by process engineering before
further processing. Put on-hold if process engineering is not available.

PRE-PROCESS AUDIT CHECKLIST


The following checklist shall be used by all stencil print process managers (operators) to ensure
nothing defective enters or leaves the DEK stencil printing machine. This checklist also is designed
to promote long term continuous improvement based on vital information derived from operator use
and feedback.

1 STENCIL AS REQUIRED
1 STENCIL CLEAN AND FREE OF FOREIGN MATTER
1 STENCIL FIDUCIALS EASILY RECOGNIZABLE
1 PCB AS REQUIRED
1 PCB MATCHES STENCIL AND ROUTER
1 PCB FIDUCIALS EASILY RECOGNIZABLE
1 MACHINE PROGRAMMED AND SETUP AS REQUIRED
1 STENCIL ORIENTATION AS REQUIRED AND INSTALLED PROPERLY
1 PCB ORIENTATION AS REQUIRED
1 SQUEEGEE CONDITION AS REQUIRED
1 SQUEEGEES CORRECTLY INSTALLED
1 PASTE APPLIED AND KNEADED AS REQUIRED
1 BOTTOM SUPPORT PINS CORRECTLY PROGRAMMED AND POSITIONED
1 SQUEEGEE CALIBRATION AS SPECIFIED
1 FIDUCIAL RECOGNITION AND ALIGNMENT AS SPECIFIED
1 STENCIL/BOARD ALIGNMENT AS REQUIRED (SEE ALL SILVER THROUGH APERTURES)
1 BOARD STOP WORKS AS REQUIRED
1 PRINT PROGRAM PROPERLY SETUP
1 MYLAR PRINT FIRST ARTICLE AS SPECIFIED
1 PCB PRINT AND ACCEPT FIRST ARTICLE AS SPECIFIED

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12.3 A FEW WORDS ABOUT THROUGH HOLE TECHNOLOGY


Yes, no matter how hard we try to forget, through hole technology is alive and well. Well, at least, it
isn't dead yet as many of us predicted many years ago.

The following information is not about procedures. It just provides some general considerations.

How many still have this stuff in their assembly operations?

I read on the IPC Technet the other day that some SMT folks don't associate with through hole
folks. I was shocked but not totally amazed. I mean, how in any process managed, cross-trained,
manufacturing organization could this be? How absurd! What total nonsense, or maybe not.

I also have been reading and hearing old questions being asked, by SMTers, how long lead
lengths should be to ensure acceptable protrusion. Another question asked about 1W resistors
concerning the distance they should be raised above the board substrate surface to effect
acceptable thermal dissipation. Even current IPC's documents no longer address these issues.

Now one must look to older, near ancient (by today's standards), design standards and acceptance
specifications. This seems ludicrous, but I'm just an old fashioned kinda guy.

MIL standards like 275 practically no longer exist but they had the answers to the above questions
and many more. Even MIL standard's evolution to IPC has lost content concerning through hole
requirements.

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The following image is taken from MIL-STD-275 showing some through hole requirements
including thermal dissipation:

Someone suggested people "might" go back to IPC's earlier 610 versions to see if they held
answers to these questions. They do, but does anyone care and what about the vital through hole
assembly team members? Folks, we're a long way from replacing many through hole components
with those SMT. The following few images show some replacement examples:

REPLACE THIS WITH THAT? REPLACE THAT WITH THIS?

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REPLACE THIS WITH WHAT? REPLACE THIS WITH WHAT?

WHAT ABOUT ALL


THIS STUFF?

Well, I don't have to say much here. I just know, as do you all, through hole components and
technology will be around a long time.

That's all I have to say about that - FOR NOW.

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12.4 COMPONENT PLACEMENT

MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS PROCEDURES

MOP-5035-2 (SAPPHIRE) COMPONENT PLACEMENT

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1.0 PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of these procedures is to provide detailed instructions concerning SMD placement
manufacturing operations at POD. This is done to ensure product quality consistently meeting or
exceeding POD acceptance criteria.

The scope of these procedures extends to all personnel responsible for ensuring effective surface
mount device (SMD) placement manufacturing operations at POD.

2.0 RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY


The following responsibilities shall be fulfilled to SMD placement manufacturing operations are
properly effected to assure quality at POD:

Manufacturing Engineer
The Manufacturing Engineer is responsible and has authority to provide everything needed by
manufacturing operations personnel to fulfill their responsibilities at POD. This includes procedures,
training, equipment, tools, adequate and safe working conditions, ESD requirements, and all other
required elements.

Maintenance Technician
The Maintenance Technician is responsible and has authority to ensure all operational elements
(equipment, tools, etc.) are maintained and calibrated as specified. This assures all facilities,
equipment, and tools are capable of being effectively and efficiently managed to assure product
quality meeting specified requirements.

Manufacturing Supervisor
The Manufacturing Supervisor is responsible and has authority to provide proper direction to all
manufacturing operations personnel at POD. This includes operational procedures, special
instructions, schedules, product changes, drawings, and required materials and components. This
also includes management directives, performance evaluations, and timely individual and team
performance feedback.

Manufacturing Operations Personnel


Manufacturing Operations Personnel are responsible and have authority to assure manufacturing
operations are carried out in an effective, efficient manner. They are responsible for performing all
manufacturing operations in accordance with current procedures, checklists, and supervisory
direction. All personnel are responsible for effecting management policies and directives to assure
quality meeting or exceeding specified POD requirements.

Quality Assurance Inspection Personnel


Quality Assurance Inspection Personnel are responsible and have authority to determine product
quality does or does not meet specified POD acceptance criteria. They also are responsible for
providing appropriate feedback concerning product quality to management and manufacturing
process managers so corrective or continued manufacturing action may be effected.

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3.0 BACKGROUND
SMD placement operations are one of the first required to make high quality solder joints and
assemblies at POD. As part of these operations, all placement processes, sub processes, and
attendant activities shall be effectively managed to assure required quality. Primary focus is placed
on placement requirements affecting solder joint acceptability. This also is true for all subsequent
surface mount technology (SMT) operations and their processes.

To ensure effective SMD placement process management, primary focus is placed on SMD
placement accuracy (in all axes as X, Y, and Theta). Also, it is essential that SMD orientation and
value requirements be met to ensure specified electrical performance. Component damage and loss
shall be minimized as well.

To assure and effect solder joint quality, placement accuracy is essential. If a device is placed out of
location or tolerance, it may not automatically realign itself during reflow soldering to the extent
required to assure acceptable solder joints. This is especially true for PLCC and other “heavy” device
types that “sink” into the solder paste when placed.

X and Y axis placement accuracy is important. So is Theta or rotational accuracy. If a fine pitch
leaded device is misaligned about its center (perpendicular to the X and Y axes), by more than even
one degree, it may not realign automatically. This presents the possibility of opens, shorts,
unacceptable solder joints, or all.

Today and tomorrow’s device types are becoming smaller as the demand for higher density
interconnect system technology increases. Whereas many of yesterday’s leaded devices were on 50
mil centers or were large chip types, today’s are in the range of .020” or below. Today’s chip device
types are shrinking in size to below 0402 sizes as 0201’s become available and are being placed by
more people in industry. Not only does this place demands on placement accuracy, it also places
them on retrieving (picking) and aligning capabilities.

Many current device types defy logic in terms of being visible let alone being placeable. This extends
to increased demands on soldering processes to effect acceptable solder joints. Simply, SMD
placement equipment, processes, and attendant mechanisms or tools have continuously increasing
demands placed on them. The same is true for SMD placement process managers who shall be
highly trained to become capable of carefully fulfilling increasing responsibilities.

Types other than leaded or chip devices also push the edge of the envelope. Other types include ball
grid array (BGA), micro BGA (uBGA), tape ball grid array (TBGA), ceramic ball grid array (CBGA),
ceramic column grid array (CCGA), flip chip technology, chip scale packages (CSP), and sub uBGA
devices. Some of these devices have terminations on 12 mil centers (micro and sub micro BGA as
examples). Some are bonded directly to the PCB substrate (flip chips and CSP’s) requiring
tremendous placement accuracy and even more advanced attachment capabilities.

From the above, it is clear true design for manufacturing (DFM) and concurrent engineering (CE)
efforts are required to ensure SMD land pattern dimensions, tolerances, and location accuracy is
achieved. It all starts at the design level. For a design to be proven (made acceptable) in all
subsequent processes, it shall be processed after all responsible process managers providing input

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concerning how capable the design is of being made acceptable in each process step. This shall be
understood and planned from design through test and customer acceptance.

From design through test, process managers shall have a clear view of all affects all processes, sub
processes, and activities have on design rule selections. Conversely, process capabilities shall be
better planned, implemented, and managed to assure design with process compatibility. This shall be
done to ensure designs and product meeting customer contract requirements on time, the first time,
every time.

Ideally, all processes shall be statistically characterized. Determining process capabilities provides a
clear indication about how well designs may be produced within them.

If everything does not come together as planned, repair or rework considerations must made. This
too includes emphasis on replacement accuracy concerning rework equipment. Again, all SMT
equipment types are constantly evolving to meet these ever increasing demands.

Some equipment designs are moving away from single turret, lead screw driven types. It is thought
lead screw machines may not be completely capable across the entire range of motion required to
ensure accuracy and repeatability. For this reason, belts sometimes replace lead screws. This is
done while linear encoders provide very accurate feedback to drive motor controllers to assure head
placement location and positioning requirements are met.

The most important advances in machine placement accuracy have been made with “touchless”
device centering systems. No longer are alignment “dies” or stations required to pre-align devices
before picking and placement.

These systems are guided by sophisticated vision cameras, lasers, and microcomputer capabilities.
Vision systems now provide very high resolution cameras to very closely correlate component and
PCB placement feature requirements (leads, spheres, edges, columns, and fiducials as examples).
This ensures the accuracy and repeatability required for effective placement. Laser systems also
complement vision systems, or provide a unique tool for placement accuracy vision systems may not.
This is true for certain device types. Examples are small chip devices.

Much of this technology is advancing to keep pace with speed and throughput (efficiency)
requirements. Efficiency also is improving via improved process management to minimize wrong or
missing components. Touch-up and/or rework demanded not long ago with less advanced
technology is now minimized. However, problems may exist when increased production speed
overdrives design for manufacturability or test requirements, as examples.

Advances also have been made in areas of component delivery systems. Tape and reel mechanisms
or tape feeders have been greatly improved. This also is true of the ability to place many more device
types using these systems. “Waffle” trays and pallets still provide pickup access to QFP’s and some
other leaded types as well as BGA’s. Newer bulk feeders, belts, and vibratory mechanisms are on the
horizon for smaller chip device types. Virtually gone are “stick” feeders except in low volume, less
demanding applications.

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Newer programming software is evolving to ensure more effective, efficient process management.
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GDT) is finding its way into the printed circuit fabrication
and assembly worlds. Together with CE, this allows improved focus concerning DFM.

Software now includes advanced, “off line” programming capabilities for SMT assembly lines. This
allows better coordination between all manufacturing and associated responsibility areas. Design,
fabrication, assembly, test, purchasing, material control, inventory, and kiting is much better
managed. This software is called computer aided manufacturing (CAM). It usually is capable of being
integrated into computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) programs or material management systems
(MRP types).

CAM capabilities are used to program entire SMT assembly processes or lines. The software is
especially useful for programming pick and place equipment and processes. It greatly improves line
balancing and optimizing wherein processes and machines are made more efficient because they
place more compatible component types. An example to optimize high speed chip placement
requires programming only the best suited machine to carry out these placement requirements. The
same is true for larger leaded or fine pitch devices as they are best placed by machines more
capable than chip shooters.

POD uses CAM software called UNICAM. It is becoming an industry standard and may find its way
into all machine programming areas. It almost is a universal tool replacing often cumbersome,
machine specific programs and proprietary languages (Fuji, Panasonic, etc.). This especially is true
as more interface software becomes available.

POD has evaluated, qualified, accepted, purchased, and installed Philips SMD placement equipment.
POD operates the Philips “GEM” and “Constellation” series equipment. The “Gem” series consists of
the “Emerald” and “Sapphire” placement machines. The “Constellation” series is made up of the
“Eclipse” and “Orion” models. Each machine model is capable of very accurate placement of all
currently “popular” device types. This includes fine pitch QFP’s, BGA’s, and chip devices to 0402
size.

Placement accuracy typically is .0001”. This is repeatable and is maintained as discussed earlier
based on preventive maintenance and calibration together with designed in process capabilities as
high resolution vision and laser systems.

Placement speed is dependent upon device type with “chip shooter” speeds reaching 25,000
components per hour (cph) on some machines. Leaded device placement focuses mostly on
accuracy with speeds reaching 7,000 cph for SOIC’s, as an example. Again, this is dependent on
device types used.

To ensure effective, efficient process management, one of the most critical factors is preventive
maintenance (PM). Calibration also is required to return equipment and attendant process elements
to specified capabilities after maintenance. To maintain process effectiveness and efficiency, it is
required that each manufacturer have on board well trained maintenance and calibration personnel.
Spare parts and backup plans are equally necessary in the equation.

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With all the advances in placement technology , effective process management is that much more
essential. Only highly trained operational personnel can effectively and efficiently manage such
sophisticated processes. These procedures form part of the training required to effective such
management.

Machine operation is reasonably straightforward due to fairly simple machine designs. Each machine
has two heads driven by servo and stepper motors, and precision ground lead screws. Each machine
is capable of using stick, tape, bulk, and tray/pallet feeders for nearly all available device types. A
particular machine type provides capabilities either for fine pitch or chip devices as indicated in the
following:

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SAPPHIRE
Sapphire, the fastest mounter in the GEM Platform range, is capable of placing up to 25,000 SMDs
per hour. This machine employs Philips patented parallel processing technology, whereby two or
more operations can be performed simultaneously. Its design means that fewer moving parts are
required and unproductive time is minimized. The result is a higher output efficiency, increased
reliability, and significantly reduced cost per placement.

The compact GEM Sapphire employs two independent placement beams. Each is equipped with
12 pick-and-place heads. Individual heads can simultaneously collect components from any mix of
feeders for placement on two PCBs at the same time. The placement heads pick components
while a walking beam transport conveys three boards simultaneously through the Sapphire. This
virtually eliminates delays due to machine overhead for loading and unloading.

Each placement beam has a line sensor camera and vision processor. This permits parallel on-the-
fly device alignment and lead verification at very high speeds. Placement accuracy is 0.1 mm for
chips and 0.08 mm for ICs. Similarly, twin camera systems monitor fiducial marks at board, circuit,
and component levels. A unique bad mark sensing capability enables multi-circuit panels to be run
as large single boards, thereby maximizing placement rates while avoiding component wastage.

A flexible board transport system enables the Sapphire to handle virtually any type PCB.
Conventional tooling pins are used to align boards with standard location holes. Substrates without
tooling holes may be edge-positioned by push pins or by full-length front and rear clamps. Where
required, magnetically attached push-up pins provide underside support. Automatic conveyor width
adjustment enables size changes to be completed in seconds. Advanced electronics, and a
vibration-free frame designed with the aid of sophisticated computer simulation, make the Sapphire
ideal for heavy duty, round-the-clock operation.

Two versions of the chip-shooter are available. The standard configuration accepts boards up to
330 x 407 mm (13” x 16”) and provides 112 total feeder positions. A large-board model
accommodates a 457 x 407 mm (18” x 16”) maximum substrate size with up to 96 feeders. Tape,
stick, and bulk feeders can be fitted in any combination. The following figure represents key
machine features, part names, functions, and operational elements:

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NOZZLES
The images in the following figure show the available nozzles for the Sapphire:

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CONVEYORS
The SYSTEMS conveyor assembly consists of four units as “carry in conveyor,” “carry out conveyor,”
“A table conveyor,” and “B table conveyor.” Each conveyor’s function and PCB transfer direction is
described in the following figure:

NOTE: POD EMPLOYS THE LEFT TO RIGHT FLOW OPTION IN ITS SAPPHIRE PLACEMENT
MACHINE.

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AXIS CONFIGURATION AND OPERATION


The following figures, on this and the following page, show the Sapphire’s axis configuration and
operation:

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PCB LOCATION AND POSITIONING ELEMENTS


The following location and positioning elements are used to secure and position PCB’s in the
machine for component mounting:

Main Stopper
When a PCB is carried in on the conveyor, the main stopper halts its travel in the component
mounting position. It is shown in the figure below (lower right corner - inside circle) with a board
stopped against it. Also note board clamp in the first figure.

Locate Pins
Locate pins are engaged with the positioning holes in a PCB (when available) to secure it in place for
mounting. The moveable locate pins are adjusted according to PCB size. At this time, locate pins are
not used at POD because board designs have no tooling holes in which locate pins would be
inserted.

Push In Unit
The push in unit presses the PCB against the main stopper securing it in position for mounting. The
push in unit is shown in the lower left corner (second image above - inside circle) pushing the board
securely to the board stop shown again on the board’s lower right corner.

Edge Clamps
Edge clamps are shown in first figure above inside the circle. They secure the PCB in place ready for
mounting by clamping its edge. Edge clamps are located just above a push up bar as the bright silver
object extending from left to right in the photo’s center. The push up plate also is shown in this figure
with support pins magnetically adhering to it to support the board secured above them.

Push Up Plate
The push up plate clamps the PCB up against the conveyor rails – with the support pins attached by
magnets on the plate. The plate is shown in the figure above supporting the push up pins ready to
support a board when placed in position above them.

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Push Up Pins
Push up pins are shown in the first figure below as they are arranged on the push up plate to secure
the PCB by pushing it up from the bottom.

Edge Push Up Bars


Edge push up bars are used to secure the PCB by pushing its edges up against the PCB support
plates. The second figure above shows a process manager pointing to a push up bar with the edge
clamps again in view above the bar.

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INPUT AND CONTROL DEVICES


The next two figures represent the machine’s input and control devices as a hand held keyboard
(HHK) and standard keyboard:

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The next figure shows the HHK attached to the machine’s front.

To ensure effective, efficient process management, one of the most critical factors is preventive
maintenance (PM). Calibration also is required to return equipment and attendant process elements
to specified capabilities after maintenance. To maintain process effectiveness and efficiency, it is
required each manufacturer have on board well trained maintenance and calibration personnel.
Spare parts and backup plans are equally necessary in the equation.

With all the advances in placement technology and resulting accuracy, repeatability, speed,
efficiency, and reliability, effective process management is that much more essential. Only highly
trained operational personnel can effectively and efficiently manage such sophisticated processes.
These procedures form part of the training required to effective such management.

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DEFINITIONS
The following definitions are provided for all process managers to better visualize each process for
which they are responsible:

Operations
Operations are defined as a series of processes required to provide product or services meeting
certain requirements. Usually these requirements are based on customer needs, desires, or
demands. POD employs many operations as management, engineering, marketing, sales,
manufacturing, accounting, quality assurance, and others to ensure all its customers receive product
meeting their requirements.

Process
A process is defined as a method or procedure. A process may be a single method or procedure, or
may be made up of sub processes and activities. In a manufacturing operation, a process is
employed to turn acceptable raw materials, components, and designs into acceptable product using
various tool and equipment types.

Sub Process
A sub process may be part of a process. In the pick and place process, several sub processes are
involved to effect acceptable component placement. They are discussed in the foregoing section.

Activity
Processes and sub processes most often rely on individuals or teams performing activities to make
product. In manufacturing, such activities may consist of moving or handling materials and
components, changing machine or tool settings, turning equipment on or off, etc.. It is at the activity
level most variability is introduced to manufacturing operations effecting varying degrees of quality.
For this reason, it is vital process managers be well trained to fulfill their responsibilities by following
procedures concerning specific process management requirements.

Process Management
Process management is the act of preventing defect by fulfilling individual responsibilities instead of
reacting to it as the result of not fulfilling them. When process instead of results management is
practiced, product quality is consistently acceptable. Process management differs from process
control in that control means only consistent quality is produced. In a controlled instead of managed
environment, that quality may be consistently good or bad.

Process Capability
Process capability is the measure of how well a process is being managed. Usually, a processes’
capability is expressed in statistical terms as a capability profile or Cpk. When a process is managed
effectively, its Cpk shows how well while often providing an indication of what is needed to
continuously improve. Continuous process improvement assures continuous quality improvement
and that is what process managers focus on most.

Pick And Place


Pick and place is the process required to adequately retrieve (pick) a surface mount device and place
it on a specified location. This shall be done in a prescribed manner with the specified accuracy in all
axes. All this is done without damaging the device, or the substrate on which it is placed.

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Accuracy
Accuracy is defined as the ability to reach a specified target or location within a specified range or
tolerance.

Repeatability
Repeatability is defined as the ability to reach a specified target or location within a specified range or
tolerance every time the process is effected.

Fiducial
A fiducial is a locator or target placed on a PCB substrate’s surface to aid SMD equipment placement
accuracy and repeatability. As “targets,” they aid vision systems more precisely find prescribed
placement locations with respect to solder termination areas. Fiducials usually are of two types. One
is a general or “basic” locator often placed at PCB edges or corners. The other is more closely
located relative to specific target areas as fine pitch land patterns. Fiducials may be of varying shapes
and are etched on the PCB surface as permanent locators for placement process management.

Vision System
A vision system consists of high resolution cameras. One is mounted “looking up” to the bottom of a
component to be placed on a PCB substrate. Another “looks down” on the PCB surface locating
fiducials or SMT land patterns to assist in placement accuracy. Vision systems may be best used to
locate, align, and place larger leaded devices whereas laser systems may be best used for small chip
devices.

Laser System
A laser system is used like a camera based vision system. It is used primarily to locate, align, and
place small chip device types.

SMD Placement Machine Head


An SMD placement machine head is the key mechanism mounted either stationary or on a moving
mechanism that mounts single or multiple placement nozzles or “quills.” A traveling head (or heads)
moves along a lead screw aided by servo or stepper motors. It also may be propelled with belts
linked to these motors. Heads house all electrical, mechanical, and pneumatic elements required to
serve the nozzles to pick and place devices. This is done while receiving and executing commands
given by a computer to effect accurate component location, pickup, alignment, and placement.

Nozzles Or Quills
Nozzles or quills usually are vacuum activated tubes capable of picking up SMD’s and placing them
on specified PCB substrate locations. Nozzles vary in size, configuration, quantity, and capability
according to pre programmed demands. Nozzle selections are based primarily on device types to be
picked up and placed. As an example, larger devices require larger nozzles.

Lead Screw
Lead screws in highly accurate placement machines are made of surface hardened steel rods of
specified lengths. They have a highly precision ground surface with equally precision grooves ground
through that surface to a specified depth and shape. The grooves “spiral” about the rod and act much
as common screws used as fasteners. A lead screw may have single or multiple grooves depending
on applications. This is based on accuracy requirements.

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The screw is driven at specified revolutions propelling a mating mechanism (bearings or followers)
along its length to and from pre programmed points. These points are where pick and place
processes are effected. The screw is driven by high speed servo motors providing high speed
positioning.

Lead screws generally are very accurate over short distances (1’ – 3’). Often however, they tend to
“runout” of tolerance over distance and time. This is because they are susceptible to inconsistent
wear though they often are frictionless bearings. Also, inconsistencies inherent in machining
processes render them inconsistent. For these reasons, lead screws need to be calibrated or
“mapped” to ensure specified accuracy and repeatability requirements are met. Preventive
maintenance consisting mostly of lubrication is essential to assure effective operation and to minimize
wear.

The first figure bellow shows a precision lead screw of the type required for exacting movement and
precise positioning of placement heads, as an example. The second figure shows one not required
so much for precision positioning as it is for simpler movement and transfer of tables, as an example.

X and Y Axes
X and Y axes describe directions perpendicular to one another across a PCB substrate’s surface or
plane (horizontal motion). X and Y axes motion and positioning is critical to placement accuracy and
repeatability.

Z Axis
Z axis describes the direction perpendicular to the X and Y axes (vertical motion). Z axis motion is
critical to head and nozzle pick up and placement depth. If the motion is to short, no device is picked
up or it is dropped onto the designated area. If the motion is to long, component and/or PCB
substrate damage is realized. Some placement machines still have sensors that see or “feel” their
distance from a device or board surface. More sophisticated equipment is programmed to a specific Z
axis range to prevent insufficient, excessive, or otherwise erroneous motion and positioning.

Theta Axis
Theta axis describes the directional movement about (perpendicular) the X and Y axes through all
degrees of a circle or compass (circular motion). If Theta axis (may be termed “R” axis) accuracy is
not met as specified (often not more than 1 degree), device placement accuracy shall not be met.

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This means misalignment is effected though center line (with respect to land pattern) though X-Y
accuracy requirements may be met.

Chip Shooter
A chip shooter is an SMD machine capable of placing chip device types at high speeds. Placement
speeds can reach 25,000 cph or more. Speed depends on machine capabilities, PCB designs, board
sizes, and device types.

Fine Pitch Placement Machine


A fine pitch SMD machine is (by definition) capable of placing leaded device types with finely spaced
leads. This is done with great accuracy. These machines primarily place leaded devices ranging in
pitch from 50 mils down to 12 mils. These machines primarily depend on optical vision systems for
alignment and placement operations whereas small device placement machines depend mostly on
laser systems.

Pitch
Pitch is defined as the distance between lead centers on leaded device types (SOIC, QFP, etc.).

Quality
Quality is defined as conformance to clearly specified, understood, and accepted customer contract
requirements.

Repair
Repair is defined as the process required to restore the functional capability and/or performance
characteristics of a defective article. This is done in a manner that precludes compliance of the article
with applicable drawings or specifications.

Modification
Modification is defined as the process required to revise the functional capability or performance
characteristics of a product to satisfy new acceptance criteria. Modifications usually are required to
incorporate design changes that can be controlled by drawings, change orders, etc.. Modifications
only shall be performed when specifically authorized and described in detail on controlled
documentation.

Rework
Rework is defined as the act of reprocessing non-conforming or defective articles. This is done using
original or equivalent processing to assure full conformance of the article with applicable drawings or
specifications. Rework is doing something over that should have been done right the first time.

Other
Other terms are defined in IPC-T-50 and in specific guidelines, standards, and specifications
indicated in Section 8. herein.

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4.0 REQUIRED EQUIPMENT/TOOLS

Designated Placement Machine

Specified Nozzles

Specified Feeders

Specified Components

Specified Tooling And Support Equipment

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5.0 OPERATIONAL AND QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS


Operational and quality system requirements are steps required to maintain process management
effectiveness to assure product quality meeting specified requirements.

Traveler and drawings as required

Safety, handling, and ESD procedures as required

Operational and work specific instructions as required

Quality system documentation as required

Component Placement Operations Requirements


The component placement process manager shall ensure the following requirements are met before
beginning production:

All required tools and equipment are properly prepared before production

Printed circuit boards properly cleaned

Components and feeders as specified

Equipment properly maintained, calibrated, and in good working order

All safety requirements in place and being met

All ESD requirements in place and being met

All material handling requirements in place and being met

Work area in clean and orderly condition

Required stencils clean and ready for production for specified board type

All support elements, tools, and personnel available

Work order or traveler correct and available for job

Supervisory direction and work instructions available and being used

Fiducials bright, shiny, and clearly visible.

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6.0 OPERATIONS USING THE PHILLIPS “SAPPHIRE” SMD PLACEMENT MACHINE


These procedures are used to ensure effective, efficient manufacturing operations concerning
SMD placement at POD. POD uses specified and approved SMD placement equipment, tools, and
attendant manufacturing operations to place components on PCB’s. SMD placement process
management procedures shall be used to effect product quality meeting requirements indicated in
applicable documents listed in Section 8. herein. The following figure shows machine part names and
functions:

6.1. Machine Overview


The first figure below provides a front elevation view of the placement machine. The second shows
the machine outline and in an operational setting at POD.

Vision display (1)


Operation display (2)
Warning lamp (3)
HHK (4)
Keyboard (5)
Main power switch (6)

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Basic Operations Requirements


The following requirements shall be met before beginning component placement operations:
Ensure proper handling and ESD protection. The first figure indicates ESD protection required
symbol. The second figure indicates ESD handling requirements shall be effected. The third figure
shows the preferred method for handling Class III PCB assemblies. The fourth figure shows an
acceptable handling method. In all cases it is required that ESD protection be provided all assemblies
and all boards be handled so no damage, contamination, or other defect causing possibilities exist.

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Basic Safety Requirements


At this time, inspect inside the machine for articles or substances that might cause damage, or other
process problems, and remove or correct them as necessary to effect safe operations.

NOTE: TO GAIN PHYSICAL AND VISUAL ACCESS TO MACHINE’S INNER WORKINGS (FOR
SAFETY INSPECTIONS AND SETUPS), MANUALLY MOVE THE HEADS WITH THE ATTACHED
HANDLE. ENSURE ALL WARNING, CAUTION, AND DO NOT TOUCH LABELS ARE
OBSERVED AND OBEYED. DETAILED SAFETY REQUIREMENTS ARE PROVIDED IN POD,
PPM-2005, SAFETY PROCEDURES

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Production Operations Overview And Flow Chart


After preparing all required elements, production operations may begin. The procedures on the
following pages reflect the basic operational flow represented in the chart below:

NOTE: THE FOLLOWING IS A FLOW CHART REPRESENTING THE BASIC MACHINE


SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS:

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Start And Stop Operations Procedures:

Perform routing operation as required

Perform required inspection before operation ensuring all safety requirements are met inside and
surrounding the machine.

Starting Operation And Operation Flow Chart


Perform the following operations before beginning any work such as creating new PCB data and PCB
production:

CAUTION: CHECK THE SURROUNDING AREA FOR SAFETY AS EACH AXIS MOVES WHEN
RETURN TO ORIGIN IS PERFORMED - MAKING IT DANGEROUS IF ANY PART OF THE
HUMAN BODY ENTERS THE MOVEMENT RANGE OF THE HEAD ASSEMBLY DURING
RETURN TO ORIGIN. BECAUSE OF THIS, STAY OUT OF THE MOVEMENT RANGE.

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Ensure specified air pressure indicated on gauge at back of machine. Turn main power on. Observe
as the machine begins loading programs necessary for machine operation. Wait until the complete
VIOS operating system is loaded before continuing with the next step.

When the VIOS main menu screen is displayed, turn the servo ON. Observe the EMERGENCY
STOP message as it disappears and each axis becomes servo controlled.

Select and execute <1/1/RUNNING>. Observe as this operation returns each machine axis to the
reference position (machine origin).

NOTE: AFTER THE POWER IS TURNED ON, RETURN TO ORIGIN SHALL BE PERFORMED
BEFORE BEGINNING ANY WORK SUCH AS CREATING A NEW PCB DATA AND PCB
PRODUCTION.

Observe a list of the registered PCB names as they appear on the screen.

Select the required PCB name to be produced.

NOTE: IF THE PCB TO BE PRODUCED HAS NOT BEEN REGISTERED YET, ANY PCB NAME
MAY BE SELECTED.

Load the selected PCB data.

Observe <1/1/D2 INIT. SERVO ORIGIN> displayed.

Select and execute <1/1/D2 INIT. SERVO ORIGIN> command to return to servo origin. Observe as
each axis begins returning to its origin.

NOTE: RETURN TO ORIGIN CAN ALSO BE PERFORMED IN MANUAL MODE. EACH


MANAGER, EXCEPT FOR <4/SHELL/M>, HAS MANUAL MODE.

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Warm Up Operations
Be sure to warm up the machine before starting PCB production, especially for the X and Y axes.
Normally, a 10 minutes warm up is recommended. If less than two hours has elapsed after the
machine was last used, no warm up is necessary. When the mounter starts warm up, the tray
changer also starts warm up - if it is connected.

Be sure the emergency stop is canceled, and the return to origin has been performed. Also be sure
the push up pins are securely attached while ensuring the safety covers are closed.

Select and execute <1/1/D1 WARM UP>. Observe as the warning message appears on the screen.
Check the surrounding area for safety. When no PCB data has been selected, select a PCB name
first.

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Set required warm up time.

NOTE: A WARM UP TIME IS DISPLAYED IN MINUTES IN THE WARNING MESSAGE BOX.


EACH TIME THE SPACE BAR IS PRESSED, THE WARM UP TIME SETTING CHANGES IN ONE
MINUTE INCREMENTS. THE RECOMMEND SETTING IS 10 MINUTES UNDER NORMAL
CONDITIONS. THE IMAGES COMPROSING THE NEXT FIGURE SHOW WARM UP MESSAGES
ON THE DISPLAY SCREEN.

REFERENCE: Warm up may be started without setting the warm up time by omitting this step and
directly pressing the ENTER key as in the next step.

Start warm up

NOTE: THE MACHINE STARTS WARM UP SLOWLY AT FIRST WITH A GRADUALLY


INCREASING SPEED OVER TIME. THE CURRENT DATE, TIME, AND ELAPSED TIME DURING
WARM UP ARE DISPLAYED ON SCREEN. WARM UP OPERATION AUTOMATICALLY STOPS
WHEN THE PRESET WARM UP TIME HAS ELAPSED. IF THE WARM UP TIME HAS NOT BEEN
SET - SET THE WARM UP TIME. PRESS THE ESC KEY TO STOP WARM UP.

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CAUTION: IF AN ABNORMALITY OCCURS DURING WARM UP, STOP OPERATION


IMMEDIATELY - CHECK CAUSE AND ELIMINATE IT BEFORE CONTINUING.

Quit warm up

NOTE: THE ABOVE STEPS EXPLAIN A WARM UP PROCEDURE IN RUNNING MODE OF THE
OPERATION MANAGER, SUPPOSING THE NEXT WORK IS PCB PRODUCTION. WARM UP
CAN ALSO BE PERFORMED IN MANUAL MODE OF EACH MANAGER EXCEPT FOR THE
SHELL MANAGER.

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Pre-Operations Procedures
The following procedures are used by process managers to ensure all process elements are as
required to begin production:

The production supervisor provides a component/feeder setup report to placement process


managers at the start of a production run as in the next two images.

NOTE: THE REPORTS INDICATE NUMBERED LOCATIONS, ON VARIOUS FEEDER STORAGE


CARTS, WHERE LOADED FEEDERS ARE RETRIEVED BY PLACEMENT PROCESS
MANAGERS TO BE PLACED ON SPECIFIC FEEDER POSITIONS. THESE POSITIONS
CORRESPOND TO INFORMATION DISPLAYED ON THE MAIN MACHINE MONITOR
INDICATING PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR LOADING AND PLACEMENT.

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Ensure all production equipment, tools, and other required elements are available for production
operations

Again, inspect inside the machine for articles or substances that might cause damage, or other
process problems, and remove or correct them as necessary to effect safe operations. Prepare for
operations as in the following:

Using the feeder setup report, verify feeder locations and components as they are required on the
machine for a particular production run. This is done using the display screen and keyboard to audit
the displayed component list and feeder locations. Also, strike through, mark off, check, or otherwise
identify those feeders that have been installed to avoid repetition and mistakes.

Operation of Each Axis


To ensure proper axis movement availability, in the MANUAL mode, manipulate the hand held
keyboard’s (HHK’s) joy stick to move the axis in the desired direction.

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Selecting The Axis


To select the axis to operate in MANUAL mode, proceed as follows:

Execute the SEL AXIS or AXIS GROUP command from the HHK. Observe, on the DI/DO monitor,
that the axis is directly switched each time the command is executed. Observe that the selected axis
is displayed at the upper right of the screen. In MANUAL mode observe that, other than the DI/DO
monitor, the axis selection box appears.

Select the axis needing to be moved.

NOTE: ON THE DI/DO MONITOR SCREEN, THE SELECTED AXIS CHANGES IN ORDER, FOR
EXAMPLE “A_TABLE XY” EACH TIME THE AXIS GROUP KEY IS PRESSED.

Selecting The Axis Speed

To select the axis speed in MANUAL mode, proceed as follows:

Use the HHK to select axis speed directly from the five step speed settings when the DI/DO monitor
is displayed. Observe the selected speed is displayed at the upper right of the screen. In MANUAL
mode, observe that (other than the DI/DO monitor) the axis speed selection box appears.

Select the desired axis speed when the axis speed selection box is displayed.

CAUTION: 5-STEP SPEED SETTINGS ARE PRESET WITH <A6 EDIT 5_WAY SPEED>. IN
MANUAL MODE, USE THIS COMMAND TO MAKE CHANGES TO THE SPEED SETTINGS.

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Switching Between Tables


Switch the vision monitor display from the A table to B table or vice versa, as required.

Select Manual Mode as required.

Select and execute <B5 SEL. VISION DISP> to switch the vision display monitor from the A table to
B table or B table to A table as required.

NOTE: AS THE BOARD ENTERS THE MACHINE ON ITS CONVEYOR, AUTOMATICALLY IT IS


CONVEYED FURTHER TO TABLE “B” FOR PLACEMENT AT THE MACHINE’S BACK SIDE.
ALWAYS, THE FIRST COMPONENT MOUNTING TAKES PLACE HERE WITH COMPONENTS
SPECIFICALLY PROGRAMMED FOR OPTIMUM PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY. THEN, THE
BOARD IS TRANSFERRED TO TABLE “A” WHERE THE FRONT SIDE FEEDER’S
COMPONENTS ARE PLACED. IT ALSO SHALL BE NOTED THAT BOTH TABLES ARE
CAPABLE OF PLACEMENT OPERATIONS SIMULTANEOUSLY. IT IS POSSIBLE TO PROGRAM
THE MACHINE TO EFFECT PLACEMENT USING IDENTICAL COMPONENTS ON BOARDS
LOCATED ON EACH TABLE. THE FOLLOWING FIGURE CLEARLY SHOWS BOARDS ON
TABLES “B” AND “A” WITH THE TRANSFER BAR (CONVEYOR MECHANISM) SHOWN IN
POSITION ABOVE THE BOARDS.

ADDITIONAL NOTE: POD “SMTEAM” MEMBERS HAVE DETERMINED ALL SETUP AND
VERIFICATION REQUIREMENTS SHALL BE MET USING TABLE “A” AT THIS TIME. SETUP
AND VERIFICATION ON TABLE “B” DOES NOT ALWAYS PROVIDE ACCURATE
INFORMATION CONCERNING PROGRAM AND PLACEMENT REQUIREMENTS.

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Conveyor Unit Operation (to position and secure a PCB)


Execute the <CONVEYOR UNITS> utility to operate the conveyor unit push up and locate pin as
required.

Also, select and execute <2/1/B7 CONVEYOR UNITS> to operate the conveyor units in the <1/1/D4
RUNNING UTILITY> command as required.

Select the unit to be operated.

NOTE: EACH TIME THE ENTER KEY IS PRESSED, THE SELECTED UNIT ALTERNATELY
SWITCHES ON AND OFF. THE CONVEYOR UNIT ALSO CAN BE OPERATED FROM THE DO
(DIGITAL OUTPUT) MONITOR IN MANUAL MODE EXPLAINED LATER.

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Operating The DI/DO Monitor

Operate the monitor in the Manual mode.

Select Manual mode

Select and execute <C1 OUTPUT MONITOR>.

Select the item to check or operate.

Switch on and off as required.

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Set Feeders
Install feeders required for production if not done previously at start. Observe tape feeder
requirements, and those for general handling and problem determination.

Grip the handle when handling the feeders

Do not apply excessive force to the feeder

Do no use the feeder if its tape guide is deformed as this may cause feeding errors

Determine if any components are missing

Determine if any components are damaged or broken

Determine if any screws are loose

NOTE: IF ANY OF THE ABOVE ARE PROBLEMS, TAKE CORRECTIVE ACTION OR REPLACE
COMPONENTS AS REQUIRED.

Ensure the knockpins (positioning pins) are properly inserted into the holes on the feeder plate and
the clamp lever is moved in the direction indicated. When removing a tape feeder from the feeder
plate, move the clamp lever in the direction indicated and lift the feeder up.

Be sure not to hold the tape guide as doing this may damage the tape guide or other parts. In
addition, avoid moving the feeder back and forth to prevent excessive force from being applied to the
feeder.

Fit a tape reel to a tape feeder, as required, ensuring the lock lever is released and the tape guide is
properly raised.

Fit the tape reel to the feeder and separate the clear “top tape” (adhesive bottom tape for 32 mm
adhesive tape) from the “carrier tape” (carrying components) and route each tape as required.

Be sure to align the electronic component center line with the pickup point so the center of the first
component on the tape lines up with the line or notch on the tape feeder (16 mm to 44 mm tape
feeders). This line indicates the pickup point.

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Lower the tape guide ensuring the tape guide shutter is moved to the front side and lower the tape
guide slowly. Also, be sure to lower the tape guide with the shutter positioned on the rear side so the
shutter drive lever does not damage the shutter. If done improperly, feeding errors result as the
shutter cannot move smoothly.

Set the tape guide being sure its curved end is positioned inside the lower guide of the feeder. If it is
positioned outside the lower guide, feeding errors shall occur.

Feeder preparation and fitting a tape reel before attachment or removal of tape feeders.

Before fitting a tape reel to the tape feeder, release the lock lever so the tape guide is raised.

Fit the tape reel to the feeder then separate the clear “top tape” (adhesive bottom tape for 32 mm
adhesive tape) from the “carrier tape” (carrying components), and route each tape as shown in the
figures on following pages.

Align the electronic component center line with the pickup point. A line or notch on the tape feeder
(16 mm to 44 mm tape feeders) indicates the pickup point. Align the tape so the center of the first
component on the tape lines up with the line or notch.

When the tape reel has been set, lower the tape guide and slide the tape guide shutter to the front
side, then lower the tape slowly.

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NOTE: IF THE TAPE GUIDE IS LOWERED WITH THE SHUTTER POSITIONED ON THE REAR
SIDE, THE SHUTTER DRIVE LEVER MAY DAMAGE THE SHUTTER RESULTING IN FEEDING
ERRORS, AS THE SHUTTER CANNOT MOVE SMOOTHLY.

Set the tape guide so its curved end is positioned inside the lower feeder guide.

NOTE: IF THE FEEDER GUIDE IS POSITIONED OUTSIDE THE LOWER GUIDE, FEEDING
ERRORS shall RESULT.

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Select and execute COMPONENT ASSIGNMENT using COMPONENT ASSIGNMENT command.


Observe information for all components to be used with the selected PCB being displayed.

NOTE: USING THE ARROW KEYS TO SCROLL UP OR DOWN THE DISPLAY, VERIFY ALL
COMPONENT NAME AND SET NUMBERS CONTAINED WITHIN THE COMPONENT
INFORMATION.

Set the feeder onto the main unit assuring proper handling and attachment care and observe the
display screen for location.

Ensure all feeders properly attached and secure.

SPECIAL NOTE: ALL FEEDER POSITIONS ARE NUMBERED IN TWO LOCATIONS TO ENSURE
FEEDERS ARE PROPERLY POSITIONED.

WARNING: WHEN INSTALLING THE FEEDER, BE SURE TO PRESS THE EMERGENCY STOP
BUTTON SINCE THE OPERATOR’S BODY MAY COME INTO THE MACHINE HEAD’S RANGE
OF MOVEMENT.

NOTE: IF A FEEDER IS NOT ATTACHED CORRECTLY ONTO THE FEEDERBAR, THE FEEDER
FLOATING SENSOR (NJ10) shall BE ACTIVATED AND MOTOR MOVEMENT shall BE
DISABLED.

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After setting the components in the feeder and the feeder on the feeder plate, check that the feeder
operates correctly as below.

Exit From The Feeder Set and observe the UTL. FOR RUNNING screen display A1 STOP
RUNNING.

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Stick Feeders
Install stick feeders as required.

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Feeder Operation
Select and execute <A4 FEEDER ON/OFF> in Manual mode to check feeder operation.

Select Manual Mode as required.

Select and execute <A4 FEEDER ON/OFF> and observe the screen appearance when this
command is selected.

Select the feeder to be operated.

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PCB, Nozzle, And Component Specifications


Before mounting components, ensure the following requirements are met:

PCB’s as specified for production.

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Nozzles specified for components to be mounted.

NOTE: IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THE CORRECT NOZZLE BE SELECTED FOR THE SPECIFIED
COMPONENT TO BE PLACED. THE FOLLOWING FIGURES PROVIDE INFORMATION
CONCERNING THIS SELECTION.

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Components specified for mounting process.

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Before Starting PCB Production


Ensure the following requirements are met before starting PCB production:

Select and execute the <1/1/RUNNING> command.

Select the PCB name to be produced.

NOTE: WHEN THE LIST OF PCB NAMES IS NOT DIRECTLY DISPLAYED, PRESS THE F2 KEY
(OR EXECUTE <D3 SWITCH PCB>) AND SELECT THE PCB NAME FOR PRODUCTION. THE
MACHINE THEN LOADS THE SELECTED PCB DATA.

Select and execute the <1/1/D4 RUNNING UTILITY> - <REQUIRED NOZZLE> command to
determine required nozzle type. Then, referring to the display, check that the correct nozzle is
attached to each head. If the nozzle attached is not correct, reattach the correct nozzle.

Exit the RUNNING UTILITY screen.

Check inside machine and surrounding area for safety.

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CAUTION: IT CAN BE DANGEROUS IF ANY PART OF THE HUMAN BODY ENTERS THE
MOVEMENT RANGE OF THE HEAD ASSEMBLY DURING OPERATION. BE SURE TO STAY
WELL OUT OF THE MOVEMENT RANGE.

Install or exchange nozzles as required.

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Change operation speed as required.

Change conveyor setup as required.

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Make conveyor width adjustment as required.

To adjust the conveyor width to match the PCB’s width, select and execute <CONVEYOR UNITS> in
the <1/1/D4 RUNNING UTILITY> or <2/1B7 CONVEYOR UNITS>. Then, select and execute

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<CONVEYOR WIDTH> and observe the PCB width input box appear so the specified width can be
adjusted.

CAUTION: BE SURE OTHER CONVEYOR UNITS DO NOT INTERFERE WITH CONVEYOR


RAILS WHILE ADJUSTING THE CONVEYOR WIDTH.

NOTE: POD DOES NOT DESIGN OR USE PCB’S WITH LOCATION HOLES. THEREFORE, THE
LOCATE PIN ADJUSTMENT PROCESS IS NOT PERFORMED AT THIS TIME.

Adjust PCB support plates as required.

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Adjust push up pin as required.

Set a PCB on the conveyor. Select and execute the <CONVEYOR UNITS> command to raise the
main stopper. Then, set a PCB on the conveyor and bring it up against the main stopper.

Before raising the push up plate, check that all push up pins are removed from the plate to avoid
interfering with the conveyor rails. Select and execute <CONVEYOR UNITS> to raise the push up
plate.

Adjust the pin height to ensure the upper surface of the PCB contacts the PCB support plates and
secure it.

Adjust the height of the other pins to the same height as the adjusted pin. Align all push up pins on a
flat surface and check that all heights are the same as the adjusted pins.

Place the push up pins in correct position on the plate to ensure proper PCB edge support at this
time.

When adjustment is complete, lightly tap on the PCB while checking for PCB warpage from the side.

NOTE: IF THE PCB IS SUPPORTED EVENLY WITH NO WARPING, THE ADJUSTMENT IS


OKAY. RAISE AND LOWER THE PUSH UP PLATE SEVERAL TIMES TO ENSURE THE PINS DO
NOT FALL OVER. ALSO, THE PINS FOR THE SAPPHIRE HAVE SPRING LOADED TIPS AS
OPPOSED TO THE RIGID PINS USED IN THE EMERALD, ORION, AND ECLIPSE. THIS MAY
MAKE IT DIFFICULT TO “FEEL” PROPER CONTACT WHEN TAPPING A BOARD’S SURFACE.

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REFERENCE: It is convenient to mark the positions of the push up pins on the plate, with label,
magic marker, etc., for each PCB type.

Adjust push in as required.

NOTE: THE PUSH IN UNIT SUPPORTS THE PCB FROM THE UPSTREAM DIRECTION TO
SECURE THE PCB IN PLACE BETWEEN THE MAIN STOPPER AND PUSH IN UNIT. THIS UNIT
IS ONLY USED WHEN THE PCB IS SECURED BY THE EDGE CLAMP METHOD.

Adjust the push in and move it to a position where it does not interfere with the PCB.

Set a PCB on the conveyor and secure it in the mounting position. The first figure below shows the
push in pressing against the left board edge pressuring the board against the board stop at its right
end. This is table “A.” For table “B,” positions are the same but appear reversed (second figure
below) when viewing in toward it from the machine’s back.

While sliding the push in unit to the right of left, position it at a point where the PCB can be properly
brought up against the main stopper.

Temporarily secure the push in unit.

Select and execute the <CONVEYOR UNITS> command and ensure the push in unit securely
supports the PCB against the main stopper.

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After adjustment is complete, secure the push in.

NOTE: BECAUSE THE PUSH IN UNIT MOVES UP AND DOWN ALONG WITH THE PUSH UP
PLATE, BE SURE TO CHECK THAT THE PUSH IN UNIT DOES NOT INTERFERE WITH THE
PCB WHEN THE PUSH UP PLATE IS RAISED.

Adjust edge clamps as required.

Use edge clamps to secure the PCB in the mounting position by clamping the edge of the PCB from
the side. If necessary, adjust the position of each edge clamp unit according to the size of the PCB.

Set a PCB on the conveyor and secure it in the mounting position.

Remove the edge clamp together with the stay.

Reattach the edge clamp to a position at which it securely supports the PCB edge.

Select and execute the <CONVEYOR UNITS> command and ensure the edge clamp securely
supports the PCB.

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Verify setup using the machine keyboard while “manually” acquiring fiducials and some
component placement areas on the vision screen as location and verification is effected.

Start PCB Production


Begin the SMD mounting process by executing the A2 AUTO RUNNING command.

NOTE: ONCE THE DISPLAY SHOWS AUTO RUNNING, THE PROCESS SHALL INITIATE AND A
BOARD SHALL ENTER THE CONVEYOR ENTRANCE FROM ITS LAST PROCESS AND BE
LOCATED AT ITS PROGRAMMED POSITION FOR PLACEMENT. THE FIRST MOUNTING
POSITION SHALL BE TABLE “B” FOLLOWED BY TABLE “A” WITH A CAPABILITY TO USE
BOTH TABLES AND PLACEMENT HEADS SIMULTANEOUSLY. ESSENTIALLY, THE
SAPPHIRE IS TWO MACHINES BUILT INTO ONE.

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Sequence of board conveyance entering machine and to specified tables for setup and
placement

The first figure below shows a board being conveyed into the machine by the transfer bar and
positioned on table “B.” The second figure below shows boards positioned on both tables (“A” and
“B”).

NOTE: ONLY WHEN PLACEMENT FINISHED ON TABLE “B” IS THE BOARD TRANSFERRED
TO TABLE “A.” THIS MEANS ONLY ONE BOARD SHALL BE IN THE MACHINE UNTIL THE
FIRST BOARD IS COMPLETED ON TABLE “B.” THEN, THE REMAINING BOARDS SHALL
FOLLOW IN SEQUENCE WITH BOARDS BEING PLACED ON BOTH TABLES UNTIL
OPERATIONAL RUN FINISHED.

The figure below shows a board in placement position on table “B.”

NOTE: ALL SETUP REQUIREMENTS ARE DONE BY MANUALLY MOVING THE TABLES
NEAREST THE OPERATOR FOR ACCESS. THE MACHINE AUTOMATICALLY POSITIONS
EACH TABLE OFF THE CONVEYOR CENTER-LINE FOR PLACEMENT OPERATIONS. ALSO,
BOARDS ARE AUTOMATICALLY POSITIONED ON SPECIFIED TABLES, AND SECURED
OVER THE PUSH UP PLATE AND PINS WITH EDGE CLAMPS AND SUPPORT PLATES. THIS
IS TRUE FOR THE PUSH IN AS IT SECURES THE BOARD AGAINST THE STOP.

Observe the display screens and monitor any error messages so corrective action may be taken.
Messages might include:

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“VISION CANNOT FIND” requiring feeder components to be checked to determine if component


reels empty. If so, load new reel with same components.

NOTE: THE VISION CANNOT FIND MESSAGE APPLIES TO BOTH OPTICAL AND LASER
SYSTEMS

The same message as above may appear if feeders are loose requiring reattachment. When
correction made, resume production.

“COMPONENT PICK HEIGHT” may appear requiring manual height adjustment to ensure correct
pick and placement height.

An error may occur if a fiducial not recognizable or located. This machine capable of camera
movement to “hunt” for fiducial. If not found, check board and clean fiducials as required.

NOTE: THE FOREGOING ERRORS SERVE ONLY AS EXAMPLES OF MANY OTHERS TO BE


USED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE POD/PHILIPS OPERATIONS MANUAL, TROUBLE
SHOOTING SECTION.

When required corrections made, resume production.

When first article placement process complete, perform 100% visual inspection to determine
placement effectiveness as correct alignment, specified orientation, wrong or missing components,
etc..

Perform corrections on board and provide required correction information to engineering so program
may be updated.

Move first articles, after reflow, to inspection and await acceptance before initiating production.

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Finish PCB Production

Stop machine operation by pressing the STOP key on the HHK or select and execute the <1/1/A1
STOP RUNNING> command. To restart the operation, press the RUN key on the HHK or select and
execute the <1/1/A2 AUTO RUNNING> command.

To reset the operation, Press the RESET key on the HHK or execute the <1/1/E2 RESET
RUNNING> command.

CAUTION: DO NOT PRESS THE EMERGENCY STOP BUTTON DURING THE OPERATION AND
DO NOT USE THE EMG BUTTON TO STOP REGULAR PRODUCTION EXCEPT IN CASE OF
EMERGENCIES.

Turn Power Off.

Exit current mode and observe the mode selection screen close.

Quit application and observe the warning message for turning off the power appear on the screen.
Press any of the emergency stop buttons on the main unit or HHK.
Press any key and observe the screen display disappear.

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Turn off main switch.

CAUTION: IF THE POWER IS TURNED OFF WITHOUT FOLLOWING THE SEQUENCE ABOVE,
THIS MAY DAMAGE THE HARD DISK DATA.

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8.0 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTATION

POD Statement Of Work and Detailed Processes


POD, PPM-2045, Electrostatic Discharge Procedures
POD, PPM-2015, Material And Assembly Handling Procedures
POD, QIPM-4030, Audit Of Processes And Procedures
POD, PPM-2050, Safety Procedures
Planning Documentation
Lot Control Documentation
Maintenance Requirements, Specifications And Procedures
Compressed Air Test Results
POD, QPM-3020, Equipment Calibration Procedures
Equipment Calibration Logs
POD Quality Assurance Inspection/Test/Analysis Logs
POD Operator Operations, And Process Logs
QQ-S-571 Solder Test Results
MIL-F-14256 Flux For Assembly Operations Test Results
MIL-P-55110 Printed Wiring For Electronic Equipment
MIL-P-28809 Printed Wiring Assemblies
POD, POD-5135, Hand Soldering Procedures
ANSI/J-STD-001B Requirements For Soldered Electrical And electronic Assemblies
ANSI/IPC-A-610 Acceptability Of Printed Board Assemblies
IPC-600C Acceptability Of Printed Boards
IPC-7721 Repair And Modification Of Printed Boards And Electronic Assemblies
IPC-7711 Rework Of Electronic Assemblies
IPC-TM-650 Test Methods Manual
IPC-T-50 Terms And Definitions
IPC-D-275 Printed Wiring For Electronic Equipment
POD Pre-operational, Operational, And Post Operational Checklists
POD/TDC Operation and Maintenance Procedures For Tools And Equipment Used To Train
Personnel To Manage SMD placement Processes

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9.0 PRE-OPERATIONS, OPERATIONS, AND POST OPERATIONS AUDIT CHECKLIST

Pre-Production Operational Requirements Understood And Met

Pre-Operational Safety Requirements Understood And Met

Production Operations Overview And Flow Chart Understood

Start And Stop Operations Procedures Understood

Warm Up Process Effected

Pre-Operations Procedures Understood And Effected

Operation of Each Axis Process Effected

Switching Between Tables Process Effected

Conveyor Unit Process Effected

Feeder Process Effected

DI/DO Monitor Process Effected

Set Feeder Process Effected

PCB, Nozzle, And Component Specifications Understood And Met

Before Starting PCB Production Procedures Understood And Met

Start PCB Production Process Effected

Finish PCB Production Process Effected

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12.5 REFLOW SOLDERING

MANUFACTURING PROCESS MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES

POD-5040 REFLOW SOLDERING

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DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT AND APPROVALS

This document is managed, as are all documents in the POD Process Improvement Program
(outlined in the POD, QPM-3000-1, Process Improvement Assurance Manual, Section 4.0), by POD
Engineering Process Management. Revisions to this document shall be effected using POD
Engineering Change Procedures. These procedures assure any individual may use change requests,
submitted to Engineering Process Management, indicating the change needed.

Change requests shall be reviewed and accepted, or rejected, based upon merit and justification (as
detailed in POD, EPM-0150, Engineering Change Notice (ECN) Procedures. When approved,
revised documents shall be released and issued by Engineering Process Management at the
appropriate, new revision level in accordance with POD, EPM-1045, Document Management
Procedures.

It shall be required that each document use the specified document format indicated on each page
herein. Also, it shall be required the author's name be clearly indicated on each page while properly
numbering it to ensure document integrity and traceability. The following approvals are required
before release at the required revision level:

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1.0 PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of these procedures is to provide detailed instructions concerning reflow solder
manufacturing process management at POD. This is done to ensure product quality consistently
meeting or exceeding POD acceptance criteria.

The scope of these procedures extends to all personnel responsible for ensuring effective reflow
solder manufacturing process management at POD.

2.0 RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY


The following responsibilities shall be fulfilled to ensure reflow soldering process management is
properly effected to assure quality at POD:

Manufacturing Engineer
The Manufacturing Engineer is responsible and has authority to provide everything needed by
manufacturing process managers to fulfill their responsibilities at POD. This includes procedures,
training, equipment, tools, adequate and safe working conditions, ESD requirements, and all other
required elements.

Maintenance Technician
The Maintenance Technician is responsible and has authority to ensure all operational elements
(equipment, tools, etc.) are maintained and calibrated as specified. This assures all facilities,
equipment, and tools are capable of being effectively and efficiently managed to assure product
quality meeting specified requirements.

Manufacturing Supervisor
The Manufacturing Supervisor is responsible and has authority to provide proper direction to all
manufacturing process managers at POD. This includes operational procedures, special instructions,
schedules, product changes, drawings, and required materials and components. This also includes
management directives, performance evaluations, and timely individual and team performance
feedback.

Manufacturing Process Managers


Manufacturing process managers are responsible and have authority to assure manufacturing
operations are carried out in an effective, efficient manner. They are responsible for performing all
manufacturing operations in accordance with current procedures, checklists, and supervisory
direction. All personnel are responsible for effecting management policies and directives to assure
quality meeting or exceeding specified POD requirements.

Quality Assurance Inspection Personnel


Quality Assurance Inspection Personnel are responsible and have authority to determine product
quality does or does not meet specified POD acceptance criteria. They also are responsible for
providing appropriate feedback concerning product quality to management and manufacturing
process managers so corrective or continued manufacturing action may be effected.

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3.0 BACKGROUND
Effective, efficient reflow solder process management is required to produce acceptable solder joints
and assemblies. The reflow solder process is made up of several sub processes. Each process and
sub process is supported by individual activities. It is at the activity level most impact is made on
quality. This is because trained process managers consistently fulfill their responsibilities to assure
quality.

At POD, one of the most important products is a quality solder joint made right on time, the first time,
every time. Only trained individuals fulfilling their responsibilities can do this.

To assure effective reflow solder process management, primary concern is focused on key process
elements, parameters, and factors capable of influencing product quality. Solder pastes, solder paste
composition, flux types in solder pastes, reflow thermal profiles, and all solder process management
activities must meet specified requirements. Additionally, equipment shall be maintained and
calibrated to ensure processes capable of producing specified quality. When everything is as
specified, reflow solder process management is effected. Then, process effects become apparent as
solder joints meeting specified acceptance criteria.

This is a highly interactive, interrelational, and manageable process. It has clearly defined cause and
effect relationships (processes, sub processes, and activities managed instead of results as defect).

All process management requirements are detailed in these procedures. This is done in conjunction
with all other process considerations. Product acceptance is based on conformance to POD and
appropriate industry acceptance specifications (IPC as an example). This is true of all components
and materials comprising product.

Soldering is a process in which two metal surfaces are metallurgically joined. A specified solder
medium (metal filler with a melting point below 800 degrees F.) is used to “wet" and bond them. It is a
process requiring diffusion and intermetallic growth to effect an acceptable solder joint. This definition
emphasizes the term "surfaces" (an object’s area having no depth) to clarify the distinction between
soldering and welding, as an example.

Welding is a process in which diffusion and intermetallic formations are effected to metallurgically join
metals beyond their surfaces to a specified depth. This distinction also provides evidence that solder
joining is a reversible process as it relies on heat to "undo" the solder joint. Welding requires
complete joint destruction thus making repair and/or rework impossible at the component level, as an
example.

The term "wetting" requires a solid surface to be completely "coated" by a liquid. This means the
liquid maintains intimate contact with all solder termination areas without resistance or the indication
of dewetting ("pulling back” from the surfaces). In solder joining, the liquid is molten solder. What
distinguishes "liquid" metal from some other liquid media is its change back to a solid when cooled
below its melting point. When two metal surfaces are wetted, they may become joined upon solder
medium solidification (often referred to as freezing). Again, this is done through effective process
management.

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Another important term is eutectic. Eutectic is defined as a combination of two metals (forming an
alloy) that melts at a lower temperature than either individual metal. Also, eutectic is defined as alloys
that change directly from liquid to solid, and the reverse, with no intermediate plastic states. Various
solder types, their compositions, and melting points are found in ANSI/J-STD-006.

Reflow soldering and other machine dependent methods (wave or vapor phase as examples) are not
thought of as art forms. This often is the case with hand soldering as it requires considerably more
human intervention to effect acceptable joints. However, reflow soldering uses the same objective
principles as wave or hand soldering. The primary difference is the less personal "touch" applied
during this and the reflow solder process. Reflow and reflow soldering processes rely less on
personal process management as they are less "subjective." This is because they are less sensitive
to "feel" or touch.

To effect (make) acceptable solder joints, the process manager is trained to visualize the cause and
effect relationships existing each time the process takes place. Time, temperature, conveyor speed
through various thermal zones, and solder paste types are important. Type and condition of solder
surfaces, flux, flux action, and where along with how much is applied also is critical.

The first image below shows what was considered a "good" profile in early SMT days - using a very
old Heller, focused IR, table top machine. Notice the ramp and soak zones used here, but they were
moderate compared to most at that time. The day's thinking was that long soak zones were required.

The second figure shows a current solder paste supplier's recommended reflow profile. It shall noted
it is a bit more steep thus, it is called a "tent" profile, with now ramp and soak zones, and works for a
wide variety of applications though modifications obviously need to be made for special applications.
However, there shall be a minimal number of profiles required for most reflow soldering operations
I've never had to use more than three, once machine, solder paste, and board type characteristics
were matched well.

During this process, the affects all the above factors have on solder joints are seen (see solder joint
figures below). In all soldering processes and activities, surfaces shall be solderable. This requires
PCB's and components to be free of contamination. Such contamination may consist of oxidation or
other conditions (grease, fingerprints, dirt, etc.) deleterious to solder joint quality and reliability.

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However, all surfaces are contaminated to some extent. Simply, solder termination areas shall be
"wettable" and excess contamination is a barrier to this.

When mild contamination is present, flux is capable of removing, or cleaning, it from the surfaces to
be soldered. When excessive, nothing can be done to make acceptable solder joints. Therefore, it is
critical that operational personnel be supplied only with highly solderable components and boards.

In the reflow solder process, all other factors are equally critical. Flux is, applied from the solder
paste, so mild contamination is removed. Preheating must raise the board temperature to a level
capable of activating the flux, so it works as specified and the board is not thermally shocked. The
reflow temperature, in the “liquidous” zone shall be capable of effecting an acceptable solder joint.
The conveyor speed is set to assure specified times are realized in each thermal zone as well as time
during solder reflow. The two figures on the previous page clearly show the physical process profile
used in reflow soldering operations.

The entire process is completed in stages corresponding to increasing temperatures in several


zones until the highest temperature is reached in what is called the liquidous zone. Two hundred
twenty degrees C. is the maximum temperature in this zone required to melt (liquefy) solder, wet all
solder termination areas, and prevent component and/or PCB damage. Total time in “liquidous” shall
be carefully controlled as well.

For reflow solder process managers to improve their "skills," it is advisable for them to become
proficient hand or reflow solder process managers. This is done so a more intimate contact and
visualization of what makes an acceptable solder joint is appreciated.

In reflow soldering everything must come together, under effectively managed conditions, to create
solder joints equally reliable and acceptable as those effected during other solder processes, sub
processes, and activities. This set of procedures details all requirements to assure effective, efficient
reflow solder process management at POD.

To effectively manage the reflow soldering process, POD employs the Conceptronic, Model HVA-
102, reflow soldering machine. It’s capabilities are:

True-Windows™ control system software


• 133 MHz CPU
• 7 vertical heat zones
• Total length of heat chamber - 102 inches/259 cm
• Total linear convection in heat chamber - 70 inches/177.8cm
• Total cooling section length - 30 inches/76.2cm
• Typical processing speed - 32 IPM/81.3 CPM
• Total system length - 172 inches/436.9cm (HVA versions)
• Total flux and flow management technology (patents pending)
- heating and cooling chambers

Conceptronic’s air-only (HVA) or air/nitrogen (HVN) configurations, HVC 102 ovens provide the
highest heating and cooling efficiency. This is assured along with "Total Flux and Flow
Management" technology (patents pending).

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HVC 102 systems are the only forced convective reflow soldering ovens capable of maintaining
maximum impingement flow levels (i.e., convective efficiency). This is true regardless of operating
atmosphere, component type or quantity of flux emitted into the chamber. Through a revolutionary
"Total Flux and Flow Management" technology, Conceptronic guarantees flow levels and profiles
within the heating chamber shall be consistently maintained. This is assured without filter changes
or maintenance – for a five year period.

The new cooling systems also incorporate filterless "Total Flux and Flow Management" technology
for consistent, long term cooling performance. Our new "Polaris" ambient air cooling units include
no flow-restricting filters. Instead, flux is isolated and collected using "inertial separation" collectors.
Even if these collectors are fully saturated with flux, flow levels shall not vary and performance is
maintained. They are also removable in seconds.

Conceptronic Reflow Machine (Oven) Theory Of Operation


Conceptronic ovens are designed to heat SMT circuit assemblies for reflow soldering or epoxy curing
applications via high velocity hot gas forced convection. Ovens are comprised of vertical heat zones,
cooling zones, and a transport system that moves product horizontally through the oven.

Ovens have 4 to 10 vertical heat zones, depending on model. Each heat zone is 12” (30.5 cm) long,
and is comprised of identical top and bottom sections. Each top and bottom section includes a
blower, a heater enclosure, and a thermocouple. The blower forces air or nitrogen through the heater
enclosure where the gas is heated by a 4500 watt electrical heater. Pressurized hot gas exits the
heater enclosure to heat circuit assemblies.

Thermocouples positioned at specific locations measure the temperature of the gas as it exits the
heater enclosure. The oven control system compares these temperature measurements to Operator
set points and precisely controls oven temperatures.

A heat exchanger located after the heat zones provides product cooling. A transport system as a
conveyor belt and/or an edge rail conveyor moves circuit assemblies through the oven at a precise
speed set by the operator.

A Windows based computer control system allows operators full control of oven parameters. This is
done when the operator selects and edits “Profiles” that set zone temperatures, transport speed, and
rail width.

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In reflow soldering, a hot gas envelopes the entire printed circuit assembly. In doing so, it activates
the flux then melts the solder medium having been “printed” on the board’s surface onto which
components have been attached. Upon melting, solder wets all termination areas. Upon cooling, the
solder joint is made.

Solder Connection (Joint) Acceptability


Acceptable solder connections often are bright and shiny (not always necessary) while clearly
revealing solder termination area surface contours. They feather completely out to the joint's edge.
They are free of any residue or foreign matter. The joined surfaces are completely wetted showing no
signs of being "cold.” They exhibit no evidence of dewetting, disturbance, or other unacceptable
attributes. Based on the foregoing requirements, the first two figures show preferred and minimally
acceptable solder joints while the third shows one that is unacceptable. POD requires solder joint
quality conformance to IPC-A-610C, Class III requirements.

Solder joint reliability is another issue requiring careful determination. Though a solder joint exhibits
visible quality, it may not have sufficient integrity, composition, or formation to ensure long term
reliability. The reasons for this are many and this discussion is best left for more advanced study.
However, visible quality is the primary starting point especially concerning its correlation to process
management and capabilities.

Root cause (process management and capabilities) and effect (solder joint quality) relationships are
first established using visual quality verification methods. If process management is effected using
proven process capabilities, solder joint quality shall be acceptable.

Effecting An Acceptable Solder Joint


Some of the most important requirements for effective reflow soldering process management are
clean solder surfaces, calibrated conveyor speeds, and controlled and verified temperature
profiles. Also required are specified solder temperatures, specified solders and fluxes, calibrated
wave contact areas and times, specified preheat temperatures and times, and specified top side
board temperatures. All these requirements shall be met to ensure effective process management.
Other equally important requirements are well trained operators, clearly defined procedures, and
the attendant tools to promote process management.

Solder Process Management


The most important factor needed to effect process management is proper training. Each reflow
solder process manager shall be trained, evaluated, qualified, certified, and empowered to accept
and fulfill responsibilities for ensuring solder process management is possible and effected. This shall

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be done to ensure acceptable solder joint quality. Each reflow solder process manager must
understand the following:

Solder Termination Area Conditions


Solder termination area (surfaces as PCB pads or component leads) shall be free of excessive
contamination. Printed circuit board pads and/or component leads having excessive contamination
(oxidation, grease, dirt, etc.) are not capable of being solder "wetted." It is not possible under any
conditions to effect acceptable solder joints when excessive contaminates are present. No amount of
heat, flux, or time shall help. Each solder process manager must determine that surfaces to be joined
are clean enough to be wetted and soldered so specified solder joint quality is assured and effected.
If this determination cannot be made, the soldering process shall be stopped until corrective action is
taken to return the process to a manageable state.

Solder Termination Area Condition Examples


To ensure solder process managers have solderable surfaces, only qualified suppliers, managing
qualified processes, shall be selected to provide required PCB and component solder termination
areas. This means that only "clean," solderable PCB's and components shall be purchased and
introduced to soldering operations.

The first figure is an example of a contaminated J-lead on a PLCC surface mount component. The
second figure shows the results of a test using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy
disperssive X-Ray (EDX). It is a graphic clearly indicating excessive tin oxide contamination (18:1
oxide to surface metal ratio) on the J-Lead’s surface. This condition absolutely prevents solder
wetting under any conditions.

The third figure shows completely non-wetted SMT pads. They also prevent solder wetting under any
conditions. The fourth figure shows effect as an unacceptable PLCC solder joint caused by its
excessively oxidized J-Lead. However, the PCB surface (not having the condition shown in figure 12)
soldered well as it exhibited complete wetting.

NOTE: AGAIN, THE FIRST FIGURE SHOWS J-LEAD CONTAMINATION AS OXIDATION (18:1
OXIDE TO SURFACE METAL RATIO). THIS CONDITION COULD EXIST ON THROUGH HOLE
COMPONENTS, CHIP DEVICES, AND LEADED OR LEADLESS SMD’S. LOOK FOR THIS
CONDITION AND THOSE ON PCB PADS. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO SOLDER UNDER THESE
CONDITIONS.

Reflow Solder Thermal Management


The reflow solder process shall be managed using verified temperature profiles, as gradients,
capable of first providing increasing heat to “ramp” the board temperature gradually. This is done so it
is not “shocked.” because of the thermal change (delta T) when leaving the preheat zone and

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contacting the much higher temperature solder wave. This prevents damage to boards or
components as board temperature is gradually raised - also ensuring flux activation. Then, the
process shall be managed to assure the solder wave is at the specified temperature to effect
acceptable solder joints.

The time required is not less than 2 nor more than 4 seconds within a specified contact area (contact
time is a function of contact area and conveyor speed). Board and/or component overheating is
prevented when times are correct. If overheating does occur, primary damage is done to the PCB as
pad lifting (or rotation) from the board surface as in the first three figures. PCB damage also may be
done as the cracked hole in the fourth figure. Component damage (cracking as an example) also may
be effected due to excessive heat or thermal shock.

Multilayer board (MLB) delamination may also be caused by too much thermal stress or shock. The
first figure shows this condition as viewed from the MLB surface. The second figure shows it in X-
Section looking at the board’s inside as if it was cut in the Z axis. The third figure shows meazling
also often induced by thermal stress.

Solder Termination Area Surface Coating Types


Solder termination area surface coating types often are electroplated or hot air solder leveled
(HASL) tin/lead, or electrolessly deposited tin. Newer coatings are electroless gold, silver,
palladium, “white” tin, and organics. They have been developed to overcome problems associated
with the above types. Problems consist of non-wetted, uneven, and/or oxidized surfaces often with
excessive intermetallic formations. All these plating or coating types are compatible with the solder
medium to the extent deposited amounts do not “contaminate” the solder medium and joint.
Contamination would be in excess of that specified in ANSI/J-STD-001B (Figure 5-1) during
soldering operations.

If the surface is coated or plated with other metals (electroplated or electrolessly deposited gold in
excessive amounts, as an example), they shall be removed to assure solder compatibility or the
solder medium shall be changed. Acceptable solder joints often have acceptable intermetallic
growth effected as part of the joining process although some unacceptable joints are formed when
wrong or excessive intermetallics form. Gold is an example of a metal (in excessive amounts) that
is not compatible with tin/lead eutectic soldering. This metal causes embrittlement and subsequent
solder joint failures over time - under mechanically induced stresses.

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NOTE: EXCESSIVE AMOUNTS MEANS GOLD, OR OTHER COATING, CONTAMINATING


SOLDER JOINTS BEYOND THAT WHICH IS ACCEPTABLE TO ENSURE INITIAL QUALITY AND
LONG TERM RELIABILITY. REFERENCE TABLE 5-1, ON PAGE 5, IN ANSI/J-STD-001B
CONCERNING SOLDER LIMITS FOR TIN/LEAD ALLOYS.

Flux Types
Flux is composed of acid or caustic chemicals (high or low pH components [over 7 = alkaline, under 7
= acidic]). It is used to clean contaminates (mild oxidation, grease, or other residues) from solder
termination areas. Fluxes become fluid at lower temperatures than solder. This means that when
heated, flux flows onto solder termination areas first. As it does, it cleans and protects (when properly
activated) the heated metal surfaces until the solder becomes molten and flows onto and wets solder
termination areas. Then, the solder solidifies (“freezes”) upon cooling to make the solder connection.

Flux Requirements
Flux is vital to most soldering processes. This is true though fluxless or no clean solutions are being
sought as part of an ongoing effort to reduce environmental contamination produced during soldering
and cleaning operations. The two flux types generally used are rosin flux or aqueous (water soluble
acid) flux.

After soldering operations, rosin flux shall be cleaned with isopropyl alcohol (one of its components).
Aqueous flux shall be cleaned with water (a component in its binder). This is required because of the
deleterious affects flux residues have when left on board, component, and soldered surfaces. They
continue to act as a removal or cleaning mechanism. This causes damage and solder joint failures.
Some flux residues are conductive providing paths for unwanted current flow capable of causing
electrical shorts between surface conductors.

Newer “no-clean” fluxes are composed of chemicals capable of removing contamination while
needing little or no cleaning after reflow soldering. Their residue remains on or near the solder
connection and provides none of the concerns stated in the above paragraph. However, rework or
repair operation results often require localized cleaning to remove the then visibly exposed residue.

NOTE: THE ONLY REASON METAL SURFACES ARE COVERED, COATED, OR PLATED IS TO
PROTECT THEM FROM OXIDATION OR OTHER CONTAMINATION UNTIL THE SOLDER JOINT
IS MADE. COPPER SURFACES (COMPRISING MOST PRINTED CIRCUIT CONDUCTORS)
OXIDIZE ALMOST IMMEDIATELY UPON EXPOSURE TO AIR. SCRATCH A PENNY’S SURFACE
AND SEE HOW LITTLE TIME IT TAKES FOR THE SHINY SCRATCHED AREA TO TURN DULL
BECAUSE OF OXIDATION.

Thermal Mass Considerations


A single pad on a single sided circuit board involves relatively little thermal mass. A double-sided
board with a plated through hole can double that mass. Multilayer boards (MLB’s), increased
component leads, larger device types, different device types and MLB materials, terminals,
connectors, and connecting wires further increase thermal mass. This means that temperature rise
shall not be as rapid or as much when using a thermal profile designed for a board with less thermal
mass. This means each board type and its unique thermal mass shall have a correspondingly unique
thermal profile. There may be specific or unique profiles for single and simple double sided boards,
for higher density four and simple six layer types, and those for eight to ten layers, and so on.

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Experiments (trials) shall be performed to determine which profile works for which board type. This is
done using thermocouples mounted on PCB’s, “MOLES,” or other thermal profilometers that are run
through the reflow solder process. These setups provide precise thermal information at various
stages in the soldering process along the conveyor’s path. Clear temperature readings are printed
out, viewed, and/or graphed to make determinations concerning more effective thermal profile
considerations so processes and solder joint quality is continuously improved.

During experimentation, each board type is inspected and effects (acceptable or unacceptable solder
joint quality) are correlated to cause. Cause is how well a process is managed relative to machine
and required sub process settings made in accordance with specifications and procedures. When
effects are positive, cause is recognized as effective process management and processes may be
effectively managed during production. When negative, experiments continue until positive effects are
found and process settings are recorded and made available for use in production. Ongoing pre
process audits and sample inspections promote continuous process improvement as part of
statistical process control (SPC).

As previously discussed, an important factor concerning thermal profile management is a solder


termination area's surface condition. In addition to what was said earlier, oxides particularly act as
thermal barriers to heat transfer. Even if a thermal profile provides the right properties for that board
type, excessive oxidation always prevents enough heat reaching the solder termination areas to melt
solder. Even if a specified flux type is used to clean mildly contaminated areas, excessive oxidation is
a barrier to all solder process management efforts.

Solder Joint Formation Time Requirements


Time is a major factor affecting acceptable solder joint quality and preventing damage to boards,
components, or finished assemblies. For reflow soldering process management to be effective, the
specified heat shall not be applied to solder termination areas for more that 4 seconds. Beyond this
time, the board may be damaged (as in previous examples). If more time is required to wet solder
termination areas, something is wrong as either the design is deficient or the board has much more
thermal mass than capable of being soldered under "normal" conditions. There may be too much
thermal mass, the wrong thermal profile, too little heat input, or excessive oxidation. Corrective action
shall be taken. The figure atop the next page shows a cross section of the perfect J-Lead solder joint
effected in well managed solder processes.

NOTE: ACCEPTABLE SOLDER JOINTS ARE NOT AN ART FORM. THEY ARE NOT EFFECTED
BY ARTISTS. ACCEPTABLE SOLDER JOINTS ARE OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE OF PROCESS

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MANAGERS USING THE RIGHT TOOLS WITH PROPER INSTRUCTIONS FOR THEIR USE TO
ASSURE SPECIFIED QUALITY.

Unacceptable Solder Joints And Other Conditions As Cause For Rejection.

Cold Solder
A cold solder joint is effected by poor solder process management. This means insufficient heat,
contact time, and/or adequate solder surface contact is effected during the soldering process. The
solder generally shall not flow to feather solder termination area edges. It also tends to form "globs"
or uneven "balls and not completely cover all parts of connection. The solder appears dull, grainy,
and uneven.

Insufficient Solder
Insufficient solder is apparent as solder termination areas not being soldered or completely covered
by solder. Insufficient solder defects do not meet specified solder joint acceptance requirements.

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De-wetting
Dewetting is evident as solder that first has attempted wetting all solder termination areas then
"withdraws" from them. This forms "puddles" with thin and thick solder not providing acceptable
solder joint coverage. Also, portions of the solder connection typically are identified by a convex
boundary between the solder and conductor. The major cause of de-wetting is contamination as
oxidation, grease, or other dirt or debris.

Excess Solder
By definition, excess solder means too much. Solder surface contours are not visible because there
is an overflow of solder forming excessive peaks.

Disturbed Solder
A disturbed solder joint has a crystalline appearance may be fractured or separated at the solder
termination area junction.

Overheated Solder
An overheated solder connection appears dull and crystallized. Areas around overheated solder
joints often appear discolored or burnt.

Contaminated Solder
A contaminated solder joint is unacceptable as it contains foreign matter such as insulation or other
debris, etc.

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Solder Bridging
Solder bridging is a web or film of solder between adjacent vertical terminations (formed over the
insulating PCB material). If extensive, it can be a web of solder between adjacent conductors. Some
causes of bridging can be low solder temperature, insufficient flux, poor flux activation, or the
presence of impurities in the molten solder. Other factors may involve the wetting angle, and the
angle at which the board approaches and contacts the wave.

Icicling
Icicling is solder extending out perpendicular from the PCB bottom side usually at the component
leads. It is caused by a drainage restriction of molten solder from the board, lower than specified
solder temperature, or faster than specified conveyor speed. Other causes may be wrong PCB angle
over the wave, shorter than specified wave contact time, too little wave/board contact area,
inadequate flux activity, and/or unacceptable solder purity.

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Blowholes And Voids


Blowholes are voids having exited, or outgassed from within PCB plated holes or solder joints. Voids
are small spherical cavities within the PCB plated hole wall in the first figure, or under/in a solder joint
shown in the second figure. Causes of blowholes are excessive flux, flux residue left inside a solder
joint, insufficient evaporation of the flux solvent before soldering, or moisture or organic plating
residues having been entrapped in plated-through holes that “outgas” through the hole wall plating.
Blowholes can be caused by PCB's not meeting supplier acceptance criteria such as minimum
copper plating thickness. They and voids may also be caused by flux remaining in solder joints
fighting contamination such as excessive oxidation.

Solder Balls
Solder balls are small spheres that may cause shorting between conductors or component leads.
Solder balls often are dynamic meaning they move randomly across a board’s surface. They are
caused when thermal profiles are not as specified, solder mask is not properly cured, or dry film
solder masks are used. They may also be caused as flux within the solder paste rapidly expands
when overheated spattering molten solder across the board’s surface. They too are caused when
blowholes are effected through outgassing as indicated above.

Correction And Prevention Of Unacceptable Solder Connections.


Action to correct and prevent unacceptable solder connections shall be taken by reflow solder
process managers. The action taken depends on the frequency and type of unacceptable
connections found. When excessive or major defects are found, supervisors shall be notified so

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required correction can be made. When minor or minimal defects are found, the process managers
shall correct the process to assure quality meeting specified requirements

Repair, Modification, And Rework


Repair, modification, and rework of unacceptable solder joints and/or assemblies shall be done using
hand soldering with flux cored solder and temperature regulated soldering irons. Cleaning shall be
done on the board after touch-up using the proper cleaning solution depending on the flux type used.

NOTE: ALL TOUCH UP OPERATIONS AND ACTIVITIES SHALL BE PERFORMED IN


ACCORDANCE WITH POD, POD-5055, REPAIR, MODIFICATION, AND REWORK
PROCEDURES.

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4.0 DEFINITIONS
The following definitions are provided for all process managers to better visualize each process for
which they are responsible:

Operations
Operations are defined as a series of processes required to provide product or services meeting
certain requirements. Usually these requirements are based on customer needs, desires, or
demands. POD employs many operations as management, engineering, marketing, sales,
manufacturing, accounting, quality assurance, and others to ensure all its customers receive product
meeting their requirements.

Process
A process is defined as a method or procedure. A process may be a single method or procedure, or
may be made up of sub processes and activities. In a manufacturing operation, a process is
employed to turn acceptable raw materials, components, and designs into acceptable product using
various tool and equipment types.

Sub Process
A sub process may be part of a process. In the reflow solder process, several sub processes are
involved to effect acceptable solder joints. They are discussed in the foregoing section.

Activity
Processes and sub processes most often rely on individuals or teams performing activities to make
product. In manufacturing, such activities may consist of moving or handling materials and
components, changing machine or tool settings, turning equipment on or off, etc.. It is at the activity
level most variability is introduced to manufacturing operations effecting varying degrees of quality.
For this reason, it is vital process managers be well trained to fulfill their responsibilities by following
procedures concerning specific process management requirements.

Process Management
Process management is the act of preventing defect by fulfilling individual responsibilities instead of
reacting to it as the result of not fulfilling them. When process instead of results management is
practiced, product quality is consistently acceptable. Process management differs from process
control in that control means only consistent quality is produced. In a controlled instead of managed
environment, that quality may be consistently good or bad.

Process Capability
Process capability is the measure of how well a process is being managed. Usually, a processes’
capability is expressed in statistical terms as a capability profile or Cpk. When a process is managed
effectively, its Cpk shows how well while often providing an indication of what is needed to
continuously improve. Continuous process improvement assures continuous quality improvement
and that is what process managers focus on most.

Solder
Solder is defined as a metallic medium (as an alloy) that melts at temperatures below 800 degrees
Fahrenheit to join metal surfaces having much higher melting points. Solder may be in different
forms. It may be bar solder as used in reflow solder machines, or it may be wire with a flux core used

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to perform hand soldering. It may also be in the form of a paste composed of solder balls suspended
in a binder with a flux component. None of these forms changes its definition.

Solder Paste
Solder paste is a metallic medium (as an alloy) formed into solder balls (ranging in diameter from
about 4 to 40 microns). The balls are suspended in a binder (composed of flux and other chemicals).
Solder paste, as all solder media, melts at temperatures below 800 degrees Fahrenheit to join metal
surfaces having much higher melting points.

The more spherical are the solder balls, the less surface area they have. This reduces their oxidation
amount and rate at which they oxidize. This is important because more oxidation means less
solderability.

The solder paste composition has a high viscosity of approximately 900,000 centipoise. Higher
viscosity aids in preventing solder paste spread on SMT pads. When too high, printing problems may
occur relative to dispensing paste through stencil openings.

Solder paste is applied to solder termination areas using a printing machine, squeegees, and stencils
with openings of specified sizes, shapes, and aspect ratios. All this is done to assure a precise
amount is printed where and in the condition required to effect acceptable solder joints.

Wire/Core Solder
Wire/Core solder is a solder medium composed of a eutectic alloy. Usually it is 60/40 tin-lead formed
into a wire with a hollow flux filled core. Wire/Core solder is specified in varying diameters (typically
from about .012” to .060”) for specific hand soldering activities. It provides a mechanism to apply flux
from its core to the solder termination areas before solder melts, flows, and wets them to effect an
acceptable solder joint.

Flux
Flux is defined as a chemically and physically active compound that when heated to specified
temperatures it promotes base metal surface wetting by molten solder. It does this by removing minor
surface oxidation, surface films, or other contamination. It then protects the surfaces from reoxidation
during the soldering process. Various flux types (see POD Hand Soldering and Final Assembly
Course) include:

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Rosin
Rosin flux primarily is composed of natural resin extracted from oleoresin of pine trees and refined.
Typically, these fluxes are made up of 60% solvent and 40% solids.

Rosin flux (Type R) is an organic material distilled from pine tree sap. The active ingredients in this
flux type primarily consist of abietic and pimaric acids. After rosin is extracted from pine trees, it is
superficially processed to remove undesirable impurities while neutralizing the acid residues
remaining from the extraction process. The purified material is called water-white rosin. It is used to
manufacture rosin based flux.

Some manufacturers hoping to overcome difficulties associated with obtaining and processing natural
rosin, chemically synthesize substitute materials. These materials are called “resins.”

Pure rosin is a solid at room temperature and is chemically inactive while being insulative. Rosin
melts at about 72 degrees C. (160 degrees F.) and the organic acids become active at around 108
degrees C. (225 degrees F.). This flux type’s peak capability is effected around 262 degrees C. (500
degrees F.). This is the temperature rosin begins decomposing into reducing gases. At temperatures
above 346 degrees C. (650 degrees F.), the flux becomes inactive and polymerizes. This causes
residue removal difficulties from board and solder joint surfaces.

When solder surfaces require a more active flux, chemical compounds called activators are added to
the rosin. The most commonly known rosin flux containing activators is called rosin, mildly activated
or RMA.

Activators are thermally reactive compounds (such as amine hydrochlorides) that break down at
elevated temperatures. At these temperatures, hydrochloric acid is released to dissolve the surface
oxides, tarnishes, and other contaminates. Mildly activated rosin flux (RMA) may contain a variety of
activators in amounts less than 1%. Limits are placed on their electrical and chemical properties
before and after soldering.

Rosin activated flux (RA) typically contains 1% - 5% activators. RA flux is used in applications when
RMA is not strong enough. For military purposes, their use usually is limited to component tinning of
sealed devices and solid wire. When warm, these fluxes can conduct electricity and can leave
residues that can cause corrosion or shorting path formation between conductors.

Organic Acid Flux


Organic acid (OA) fluxes are types having active ingredients such as organic acids, organic
hydrohalides, amines, and amides. These fluxes are water soluble since they contain no rosin. Good
cleaning is critical with these flux types since the salt residues left by them are corrosive and
conductive.

OA fluxes also are referred to as water soluble fluxes (WSF’s). These fluxes are more aggressive.
They generally are classified in J-STD-004 as types M or H. OA fluxes have active ingredients such
as organic acids, organic hydrohalides, amines, and amides. All are corrosive activator materials.
These fluxes are water soluble or water washable since they contain no rosin, or any low rosin or
resin levels. Good cleaning is critical with these flux types as their residues are corrosive and
electrically conductive.

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Resin
Resin flux primarily is composed of natural resins other than rosin types and/or synthetic resins.

Organic
Organic elements are based on carbon atom structures. All life forms are organic. Organic fluxes are
primarily composed of organic materials other than rosin or resin.

Inorganic
Inorganic elements are based on other than carbon atom structures. Inorganic fluxes are solutions
composed of inorganic acids and/or salts.

LR, or No-Clean Fluxes


Low residue (LR) fluxes usually have lower solids content (less than 5%) than traditional high-solids
rosin fluxes. LR fluxes also are referred to as no-clean or “leave on” fluxes. Their residues are not
intended for removal from assemblies so cleaning is not required. Their primary activator materials
are weak organic acids (adipic or succinic acid). These materials are benign on a board surface and
act as electrical insulators. LR fluxes may be higher solvent borne (usually isopropanol) or water
borne in the case of volatile organic compound (VOC) free no clean fluxes.

Low residue fluxes are not no-residue fluxes. Although benign, visible residues do remain on the
assembly. For this reason, customers may require them to be cleaned. This often is requested for
cosmetic rather than functionality reasons. If the flux residues have a significant thickness, they could
interfere with electrical testing as “bed of nails” types. However, a different probe point, greater spring
strength, or rotating probes often solve this problem. Low residue fluxes also might build up on test
pins over time. This requires preventive maintenance as regular cleaning.

Halides
Halides are organic salts added to flux as activators. Halides are corrosive.

Fluxing Activities And Classes


A liquid flows freely over a surface only if in doing so the total free energy of the system is reduced. In
soldering, the free energy of a clean surface is higher than a dirty one. Therefore, it is more likely to
promote solder flow. With respect to this, fluxing activities are:

Chemical
Chemical fluxing activity reduces the oxides from the surface to be soldered and protects this surface
from oxidation by covering it.

Thermal
Thermal fluxing activity assists transferring heat from the heat source to the material being soldered.

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Physical
Physical activities allow the transportation of oxides and other reaction products away from the
material surfaces being soldered. In consideration of these three fluxing activities, the following shall
be noted:

1) There are two basic ways fluxes eliminate oxidation. They dissolve it into "solution" or they
reduce it back to metal. If reduced, it clearly "disappears" and should not be re-deposited as an
oxide (to be determined through supplier qualification). Some old flux types "dissolved" oxides by
reacting a fatty acid (rosin) with the metal in the oxide. Then, it was “pushed aside” by solder flow
and wetting action. In which mode a flux works, clearly depends on which flux is used. Some fluxes
use both modes.

2) ANSI/J-STD-004 differentiates flux activities into three classes. They are Low (type L), Medium
(type M), and High (type H). ANSI/J-STD-004 further classifies fluxes as to whether or not they
contain halides. For example, a type L0 flux is a low activity, halide free flux. An L1 flux is a low
activity flux containing some halide amount.

3) Numbers of industry and consortia studies have been conducted concerning low residue flux
reliability. Type L fluxes have been shown relatively benign concerning corrosion and electrolytic
failure mechanisms. For this reason, Section 4.2 allows the manufacturer to use a type L flux (L0 or
L1) without going through the testing outlined in Appendix D. If the manufacturer chooses to use a
more aggressive flux (types M and/or H), the potential exists for corrosive flux residues. If so, the
manufacturer must go through the Appendix D testing to demonstrate adequate removal of potentially
harmful flux residues.

4) It is highly recommended that the manufacturer not use a type H flux on printed wiring assemblies
in any way – at any time. It is recommended that, if used at all, a type H flux be limited to component
lead tinning. Even then, this may be done only when it can be demonstrated that the highly
aggressive flux residues can be thoroughly removed.

Electrochemical Migration
Electrochemical migration is defined as the movement of metals across an intervening space
between a cathode and anode. This movement is induced by the difference in electrical potential in
the presence of fluid producing a micro-film of water on a substrate’s surface.

Soldering
Soldering is a process in which two metal surfaces are metallurgically joined, using a specified
solder medium (metal filler with a melting point below 800 degrees F.). The process is effected by
"wetting" the surfaces to be joined requiring diffusion and internetallic growth. The effect of this
process is called a solder joint.

Intermetallics
In light of the previous definition (soldering), intermetallics always are formed when heated solder
surfaces are brought into contact with solder melted upon them. As soldering requires diffusion and
internetallic growth, each occurs as part of the soldering process. This is immediately so and time
effects intermetallic growth as a continuous process.

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Intermetallic compounds have much different physical and mechanical properties than the metals
comprising them. Typically, intermetallics are very brittle and have poor electrical conductivity. Also,
when exposed to air, they oxidize very rapidly. Therefore, excessive intermetallics, formed either
during the soldering process or over time, cause unreliable solder joints capable of failing under
stressful conditions as thermal, or mechanical shock and/or vibration.

Oxidation (oxide, oxidize)


Oxidation is the act of burning. When oxygen is present in an atmosphere, it “burns” or oxidizes all
material with which it comes in contact. When this happens, oxides are formed that resist thermal
input as well as solder wetting. Some materials resist oxidation better than others. Most solder
termination areas are copper (oxidizes very rapidly) covered with some protective coating to prevent
further oxidation than that which was present before the coating’s application. In an inert atmosphere,
oxidation is prevented (there is no oxygen or oxidizing agent). This means that if all processes
relating to the use of materials capable of rapid oxidation were performed in an inert atmosphere,
they would be more capable of solder wetting.

Inert Atmosphere
Inert means inactive or static. An inert atmosphere is one without activity such as that containing
oxygen which is one component in our life sustaining atmosphere surrounding earth. Nitrogen is an
inert gas. When totally comprising an atmosphere (as inside a soldering machine), activity is
eliminated concerning oxidation thereby providing protection to solder termination areas. This
promotes or improves thermal input and solder wetting (solderability). This assures a higher rate of
higher quality solder joints.

Surface
Surface is defined as an object’s area having no depth.

Welding
It shall be noted there is a distinction between soldering and welding. Welding is defined as a process
in which diffusion and intermetallic formations are effected to metallurgically join metals beyond their
surfaces to a specified depth. The welding process is effected at temperatures well above 800
degrees F.. This distinction also provides evidence that solder joining is a reversible process as it
relies on heat to "undo" the solder joint. Welding requires complete joint destruction thus making
repair and/or rework impossible at the component level, as an example.

Solderability
Solderability is defined as the ease with which solder adheres to a basis metal surface such as a
component lead, PCB solder termination pad, or PCB conductor hole pad and wall. The presence of
contamination (as oxides or residues) interferes with solderability. Acceptable solderability and solder
joint formation, requires good solder wetting and a small contact angle.

Wetting
Wetting is defined as the formation of a relatively uniform, smooth, unbroken, and adherent solder
film to a basis metal. Wetting requires a solid surface to be completely "coated" by a liquid. This
means the liquid maintains intimate contact with all solder termination areas without resistance or any
indication of "pulling" back from their surfaces. In solder joining, the liquid is molten solder. What
distinguishes "liquid" metal from some other liquid media is its change back to a solid when cooled

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below its melting point. When two metal surfaces are wetted, they may become joined upon solder
medium solidification (often referred to as freezing). This only is done under effectively process
managed conditions.

Contact Angle
Contact angle is defined as the angle at which a solder fillet meets the basis metal. A small contact
angle indicates good wetting whereas a large angle indicates poor wetting.

Eutectic
Eutectic is defined as a combination of two metals (forming an alloy) that melts at a lower
temperature than either as individual metals. Also, eutectic is defined as alloys that change directly
from liquid to solid, and the reverse, with no intermediate plastic states. Various solder types and their
compositions and melting points are found in ANSI/J-STD-006.

Solder Joint
A solder joint is effected in the soldering process. Under effectively managed conditions, solder joints
exhibit acceptable attributes as smooth, usually shiny, clearly defined, well feathered, completely
wetted metallic bonds between two metal surfaces.

Aqueous Cleaning
Aqueous cleaning is defined as process using water as the primary cleaning agent or solvent. It shall
be noted that water is termed the “universal” solvent because it is capable of dissolving all material
types to some extent over time. This type cleaning can mean using pure water, with detergent
additives, or with a saponifier solution. Aqueous cleaning is done most often with water soluble
fluxes, but can be used on rosin and low residue fluxes as well as with the appropriate additives.
Aqueous cleaning generally is a multi-stage operation with most cleaning effected in the first wash
stages with the dirtiest water while rinsing is done in later stages using the cleanest water.

Manual Cleaning
Manual cleaning is a process used to spot clean flux residues from assembly surfaces. It includes
using a bristle brush with isopropyl alcohol as the cleaning agent or solvent. This process is not
recommended for final cleaning.

Saponification
Saponification is defined as a cleaning process using a biodegradable rosin cleaner. In the process,
the rosin is changed chemically to become water soluble.

Reflow soldering
Reflow soldering requires intimate contact be made between molten solder and the assembly’s
bottom side solder termination areas to effect solder joints. Conversely, reflow soldering is
accomplished in a machine using air or an inert gas (nitrogen) as the solder reflow mechanism.
Reflow soldering requires attention to conveyor speed, flux action and activation, preheat and topside
board temperatures, solder pot temperatures, wave contact times and areas, and solder purity.

In reflow soldering, a hot gas envelopes the entire printed circuit assembly. In doing so, it activates
the flux then melts the solder medium having been “printed” on the board’s surface onto which
components have been attached. Upon melting, solder wets all termination areas. Upon cooling, the

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solder joint is made. In reflow soldering, wave contact with solder termination areas wets them as
wave pressure, and wetting and capillary action provides the mechanism for the solder to flow up
holes and component leads to wet them to the board’s surface.

The entire reflow process is completed in stages corresponding to increasing temperatures in several
zones until the highest temperature is reached in what is called the liquidous zone. It is in this zone
the solder melts (liquefies) and wets all solder termination areas. Reflow soldering requires similar
stages to ramp boards and components up to temperatures required to activate flux, and prevent
thermal shock upon entering the liquidous zone.

Quality
Quality is defined as conformance to clearly specified, understood, and accepted customer contract
requirements.

Repair
Repair is defined as the process required to restore the functional capability and/or performance
characteristics of a defective article. This is done in a manner that precludes compliance of the article
with applicable drawings or specifications.

Modification
Modification is defined as the process required to revise the functional capability or performance
characteristics of a product to satisfy new acceptance criteria. Modifications usually are required to
incorporate design changes that can be controlled by drawings, change orders, etc.. Modifications
only shall be performed when specifically authorized and described in detail on controlled
documentation.

Rework
Rework is defined as the act of reprocessing non-conforming or defective articles. This is done using
original or equivalent processing to assure full conformance of the article with applicable drawings or
specifications. Rework is doing something over that should have been done right the first time.

Other
Other terms are defined in IPC-T-50 and in specific guidelines, standards, and specifications
indicated in Section 8. herein.

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5.0 REQUIRED EQUIPMENT/TOOLS

Specified Reflow Soldering System

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6.0 PROCESS MANAGEMENT AND QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS


Process management and quality system requirements are steps required to maintain process
management effectiveness to assure product quality meeting specified requirements.

Traveler and drawings as required

Component placement/insertion as required

Safety, handling, and ESD as required

Read, understand, and use solder audit checklist before each run, lot, or different board type

Conveyor speed as specified.

Thermal profile as required.

Time in liquidous as specified.

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7.0 REFLOW SOLDERING


These procedures are used to ensure effective, efficient process management concerning reflow
soldering operations at POD. POD uses specified and approved soldering tools to effect acceptable
solder joints on printed circuit assemblies. This includes both through hole and surface mount
devices.

The Oven
The Conceptronic HVC-102 (High Velocity Convection) reflow oven.

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PROCESS
These procedures are used to ensure effective, efficient process management concerning reflow
soldering operations at POD. POD uses a Conceptronic reflow soldering machine as a process
capability to effect acceptable solder joints on printed circuit assemblies.

Reflow Solder Process Preparation


Prepare all solder process elements for reflow solder processes and proceed as follows while
confirming all safety, material handling, setup, maintenance, calibration, and machine functions in
accordance with these procedures.

Ensure proper handling and ESD protection. The first figure indicates ESD protection required
symbol. The second figure indicates ESD handling requirements shall be effected. The third figure
shows the preferred method for handling Class III PCB assemblies. The fourth figure shows an
acceptable handling method. In all cases it is required that ESD protection be provided all assemblies
and all boards be handled so no damage, contamination, or other defect causing possibilities exist.

Ensure PCB date codes not older than six weeks. If so, ensure boards baked to
remove moisture.

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7.0 OPERATIONS
The following procedures shall be used by all reflow soldering process managers to ensure product
quality meeting POD acceptance specifications:

Operator's Panel
An operator's control panel and monitor are located at the unload end of the oven. The operator's
panel includes the following:

Control Power ON/OFF Switch

START Push Button

Bonnet Up-Down Switch

Rail IN/OUT Switch

Thermocouple Probe Connectors

SPECIAL NOTE: FOUR (4) EMERGENCY STOP SWITCHES ARE LOCATED AT THE CORNERS
OF THE OVEN). DO NOT HESITATE TO USE THEM WHEN NECESSARY.

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Oven Start Procedure

Turn the control power ON and ensure control power light turns on.

Push the START push button and ensure the blowers turn on and the computer boots up.

Oven Stop Procedure

Click on the Main Monitor STOP button.

Wait for COOLDOWN, then IDLE mode.

Exit Main Monitor

Exit Program Manager

Exit Windows.

Turn Control Power OFF.

Emergency Stop Reset

Turn Control Power OFF.

Reset Emergency Stop switches.

Reset shunt trip breaker.

Turn control Power ON.

NOTE: THE OVEN PROFILE SHALL RELOAD. HOWEVER, THE OVEN SHALL NOT GO TO THE
READY STATE UNTIL THE OVEN TRANSPORT HAS COMPLETED A FULL REVOLUTION.

Alarm Recovery

Press ENTER to clear alarm

Ensure the oven goes to the IDLE state.

Investigate and correct existing problems.

Power Loss Recovery

Turn Control Power ON.

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NOTE: THE OVEN PROFILE SHALL RELOAD. HOWEVER, THE OVEN SHALL NOT GO TO THE
READY STATE UNTIL THE OVEN TRANSPORT HAS COMPLETED A FULL REVOLUTION.

Load Profile and oven start procedure

When the oven is turned on the MAIN MONITOR ensure the screen is displayed with the LOGIN
dialog box.

LOGIN.

LOAD PROFILE

Observe, that after selecting the Profile, back to the MAIN MONITOR is activated. Note that profile
setpoints for zone temperatures, belt speed, etc. are displayed and the oven is in the IDLE state.

Select and execute RUN.

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NOTES:

OVEN STATE SHALL CHANGE TO NOT READY. WHEN ALL ZONE TEMPERATURES, BELT
SPEED, ETC. ARE WITHIN THEIR NORMAL OPERATING RANGES, THE DISPLAY SHALL
INDICATE READY.

IF THE OVEN HAS THE AUTORAIL OPTION INSTALLED, THE RAIL SHALL ADJUST ITSELF
TO THE CORRECT WIDTH AS SPECIFIED IN THE PROFILE. IF THE OPTION IS NOT
INSTALLED, OR IS DISABLED, THEN ADJUST THE RAIL WIDTH MANUALLY WITH THE RAIL
SWITCH LOCATED ON THE OPERATOR'S CONTROL PANEL OF THE OVEN.

Stop oven as required.

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Reflow Soldering Process Management


The following procedures shall be used to effect reflow soldering operations at POD:

After turning machine on, logging on, and loading the required profile, observe the monitor displaying
the temperatures in each zone as they change from ambient to the specified profile settings to
indicate a ready condition.

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Loading and unloading the conveyor

For first article and production operations, load the conveyor as required.

NOTE: SPECIFIC THERMAL PROFILES ARE REQUIRED FOR PRECISE CONVEYOR SETUP
AND LOADING. USE ONLY PROFILES PROVIDED BY ENGINEERING TO ENSURE REQUIRED
THERMAL PERFORMANCE TO EFFECT ACCEPTABLE SOLDER JOINTS.

Unload the conveyor when process terminates

After first article production have quality assurance personnel inspect all solder joints and perform
touch-up as required – in accordance with POD, POD-5145, Touch-up Procedures.

When solder joints found acceptable, perform production operations.

When solder joints found unacceptable, inform engineering so appropriate corrective action is taken
to return processes to specified conditions.

NOTES: ALL REQUIRED REWORK SHALL BE PERFORMED IN ACCORDANCE WITH IPC-


7712. ALL REPAIR AND MODIFICATIONS SHALL BE PERFORMED IN ACCORDANCE WITH
IPC-7721. ALL SOLDERING REQUIREMENTS SHALL CONFORM WITH ANSI/J-STD-001B.

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8.0 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTATION

POD Statement Of Work and Detailed Processes


POD, PPM-2045, Electrostatic Discharge Procedures
POD, PPM-2015, Material And Assembly Handling Procedures
POD, QIPM-4030, Audit Of Processes And Procedures
POD, PPM-2050, Safety Procedures
Planning Documentation
Lot Control Documentation
Maintenance Requirements, Specifications And Procedures
Compressed Air Test Results
POD, QPM-3020, Equipment Calibration Procedures
Equipment Calibration Logs
POD Quality Assurance Inspection/Test/Analysis Logs
POD Operator Operations, And Process Logs
QQ-S-571 Solder Test Results
MIL-F-14256 Flux For Assembly Operations Test Results
MIL-P-55110 Printed Wiring For Electronic Equipment
MIL-P-28809 Printed Wiring Assemblies
MIL-STD-2000 Part/component Mounting For High Quality/Reliability Soldered Electronic Assemblies
ANSI/IPC-A-610 Acceptability Of Printed Board Assemblies
IPC-600C Acceptability Of Printed Boards
IPC-700B Repair Of Printed Boards And Assemblies
IPC-T-50 Terms And Definitions
MIL-STD-275 Printed Wiring For Electronic Equipment
POD Pre-operational, Operational, And Post Operational Checklists
POD/TDC Operation and Maintenance Procedure

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12.6 WAVE SOLDERING

MANUFACTURING PROCESS MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES

POD-5045-1 WAVE SOLDERING

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DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT AND APPROVALS

This document is managed, as are all documents in the POD Process Improvement Program
(outlined in the POD, QPM-3000-1, Process Improvement Assurance Manual, Section 4.0), by POD
Engineering Process Management. Revisions to this document shall be effected using POD
Engineering Change Procedures. These procedures assure any individual may use change requests,
submitted to Engineering Process Management, indicating the change needed.

Change requests shall be reviewed and accepted, or rejected, based upon merit and justification (as
detailed in POD, EPM-0150, Engineering Change Notice (ECN) Procedures. When approved,
revised documents shall be released and issued by Engineering Process Management at the
appropriate, new revision level in accordance with POD, EPM-1045, Document Management
Procedures.

It shall be required that each document use the specified document format indicated on each page
herein. Also, it shall be required the author's name be clearly indicated on each page while properly
numbering it to ensure document integrity and traceability. The following approvals are required
before release at the required revision level:

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1.0 PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of these procedures is to provide detailed instructions concerning wave solder
manufacturing process management at POD. This is done to ensure product quality consistently
meeting or exceeding POD acceptance criteria.

The scope of these procedures extends to all personnel responsible for ensuring effective wave
solder process management at POD.

RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY


The following responsibilities shall be fulfilled to ensure wave solder manufacturing process
management is properly effected to assure quality at POD:

Manufacturing Engineer
The Manufacturing Engineer is responsible and has authority to provide everything needed by
manufacturing process managers to fulfill their responsibilities at POD. This includes procedures,
training, equipment, tools, adequate and safe working conditions, ESD requirements, and all other
required elements.

Maintenance Technician
The Maintenance Technician is responsible and has authority to ensure all operational elements
(equipment, tools, etc.) are maintained and calibrated as specified. This assures all facilities,
equipment, and tools are capable of being effectively and efficiently managed to assure product
quality meeting specified requirements.

Manufacturing Supervisor
The Manufacturing Supervisor is responsible and has authority to provide proper direction to all
manufacturing process managers at POD. This includes operational procedures, special instructions,
schedules, product changes, drawings, and required materials and components. This also includes
management directives, performance evaluations, and timely individual and team performance
feedback.

Manufacturing Operations Personnel


Manufacturing Operations Personnel are responsible and have authority to assure manufacturing
processes are managed in an effective, efficient manner. They are responsible for performing all
manufacturing operations in accordance with current procedures, checklists, and supervisory
direction. All personnel are responsible for effecting management policies and directives to assure
quality meeting or exceeding specified POD requirements.

Quality Assurance Inspection Personnel


Quality Assurance Inspection Personnel are responsible and have authority to determine product
quality does or does not meet specified POD acceptance criteria. They also are responsible for
providing appropriate feedback concerning product quality to management and manufacturing
process managers so corrective or continued manufacturing action may be effected.

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3.0 Background
Effective, efficient wave solder process management is required to produce acceptable solder joints
and assemblies. The wave solder process is made up of several sub processes. Each process and
sub process is supported by individual activities. It is at the activity level most impact is made on
quality. This is because trained process managers consistently fulfill their responsibilities to assure
quality.

At POD, one of the most important products is a quality solder joint made right on time, the first time,
every time. Only trained individuals fulfilling their responsibilities (Section 2.) can do this.

To assure effective wave soldering process management, primary concern is focused on key process
elements, parameters, and factors. Flux types, flux maintenance, preheat temperatures, conveyor
speed, and flux activation and topside board temperature specifications all shall be met. Also, solder
composition and purity, solder type, solder temperature, wave height, wave/board contact area, and
wave/board contact dwell times must all meet specified requirements. Additionally, equipment shall
be maintained and calibrated to ensure processes capable of producing specified quality. When
everything is as specified, wave solder process management is effected. Then, process effects
become apparent as solder joints meeting specified acceptance criteria.

This is a highly interactive, interrelational, and manageable process. It has clearly defined cause and
effect relationships (processes, sub processes, and activities managed instead of results as defect).

All process management requirements are detailed in these procedures. This is done in conjunction
with all other process considerations. Product acceptance is based on conformance to POD and
appropriate industry acceptance specifications (IPC as an example). This is true of all components
and materials comprising product.

Soldering is a process in which two metal surfaces are metallurgically joined. A specified solder
medium (metal filler with a melting point below 800 degrees F.) is used to “wet" and bond them. It is a
process requiring both diffusion and intermetallic growth to effect an acceptable solder joint. This
definition emphasizes the term "surfaces" (an object’s area having no depth) to clarify the distinction
between soldering and welding, as an example.

Welding is a process in which diffusion and intermetallic formations are effected to metallurgically join
metals beyond their surfaces to a specified depth. This distinction also provides evidence that solder
joining is a reversible process as it relies on heat to "undo" the solder joint. Welding requires
complete joint destruction thus making repair and/or rework impossible at the component level, as an
example.

The term "wetting" requires a solid surface to be completely "coated" by a liquid. This means the
liquid maintains intimate contact with all solder termination areas without resistance or the indication
of dewetting ("pulling back” from the surfaces). In solder joining, the liquid is molten solder. What
distinguishes "liquid" metal from some other liquid media is its change back to a solid when cooled
below its melting point. When two metal surfaces are wetted, they may become joined upon solder
medium solidification (often referred to as freezing). Again, this is done through effective process
management.

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Another important term is eutectic. Eutectic is defined as a combination of two metals (forming an
alloy) that melts at a lower temperature than either individual metal. Also, eutectic is defined as alloys
that change directly from liquid to solid, and the reverse, with no intermediate plastic states. Various
solder types, their compositions, and melting points are found in ANSI/J-STD-006.

Wave soldering and other machine dependent methods (reflow or vapor phase as examples) are not
thought of as art forms. This often is the case with hand soldering. This is because hand soldering
requires much more human intervention to effect acceptable joints. However, wave soldering uses
the same objective principles as reflow or hand soldering. The primary difference is the less personal
"touch" applied during this and the reflow process. Wave and reflow soldering processes rely less on
personal process management as they are less "subjective.” This is because they are less sensitive
to "feel" or touch.

To effect (make) acceptable wave soldered joints, the process manager is trained to visualize the
cause and effect relationships existing each time the process takes place. Time and temperature
factors are primary elements required to assure effective process management. This means assuring
correct conveyor speed over pre-heaters and the solder wave. When managed as specified, critical
flux, board, and component temperature requirements are met. Considerations also are made
concerning solder types, solder temperature, and solder wave/board contact time and area. Equally
important are flux types and activity as well as where and how much is applied.

During this process, the affects all the above factors have on solder joints are seen (see solder joint
figures below). In all soldering processes and activities, surfaces shall be solderable. This requires
PCB's and components to be free of contamination. Such contamination may consist of oxidation or
other conditions (grease, fingerprints, dirt, etc.) deleterious to solder joint quality and reliability.
However, all surfaces are contaminated to some extent. Simply, solder termination areas shall be
"wettable" and excess contamination is a barrier to this.

When mild contamination is present, flux is capable of removing (cleaning) it from the surfaces to be
soldered. When excessive, nothing can be done to make acceptable solder joints. This makes it
critical for operational personnel to be supplied only with highly solderable components and boards.

In the wave solder process, all other factors are equally critical. Flux shall be applied, so mild
contamination is removed. Preheating must raise the board temperature to a level capable of
activating the flux so it works as specified. The solder temperature shall be capable of effecting an
acceptable solder joint. If not high enough, colder solder joints or other unacceptable conditions shall
be effected. If too hot, burnt joints, boards, and components are effected. Also, the conveyor speed
shall be set to assure specified times are realized over the pre-heaters and wave. Plus, the board’s
contact area on the wave shall be within specified limits.

The wave solder process is similar to reflow soldering. The solder process mechanism used instead
of hot air is molten solder applied to solder termination surfaces (component termination and PCB
holes and pads). This is done from the board’s bottom surface as solder wetting is effected on it, and
up through the holes and component leads. This is due to wave pressure and capillary action via
wetting.

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Flux is foamed, sprayed, or otherwise coated (ultrasonic application as an example) on the board’s
bottom surface. It travels up through the holes and on component leads to the board’s surface
coating all solder termination areas. The board travels over pre-heaters to precondition it and its
components to prevent thermal shock upon contacting the wave. Also, this sub-process activates the
flux at a specified temperature required to clean mild contamination from solder termination areas.
Then, the assembly is conveyed over a solder wave where the solder joint is effected. The figure
below is a graphic representation of a typical wave solder profile.

As I said in this book's Part 1, I have found no need to change reflow profiles for lead-free.
Likewise, even though having less experience, I see no reason to change wave solder profiles or
temperatures.

I always use a wave solder profile matrix as a starting point for any job. I derived it many years ago
while conducting experiments over long periods. Simply it requires using, or changing, varying
conveyor speeds (primarily) and sometimes different preheat temperatures. However, the wave
temperature remains constant at 500 degrees F. within a tolerance of 5 degrees up or down.

The following is a crude example of a wave solder matrix I created, using a DOS based drawing
software "package," and used over twenty years ago:

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I turned this crude little thing into a spreadsheet that you all can do. It just depends on your needs
as thermal mass, flux type, flux contact and application, conveyor speed (most important), preheat
temperature, topside temperature, solder pot temperature, and wave/board area contact time.

Please note the wave temperature, for any thermal mass, varies little. Also note, the conveyor
speed is the primary vehicle to ensure acceptable solder joints are effected/made. This, of course,
is dependent upon other variables as well.

In these wave solder procedures you will see the venerable old Technical Devices "Nu Era"
machine and how it is managed. I still like it best of all the machines with which I have worked. In
the procedure, process managers use a simple yardstick, stop watch, IR pyrometer, and other
"calibration" tools and requirements. I see no need to change any of this but for increased or
decreased thermal mass. This includes using lead-free solder.

I have proven, with this information (derived from countless "experiments"), it is possible to solder
anything using almost any known solder medium. Also, bottom side board temperature has little
value. What does is the top side temperature providing the ability to ensure complete flux activation
and minimization of thermal shock from wave to board. After all, the delta between bottom side and
top side is easily calculated no matter the thermal parameters.

It becomes clear that the wave solder process and its sub-processes are highly dependent on
individually performed activities. These consist of making decisions concerning all the foregoing
requirements as the various settings indicated.

For wave solder process managers to improve their "skills," they shall become proficient hand solder
process managers. This provides a more intimate contact and visualization of what makes an
acceptable solder joint.

In wave soldering, everything must come together under effectively managed conditions to create
solder joints equally reliable and acceptable as those effected during other soldering operations.
These procedures detail all requirements to assure effective, efficient wave solder process
management at POD. The following information provides detailed information concerning a typical
wave soldering machine. It shows and explains its sub systems, sub processes, and personnel
dependent activities to manage them effectively:

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Single Wave Solder Pot And Pump Subsystem For Conventional Wave Soldering
The solder wave generator is a major subsystem and process element. It consists of a heat insulated
melting pot, electric heating elements, a pump, a combination pump housing, and a flow chamber. It
also consists of a solder distribution duct, a direct current motor drive, a temperature controller, and
an electrical control and distribution box.

The pump element is a stainless steel propeller rotating at low speed (about 350 rpm). It moves a
large volume of molten solder at low velocity. This produces a wave that is smooth, wide, and laminar
in form. This pumping method also produces a smoother wave with less turbulence. There are no
bearings submerged in the solder so overheating and excessive wear is eliminated. The solder flow is
directed into a flow chamber to further reduce turbulence before it enters the solder discharge duct.

The pump draws solder up from the bottom of the pot instead of drawing solder down from the top.
This minimizes debris and other contaminate inclusions in the wave as dirt, components, steel, dross,
etc. float to the top of the solder.

A stainless steel duct shapes the waveform for optimum performance. This is done in conjunction
with a four degree inclined conveyor. The duct is easily and quickly removed for cleaning while solder
is molten.

The D.C. motor drive provides effective wave height adjustment to 0.4" while remaining stable during
operation.

Cartridge type heating elements are encased within internal thermal tubes for maximum heating
efficiency and heater replacement when the solder pot is cold. A solder drain valve is provided for
easy emptying of the melting pot.

Chip Wave (option) Dual Wave Subsystem For Surface Mount Devices (SMD)
The dual pump, dual wave system is unique. The first solder wave is a series of solder columns, or
jets, that scrub and wet the most isolated recesses of most surface mount assembly designs. The
first wave is called "The Dancer" because it sometimes appears to do a "jitterbug" on the bottom side
of the printed circuit board.

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The second wave is smooth with laminar flow. This ensures defect free soldering for fine line printed
circuitry.

The solder pots are mounted on wheels and are retractable for access for maintenance to the
assembly. The solder capacity of the melting pots is about 450 lbs. and a solder drain valve is
provided for easy emptying of the melting pots.

Foam Flux Unit Subsystem


The foam flux unit tank and foam riser duct are constructed of linear polyethylene to resist attack by
the most active fluxes and chlorinated cleaning solvents. A porous ceramic diffuser stone generates a
2.5" wide blanket of foamed flux. Pneumatic controls are panel mounted at the front of the machine
adjacent to the flux unit. They consist of a snap action on/off switch for the air supply, a pressure
regulator, a pressure gage, and a needle valve to control the foam height.

An air line filter and water trap prevent flux contamination. It shall be noted that an oil free air supply
shall be used to prevent other serious flux contamination that could cause solder defects. The entire
flux tank assembly is mounted on a stainless steel stand. It may be raised or lowered by a single
lever to adjust the clearance under the printed circuitry as it passes over the flux duct. A drain hose is
attached to the bottom of the tank. The flux capacity of the tank is approximately 1.5 - 2.0 gallons.

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Pre-heater Subsystem
The pre-heater subsystem features a variable width radiant preheating area. The heating area width
is switched (in 1" increments) to conform to printed circuit width requirements.

Since the heated area is a flat plate, there are no hot spots. This allows the printed circuitry to absorb
more heat at a much lower watt density per square inch than concentrated high surface temperature
tubular heaters. The absence of these heater elements provides assurance that printed circuit boards
are capable of being much closer to the heating area without damage. This significantly increases the
efficiency of the pre-heater subsystem without hot spots. Again, this is because of the continuous flat
plate heat radiation surface.

The heated area surface temperature is closely maintained to specified requirements by a


proportional, zero firing temperature controller. With the increased efficiency and extended length of
this preheat subsystem, overhead heating may be unnecessary even for difficult to heat multilayer
boards. However, if particular processes require overhead preheating, TDC supplies it as optional
equipment. The extra long preheating area provides more soak time to heat printed circuitry at higher
conveyor speeds.

Conveyor Subsystem
The conveyor subsystem (moving pallet type) transports printed circuit boards over the foam fluxer,
preheating, and wave soldering subsystems. The pallet is removable allowing several to be loaded
with boards to be soldered before the process is initiated.

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Each pallet has an adjustable mechanism whereby boards are fitted into “V” grooves, much as
fingers, and firmly (but not too tightly) attached using locking knobs on top and at each end of the
pallet. This feature eliminates the adjustable width finger type conveyor systems. The pallet is loaded
into pre-positioned grooves in the transport mechanism. Then, the pallet is moved along it until it
engages allowing boards to be fluxed, preheated, and soldered

The conveyor transport has an infinitely variable speed range from 2 to 16 feet per minute. An SCR
controlled permanent magnet motor drives it. Drive is effected through two synchronized universal
joint shafts to eliminate the problems of linear sliding motion through keyed or splined drive bushings
with their tendency to gum up and stick.

Hood Enclosure Subsystem


The hood enclosure subsystem encloses the work area for operator safety. It provides the capability
to exhaust flux fumes and ensures effective removal of excess heat. It has a sliding safety glass
window for easy and quick access to the machine. A vapor tight safety lamp illuminates the interior
work area.

Instrumentation Subsystem
A single in line instrument panel is located across the machine's front. It provides controls for the
automatic wave soldering operation, its subsystems, and sub processes.

Solder Connection (Joint) Acceptability


Acceptable solder connections often are bright and shiny (not always necessary) while clearly
revealing solder termination area surface contours. They feather completely out to the joint's edge.

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They are free of any residue or foreign matter. The joined surfaces are completely wetted showing no
signs of being "cold.” They exhibit no evidence of dewetting, disturbance, or other unacceptable
attributes. Based on the foregoing requirements, the first two figures show preferred and minimally
acceptable solder joints while the third shows one that is unacceptable. POD requires solder joint
quality conformance to IPC-A-610C, Class III requirements.

Solder joint reliability is another issue requiring careful determination. Though a solder joint exhibits
visible quality, it may not have sufficient integrity, composition, or formation to ensure long term
reliability. The reasons for this are many and this discussion is best left for more advanced study.
However, visible quality is the primary starting point especially concerning its correlation to process
management and capabilities.

Root cause (process management and capabilities) and effect (solder joint quality) relationships are
first established using visual quality verification methods. If process management is effected using
proven process capabilities, solder joint quality shall be acceptable.

Effecting An Acceptable Solder Joint


Some of the most important requirements for effective wave soldering process management are
clean solder surfaces, calibrated conveyor speeds, and controlled and verified temperature
profiles. Also required are specified solder temperatures, specified solders and fluxes, calibrated
wave contact areas and times, specified preheat temperatures and times, and specified top side
board temperatures. All these requirements shall be met to ensure effective process management.
Other equally important requirements are well trained operators, clearly defined procedures, and
the attendant tools to promote process management.

Solder Process Management


The most important factor needed to effect process management is proper training. Each wave
solder process manager shall be trained, evaluated, qualified, certified, and empowered to accept
and fulfill responsibilities for ensuring solder process management is possible and effected. This shall
be done to ensure acceptable solder joint quality. Each wave solder process manager must
understand the following:

Solder Termination Area Conditions


Solder termination area (surfaces as PCB pads or component leads) shall be free of excessive
contamination. Printed circuit board pads and/or component leads having excessive contamination
(oxidation, grease, dirt, etc.) are not capable of being solder "wetted." It is not possible under any
conditions to effect acceptable solder joints when excessive contaminates are present. No amount of
heat, flux, or time shall help. Each solder process manager must determine that surfaces to be joined

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are clean enough to be wetted and soldered so specified solder joint quality is assured and effected.
If this determination cannot be made, the soldering process shall be stopped until corrective action is
taken to return the process to a manageable state.

Solder Termination Area Condition Examples


To ensure solder process managers have solderable surfaces, only qualified suppliers, managing
qualified processes, shall be selected to provide required PCB and component solder termination
areas. This means that only "clean," solderable PCB's and components shall be purchased and
introduced to soldering operations.

The first figure is an example of a contaminated J-lead on a PLCC surface mount component. The
second figure shows the results of a test using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy
disperssive X-Ray (EDX). It is a graphic clearly indicating excessive tin oxide contamination (18:1
oxide to surface metal ratio) on the J-Lead’s surface. This condition absolutely prevents solder
wetting under any conditions.

The third figure shows completely non-wetted SMT pads. They also prevent solder wetting under any
conditions. The fourth figure shows effect as an unacceptable PLCC solder joint caused by its
excessively oxidized J-Lead. However, the PCB surface (not having the condition shown in figure 12)
soldered well as it exhibited complete wetting.

NOTE: AGAIN, THE FIRST FIGURE SHOWS J-LEAD CONTAMINATION AS OXIDATION (18:1
OXIDE TO SURFACE METAL RATIO). THIS CONDITION COULD EXIST ON THROUGH HOLE
COMPONENTS, CHIP DEVICES, AND LEADED OR LEADLESS SMD’S. LOOK FOR THIS
CONDITION AND THOSE ON PCB PADS. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO SOLDER UNDER THESE
CONDITIONS.

Wave Solder Thermal Management


The wave solder process shall be managed using verified temperature profiles, as gradients, capable
of first providing increasing heat to “ramp” the board temperature gradually. This is done so it is not
“shocked.” because of the thermal change (delta T) when leaving the preheat zone and contacting
the much higher temperature solder wave. This prevents damage to boards or components and
promotes the specified top side board temperature to assure flux activation. Then, the process shall
be managed to assure the solder wave is at the specified temperature to effect acceptable solder
joints. The time required is not less than 2 nor more than 4 seconds within a specified contact area
(contact time is a function of contact area and conveyor speed). Board and/or component
overheating is prevented when times are correct. If overheating does occur, primary damage is done
to the PCB as pad lifting (or rotation) from the board surface as in the first three figures. PCB damage
also may be done as the cracked hole in the fourth figure. Component damage (cracking as an
example) also may be effected due to excessive heat or thermal shock.

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Multilayer board (MLB) delamination may also be caused by too much thermal stress or shock. The
first figure shows this condition as viewed from the MLB surface. The second figure shows it in X-
Section looking at the board’s inside as if it was cut in the Z axis. The third figure shows meazling
also often induced by thermal stress.

Solder Termination Area Surface Coating Types


Solder termination area surface coating types often are electroplated or hot air solder leveled
(HASL) tin/lead, or electrolessly deposited tin. Newer coatings are electroless gold, silver,
palladium, “white” tin, and organics. They have been developed to overcome problems associated
with the above types. Problems consist of non-wetted, uneven, and/or oxidized surfaces often with
excessive intermetallic formations. All these plating or coating types are compatible with the solder
medium to the extent deposited amounts do not “contaminate” the solder medium and joint.
Contamination would be in excess of that specified in ANSI/J-STD-001B (Figure 5-1) during
soldering operations.

If the surface is coated or plated with other metals (electroplated or electrolessly deposited gold in
excessive amounts, as an example), they shall be removed to assure solder compatibility or the
solder medium shall be changed. Acceptable solder joints often have acceptable intermetallic
growth effected as part of the joining process although some unacceptable joints are formed when
wrong or excessive intermetallics form. Gold is an example of a metal (in excessive amounts) that
is not compatible with tin/lead eutectic soldering. This metal causes embrittlement and subsequent
solder joint failures over time - under mechanically induced stresses.

NOTE: EXCESSIVE AMOUNTS MEANS GOLD, OR OTHER COATING, CONTAMINATING


SOLDER JOINTS BEYOND THAT WHICH IS ACCEPTABLE TO ENSURE INITIAL QUALITY AND
LONG TERM RELIABILITY. REFERENCE TABLE 5-1, ON PAGE 5, IN ANSI/J-STD-001B
CONCERNING SOLDER LIMITS FOR TIN/LEAD ALLOYS.

Flux Types
Flux is composed of acid or caustic chemicals (high or low pH components [over 7 = alkaline, under 7
= acidic]). It is used to clean contaminates (mild oxidation, grease, or other residues) from solder
termination areas. Fluxes become fluid at lower temperatures than solder. This means that when
heated, flux flows onto solder termination areas first. As it does, it cleans and protects (when properly

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activated) the heated metal surfaces until the solder becomes molten and flows onto and wets solder
termination areas. Then, the solder solidifies (“freezes”) upon cooling to make the solder connection.

Flux Requirements
Flux is vital to most soldering processes. This is true though fluxless or no clean solutions are being
sought as part of an ongoing effort to reduce environmental contamination produced during soldering
and cleaning operations. The two flux types generally used are rosin flux or aqueous (water soluble
acid) flux.

After soldering operations, rosin flux shall be cleaned with isopropyl alcohol (one of its components).
Aqueous flux shall be cleaned with water (a component in its binder). This is required because of the
deleterious affects flux residues have when left on board, component, and soldered surfaces. They
continue to act as a removal or cleaning mechanism. This causes damage and solder joint failures.
Some flux residues are conductive providing paths for unwanted current flow capable of causing
electrical shorts between surface conductors.

Newer “no-clean” fluxes are composed of chemicals capable of removing contamination while
needing little or no cleaning after reflow soldering. Their residue remains on or near the solder
connection and provides none of the concerns stated in the above paragraph. However, rework or
repair operation results often require localized cleaning to remove the then visibly exposed residue.

NOTE: THE ONLY REASON METAL SURFACES ARE COVERED, COATED, OR PLATED IS TO
PROTECT THEM FROM OXIDATION OR OTHER CONTAMINATION UNTIL THE SOLDER JOINT
IS MADE. COPPER SURFACES (COMPRISING MOST PRINTED CIRCUIT CONDUCTORS)
OXIDIZE ALMOST IMMEDIATELY UPON EXPOSURE TO AIR. SCRATCH A PENNY’S SURFACE
AND SEE HOW LITTLE TIME IT TAKES FOR THE SHINY SCRATCHED AREA TO TURN DULL
BECAUSE OF OXIDATION.

Thermal Mass Considerations


A single pad on a single sided circuit board involves relatively little thermal mass. A double-sided
board with a plated through hole can double that mass. Multilayer boards (MLB’s), increased
component leads, larger device types, different device types and MLB materials, terminals,
connectors, and connecting wires further increase thermal mass. This means that temperature rise
shall not be as rapid or as much when using a thermal profile designed for a board with less thermal
mass. This means each board type and its unique thermal mass shall have a correspondingly unique
thermal profile. There may be specific or unique profiles for single and simple double sided boards,
for higher density four and simple six layer types, and those for eight to ten layers, and so on.

Experiments (trials) shall be performed to determine which profile works for which board type. This is
done using thermocouples mounted on PCB’s, “MOLES,” or other thermal profilometers that are run
through the wave solder process. These setups provide precise thermal information at various stages
in the soldering process along the conveyor’s path. Clear temperature readings are printed out,
viewed, and/or graphed to make determinations concerning more effective thermal profile
considerations so processes and solder joint quality is continuously improved.

During experimentation, each board type is inspected and effects (acceptable or unacceptable solder
joint quality) are correlated to cause. Cause is how well a process is managed relative to machine

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and required sub process settings made in accordance with specifications and procedures. When
effects are positive, cause is recognized as effective process management and processes may be
effectively managed during production. When negative, experiments continue until positive effects are
found and process settings are recorded and made available for use in production. Ongoing pre
process audits and sample inspections promote continuous process improvement as part of
statistical process control (SPC).

As previously discussed, an important factor concerning thermal profile management is a solder


termination area's surface condition. In addition to what was said earlier, oxides particularly act as
thermal barriers to heat transfer. Even if a thermal profile provides the right properties for that board
type, excessive oxidation always prevents enough heat reaching the solder termination areas to melt
solder. Even if a specified flux type is used to clean mildly contaminated areas, excessive oxidation is
a barrier to all solder process management efforts.

Solder Joint Formation Time Requirements


Time is a major factor affecting acceptable solder joint quality and preventing damage to boards,
components, or finished assemblies. For wave soldering process management to be effective, the
specified heat shall not be applied to solder termination areas for more that 4 seconds. Beyond this
time, the board may be damaged (as in previous examples). If more time is required to wet solder
termination areas, something is wrong. There may be too much thermal mass, the wrong thermal
profile, too little heat input, or excessive oxidation. Corrective action shall be taken. The figure below
shows a cross section of the perfect J-Lead solder joint effected in well managed solder processes.

NOTE: ACCEPTABLE SOLDER JOINTS ARE NOT AN ART FORM. THEY ARE NOT EFFECTED
BY ARTISTS. ACCEPTABLE SOLDER JOINTS ARE OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE OF PROCESS
MANAGERS USING THE RIGHT TOOLS WITH PROPER INSTRUCTIONS FOR THEIR USE TO
ASSURE SPECIFIED QUALITY.

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Unacceptable Solder Joints And Other Conditions As Cause For Rejection.

Cold Solder
A cold solder joint is effected by poor solder process management. This means insufficient heat,
contact time, and/or adequate solder surface contact is effected during the soldering process. The
solder generally shall not flow to feather solder termination area edges. It also tends to form "globs"
or uneven "balls and not completely cover all parts of connection. The solder appears dull, grainy,
and uneven.

Insufficient Solder
Insufficient solder is apparent as solder termination areas not being soldered or completely covered
by solder. Insufficient solder defects do not meet specified solder joint acceptance requirements.

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De-wetting
Dewetting is evident as solder that first has attempted wetting all solder termination areas then
"withdraws" from them. This forms "puddles" with thin and thick solder not providing acceptable
solder joint coverage. Also, portions of the solder connection typically are identified by a convex
boundary between the solder and conductor. The major cause of de-wetting is contamination as
oxidation, grease, or other dirt or debris.

Excess Solder
By definition, excess solder means too much. Solder surface contours are not visible because there
is an overflow of solder forming excessive peaks.

Disturbed Solder
A disturbed solder joint has a crystalline appearance may be fractured or separated at the solder
termination area junction.

Overheated Solder
An overheated solder connection appears dull and crystallized. Areas around overheated solder
joints often appear discolored or burnt.

Contaminated Solder
A contaminated solder joint is unacceptable as it contains foreign matter such as insulation or other
debris, etc.

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Solder Bridging
Solder bridging is a web or film of solder between adjacent vertical terminations (formed over the
insulating PCB material). If extensive, it can be a web of solder between adjacent conductors. Some
causes of bridging can be low solder temperature, insufficient flux, poor flux activation, or the
presence of impurities in the molten solder. Other factors may involve the wetting angle, and the
angle at which the board approaches and contacts the wave.

Icicling
Icicling is solder extending out perpendicular from the PCB bottom side usually at the component
leads. It is caused by a drainage restriction of molten solder from the board, lower than specified
solder temperature, or faster than specified conveyor speed. Other causes may be wrong PCB angle
over the wave, shorter than specified wave contact time, too little wave/board contact area,
inadequate flux activity, and/or unacceptable solder purity.

Blowholes And Voids


Blowholes are voids having exited, or outgassed from within PCB plated holes or solder joints. Voids
are small spherical cavities within the PCB plated hole wall in the first figure, or under/in a solder joint
shown in the second figure. Causes of blowholes are excessive flux, flux residue left inside a solder
joint, insufficient evaporation of the flux solvent before soldering, or moisture or organic plating
residues having been entrapped in plated-through holes that “outgas” through the hole wall plating.
Blowholes can be caused by PCB's not meeting supplier acceptance criteria such as minimum
copper plating thickness. They and voids may also be caused by flux remaining in solder joints
fighting contamination such as excessive oxidation.

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Solder Balls
Solder balls are small spheres that may cause shorting between conductors or component leads.
Solder balls often are dynamic meaning they move randomly across a board’s surface. They are
caused when thermal profiles are not as specified, solder mask is not properly cured, or dry film
solder masks are used. They may also be caused as flux within the solder paste rapidly expands
when overheated spattering molten solder across the board’s surface. They too are caused when
blowholes are effected through outgassing as indicated above.

Correction And Prevention Of Unacceptable Solder Connections.


Action to correct and prevent unacceptable solder connections shall be taken by wave solder process
managers. The action taken depends on the frequency and type of unacceptable connections found.
When excessive or major defects are found, supervisors shall be notified so required correction can
be made. When minor or minimal defects are found, the process managers shall correct the process
to assure quality meeting specified requirements

Repair, Modification, And Rework


Repair, modification, and rework of unacceptable solder joints and/or assemblies shall be done using
hand soldering with flux cored solder and temperature regulated soldering irons. Cleaning shall be
done on the board after touch-up using the proper cleaning solution depending on the flux type used.

NOTE: ALL TOUCH UP OPERATIONS AND ACTIVITIES SHALL BE PERFORMED IN


ACCORDANCE WITH POD, POD-5055, REPAIR, MODIFICATION, AND REWORK
PROCEDURES.

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DEFINITIONS
The following definitions are provided for all process managers to better visualize each process for
which they are responsible:

Operations
Operations are defined as a series of processes required to provide product or services meeting
certain requirements. Usually these requirements are based on customer needs, desires, or
demands. POD employs many operations as management, engineering, marketing, sales,
manufacturing, accounting, quality assurance, and others to ensure all its customers receive product
meeting their requirements.

Process
A process is defined as a method or procedure. A process may be a single method or procedure, or
may be made up of sub processes and activities. In a manufacturing operation, a process is
employed to turn acceptable raw materials, components, and designs into acceptable product using
various tool and equipment types.

Sub Process
A sub process may be part of a process. In the wave solder process, several sub processes are
involved to effect acceptable solder joints. They are discussed in the foregoing section.

Activity
Processes and sub processes most often rely on individuals or teams performing activities to make
product. In manufacturing, such activities may consist of moving or handling materials and
components, changing machine or tool settings, turning equipment on or off, etc.. It is at the activity
level most variability is introduced to manufacturing operations effecting varying degrees of quality.
For this reason, it is vital process managers be well trained to fulfill their responsibilities by following
procedures concerning specific process management requirements.

Process Management
Process management is the act of preventing defect by fulfilling individual responsibilities instead of
reacting to it as the result of not fulfilling them. When process instead of results management is
practiced, product quality is consistently acceptable. Process management differs from process
control in that control means only consistent quality is produced. In a controlled instead of managed
environment, that quality may be consistently good or bad.

Process Capability
Process capability is the measure of how well a process is being managed. Usually, a processes’
capability is expressed in statistical terms as a capability profile or Cpk. When a process is managed
effectively, its Cpk shows how well while often providing an indication of what is needed to
continuously improve. Continuous process improvement assures continuous quality improvement
and that is what process managers focus on most.

Solder
Solder is defined as a metallic medium (as an alloy) that melts at temperatures below 800 degrees
Fahrenheit to join metal surfaces having much higher melting points. Solder may be in different
forms. It may be bar solder as used in wave solder machines, or it may be wire with a flux core used

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to perform hand soldering. It may also be in the form of a paste composed of solder balls suspended
in a binder with a flux component. None of these forms changes its definition.

Solder Paste
Solder paste is a metallic medium (as an alloy) formed into solder balls (ranging in diameter from
about 4 to 40 microns). The balls are suspended in a binder (composed of flux and other chemicals).
Solder paste, as all solder media, melts at temperatures below 800 degrees Fahrenheit to join metal
surfaces having much higher melting points.

The more spherical are the solder balls, the less surface area they have. This reduces their oxidation
amount and rate at which they oxidize. This is important because more oxidation means less
solderability.

The solder paste composition has a high viscosity of approximately 900,000 centipoise. Higher
viscosity aids in preventing solder paste spread on SMT pads. When too high, printing problems may
occur relative to dispensing paste through stencil openings.

Solder paste is applied to solder termination areas using a printing machine, squeegees, and stencils
with openings of specified sizes, shapes, and aspect ratios. All this is done to assure a precise
amount is printed where and in the condition required to effect acceptable solder joints.

Wire/Core Solder
Wire/Core solder is a solder medium composed of a eutectic alloy. Usually it is 60/40 tin-lead formed
into a wire with a hollow flux filled core. Wire/Core solder is specified in varying diameters (typically
from about .012” to .060”) for specific hand soldering activities. It provides a mechanism to apply flux
from its core to the solder termination areas before solder melts, flows, and wets them to effect an
acceptable solder joint.

Flux
Flux is defined as a chemically and physically active compound that when heated to specified
temperatures it promotes base metal surface wetting by molten solder. It does this by removing minor
surface oxidation, surface films, or other contamination. It then protects the surfaces from reoxidation
during the soldering process. Various flux types (see POD Hand Soldering and Final Assembly
Course) include:

Rosin
Rosin flux primarily is composed of natural resin extracted from oleoresin of pine trees and refined.
Typically, these fluxes are made up of 60% solvent and 40% solids.

Rosin flux (Type R) is an organic material distilled from pine tree sap. The active ingredients in this
flux type primarily consist of abietic and pimaric acids. After rosin is extracted from pine trees, it is
superficially processed to remove undesirable impurities while neutralizing the acid residues
remaining from the extraction process. The purified material is called water-white rosin. It is used to
manufacture rosin based flux.

Some manufacturers hoping to overcome difficulties associated with obtaining and processing natural
rosin, chemically synthesize substitute materials. These materials are called “resins.”

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Pure rosin is a solid at room temperature and is chemically inactive while being insulative. Rosin
melts at about 72 degrees C. (160 degrees F.) and the organic acids become active at around 108
degrees C. (225 degrees F.). This flux type’s peak capability is effected around 262 degrees C. (500
degrees F.). This is the temperature rosin begins decomposing into reducing gases. At temperatures
above 346 degrees C. (650 degrees F.), the flux becomes inactive and polymerizes. This causes
residue removal difficulties from board and solder joint surfaces.

When solder surfaces require a more active flux, chemical compounds called activators are added to
the rosin. The most commonly known rosin flux containing activators is called rosin, mildly activated
or RMA.

Activators are thermally reactive compounds (such as amine hydrochlorides) that break down at
elevated temperatures. At these temperatures, hydrochloric acid is released to dissolve the surface
oxides, tarnishes, and other contaminates. Mildly activated rosin flux (RMA) may contain a variety of
activators in amounts less than 1%. Limits are placed on their electrical and chemical properties
before and after soldering

Rosin activated flux (RA) typically contains 1% - 5% activators. RA flux is used in applications when
RMA is not strong enough. For military purposes, their use usually is limited to component tinning of
sealed devices and solid wire. When warm, these fluxes can conduct electricity and can leave
residues that can cause corrosion or shorting path formation between conductors.

Organic Acid Flux


Organic acid (OA) fluxes are types having active ingredients such as organic acids, organic
hydrohalides, amines, and amides. These fluxes are water soluble since they contain no rosin. Good
cleaning is critical with these flux types since the salt residues left by them are corrosive and
conductive.

OA fluxes also are referred to as water soluble fluxes (WSF’s). These fluxes are more aggressive.
They generally are classified in J-STD-004 as types M or H. OA fluxes have active ingredients such
as organic acids, organic hydrohalides, amines, and amides. All are corrosive activator materials.
These fluxes are water soluble or water washable since they contain no rosin, or any low rosin or
resin levels. Good cleaning is critical with these flux types as their residues are corrosive and
electrically conductive.

Resin
Resin flux primarily is composed of natural resins other than rosin types and/or synthetic resins.

Organic
Organic elements are based on carbon atom structures. All life forms are organic. Organic fluxes are
primarily composed of organic materials other than rosin or resin.

Inorganic
Inorganic elements are based on other than carbon atom structures. Inorganic fluxes are solutions
composed of inorganic acids and/or salts.

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LR, or No-Clean Fluxes


Low residue (LR) fluxes usually have lower solids content (less than 5%) than traditional high-solids
rosin fluxes. LR fluxes also are referred to as no-clean or “leave on” fluxes. Their residues are not
intended for removal from assemblies so cleaning is not required. Their primary activator materials
are weak organic acids (adipic or succinic acid). These materials are benign on a board surface and
act as electrical insulators. LR fluxes may be higher solvent borne (usually isopropanol) or water
borne in the case of volatile organic compound (VOC) free no clean fluxes.

Low residue fluxes are not no-residue fluxes. Although benign, visible residues do remain on the
assembly. For this reason, customers may require them to be cleaned. This often is requested for
cosmetic rather than functionality reasons. If the flux residues have a significant thickness, they could
interfere with electrical testing as “bed of nails” types. However, a different probe point, greater spring
strength, or rotating probes often solve this problem. Low residue fluxes also might build up on test
pins over time. This requires preventive maintenance as regular cleaning.

Halides
Halides are organic salts added to flux as activators. Halides are corrosive.

Fluxing Activities And Classes


A liquid flows freely over a surface only if in doing so the total free energy of the system is reduced. In
soldering, the free energy of a clean surface is higher than a dirty one. Therefore, it is more likely to
promote solder flow. With respect to this, fluxing activities are:

Chemical
Chemical fluxing activity reduces the oxides from the surface to be soldered and protects this surface
from oxidation by covering it.

Thermal
Thermal fluxing activity assists transferring heat from the heat source to the material being soldered.

Physical
Physical activities allow the transportation of oxides and other reaction products away from the
material surfaces being soldered. In consideration of these three fluxing activities, the following shall
be noted:

1) There are two basic ways fluxes eliminate oxidation. They dissolve it into "solution" or they
reduce it back to metal. If reduced, it clearly "disappears" and should not be re-deposited as an
oxide (to be determined through supplier qualification). Some old flux types "dissolved" oxides by
reacting a fatty acid (rosin) with the metal in the oxide. Then, it was “pushed aside” by solder flow
and wetting action. In which mode a flux works, clearly depends on which flux is used. Some fluxes
use both modes.

2) ANSI/J-STD-004 differentiates flux activities into three classes. They are Low (type L), Medium
(type M), and High (type H). ANSI/J-STD-004 further classifies fluxes as to whether or not they
contain halides. For example, a type L0 flux is a low activity, halide free flux. An L1 flux is a low
activity flux containing some halide amount.

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3) Numbers of industry and consortia studies have been conducted concerning low residue flux
reliability. Type L fluxes have been shown relatively benign concerning corrosion and electrolytic
failure mechanisms. For this reason, Section 4.2 allows the manufacturer to use a type L flux (L0 or
L1) without going through the testing outlined in Appendix D. If the manufacturer chooses to use a
more aggressive flux (types M and/or H), the potential exists for corrosive flux residues. If so, the
manufacturer must go through the Appendix D testing to demonstrate adequate removal of potentially
harmful flux residues.

4) It is highly recommended that the manufacturer not use a type H flux on printed wiring assemblies
in any way – at any time. It is recommended that, if used at all, a type H flux be limited to component
lead tinning. Even then, this may be done only when it can be demonstrated that the highly
aggressive flux residues can be thoroughly removed.

Electrochemical Migration
Electrochemical migration is defined as the movement of metals across an intervening space
between a cathode and anode. This movement is induced by the difference in electrical potential in
the presence of fluid producing a micro-film of water on a substrate’s surface.

Soldering
Soldering is a process in which two metal surfaces are metallurgically joined, using a specified
solder medium (metal filler with a melting point below 800 degrees F.). The process is effected by
"wetting" the surfaces to be joined requiring diffusion and internetallic growth. The effect of this
process is called a solder joint.

Intermetallics
In light of the previous definition (soldering), intermetallics always are formed when heated solder
surfaces are brought into contact with solder melted upon them. As soldering requires diffusion and
internetallic growth, each occurs as part of the soldering process. This is immediately so and time
effects intermetallic growth as a continuous process.

Intermetallic compounds have much different physical and mechanical properties than the metals
comprising them. Typically, intermetallics are very brittle and have poor electrical conductivity. Also,
when exposed to air, they oxidize very rapidly. Therefore, excessive intermetallics, formed either
during the soldering process or over time, cause unreliable solder joints capable of failing under
stressful conditions as thermal, or mechanical shock and/or vibration.

Oxidation (oxide, oxidize)


Oxidation is the act of burning. When oxygen is present in an atmosphere, it “burns” or oxidizes all
material with which it comes in contact. When this happens, oxides are formed that resist thermal
input as well as solder wetting. Some materials resist oxidation better than others. Most solder
termination areas are copper (oxidizes very rapidly) covered with some protective coating to prevent
further oxidation than that which was present before the coating’s application. In an inert atmosphere,
oxidation is prevented (there is no oxygen or oxidizing agent). This means that if all processes
relating to the use of materials capable of rapid oxidation were performed in an inert atmosphere,
they would be more capable of solder wetting.

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Inert Atmosphere
Inert means inactive or static. An inert atmosphere is one without activity such as that containing
oxygen which is one component in our life sustaining atmosphere surrounding earth. Nitrogen is an
inert gas. When totally comprising an atmosphere (as inside a soldering machine), activity is
eliminated concerning oxidation thereby providing protection to solder termination areas. This
promotes or improves thermal input and solder wetting (solderability). This assures a higher rate of
higher quality solder joints.

Surface
Surface is defined as an object’s area having no depth.

Welding
It shall be noted there is a distinction between soldering and welding. Welding is defined as a process
in which diffusion and intermetallic formations are effected to metallurgically join metals beyond their
surfaces to a specified depth. The welding process is effected at temperatures well above 800
degrees F.. This distinction also provides evidence that solder joining is a reversible process as it
relies on heat to "undo" the solder joint. Welding requires complete joint destruction thus making
repair and/or rework impossible at the component level, as an example.

Solderability
Solderability is defined as the ease with which solder adheres to a basis metal surface such as a
component lead, PCB solder termination pad, or PCB conductor hole pad and wall. The presence of
contamination (as oxides or residues) interferes with solderability. Acceptable solderability and solder
joint formation, requires good solder wetting and a small contact angle.

Wetting
Wetting is defined as the formation of a relatively uniform, smooth, unbroken, and adherent solder
film to a basis metal. Wetting requires a solid surface to be completely "coated" by a liquid. This
means the liquid maintains intimate contact with all solder termination areas without resistance or any
indication of "pulling" back from their surfaces. In solder joining, the liquid is molten solder. What
distinguishes "liquid" metal from some other liquid media is its change back to a solid when cooled
below its melting point. When two metal surfaces are wetted, they may become joined upon solder
medium solidification (often referred to as freezing). This only is done under effectively process
managed conditions.

Contact Angle
Contact angle is defined as the angle at which a solder fillet meets the basis metal. A small contact
angle indicates good wetting whereas a large angle indicates poor wetting.

Eutectic
Eutectic is defined as a combination of two metals (forming an alloy) that melts at a lower
temperature than either as individual metals. Also, eutectic is defined as alloys that change directly
from liquid to solid, and the reverse, with no intermediate plastic states. Various solder types and their
compositions and melting points are found in ANSI/J-STD-006.

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Solder Joint
A solder joint is effected in the soldering process. Under effectively managed conditions, solder joints
exhibit acceptable attributes as smooth, usually shiny, clearly defined, well feathered, completely
wetted metallic bonds between two metal surfaces.

Aqueous Cleaning
Aqueous cleaning is defined as process using water as the primary cleaning agent or solvent. It shall
be noted that water is termed the “universal” solvent because it is capable of dissolving all material
types to some extent over time. This type cleaning can mean using pure water, with detergent
additives, or with a saponifier solution. Aqueous cleaning is done most often with water soluble
fluxes, but can be used on rosin and low residue fluxes as well as with the appropriate additives.
Aqueous cleaning generally is a multi-stage operation with most cleaning effected in the first wash
stages with the dirtiest water while rinsing is done in later stages using the cleanest water.

Manual Cleaning
Manual cleaning is a process used to spot clean flux residues from assembly surfaces. It includes
using a bristle brush with isopropyl alcohol as the cleaning agent or solvent. This process is not
recommended for final cleaning.

Saponification
Saponification is defined as a cleaning process using a biodegradable rosin cleaner. In the process,
the rosin is changed chemically to become water soluble.

Wave Soldering
Wave soldering requires intimate contact be made between molten solder and the assembly’s bottom
side solder termination areas to effect solder joints. Conversely, reflow soldering is accomplished in a
machine using air or an inert gas (nitrogen) as the solder reflow mechanism. Wave soldering requires
attention to conveyor speed, flux action and activation, preheat and topside board temperatures,
solder pot temperatures, wave contact times and areas, and solder purity.

In reflow soldering, a hot gas envelopes the entire printed circuit assembly. In doing so, it activates
the flux then melts the solder medium having been “printed” on the board’s surface onto which
components have been attached. Upon melting, solder wets all termination areas. Upon cooling, the
solder joint is made. In wave soldering, wave contact with solder termination areas wets them as
wave pressure, and wetting and capillary action provides the mechanism for the solder to flow up
holes and component leads to wet them to the board’s surface.

The entire reflow process is completed in stages corresponding to increasing temperatures in several
zones until the highest temperature is reached in what is called the liquidous zone. It is in this zone
the solder melts (liquefies) and wets all solder termination areas. Wave soldering requires similar
stages to ramp boards and components up to temperatures required to activate flux, and prevent
thermal shock upon wave contact.

Quality
Quality is defined as conformance to clearly specified, understood, and accepted customer contract
requirements.

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Repair
Repair is defined as the process required to restore the functional capability and/or performance
characteristics of a defective article. This is done in a manner that precludes compliance of the article
with applicable drawings or specifications.

Modification
Modification is defined as the process required to revise the functional capability or performance
characteristics of a product to satisfy new acceptance criteria. Modifications usually are required to
incorporate design changes that can be controlled by drawings, change orders, etc.. Modifications
only shall be performed when specifically authorized and described in detail on controlled
documentation.

Rework
Rework is defined as the act of reprocessing non-conforming or defective articles. This is done using
original or equivalent processing to assure full conformance of the article with applicable drawings or
specifications. Rework is doing something over that should have been done right the first time.

Other
Other terms are defined in IPC-T-50 and in specific guidelines, standards, and specifications
indicated in Section 8. herein.

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4.0 REQUIRED EQUIPMENT/TOOLS

Specified Wave Soldering System

Lev-Chek Wave Level Indicator

Flux Density Hygrometer

Infrared Pyrometer

Solder Pot Thermometer

Conveyor Speed Timer

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5.0 PROCESS MANAGEMENT AND QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS


Process management and quality system requirements are steps required to maintain process
management effectiveness to assure product quality meeting specified requirements.

Traveler and drawings as required

Component placement/insertion as required

Safety, handling, and ESD as required

Flux stone clean each shift (maximum) alcohol when not in use

Flux air pressure as specified (15 - 30 p.s.i.) from clean, dry air supply

Flux recycled every shift (maximum) and dependent on flux specific gravity measured each
production lot (maximum)

Read, understand, and use solder audit checklist before each run, lot, or different board type

Flux density (specific gravity) as specified (approximately .9 for 2331 type at 76 degrees F.)

Flux action and application as required (through PCB holes)

Conveyor speed as specified (3 - 6 feet per minute per board type based on topside board
temperature and wave contact area/time requirements).

Temperature and wave solder contact area and time requirements, pre-heater (s) working, top side
board temperature as specified per board and flux type (160 - 200 degrees F. typical – hotter if
required to minimize SMD thermal shock).

Wave contact time (1.5 - 3 seconds) and area (1-3 inches) with board parallel to wave depending on
board type after wave inspection indicating specified soldering requirements

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6.0 WAVE SOLDER PROCESS


These procedures are used to ensure effective, efficient process management concerning wave
soldering operations at POD. POD uses a TDC, NU/ERA wave soldering machine as a process
capability to effect acceptable solder joints on printed circuit assemblies. This includes both through
hole and surface mount devices.

Wave Solder Process Preparation


Prepare all solder process elements for wave solder processes and proceed as follows while
confirming all safety, material handling, setup, maintenance, calibration, and machine functions in
accordance with these procedures.

Ensure proper handling and ESD protection. The first figure indicates ESD protection required
symbol. The second figure indicates ESD handling requirements shall be effected. The third figure
shows the preferred method for handling Class III PCB assemblies. The fourth figure shows an
acceptable handling method. In all cases it is required that ESD protection be provided all assemblies
and all boards be handled so no damage, contamination, or other defect causing possibilities exist.

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Ensure PCB date codes not older than six weeks. If so, ensure boards baked to remove moisture.

Inspect boards to ensure all components seated properly and be sure component lead length does
not exceed 0.10".

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From left to right, in the figures below, turn on main power, hood lights, and melting pot (solder pot)
heaters.

NOTE: SOLDER HEAT UP TIME IS APPROXIMATELY TWO (2) HOURS AT 230 VAC TO REACH
THE SPECIFIED TEMPERATURE OF 500 DEGREES F. (+ OR - 5 DEGREES). ALSO NOTE
EMERGENCY STOP BUTTONS AT EACH END OF CONTROL PANEL.

Turn the conveyor on (in the fourth figure above) and set the speed control knob to the required
position (in the figure below), for the specified board type, while observing the tachometer displaying
the specified speed.

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When the specified solder temperature is reached, clean dross as required, then turn on both wave
solder pumps (if dual wave needed), or planar wave pump only when running through hole boards
and/or those without chip device types.

Determine and/or adjust specified solder wave height for printed circuit board thickness to be
soldered.

When necessary, use the LevChek device (first figure below) to set wave contact time, area, and
parallelism.

As required, prepare fluxer for soldering operations. As required, add new flux as in second figure
above.

Measure specified flux density as required in first figure below (specific gravity). Also, use chemical
titration as required. The second figure below shows a simple pre-process audit check list and a wave
solder process manager taking a top side board temperature reading/

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Turn air control "ON," then increase or decrease air supply as required.

Adjust pallet finger width to the width of the printed circuit board and ensure boards properly secure.

Also ensure enough finger to component clearance is provided.

Use PCB edge stiffeners as required (next to last figure above).

Load printed circuit boards in pallets ensuring proper fit in “V” grooves. Once loaded into pallets,
ensure components properly seated (last figure above).

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Turn main pre-heater on (first figure below).

Turn on individual heating elements as required (second figure below).

Set pre-heater to the specified temperature setting.

CAUTION: TURN ON ONLY THE NUMBER OF HEATERS INIDICATED NECESSARY BY THE


WIDTH OF THE BOARD TO BE SOLDERED.

When required, determine top side board temperature is a specified (first figure below) to ensure
specified flux activation and board warm up requirements are met.

When required, measure or “calibrate” conveyor speed with stop watch while timing board/conveyor
over yard stick placed along side machine (second figure below).

NOTE: ALWAYS WEAR THERMAL GLOVES WHEN WORKING NEAR WAVE OR HEATED
ELEMENTS. ALWAYS WEAR PROTECTIVE EYEWEAR WHEN WORKING AROUND OR NEAR
THE WAVE SOLDER MACHINE. ALSO, USE THERMAL PROFILERS AS REQUIRED TO
ENSURE SPECIFIED THERMAL REQUIREMENTS ARE MET FOR EACH ASSEMBLY.

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Prepare all required elements to run first article.

Run first article through wave solder process and perform a cursory inspection followed by the
cleaning process.

Provide first article to inspection for acceptability determination.

If first article unacceptable, take corrective action to return process to required conditions or notify
engineering so additional action may be taken as required.

If acceptable prepare for production as in the following:

Wave Soldering Operations


Load pallets containing boards onto machine rails, and push them into position on conveyor rails to
make contact with conveyor mechanism and engage it.

Observe the board traveling with the conveyor over the fluxer while adjusting specified foam height as
needed. Observe proper flux action.

Observe the board traveling on the conveyor, as it contacts and passes over the chip solder wave
– when used, and as it contacts and passes over the planar wave.

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Retrieve the soldered boards as they exit the machine on the conveyor.

Upon completion and cool down, inspect product quality in accordance with acceptance criteria as
IPC-A-610C, Class III or specific criteria specified in the contract by POD, or other requirements.

Perform corrective action as required. For wave soldering, this consists of informing engineering
about defect and probable cause. Then, make required adjustments to assure production quality for
all remaining assemblies.

Move boards to cleaning process and perform cleaning operations.

Move boards to inspection area to determine quality, perform touch-up, and effect second operations.

NOTES:

ENGINEERING SHALL DETERMINE, AND MAKE REQUIRED ADJUSTMENTS IN


ACCORDANCE WITH THESE PROCEDURES, AND WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE
PROCESS MATRIX.

UTILIZATION SHALL BE MADE OF THE POD, MATERIAL, AND COMPONENT


SPECIFICATIONS IN CONJUNCTION WITH POD, ASSEMBLY ACCEPTANCE
SPECIFICATIONS, WHICH PRIMARILY CONCERN QUALITY OF ASSEMBLY ELEMENTS, AND
FINAL ACCEPTANCE IN CLOSING THE QUALITY LOOP.

SOLDERABILITY ACCEPTANCE SHALL BE CONSISTENT WHEN ALL REQUIRED ASSEMBLY


ELEMENTS ARE OF THE SPECIFIED QUALITY. IF THIS IS NOT THE CASE DETERMINATION
SHALL BE MADE OF INCONSISTENCIES, AND CORRECTIONS, AND ADJUSTMENTS SHALL
BE MADE.

ALL REQUIRED REWORK SHALL BE PERFORMED IN ACCORDANCE WITH IPC-7712. ALL


REPAIR AND MODIFICATIONS SHALL BE PERFORMED IN ACCORDANCE WITH IPC-7721.
ALL SOLDERING REQUIREMENTS SHALL CONFORM TO ANSI/J-STD-001B.

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Process Summary For Wave Solder Process, Sub Processes, And Support Activities

Place a stuffed PCB in the pallet fingers while ensuring all components are properly seated.

Load the pallet onto the conveyor and push it into position to engage the drive mechanism.

Observe the conveyor transporting the assembly over the foam fluxer where the underside of the
board is coated with the specified flux while wetting the plated hole barrels through to the board's
topside.

Observe the conveyor continuing to transport the assembly over the pre-heater locations to
evaporate the flux solvents, while activating the flux, and preconditioning the board to prevent thermal
shock when the board reaches the wave.

NOTE: IT IS AT THIS POINT THE SPECIFIED TOPSIDE BOARD TEMPERATURE IS MEASURED


TO ASSURE PROCESS CONTROL AND DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF PREHEATING.

Observe the assembly being transported over the continuously circulating solder wave where solder
joint formation occurs.

NOTE: THIS IS WHEN AND WHERE THE MOLTEN SOLDER WETS THE BOARD'S BOTTOM
SIDE, AND THROUGH HOLE BARRELS, BECAUSE OF WAVE PRESSURE, CAPILLARY
ACTION, AND PROPER FLUX ACTIVATION.

Observe the soldered assembly being transported gently off of the machine in preparation for
operator inspection, touch up, and cleaning.

Retrieve the soldered assembly as it is transported off the conveyor.

At the end of each shift, shut down the process and machine in accordance with the procedures
detailed in the POD/TDC Operations Manual.

Move the assemblies to next operational area after process completion, and after signing appropriate
logs/travelers.

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8. 0 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTATION

POD Statement Of Work and Detailed Processes


POD, PPM-2045, Electrostatic Discharge Procedures
POD, PPM-2015, Material And Assembly Handling Procedures
POD, QIPM-4030, Audit Of Processes And Procedures
POD, PPM-2050, Safety Procedures
Planning Documentation
Lot Control Documentation
Maintenance Requirements, Specifications And Procedures
Compressed Air Test Results
POD, QPM-3020, Equipment Calibration Procedures
Equipment Calibration Logs
POD Quality Assurance Inspection/Test/Analysis Logs
POD Operator Operations, And Process Logs
QQ-S-571 Solder Test Results
MIL-F-14256 Flux For Assembly Operations Test Results
MIL-P-55110 Printed Wiring For Electronic Equipment
MIL-P-28809 Printed Wiring Assemblies
MIL-STD-2000 Part/component Mounting For High Quality/Reliability Soldered
Electronic Assemblies
ANSI/IPC-A-610 Acceptability Of Printed Board Assemblies
IPC-600C Acceptability Of Printed Boards
IPC-700B Repair Of Printed Boards And Assemblies
IPC-T-50 Terms And Definitions
MIL-STD-275 Printed Wiring For Electronic Equipment
POD Pre-operational, Operational, And Post Operational Checklists
POD/TDC Operation and Maintenance Procedure

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200 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

9.0 MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS AUDIT CHECKLIST


The following checklist shall be used before, during, and after wave soldering operations at POD.

All pre-process (material handling, safety, ESD, etc.) requirements met

PCB date codes not older than six weeks

All components seated properly

Component lead length does not exceed 0.10”.

Pallet finger width properly adjusted

Boards properly aligned for travel over wave

Finger to component clearance as required

Printed circuit boards in pallets with firm (not too tight) fit in “V” grooves.

Machine and pre-heaters on

Temperature Controller Adjustment as specified

Specified Pre-heater Parameter Adjustment

Conveyor on

Pre-heater on

Chip wave on

Delta wave on

Foam fluxer on

Conveyor speed as specified

Chip and Delta wave heights as specified

Pallets containing boards loaded onto machine rails.

Component seating properly effected.

Pallets positioned on conveyor rails for start

Proper flux action as it flows through holes to board top

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Proper board contact over solder wave.

Soldered boards retrieved as they exit the machine

Product quality inspected in accordance with required acceptance criteria

Corrective action performed as required

Boards moved to cleaning process

Boards moved to inspection area

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12.7 HAND SOLDERING

MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS PROCEDURES

MOP-5050 HAND SOLDERING

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DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT AND APPROVALS

This document is managed, as are all documents in the POD Process Improvement Program
(outlined in the POD, QPM-3000-1, Process Improvement Assurance Manual, Section 4.0), by POD
Engineering Process Management. Revisions to this document shall be effected using POD
Engineering Change Procedures. These procedures assure any individual may use change requests,
submitted to Engineering Process Management, indicating the change needed.

Change requests shall be reviewed and accepted, or rejected, based upon merit and justification (as
detailed in POD, EPM-0150, Engineering Change Notice (ECN) Procedures. When approved,
revised documents shall be released and issued by Engineering Process Management at the
appropriate, new revision level in accordance with POD, EPM-1045, Document Management
Procedures.

It shall be required that each document use the specified document format indicated on each page
herein. Also, it shall be required the author's name be clearly indicated on each page while properly
numbering it to ensure document integrity and traceability. The following approvals are required
before release at the required revision level:

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1.0 PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of these procedures is to provide detailed instructions concerning hand soldering
manufacturing operations at POD. This is done to ensure product quality consistently meeting or
exceeding POD acceptance criteria.

The scope of these procedures extends to all personnel responsible for ensuring effective hand
soldering manufacturing operations at POD.

2.0 RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY


The following responsibilities shall be fulfilled to ensure hand soldering manufacturing operations are
properly effected to assure quality at POD:

Manufacturing Engineer
The Manufacturing Engineer is responsible and has authority to provide everything needed by
manufacturing operations personnel to fulfill their responsibilities at POD. This includes procedures,
training, equipment, tools, adequate and safe working conditions, ESD requirements, and all other
required elements.

Maintenance Technician
The Maintenance Technician is responsible and has authority to ensure all operational elements
(equipment, tools, etc.) are maintained and calibrated as specified. This assures all facilities,
equipment, and tools are capable of being effectively and efficiently managed to assure product
quality meeting specified requirements.

Manufacturing Supervisor
The Manufacturing Supervisor is responsible and has authority to provide proper direction to all
manufacturing operations personnel at POD. This includes operational procedures, special
instructions, schedules, product changes, drawings, and required materials and components. This
also includes management directives, performance evaluations, and timely individual and team
performance feedback.

Manufacturing Operations Personnel


Manufacturing Operations Personnel are responsible and have authority to assure manufacturing
operations are carried out in an effective, efficient manner. They are responsible for performing all
manufacturing operations in accordance with current procedures, checklists, and supervisory
direction. All personnel are responsible for effecting management policies and directives to assure
quality meeting or exceeding specified POD requirements.

Quality Assurance Inspection Personnel


Quality Assurance Inspection Personnel are responsible and have authority to determine product
quality does or does not meet specified POD acceptance criteria. They also are responsible for
providing appropriate feedback concerning product quality to management and manufacturing
process managers so corrective or continued manufacturing action may be.

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3.0 Background
Effective, efficient hand solder process management is required to produce acceptable solder joints
and assemblies. The hand solder process is made up of several sub processes. Each process and
sub process is supported by individual activities. It is at the activity level most impact is made on
quality. This is because trained process managers consistently fulfill their responsibilities to assure
quality.

At POD, one of the most important products is a quality solder joint made right on time, the first time,
every time. Only trained individuals fulfilling their responsibilities can do this.

To assure effective hand soldering process management, primary concern is focused on training and
soldering proficiency. Additionally, all soldering irons shall be maintained and calibrated to ensure
processes capable of producing specified quality. When everything is as specified, hand solder
process management is effected. Then, process effects become apparent as solder joints meeting
specified acceptance criteria.

This is a highly interactive, interrelational, and manageable process. It has clearly defined cause and
effect relationships (processes, sub processes, and activities managed instead of results as defect).

All process management requirements are detailed in these procedures. This is done in conjunction
with all other process considerations. Product acceptance is based on conformance to POD and
appropriate industry acceptance specifications (IPC as an example). This is true of all components
and materials comprising product.

Soldering is a process in which two metal surfaces are metallurgically joined. A specified solder
medium (metal filler with a melting point below 800 degrees F.) is used to “wet" and bond them. It is a
process requiring both diffusion and intermetallic growth to effect an acceptable solder joint. This
definition emphasizes the term "surfaces" (an object’s area having no depth) to clarify the distinction
between soldering and welding, as an example.

Welding is a process in which diffusion and intermetallic formations are effected to metallurgically join
metals beyond their surfaces to a specified depth. This distinction also provides evidence that solder
joining is a reversible process as it relies on heat to "undo" the solder joint. Welding requires
complete joint destruction thus making repair and/or rework impossible at the component level, as an
example.

The term "wetting" requires a solid surface to be completely "coated" by a liquid. This means the
liquid maintains intimate contact with all solder termination areas without resistance or the indication
of dewetting ("pulling back” from the surfaces). In solder joining, the liquid is molten solder. What
distinguishes "liquid" metal from some other liquid media is its change back to a solid when cooled
below its melting point. When two metal surfaces are wetted, they may become joined upon solder
medium solidification (often referred to as freezing). Again, this is done through effective process
management.

Another important term is eutectic. Eutectic is defined as a combination of two metals (forming an
alloy) that melts at a lower temperature than either individual metal. Also, eutectic is defined as alloys

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that change directly from liquid to solid, and the reverse, with no intermediate plastic states. Various
solder types, their compositions, and melting points are found in ANSI/J-STD-006.

Wave soldering and other machine dependent methods (reflow or vapor phase as examples) are not
thought of as art forms. This often is the case with hand soldering. This is because hand soldering
requires much more human intervention to effect acceptable joints. However, hand soldering uses
the same objective principles as reflow or wave soldering. The primary difference is more personal
"touch" applied during this process. Wave and reflow soldering processes rely less on personal
process management as they are less "subjective.” This is because they are less sensitive to "feel" or
touch.

To effect (make) acceptable hand soldered joints, the process manager is trained to visualize the
cause and effect relationships existing each time the process takes place. Time and temperature
factors are primary elements required to assure effective process management. For wave and reflow
soldering, this means assuring correct conveyor speed. When managed as specified, critical flux,
board, and component temperature requirements are met. Considerations also are made concerning
solder types, solder temperature, and solder wave/board contact time and area. Equally important are
flux types and activity as well as where and how much is applied. This is manually done in hand
soldering.

For hand soldering, operator training and ability is most important. This means training and the ability
to understand exactly what happens a hand soldering process manager effects an acceptable solder
joint. As in wave and reflow soldering, hand soldering requires a knowledge of solder wetting,
soldering iron contact time, flux activation, and an understanding of a board's thermal characteristics
so as not to violate these factors.

During this process, the affects all the above factors have on solder joints are seen (see solder joint
figures below). In all soldering processes and activities, surfaces shall be solderable. This requires
PCB's and components to be free of contamination. Such contamination may consist of oxidation or
other conditions (grease, fingerprints, dirt, etc.) deleterious to solder joint quality and reliability.
However, all surfaces are contaminated to some extent. Simply, solder termination areas shall be
"wettable" and excess contamination is a barrier to this.

When mild contamination is present, flux is capable of removing (cleaning) it from the surfaces to be
soldered. When excessive, nothing can be done to make acceptable solder joints. This makes it
critical for operational personnel to be supplied only with highly solderable components and boards.
In the hand solder process, all other factors are equally critical. Flux shall be applied, so mild
contamination is removed. Heating must raise the solder termination are temperature to a level
capable of activating the flux so it works as specified. The solder temperature shall be capable of
effecting an acceptable solder joint. If not high enough, colder solder joints or other unacceptable
conditions shall be effected. If too hot, burnt joints, boards, and components are effected.

The hand solder process is similar to wave and reflow soldering. The solder process mechanism
used instead of hot air or wave soldering is a highly trained and skilled person manually using a
soldering iron and wire solder, with fluxed contained therein, to effect acceptable solder joints with
many of the same time, temperature, and cleanliness factors required.

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In wave soldering, flux is foamed, sprayed, or otherwise coated (ultrasonic application as an


example) on the board’s bottom surface. It travels up through the holes and on component leads to
the board’s surface coating all solder termination areas. The board travels over pre-heaters to
precondition it and its components to prevent thermal shock upon contacting the wave. Also, this sub-
process activates the flux at a specified temperature required to clean mild contamination from solder
termination areas. Then, the assembly is conveyed over a solder wave where the solder joint is
effected. The figure below is a graphic representation of a typical wave solder profile.

In hand soldering operations, no such profiles formally exist. Such "profiles" are in the minds of the
hand soldering process managers and depend on their training and skills. They must use "personal"
techniques to ensure high quality solder joints are effected - without benefit of automated fluxing or
thermal profiles.

It becomes clear that the hand solder process and its sub-processes are highly dependent on
individually performed activities. These consist of making decisions concerning all the foregoing
requirements as the various settings indicated.

For hand solder process managers to improve their "skills," they shall become proficient hand solder
process managers. This provides a more intimate contact and visualization of what makes an
acceptable solder joint. For hand soldering people, they shall be made aware of factors and elements
required to effect acceptable solder joints using wave and reflow soldering processes.

In wave soldering, everything must come together under effectively managed conditions to create
solder joints equally reliable and acceptable as those effected during other soldering operations.
These procedures detail all requirements to assure effective, efficient hand solder process
management at POD.

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Solder Connection (Joint) Acceptability


Acceptable solder connections often are bright and shiny (not always necessary) while clearly
revealing solder termination area surface contours. They feather completely out to the joint's edge.
They are free of any residue or foreign matter. The joined surfaces are completely wetted showing no
signs of being "cold.” They exhibit no evidence of dewetting, disturbance, or other unacceptable
attributes. Based on the foregoing requirements, the first two figures show preferred and minimally
acceptable solder joints while the third shows one that is unacceptable. POD requires solder joint
quality conformance to IPC-A-610C, Class III requirements.

Solder joint reliability is another issue requiring careful determination. Though a solder joint exhibits
visible quality, it may not have sufficient integrity, composition, or formation to ensure long term
reliability. The reasons for this are many and this discussion is best left for more advanced study.
However, visible quality is the primary starting point especially concerning its correlation to process
management and capabilities.

Root cause (good or bad process management and capabilities) and effect (solder joint quality)
relationships are first established using visual quality verification methods. If good process
management is effected, using proven process capabilities, solder joint quality shall be acceptable. If
not, they shall not.

Effecting An Acceptable Solder Joint


Some of the most important requirements for effective wave soldering process management are
clean solder surfaces, calibrated conveyor speeds, and controlled and verified temperature
profiles. Also required are specified solder temperatures, specified solders and fluxes, calibrated
wave contact areas and times, specified preheat temperatures and times, and specified top side
board temperatures. All these requirements shall be met to ensure effective process management.
Other equally important requirements are well trained operators, clearly defined procedures, and
the attendant tools to promote process management.

Solder Process Management


The most important factor needed to effect process management is proper training. Each wave
solder process manager shall be trained, evaluated, qualified, certified, and empowered to accept
and fulfill responsibilities for ensuring solder process management is possible and effected. This shall
be done to ensure acceptable solder joint quality. Each wave solder process manager must
understand the following:

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Solder Termination Area Conditions


Solder termination area (surfaces as PCB pads or component leads) shall be free of excessive
contamination. Printed circuit board pads and/or component leads having excessive contamination
(oxidation, grease, dirt, etc.) are not capable of being solder "wetted." It is not possible under any
conditions to effect acceptable solder joints when excessive contaminates are present. No amount of
heat, flux, or time shall help. Each solder process manager must determine that surfaces to be joined
are clean enough to be wetted and soldered so specified solder joint quality is assured and effected.
If this determination cannot be made, the soldering process shall be stopped until corrective action is
taken to return the process to a manageable state.

Solder Termination Area Condition Examples


To ensure solder process managers have solderable surfaces, only qualified suppliers, managing
qualified processes, shall be selected to provide required PCB and component solder termination
areas. This means that only "clean," solderable PCB's and components shall be purchased and
introduced to soldering operations.

The first figure is an example of a contaminated J-lead on a PLCC surface mount component. The
second figure shows the results of a test using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy
disperssive X-Ray (EDX). It is a graphic clearly indicating excessive tin oxide contamination (18:1
oxide to surface metal ratio) on the J-Lead’s surface. This condition absolutely prevents solder
wetting under any conditions.

The third figure shows completely non-wetted SMT pads. They also prevent solder wetting under any
conditions. The fourth figure shows effect as an unacceptable PLCC solder joint caused by its
excessively oxidized J-Lead. However, the PCB surface (not having the condition shown in figure 12)
soldered well as it exhibited complete wetting.

NOTE: AGAIN, THE FIRST FIGURE SHOWS J-LEAD CONTAMINATION AS OXIDATION (18:1
OXIDE TO SURFACE METAL RATIO). THIS CONDITION COULD EXIST ON THROUGH HOLE
COMPONENTS, CHIP DEVICES, AND LEADED OR LEADLESS SMD’S. LOOK FOR THIS
CONDITION AND THOSE ON PCB PADS. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO SOLDER UNDER THESE
CONDITIONS.

Wave And Hand Solder Thermal Management


The wave solder process shall be managed using verified temperature profiles, as gradients, capable
of first providing increasing heat to “ramp” the board temperature gradually. This is done so it is not
“shocked.” because of the thermal change (delta T) when leaving the preheat zone and contacting
the much higher temperature solder wave. This prevents damage to boards or components and
promotes the specified top side board temperature to assure flux activation. Then, the process shall
be managed to assure the solder wave is at the specified temperature to effect acceptable solder

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joints. The time required is not less than 2 nor more than 4 seconds (THIS IS A KEY FACTOR
REQUIRED FOR SUCCESSFUL HAND SOLDERING ACTIVITIES EFFECTING ACCEPTABLE
SOLDER JOINTS) within a specified contact area (contact time is a function of contact area and
conveyor speed). Board and/or component overheating is prevented when times are correct. If
overheating does occur, primary damage is done to the PCB as pad lifting (or rotation) from the board
surface as in the first three figures. PCB damage also may be done as the cracked hole in the fourth
figure. Component damage (cracking as an example) also may be effected due to excessive heat or
thermal shock.

Multilayer board (MLB) delamination may also be caused by too much thermal stress or shock. The
first figure shows this condition as viewed from the MLB surface. The second figure shows it in X-
Section looking at the board’s inside as if it was cut in the Z axis. The third figure shows meazling
also often induced by thermal stress.

Solder Termination Area Surface Coating Types


Solder termination area surface coating types often are electroplated or hot air solder leveled
(HASL) tin/lead, or electrolessly deposited tin. Newer coatings are electroless gold, silver,
palladium, “white” tin, and organics. They have been developed to overcome problems associated
with the above types. Problems consist of non-wetted, uneven, and/or oxidized surfaces often with
excessive intermetallic formations. All these plating or coating types are compatible with the solder
medium to the extent deposited amounts do not “contaminate” the solder medium and joint.
Contamination would be in excess of that specified in ANSI/J-STD-001B (Figure 5-1) during
soldering operations.

If the surface is coated or plated with other metals (electroplated or electrolessly deposited gold in
excessive amounts, as an example), they shall be removed to assure solder compatibility or the
solder medium shall be changed. Acceptable solder joints often have acceptable intermetallic
growth effected as part of the joining process although some unacceptable joints are formed when
wrong or excessive intermetallics form. Gold is an example of a metal (in excessive amounts) that
is not compatible with tin/lead eutectic soldering. This metal causes embrittlement and subsequent
solder joint failures over time - under mechanically induced stresses.

NOTE: EXCESSIVE AMOUNTS MEANS GOLD, OR OTHER COATING, CONTAMINATING


SOLDER JOINTS BEYOND THAT WHICH IS ACCEPTABLE TO ENSURE INITIAL QUALITY AND

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LONG TERM RELIABILITY. REFERENCE TABLE 5-1, ON PAGE 5, IN ANSI/J-STD-001B


CONCERNING SOLDER LIMITS FOR TIN/LEAD ALLOYS.

Flux Types
Flux is composed of acid or caustic chemicals (high or low pH components [over 7 = alkaline, under 7
= acidic]). It is used to clean contaminates (mild oxidation, grease, or other residues) from solder
termination areas. Fluxes become fluid at lower temperatures than solder. This means that when
heated, flux flows onto solder termination areas first. As it does, it cleans and protects (when properly
activated) the heated metal surfaces until the solder becomes molten and flows onto and wets solder
termination areas. Then, the solder solidifies (“freezes”) upon cooling to make the solder connection.

Flux Requirements
Flux is vital to most soldering processes. This is true though fluxless or no clean solutions are being
sought as part of an ongoing effort to reduce environmental contamination produced during soldering
and cleaning operations. The two flux types generally used are rosin flux or aqueous (water soluble
acid) flux.

After soldering operations, rosin flux shall be cleaned with isopropyl alcohol (one of its components).
Aqueous flux shall be cleaned with water (a component in its binder). This is required because of the
deleterious affects flux residues have when left on board, component, and soldered surfaces. They
continue to act as a removal or cleaning mechanism. This causes damage and solder joint failures.
Some flux residues are conductive providing paths for unwanted current flow capable of causing
electrical shorts between surface conductors.

Newer “no-clean” fluxes are composed of chemicals capable of removing contamination while
needing little or no cleaning after reflow soldering. Their residue remains on or near the solder
connection and provides none of the concerns stated in the above paragraph. However, rework or
repair operation results often require localized cleaning to remove the then visibly exposed residue.

NOTE: THE ONLY REASON METAL SURFACES ARE COVERED, COATED, OR PLATED IS TO
PROTECT THEM FROM OXIDATION OR OTHER CONTAMINATION UNTIL THE SOLDER JOINT
IS MADE. COPPER SURFACES (COMPRISING MOST PRINTED CIRCUIT CONDUCTORS)
OXIDIZE ALMOST IMMEDIATELY UPON EXPOSURE TO AIR. SCRATCH A PENNY’S SURFACE
AND SEE HOW LITTLE TIME IT TAKES FOR THE SHINY SCRATCHED AREA TO TURN DULL
BECAUSE OF OXIDATION.

Thermal Mass Considerations


A single pad on a single sided circuit board involves relatively little thermal mass. A double-sided
board with a plated through hole can double that mass. Multilayer boards (MLB’s), increased
component leads, larger device types, different device types and MLB materials, terminals,
connectors, and connecting wires further increase thermal mass. This means that temperature rise
shall not be as rapid or as much when using a thermal profile designed for a board with less thermal
mass. This means each board type and its unique thermal mass shall have a correspondingly unique
thermal profile. There may be specific or unique profiles for single and simple double sided boards,
for higher density four and simple six layer types, and those for eight to ten layers, and so on.

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Experiments (trials) shall be performed to determine which profile works for which board type. This is
done using thermocouples mounted on PCB’s, “MOLES,” or other thermal profilometers that are run
through the wave solder process. These setups provide precise thermal information at various stages
in the soldering process along the conveyor’s path. Clear temperature readings are printed out,
viewed, and/or graphed to make determinations concerning more effective thermal profile
considerations so processes and solder joint quality is continuously improved.

During experimentation, each board type is inspected and effects (acceptable or unacceptable solder
joint quality) are correlated to cause. Cause is how well a process is managed relative to machine
and required sub process settings made in accordance with specifications and procedures. When
effects are positive, cause is recognized as effective process management and processes may be
effectively managed during production. When negative, experiments continue until positive effects are
found and process settings are recorded and made available for use in production. Ongoing pre
process audits and sample inspections promote continuous process improvement as part of
statistical process control (SPC).

As previously discussed, an important factor concerning thermal profile management is a solder


termination area's surface condition. In addition to what was said earlier, oxides particularly act as
thermal barriers to heat transfer. Even if a thermal profile provides the right properties for that board
type, excessive oxidation always prevents enough heat reaching the solder termination areas to melt
solder. Even if a specified flux type is used to clean mildly contaminated areas, excessive oxidation is
a barrier to all solder process management efforts.

Solder Joint Formation Time Requirements


Time is a major factor affecting acceptable solder joint quality and preventing damage to boards,
components, or finished assemblies. For wave soldering process management to be effective, the
specified heat shall not be applied to solder termination areas for more that 4 seconds. Beyond this
time, the board may be damaged (as in previous examples). If more time is required to wet solder
termination areas, something is wrong. There may be too much thermal mass, the wrong thermal
profile, too little heat input, or excessive oxidation. Corrective action shall be taken. The figure below
shows a cross section of the perfect J-Lead solder joint effected in well managed solder processes.

NOTE: ACCEPTABLE SOLDER JOINTS ARE NOT AN ART FORM. THEY ARE NOT EFFECTED
BY ARTISTS. ACCEPTABLE SOLDER JOINTS ARE OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE OF PROCESS
MANAGERS USING THE RIGHT TOOLS WITH PROPER INSTRUCTIONS FOR THEIR USE TO
ASSURE SPECIFIED QUALITY.

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Unacceptable Solder Joints And Other Conditions As Cause For Rejection.

Cold Solder
A cold solder joint is effected by poor solder process management. This means insufficient heat,
contact time, and/or adequate solder surface contact is effected during the soldering process. The
solder generally shall not flow to feather solder termination area edges. It also tends to form "globs"
or uneven "balls and not completely cover all parts of connection. The solder appears dull, grainy,
and uneven.

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Insufficient Solder
Insufficient solder is apparent as solder termination areas not being soldered or completely covered
by solder. Insufficient solder defects do not meet specified solder joint acceptance requirements.

De-wetting
Dewetting is evident as solder that first has attempted wetting all solder termination areas then
"withdraws" from them. This forms "puddles" with thin and thick solder not providing acceptable
solder joint coverage. Also, portions of the solder connection typically are identified by a convex
boundary between the solder and conductor. The major cause of de-wetting is contamination as
oxidation, grease, or other dirt or debris.

Excess Solder
By definition, excess solder means too much. Solder surface contours are not visible because there
is an overflow of solder forming excessive peaks.

Disturbed Solder
A disturbed solder joint has a crystalline appearance may be fractured or separated at the solder
termination area junction.

Overheated Solder
An overheated solder connection appears dull and crystallized. Areas around overheated solder
joints often appear discolored or burnt.

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Contaminated Solder
A contaminated solder joint is unacceptable as it contains foreign matter such as insulation or other
debris, etc.

Solder Bridging
Solder bridging is a web or film of solder between adjacent vertical terminations (formed over the
insulating PCB material). If extensive, it can be a web of solder between adjacent conductors. Some
causes of bridging can be low solder temperature, insufficient flux, poor flux activation, or the
presence of impurities in the molten solder. Other factors may involve the wetting angle, and the
angle at which the board approaches and contacts the wave.

Icicling
Icicling is solder extending out perpendicular from the PCB bottom side usually at the component
leads. It is caused by a drainage restriction of molten solder from the board, lower than specified
solder temperature, or faster than specified conveyor speed. Other causes may be wrong PCB angle
over the wave, shorter than specified wave contact time, too little wave/board contact area,
inadequate flux activity, and/or unacceptable solder purity.

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Blowholes And Voids


Blowholes are voids having exited, or outgassed from within PCB plated holes or solder joints. Voids
are small spherical cavities within the PCB plated hole wall in the first figure, or under/in a solder joint
shown in the second figure. Causes of blowholes are excessive flux, flux residue left inside a solder
joint, insufficient evaporation of the flux solvent before soldering, or moisture or organic plating
residues having been entrapped in plated-through holes that “outgas” through the hole wall plating.
Blowholes can be caused by PCB's not meeting supplier acceptance criteria such as minimum
copper plating thickness. They and voids may also be caused by flux remaining in solder joints
fighting contamination such as excessive oxidation.

Solder Balls
Solder balls are small spheres that may cause shorting between conductors or component leads.
Solder balls often are dynamic meaning they move randomly across a board’s surface. They are
caused when thermal profiles are not as specified, solder mask is not properly cured, or dry film
solder masks are used. They may also be caused as flux within the solder paste rapidly expands
when overheated spattering molten solder across the board’s surface. They too are caused when
blowholes are effected through outgassing as indicated above.

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Correction And Prevention Of Unacceptable Solder Connections.


Action to correct and prevent unacceptable solder connections shall be taken by wave solder process
managers. The action taken depends on the frequency and type of unacceptable connections found.
When excessive or major defects are found, supervisors shall be notified so required correction can
be made. When minor or minimal defects are found, the process managers shall correct the process
to assure quality meeting specified requirements

Repair, Modification, And Rework


Repair, modification, and rework of unacceptable solder joints and/or assemblies shall be done using
hand soldering with flux cored solder and temperature regulated soldering irons. Cleaning shall be
done on the board after touch-up using the proper cleaning solution depending on the flux type used.

NOTE: ALL TOUCH UP OPERATIONS AND ACTIVITIES SHALL BE PERFORMED IN


ACCORDANCE WITH POD, POD-5055, REPAIR, MODIFICATION, AND REWORK
PROCEDURES.

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4.0 DEFINITIONS
The following definitions are provided for all process managers to better visualize each process for
which they are responsible:

Operations
Operations are defined as a series of processes required to provide product or services meeting
certain requirements. Usually these requirements are based on customer needs, desires, or
demands. POD employs many operations as management, engineering, marketing, sales,
manufacturing, accounting, quality assurance, and others to ensure all its customers receive product
meeting their requirements.

Process
A process is defined as a method or procedure. A process may be a single method or procedure, or
may be made up of sub processes and activities. In a manufacturing operation, a process is
employed to turn acceptable raw materials, components, and designs into acceptable product using
various tool and equipment types.

Sub Process
A sub process may be part of a process. In the wave solder process, several sub processes are
involved to effect acceptable solder joints. They are discussed in the foregoing section.

Activity
Processes and sub processes most often rely on individuals or teams performing activities to make
product. In manufacturing, such activities may consist of moving or handling materials and
components, changing machine or tool settings, turning equipment on or off, etc.. It is at the activity
level most variability is introduced to manufacturing operations effecting varying degrees of quality.
For this reason, it is vital process managers be well trained to fulfill their responsibilities by following
procedures concerning specific process management requirements.

Process Management
Process management is the act of preventing defect by fulfilling individual responsibilities instead of
reacting to it as the result of not fulfilling them. When process instead of results management is
practiced, product quality is consistently acceptable. Process management differs from process
control in that control means only consistent quality is produced. In a controlled instead of managed
environment, that quality may be consistently good or bad.

Process Capability
Process capability is the measure of how well a process is being managed. Usually, a processes’
capability is expressed in statistical terms as a capability profile or Cpk. When a process is managed
effectively, its Cpk shows how well while often providing an indication of what is needed to
continuously improve. Continuous process improvement assures continuous quality improvement
and that is what process managers focus on most.

Solder
Solder is defined as a metallic medium (as an alloy) that melts at temperatures below 800 degrees
Fahrenheit to join metal surfaces having much higher melting points. Solder may be in different
forms. It may be bar solder as used in wave solder machines, or it may be wire with a flux core used

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to perform hand soldering. It may also be in the form of a paste composed of solder balls suspended
in a binder with a flux component. None of these forms changes its definition.

Solder Paste
Solder paste is a metallic medium (as an alloy) formed into solder balls (ranging in diameter from
about 4 to 40 microns). The balls are suspended in a binder (composed of flux and other chemicals).
Solder paste, as all solder media, melts at temperatures below 800 degrees Fahrenheit to join metal
surfaces having much higher melting points.

The more spherical are the solder balls, the less surface area they have. This reduces their oxidation
amount and rate at which they oxidize. This is important because more oxidation means less
solderability.

The solder paste composition has a high viscosity of approximately 900,000 centipoise. Higher
viscosity aids in preventing solder paste spread on SMT pads. When too high, printing problems may
occur relative to dispensing paste through stencil openings.

Solder paste is applied to solder termination areas using a printing machine, squeegees, and stencils
with openings of specified sizes, shapes, and aspect ratios. All this is done to assure a precise
amount is printed where and in the condition required to effect acceptable solder joints.

Wire/Core Solder
Wire/Core solder is a solder medium composed of a eutectic alloy. Usually it is 60/40 tin-lead formed
into a wire with a hollow flux filled core. Wire/Core solder is specified in varying diameters (typically
from about .012” to .060”) for specific hand soldering activities. It provides a mechanism to apply flux
from its core to the solder termination areas before solder melts, flows, and wets them to effect an
acceptable solder joint.

Flux
Flux is defined as a chemically and physically active compound that when heated to specified
temperatures it promotes base metal surface wetting by molten solder. It does this by removing minor
surface oxidation, surface films, or other contamination. It then protects the surfaces from reoxidation
during the soldering process. Various flux types (see POD Hand Soldering and Final Assembly
Course) include:

Rosin
Rosin flux primarily is composed of natural resin extracted from oleoresin of pine trees and refined.
Typically, these fluxes are made up of 60% solvent and 40% solids.

Rosin flux (Type R) is an organic material distilled from pine tree sap. The active ingredients in this
flux type primarily consist of abietic and pimaric acids. After rosin is extracted from pine trees, it is
superficially processed to remove undesirable impurities while neutralizing the acid residues
remaining from the extraction process. The purified material is called water-white rosin. It is used to
manufacture rosin based flux.

Some manufacturers hoping to overcome difficulties associated with obtaining and processing natural
rosin, chemically synthesize substitute materials. These materials are called “resins.”

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Pure rosin is a solid at room temperature and is chemically inactive while being insulative. Rosin
melts at about 72 degrees C. (160 degrees F.) and the organic acids become active at around 108
degrees C. (225 degrees F.). This flux type’s peak capability is effected around 262 degrees C. (500
degrees F.). This is the temperature rosin begins decomposing into reducing gases. At temperatures
above 346 degrees C. (650 degrees F.), the flux becomes inactive and polymerizes. This causes
residue removal difficulties from board and solder joint surfaces.

When solder surfaces require a more active flux, chemical compounds called activators are added to
the rosin. The most commonly known rosin flux containing activators is called rosin, mildly activated
or RMA.

Activators are thermally reactive compounds (such as amine hydrochlorides) that break down at
elevated temperatures. At these temperatures, hydrochloric acid is released to dissolve the surface
oxides, tarnishes, and other contaminates. Mildly activated rosin flux (RMA) may contain a variety of
activators in amounts less than 1%. Limits are placed on their electrical and chemical properties
before and after soldering

Rosin activated flux (RA) typically contains 1% - 5% activators. RA flux is used in applications when
RMA is not strong enough. For military purposes, their use usually is limited to component tinning of
sealed devices and solid wire. When warm, these fluxes can conduct electricity and can leave
residues that can cause corrosion or shorting path formation between conductors.

Organic Acid Flux


Organic acid (OA) fluxes are types having active ingredients such as organic acids, organic
hydrohalides, amines, and amides. These fluxes are water soluble since they contain no rosin. Good
cleaning is critical with these flux types since the salt residues left by them are corrosive and
conductive.

OA fluxes also are referred to as water soluble fluxes (WSF’s). These fluxes are more aggressive.
They generally are classified in J-STD-004 as types M or H. OA fluxes have active ingredients such
as organic acids, organic hydrohalides, amines, and amides. All are corrosive activator materials.
These fluxes are water soluble or water washable since they contain no rosin, or any low rosin or
resin levels. Good cleaning is critical with these flux types as their residues are corrosive and
electrically conductive.

Resin
Resin flux primarily is composed of natural resins other than rosin types and/or synthetic resins.

Organic
Organic elements are based on carbon atom structures. All life forms are organic. Organic fluxes are
primarily composed of organic materials other than rosin or resin.

Inorganic
Inorganic elements are based on other than carbon atom structures. Inorganic fluxes are solutions
composed of inorganic acids and/or salts.

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LR, or No-Clean Fluxes


Low residue (LR) fluxes usually have lower solids content (less than 5%) than traditional high-solids
rosin fluxes. LR fluxes also are referred to as no-clean or “leave on” fluxes. Their residues are not
intended for removal from assemblies so cleaning is not required. Their primary activator materials
are weak organic acids (adipic or succinic acid). These materials are benign on a board surface and
act as electrical insulators. LR fluxes may be higher solvent borne (usually isopropanol) or water
borne in the case of volatile organic compound (VOC) free no clean fluxes.

Low residue fluxes are not no-residue fluxes. Although benign, visible residues do remain on the
assembly. For this reason, customers may require them to be cleaned. This often is requested for
cosmetic rather than functionality reasons. If the flux residues have a significant thickness, they could
interfere with electrical testing as “bed of nails” types. However, a different probe point, greater spring
strength, or rotating probes often solve this problem. Low residue fluxes also might build up on test
pins over time. This requires preventive maintenance as regular cleaning.

Halides
Halides are organic salts added to flux as activators. Halides are corrosive.

Fluxing Activities And Classes


A liquid flows freely over a surface only if in doing so the total free energy of the system is reduced. In
soldering, the free energy of a clean surface is higher than a dirty one. Therefore, it is more likely to
promote solder flow. With respect to this, fluxing activities are:

Chemical
Chemical fluxing activity reduces the oxides from the surface to be soldered and protects this surface
from oxidation by covering it.

Thermal
Thermal fluxing activity assists transferring heat from the heat source to the material being soldered.

Physical
Physical activities allow the transportation of oxides and other reaction products away from the
material surfaces being soldered. In consideration of these three fluxing activities, the following shall
be noted:

1) There are two basic ways fluxes eliminate oxidation. They dissolve it into "solution" or they
reduce it back to metal. If reduced, it clearly "disappears" and should not be re-deposited as an
oxide (to be determined through supplier qualification). Some old flux types "dissolved" oxides by
reacting a fatty acid (rosin) with the metal in the oxide. Then, it was “pushed aside” by solder flow
and wetting action. In which mode a flux works, clearly depends on which flux is used. Some fluxes
use both modes.

2) ANSI/J-STD-004 differentiates flux activities into three classes. They are Low (type L), Medium
(type M), and High (type H). ANSI/J-STD-004 further classifies fluxes as to whether or not they
contain halides. For example, a type L0 flux is a low activity, halide free flux. An L1 flux is a low
activity flux containing some halide amount.

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3) Numbers of industry and consortia studies have been conducted concerning low residue flux
reliability. Type L fluxes have been shown relatively benign concerning corrosion and electrolytic
failure mechanisms. For this reason, Section 4.2 allows the manufacturer to use a type L flux (L0 or
L1) without going through the testing outlined in Appendix D. If the manufacturer chooses to use a
more aggressive flux (types M and/or H), the potential exists for corrosive flux residues. If so, the
manufacturer must go through the Appendix D testing to demonstrate adequate removal of potentially
harmful flux residues.

4) It is highly recommended that the manufacturer not use a type H flux on printed wiring assemblies
in any way – at any time. It is recommended that, if used at all, a type H flux be limited to component
lead tinning. Even then, this may be done only when it can be demonstrated that the highly
aggressive flux residues can be thoroughly removed.

Electrochemical Migration
Electrochemical migration is defined as the movement of metals across an intervening space
between a cathode and anode. This movement is induced by the difference in electrical potential in
the presence of fluid producing a micro-film of water on a substrate’s surface.

Soldering
Soldering is a process in which two metal surfaces are metallurgically joined, using a specified
solder medium (metal filler with a melting point below 800 degrees F.). The process is effected by
"wetting" the surfaces to be joined requiring diffusion and internetallic growth. The effect of this
process is called a solder joint.

Intermetallics
In light of the previous definition (soldering), intermetallics always are formed when heated solder
surfaces are brought into contact with solder melted upon them. As soldering requires diffusion and
internetallic growth, each occurs as part of the soldering process. This is immediately so and time
effects intermetallic growth as a continuous process.

Intermetallic compounds have much different physical and mechanical properties than the metals
comprising them. Typically, intermetallics are very brittle and have poor electrical conductivity. Also,
when exposed to air, they oxidize very rapidly. Therefore, excessive intermetallics, formed either
during the soldering process or over time, cause unreliable solder joints capable of failing under
stressful conditions as thermal, or mechanical shock and/or vibration.

Oxidation (oxide, oxidize)


Oxidation is the act of burning. When oxygen is present in an atmosphere, it “burns” or oxidizes all
material with which it comes in contact. When this happens, oxides are formed that resist thermal
input as well as solder wetting. Some materials resist oxidation better than others. Most solder
termination areas are copper (oxidizes very rapidly) covered with some protective coating to prevent
further oxidation than that which was present before the coating’s application. In an inert atmosphere,
oxidation is prevented (there is no oxygen or oxidizing agent). This means that if all processes
relating to the use of materials capable of rapid oxidation were performed in an inert atmosphere,
they would be more capable of solder wetting.

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Inert Atmosphere
Inert means inactive or static. An inert atmosphere is one without activity such as that containing
oxygen which is one component in our life sustaining atmosphere surrounding earth. Nitrogen is an
inert gas. When totally comprising an atmosphere (as inside a soldering machine), activity is
eliminated concerning oxidation thereby providing protection to solder termination areas. This
promotes or improves thermal input and solder wetting (solderability). This assures a higher rate of
higher quality solder joints.

Surface
Surface is defined as an object’s area having no depth.

Welding
It shall be noted there is a distinction between soldering and welding. Welding is defined as a process
in which diffusion and intermetallic formations are effected to metallurgically join metals beyond their
surfaces to a specified depth. The welding process is effected at temperatures well above 800
degrees F.. This distinction also provides evidence that solder joining is a reversible process as it
relies on heat to "undo" the solder joint. Welding requires complete joint destruction thus making
repair and/or rework impossible at the component level, as an example.

Solderability
Solderability is defined as the ease with which solder adheres to a basis metal surface such as a
component lead, PCB solder termination pad, or PCB conductor hole pad and wall. The presence of
contamination (as oxides or residues) interferes with solderability. Acceptable solderability and solder
joint formation, requires good solder wetting and a small contact angle.

Wetting
Wetting is defined as the formation of a relatively uniform, smooth, unbroken, and adherent solder
film to a basis metal. Wetting requires a solid surface to be completely "coated" by a liquid. This
means the liquid maintains intimate contact with all solder termination areas without resistance or any
indication of "pulling" back from their surfaces. In solder joining, the liquid is molten solder. What
distinguishes "liquid" metal from some other liquid media is its change back to a solid when cooled
below its melting point. When two metal surfaces are wetted, they may become joined upon solder
medium solidification (often referred to as freezing). This only is done under effectively process
managed conditions.

Contact Angle
Contact angle is defined as the angle at which a solder fillet meets the basis metal. A small contact
angle indicates good wetting whereas a large angle indicates poor wetting.

Eutectic
Eutectic is defined as a combination of two metals (forming an alloy) that melts at a lower
temperature than either as individual metals. Also, eutectic is defined as alloys that change directly
from liquid to solid, and the reverse, with no intermediate plastic states. Various solder types and their
compositions and melting points are found in ANSI/J-STD-006.

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Solder Joint
A solder joint is effected in the soldering process. Under effectively managed conditions, solder joints
exhibit acceptable attributes as smooth, usually shiny, clearly defined, well feathered, completely
wetted metallic bonds between two metal surfaces.

Aqueous Cleaning
Aqueous cleaning is defined as process using water as the primary cleaning agent or solvent. It shall
be noted that water is termed the “universal” solvent because it is capable of dissolving all material
types to some extent over time. This type cleaning can mean using pure water, with detergent
additives, or with a saponifier solution. Aqueous cleaning is done most often with water soluble
fluxes, but can be used on rosin and low residue fluxes as well as with the appropriate additives.
Aqueous cleaning generally is a multi-stage operation with most cleaning effected in the first wash
stages with the dirtiest water while rinsing is done in later stages using the cleanest water.

Manual Cleaning
Manual cleaning is a process used to spot clean flux residues from assembly surfaces. It includes
using a bristle brush with isopropyl alcohol as the cleaning agent or solvent. This process is not
recommended for final cleaning.

Saponification
Saponification is defined as a cleaning process using a biodegradable rosin cleaner. In the process,
the rosin is changed chemically to become water soluble.

Wave Soldering
Wave soldering requires intimate contact be made between molten solder and the assembly’s bottom
side solder termination areas to effect solder joints. Conversely, reflow soldering is accomplished in a
machine using air or an inert gas (nitrogen) as the solder reflow mechanism. Wave soldering requires
attention to conveyor speed, flux action and activation, preheat and topside board temperatures,
solder pot temperatures, wave contact times and areas, and solder purity.

In reflow soldering, a hot gas envelopes the entire printed circuit assembly. In doing so, it activates
the flux then melts the solder medium having been “printed” on the board’s surface onto which
components have been attached. Upon melting, solder wets all termination areas. Upon cooling, the
solder joint is made. In wave soldering, wave contact with solder termination areas wets them as
wave pressure, and wetting and capillary action provides the mechanism for the solder to flow up
holes and component leads to wet them to the board’s surface.

The entire reflow process is completed in stages corresponding to increasing temperatures in several
zones until the highest temperature is reached in what is called the liquidous zone. It is in this zone
the solder melts (liquefies) and wets all solder termination areas. Wave soldering requires similar
stages to ramp boards and components up to temperatures required to activate flux, and prevent
thermal shock upon wave contact.

Quality
Quality is defined as conformance to clearly specified, understood, and accepted customer contract
requirements.

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Repair
Repair is defined as the process required to restore the functional capability and/or performance
characteristics of a defective article. This is done in a manner that precludes compliance of the article
with applicable drawings or specifications.

Modification
Modification is defined as the process required to revise the functional capability or performance
characteristics of a product to satisfy new acceptance criteria. Modifications usually are required to
incorporate design changes that can be controlled by drawings, change orders, etc.. Modifications
only shall be performed when specifically authorized and described in detail on controlled
documentation.

Rework
Rework is defined as the act of reprocessing non-conforming or defective articles. This is done using
original or equivalent processing to assure full conformance of the article with applicable drawings or
specifications. Rework is doing something over that should have been done right the first time.

Other
Other terms are defined in IPC-T-50 and in specific guidelines, standards, and specifications
indicated in Section 8. herein.

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5.0 REQUIRED EQUIPMENT/TOOLS

Specified Hand Soldering Irons, Tips, Handles, And Controllers

Solder Iron Tip Temperature Thermocouples

Solder Iron Tip Cleaning Sponges

Specified Wire Solder With Specified Flux

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6.0 OPERATIONAL AND QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS


Operational and quality system requirements are steps required to maintain process management
effectiveness to assure product quality meeting specified requirements.

Traveler and drawings as required

Components as indicated on assembly drawing and bills of material

Safety, handling, and ESD as required

Solder Iron Tip Cleaning Sponge Cleaned and Wetted Regularly

Solder as specified

Flux As Specified

Read, understand, and use solder audit checklist before each run, lot, or different board type

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7.0 HAND SOLDERING OPERATIONS


These procedures are used to ensure effective, efficient process management concerning hand
soldering operations at POD. POD uses specified and approved soldering tools to effect acceptable
solder joints on printed circuit assemblies. This includes both through hole and surface mount
devices.

Ensure proper handling and ESD protection. The first figure below indicates ESD protection required
symbol. The second figure indicates ESD handling requirements shall be effected. The third figure
shows the preferred method for handling Class III PCB assemblies. The fourth figure shows an
acceptable handling method. In all cases it is required that ESD protection be provided all assemblies
and all boards be handled so no damage, contamination, or other defect causing possibilities exist.

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Select and ensure the soldering iron tip is as specified for the operation to be performed while
securely setting it within the handle’s receptacle.

Set the soldering iron tip temperature for the specified setting to perform the required soldering
operation.

Ensure soldering iron tip is properly tinned with the specified solder.

NOTE: SOLDERING IRON TIPS ARE MADE FROM COPPER WIRE PLATED WITH .001" OF
IRON SO AS TO MINIMIZE SOLDER JOINT CONTAMINATION. IF TIPS REVEAL COPPER,
THEY MUST BE REPLACED.

Ensure soldering iron tip cleaning sponge clean and damp throughout all soldering operations. The
first figure below shows a sponge in an unacceptable condition as worn and dirty. The second
figure below shows a clean, damp sponge in good condition, and one not yet dampened for tip
cleaning.

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Lightly wipe tip on damp sponge and ensure soldering iron tip properly cleaned before soldering
operations. DO NOT LEAVE TIPS ON SPONGE TOO LONG AS THERMAL DEGRADATION
OCCURS.

Apply the soldering iron tip to the maximum mass points of the solder termination areas
(component and board surfaces simultaneously) while applying specified wire solder to the
maximum contact solder termination area (usually the PCB pad) to be soldered. This is shown in
the following figures. Observe the solder flowing onto and wetting the PCB pad and component
termination areas.

NOTE: NEVER APPLY SOLDER TO THE SOLDERING IRON TIP TO MAKE A SOLDER JOINT.

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Remove the soldering iron tip from the solder termination areas and observe the solder joint
forming as it solidifies (freezes).

Do not apply the soldering iron tip to the solder termination areas longer than three seconds. Pad
lifting or destruction shall be effected if this time is exceeded as shown in the first two figures
below.

Ensure the solder joint meets all POD acceptance criteria as an IPC Class III solder joint with
smooth, shiny (preferably), well feathered, totally wetted features as shown in the last two figures
above, and clearly visible solder termination area outlines and contours. If not, notify supervisor.

NOTE: AGAIN, SOLDER SHALL NOT BE MELTED AGAINST THE IRON TIP AND ALLOWED
TO FLOW ONTO THE WORK. SOLDER APPLIED TO A CLEANED, FLUXED, AND PROPERLY
HEATED SURFACE shall MELT AND FLOW WITHOUT DIRECT CONTACT WITH THE HEAT
SOURCE, AND shall PROVIDE A SMOOTH, EVEN SURFACE FILLETING OUT TO A
DESIRABLE THIN EDGE.

Immediately after effecting each solder joint, gently wipe the soldering iron tip on the clean, damp
sponge. Then, re-tin the tip surface and wipe it again immediately before restarting soldering
operations.

Replace the soldering iron in its holder being sure not to allow the tip to rest or be used in a way
causing it stress. While ensuring the tip is well tinned, turn off the controller and allow the iron to cool.
Inspect all solder joints and perform touch-up as required – in accordance with POD, POD-5145,
Touch-up Procedures.

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NOTES: ALL REQUIRED REWORK SHALL BE PERFORMED IN ACCORDANCE WITH IPC-


7712. ALL REPAIR AND MODIFICATIONS SHALL BE PERFORMED IN ACCORDANCE WITH
IPC-7721. ALL SOLDERING REQUIREMENTS SHALL CONFORM WITH ANSI/J-STD-001B.

Replace soldering iron tips, controllers, and other required tools in accordance with POD Operation
and Maintenance Procedures.

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8.0 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTATION

POD Statement Of Work and Detailed Processes


POD, PPM-2045, Electrostatic Discharge Procedures
POD, PPM-2015, Material And Assembly Handling Procedures
POD, QIPM-4030, Audit Of Processes And Procedures
POD, PPM-2050, Safety Procedures
Planning Documentation
Lot Control Documentation
Maintenance Requirements, Specifications And Procedures
Compressed Air Test Results
POD, QPM-3020, Equipment Calibration Procedures
Equipment Calibration Logs
POD Quality Assurance Inspection/Test/Analysis Logs
POD Operator Operations, And Process Logs
QQ-S-571 Solder Test Results
MIL-F-14256 Flux For Assembly Operations Test Results
MIL-P-55110 Printed Wiring For Electronic Equipment
MIL-P-28809 Printed Wiring Assemblies
POD, POD-5135, Hand Soldering Procedures
ANSI/J-STD-001B Requirements For Soldered Electrical And electronic Assemblies
ANSI/IPC-A-610 Acceptability Of Printed Board Assemblies
IPC-600C Acceptability Of Printed Boards
IPC-7721 Repair And Modification Of Printed Boards And Electronic Assemblies
IPC-7711 Rework Of Electronic Assemblies
IPC-TM-650 Test Methods Manual
IPC-T-50 Terms And Definitions
IPC-D-275 Printed Wiring For Electronic Equipment
POD Pre-operational, Operational, And Post Operational Checklists
POD Operation and Maintenance Procedures For Tools And Equipment Used To
Train Personnel To Manage Repair, Modification, And Rework Processes

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12.8 WINESCO REPAIR/REWORK

WENESCO/PCI CONNECTOR REPLACE PROCESS

MACHINE

POWER PANEL CONTROLS

PROCESS CONTROL PANEL

SYSTEM AIR PRESSURE SETTING

MINI WAVE CONTROL PANEL

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ASSEMBLY TO BE REPAIRED - KIT BOARD AND PCI CONNECTORS

CONNECTOR TO BE REPLACED MATCHING CONNECTOR TO SITE

TAPING CONNECTOR REPLACEMENT SITE TAPING CONNECTOR REPLACEMENT SITE

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CONNECTOR REPLACEMENT SITE TAPED CONNECTOR REPLACEMENT SITE TAPED

PLACING BOARD TO BE REPAIRED INTO OVEN BOARD IN OVEN SET AT 100 DEGREES C. FOR
FOR THERMAL PRECONDITIONING MINIMUM TWO HOURS

SETTING UP BOARD FIXTURE FOR BOARD IN FIXTURE AND IN MACHINE FOR


DESOLDERING OPERATION FIRST FIT LOOK

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REMOVING PREVIOUSLY USED SOLDER WELL REMOVING PREVIOUSLY USED SOLDER WELL

CLEANING PREVIOUSLY USED SOLDER REMOVING DROSS FROM SOLDER POT BEFORE
WELL NEW SOLDER WELL INSTALLATION

INSTALLING CORRECT SOLDER WELL FOR PCI SOLDER WELL INSTALLED


PCI CONNECTOR REPAIR

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ALIGN OVERARM LIGHT WITH CENTER OF


SWITCH ON OVERARM ALIGNMENT LIGHT SELECTED SOLDER WELL

SET BOTTOM SIDE PRE-HEATER AS


REQUIRED SET PREHEAT TIMER AS REQUIRED

ENABLE SOLDER POT FOOT PEDAL AS TEST FOOT PEDAL AND SOLDER WAVE TO
REQUIRED ASSURE CORRECT ACTION

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OBSERVE SOLDER WELL FLOW AT REQUIRED REMOVE NOW THERMALLY PRECONDITIONED


HEIGHT AND VOLUME BOARD FROM OVEN

REFIT BOARD TO SOLDER FIXTURE REFIT FIXTURE TO SOLDER MACHINE

VERIFY BOARD AND CONNECTOR POSITION REASSURE BOARD TO SOLDER WELL


RELATIVE TO SOLDER WELL CLEARANCE AS .1”

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ANOTHER VIEW OF CONNECTOR ALIGNMENT


AND CLEARANCE REMOVE BOARD AND FIXTURE

SELECT AND ASSURE SPECIFIED FLUX FOR APPLY FLUX TO BOTTOM SIDE BOARD AREA
SPECIFIED SOLDERING OPERATION FOR CONNECTOR REMOVAL

REINSTALL AND REALIGN BOARD/FIXTURE TO CONFIRM ALIGNMENT WITH OVERARM LIGHT


SOLDER WELL AS CENTERED ON CONNECTOR

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BOARD POSITIONED FOR CONNECTOR BOARD POSITIONED FOR CONNECTOR


REMOVAL REMOVAL

UNDER SIDE VIEW SHOWING SOLDER WAVE


DEPRESS SOLDER WAVE FOOT PEDAL MAKING REQUIRED BOARD CONTACT

MANUALLY GRASP CONNECTOR FOR REMOVE CONNECTOR FROM SITE AND


REMOVAL UPON SEEING SOLDER WETTING RELEASE FOOT PEDAL TO STOP WAVE

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FLUX TOP SIDE BOARD SITE FOR


INSPECT REMOVED CONNECTOR CONNECTOR INSERTION AND SOLDERING

WHILE DEPRESSING FOOT PEDDLE, WAIT


FOR SOLDER WETTING TO INSERT
CONNECTOR DEPRESSING FOOT PEDAL

INSERT AND ASSURE CONNECTOR SEATED RELEASE FOOT PEDDLE, AWAIT SOLDER
PROPERLY IN REQUIRED SITE SOLIDIFICATION AND INSPECT SITE

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WENESCO/MEG-ARRAY CONNECTOR REPLACEMENT

PROCEED REPLACING THESE CONNECTORS


USING THE SAME PROCEDURES AS BEFORE

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12.9 SRM4 REPAIR/REWORK

POD

MICROPAX REPLACEMENT PROCEDURES

USING THE AIR-VAC SRM4 REPAIR MACHINE

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1.0 PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of these procedures is to provide detailed operational instructions required to
effectively manage repair and/or rework processes using the Air-Vac, SRM4 rework/repair
machine.

The scope of these procedures extends to all those operating or requiring repair/rework operations
for various leaded device types as components and connectors.

2.0 INTRODUCTION
The Berg Micropax connector requires special attention for several reasons. One is through hole
pin fragility. Another is the very tight clearances and tolerances of the connector pins and the holes
into which they shall be inserted. Another is thermal consideration both of boards and connectors.
For these reasons, and others, Micropax connector replacement requires using the SRM4 as
detailed in the following procedures:

3.0 TERMS & DEFINITIONS


To be developed as required and process specific.

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4.0 SAFETY

Operational safety, when using the SRM4, shall consist of the following requirements:

EQUIPMENT

Per POD and Air-Vac requirements.

PERSONNEL

Per POD and Air-Vac requirements.

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ADDITIONAL SAFETY, HANDLING, ESD, AND MOISTURE SENSITIVITY REQUIREMENTS

NOTE: REFERENCE APPROPRIATE POD SAFETY, ESD, MATERIAL HANDLING, AND


MOISTURE SENSITIVE DEVICE PROCEDURES TO ENSURE ALL REQUIREMENTS
UNDERSTOOD AND MET BEFORE BEGINNING ANY PROCESS MANAGEMENT EFFORTS.

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5.0 STARTUP
After connecting the machine to specified power and air sources (MACHINE POWER ON), all
machine and operational startup requirements shall be met in accordance with these procedures,
the SRM4 operations manual, and the following:

SYSTEM CONROLS AND FUNCTIONS


Use POD SOPxxx to manage the SRM4 soldering process to replace the Micropax connector.

INITIAL AND ONGOING SYSTEM SETUP


Use POD SOPxxx to manage the SRM4 soldering process to replace the Micropax connector.

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6.0 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES


This procedure provides detailed information concerning operational requirements for the Air-Vac,
SRM4 desoldering and resoldering equipment.

USING THE SRM4


The following procedures shall be used to perform desoldering and resoldering operations as
required to repair or rework Micropax connectors.

NOTE: THESE PROCEDURES CONSIST PRIMARILY OF GRAPHIC INFORMATION INSTEAD


OF TEXT.

Board Setup Process Management

SETUP AND ALIGN BOARD FOR REQUIRED PERFORM BOARD THERMAL PRECONDITIONING
PROCESS ON TOP OF SOLDER POT

MEASURE TOP SIDE BOARD TEMPERATURE FOR THIS BOARD, TOP SIDE TEMPERATURE
DURING THERMAL PRECONDITIONING CYCLE MAXED OUT ACCEPTABLY AS INDICATED

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BOARD BOTTOM SIDE .050" - .100" ABOVE


SOLDER WELL BOARD RAISE/LOWER CONTROL

AS IN SETUP PROCEDURES, ENSURE AIR WITH BOARD IN PLACE, LOWER WELL OVER
BOOT ALIGNS WITH SOLDER WELL SITE/DEVICE AND BEGIN ALIGNMENT PROCESS

WHILE VIEWING FROM FRONT AND SIDES, COMPLETE BOARD/SITE/COMPONENT


ALIGN BOARD/SITE WITH AIR BOOT ALIGNMENT PROCESS

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CONTINUALLY ENSURE SOLDER FLOW AS CONTINUALLY ENSURE WELL FLOW SOLDER


SPECIFIED TEMPERATURE AS SPECIFIED

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Connector Removal Process Management

THERMALLY PRECONDITION BOARD ON TOP ENSURE TOP SIDE BOARD TEMPERATURE,


OF SOLDER POT AND WELL, WHEN POSSIBLE AFTER PRECONDITIONING, AS SPECIFIED

USE OVEN TO THERMALLY PRECONDITION ENSURE OVEN "SEALED" DURING THERMAL


BOARDS, AS SPECIFIED AND REQUIRED PRECONDITIONING PROCESS

ENSURE FLOW TIME AND % AS SPECIFIED SELECT AND TEST VARIOUS ADJUST MENU
FOR BOARD TO BE PROCESSED SETTINGS AND SWITCH TO MAIN MENU

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IN MAIN MENU, SWITCH TO RUN AND WHEN READY TO PROCESS BOARD, SELECT
PREPARE TO ACTIVATE WELL FLOW CYCLE TO MANUALLY ACTIVATE PROCESS

USE SPECIFIED FLUX TYPE FOR BOARD TO ENSURE SITE TO BE SOLDERED PROPERLY
BE PROCESSED FLUXED

AFTER ACTIVATING CYCLE, OBSERVE TIME WHEN TIME AT ZERO, OBSERVE COMPONENT
COUNT DOWN TO ZERO LIGHT ILLUMINATION

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WITH COMPONENT LIGHT ILUMINATED, USE CONTINUE REMOVAL PROCESS UNTIL DEVICE
APPROPRIATE TOOL TO BEGIN COMPONENT FREE OF HOLES
REMOVAL PROCESS

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Hole Cleaning Process Management

IMMEDIATELY UPON CONNECTOR REMOVAL,


HOLE CLEAN BOOT LOWERED AND VISUALLY ENSURE ENOUGH SOLDER REMOVED
SWITCHED ON, WAVE DROPS, SOLDER TO EFFECT NEW CONNECTOR INSERTION
REMOVED

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Connector Pin Straightness Assurance

MICROPAX CONNECTOR OFTEN REQUIRING MICROPAX CONNECTOR INSERTION INTO


ADDITIONAL PIN STRAIGHTNESS GAGE TO DETERMINE PIN STRAIGHTNESS
DETERMINATION

NOTE: FOR MICROPAX CONNECTORS, IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT PIN STRAIGHTNESS IS


CAPABLE OF INSERTION INTO BOARD SITE - THE FIRST TIME AS ONLY THREE
REPAIR SEQUENCES ALLOWED.

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Connector Insertion Process Management

FOR MICROPAX CONNECTORS, ALL CONNECTOR FULLY INSERTED BEFORE


CONNECTOR PINS STARTED, TO AT LEAST REFLOW OR VERY GENTLY TAPPED INTO
10% DEPTH, OR FULLY PLACED (PREFERRED) HOLES AND MOLTEN SOLDER DURING
INTO HOLES BEFORE SOLDERING PROCESS

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Connector Soldering Process Management

AS IN SETUP PROCESS, ENSURE SOLDER


AS IN SETUP PROCESS, ENSURE SPECIFIED WAVE NOT EXCESSIVE BUT SET AS SPECIFIED
SOLDER WELL TO BOARD CLEARANCE FOR TIME AND % FLOW WHILE ENSURING
PROPER BOTTOM SIDE BOARD CONTACT

ENSURE SOLDER TEMPARATURE AS


SPECIFIED ENSURE ALL SETTINGS AS SPECIFIED

MOMENTARILY DEPRESS CYCLE SWITCH TO OBSERVE TOP SIDE SOLDER FLOW AND
ACTIVATE SOLDER WAVE WETTING AFTER SPECIFIED PERIOD

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CONNECTOR SOLDERED INTO PLACE CONNECTOR SOLDERED INTO PLACE


EXHIBITING GOOD TOP SIED WETTING EXHIBITING GOOD BOTTOM SIDE WETTING

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Attendant And Optional Processes


THERMAL SOLDER TIP "DRILL" FOR FINAL
HOLE CLEANING TOUCH UP - AS NEEDED

SHUTDOWN
Return equipment to operators if production warrants or follow shut down procedures listed in
procedures.

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QUALITY

Reference SOP2571: POD Quality Policy.

OPERATOR MAINTENANCE

Return all tools, containers, and fixturing to proper storage areas.

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12.10 BGA REPAIR/REWORK (SRT-1000)

1.0 PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of these procedures is to detail operational requirements for the Summit 1000 Surface
Mount rework and repair machine.

The scope of these procedures extends to all manufacturing operations personnel, and process
managers responsible for effecting specified rework and repair operations concerning ball grid
array (BGA) and fine pitch leaded devices on printed circuit assemblies at POD.

2.0 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS


At POD it is vital, from time to time, to rework or repair SMT electronic assemblies using fine pitch
and BGA device types. To do this, POD uses the Sierra Research and Technology, Inc (SRT)
Summit 1000 rework and repair machine.

The SRT 1000 machine (figure 1) is capable of removing and replacing required devices with
programmable accuracy and precise thermal profiles required for reflow soldering processes. It is
particularly suited for BGA’s (figure 2) and very fine pitch leaded components as quad flat packs
(QFP’s as in figure 3). It also can be used for first time placement and reflow operations concerning
these device types.

To match the “bumps” on a component’s bottom side with the corresponding PCB solder
termination pads, a prismatic viewing system, with an integral illumination capability, is used. This
creates two separate images in the field of view (figure 4) allowing the operator to accurately align
components with PCB footprints. SRT’s advanced vision system allows the operator to generate
“on screen” fiducial marks making alignment very easy.

1 2

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3 4

2.1 MACHINE AND CAPABILITIES DESCRIPTION


SRT assembles a finely painted 14 gauge steel cabinet between two precision crafted T-weldment
frames to provide a rigid construction. The cabinet divides into the pneumatic compartment (left)
and power/electronics compartment (right). AC power feeds into the right end of the cabinet below
the main power switch. Compressed air or gas feeds into the cabinet’s left side. The system, when
placed on its work stand, is 74.5” high. Its estimated shipping weight is 550 lbs. It shall be noted
the system requires a minimum of three feet of workspace on its right side and behind the
machine. Also required is a minimum of six inches on the left side for servicing. The machine is
shown in figure 5.

An easily accessible Emergency Stop (E-Stop) button is highly visible on the cabinet’s right cabinet
face (figure 6) above the reset button. The top heater flow meter, primary bottom heater flow meter,
and secondary heater flow meter air controls are above the air supply regulator and pressure
gauge on the panel facing the operator’s left side (figure 7). A high resolution, 17” monitor (also in
figure 5) sits above the cabinet and provides the operator with Windows based program selections
on a conveniently positioned trackball (figure 8). A computer shelf houses the personal computer
below on the work stand.

The linear bearing X-Y table tracks on two paired Thomson bars providing X movement (left/right)
and Y (front/back) movement (figure 9) to accommodate a standard board size up to 18” by 16”
and optional board size up to 22” by 18” (figure 10). Bottom heaters, air, and a thermocouple
provides controlled heat to the board’s underside. Figure 9 also shows the thermocouple as the
yellow wire on the right.

5 6 7

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8 9 10

A component carrier positions the component for pickup (figure 2 on page 6). The pickup Z-motor
drives a lead screw positioner (figure 11) that moves along a vertical grooved slide track (figure 12)
for an approximate 8” run or travel. During operation, the motor drives the pickup down (figure 13).
The pickup has a breakaway feature when a component is sensed. Vacuum lifts a component with
a pickup tube and after alignment the pickup tube places the component on the board (figure 14).
The top heater includes an air feed and a thermocouple to provide controlled heat through the
array nozzle (also figure 14). This heater assembly also moves up and down, but movement is
provided by a pneumatic cylinder. A ventilation manifold draws of the hot air, fumes, and vapors.

11 12

13 14

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A video camera and microscope assembly is mounted on an arm/elbow arrangement calibrated to


pre-set alignment positions (figures 15 and 16). The low lux camera peers through a Leica optics
equipped microscope with magnification ranges. The microscope optics has a reticle network for
alignment and registration. A prism shuttle provides precise placement by viewing through at both
the component bottom and the board top as a visual overlay (figure 17).

The computer program displays calibrated gram force selections for placement and removal (figure
18). It regulates the top and bottom heater temperature selections, and provides full control of all
processes. This sophisticated program provides simplicity of operation for this semi-automatic
system that performs rework, repair, or prototyping of SMT assemblies using BGA or very fine pitch
device types.

15 16

17 18

2.2 GENERAL MACHINE CHARACTERISTICS


The SRT 1000 offers the following outstanding characteristics:

2.2.1 MS Windows based software

2.2.2 Superior video incorporating Leica optics and SRT’s patented split imaging
capability

2.2.3 Shuttled prism viewing with integral illumination

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2.2.4 Advanced vision system (AVS) using a single monitor of highest available
resolution for computer and vision

2.2.5 Programmable removal and placement force

2.2.6 High resolution linear bearing S-Y table

2.2.7 Independent X (left/right) and Y (forward/back) axis movement and theta controls

2.2.8 Full computer control of all process parameters

2.2.9 On screen profiling for thermal studies

2.3 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS


As indicated in the foregoing with the following additions:

2.3.1 Component Sizes


The system is capable of handling bare die and packaged components ranging in size from .25”
square to 1.9” square and up to .6” thick.

2.3.2 Board Clamping And Sizes


The board is held in an industrial grade adjustable holder that supports it on 3 sides as it is
clamped on 2 sides. The holder includes a series of horizontal stainless steel rods providing bottom
board support. The rods are easily removable in the event they interfere with components mounted
on the board’s bottom side. Optional board edge clamps are available that reduce the maximum
board size to 15 X 18”or 21 X 18” in the X direction plus an increment for leaded component
pickup. Fine adjust controls are provided for final alignment.

2.3.3 Component Pickup


The pickup handles component movement in the Z and Theta axes. The pickup has four positions
consisting of HOME, PICK, NEAR-PLACE, AND PLACE. The combination of moving the table in
the X, Y, and theta axes allows precise alignment of component to board. Components are
automatically presented to the pickup by the component shuttle. Centering the component to the
pickup is accomplished using a nest attached to the component shuttle. If leaded components are
used, a component tray (mounted to the board holder) is used. All forces applied during PLACE
and REMOVAL operations are programmable.

2.3.4 Topside Board And Component Heating


Board and component topside heating is achieved with a hot gas heater and array nozzle (optional
perimeter nozzles may be supplied to heat only the outside of a device’s perimeter) sized to suit
the component. These are available for components from .5” square to those 2” square. Minimum
array nozzle size is .6” X .9”. Maximum top heater temperature capacity is 450 degrees C.

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2.3.5 Bottom Side Heating


Bottom side heating is available in one of the following forms:

1) Upwardly directed 750 W hot gas heater providing localized heating to an area approximately
1.5” diameter. Maximum recommended heater temperature is 350 degrees C.

2) Large area radiant heater consisting of a temperature controlled hotplate beneath the board
holder. Maximum recommended heater temperature is 300 degrees C.

3) Large area plenum hot gas heater beneath the board holder consisting of a plenum furnished
with an array of orifices through which temperature controlled hot gas is blown. The heated area is
mechanically programmable by blocking off selected orifices. Maximum recommended heater
temperature is 200 degrees C.

NOTE: BOTTOM HEATING IS PROVIDED TO HELP MAINTAIN BOARD FLATNESS, TO


REDUCE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TOP AND BOTTOM SIDES, AND TO
MINIMIZE THERMAL SHOCK TO A BOARD OR ASSEMBLY DURING A SINGLE SITE
SOLDERING PROCESS. THE BOTTOM HEATER IS NOT INTENDED AS A REPLACEMENT
FOR TOP-SIDE HEATING AND THE EXTENT OF HEATING, OR THE TEMPERATURE
SETTING OF THE BOTTOM HEATER IS NOT INTENDED FOR THE PURPOSE OF
SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASING OR DECREASING THE TIME/TEMPERATURE CYCLE DURING
THE SOLDERING PROCESS.

2.3.6 Component To Board Alignment


Component to board alignment is achieved by means of a multi-element optics system. This
includes a 50 mm prism providing concurrent “look up/down” viewing of the component
bumps/balls/leads and corresponding mounting pads on the PCB.

2.3.7 Component and Board Views


Component (up) and board (down) views are illuminated separately in a way that lighting intensity
can be adjusted independently to suit different reflectivity levels and prevent image washout.

2.3.8 Optics
The system uses Leica MC3 optics with a 5 step magnification changer (6.4X, 10X, 25X, and 40X),
a 63X video coupler, and a low lux CCD video camera with approximately a 768 by 494 line
resolution.

2.3.9 Field Of View


The field of view represents the entire angular expanse as displayed on the monitor for that
particular magnification range at that time. Table 1-1 lists the ball grid array field of view as seen
with the standard .63 video couplers for the five magnification steps. The field units are expressed
in inches.

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Table 1-1) BGA FIELD OF VIEW (1 of 2)


STANDARD VIDEO COUPLER (UNITS = INCHES)

MAGNIFICATION STEP FIELD OF VIEW - X FIELD OF VIEW - Y


6.4 1.58 1.17
10 1.01 .76
16 .61 .46
25 .37 .28
40 .24 .18

Table 1-2) BGA FIELD OF VIEW (2 of 2)


.63 VIDEO COUPLER (UNITS = INCHES)

MAGNIFICATION STEP FIELD OF VIEW – X FIELD OF VIEW – Y


6.4 2.15 1.90
10 1.62 1.22
16 .98 .74
25 .60 .45
40 .38 .28

2.3.10 Video Output


The system uses “S” video and provides digitized imaging of video signals permitting storage of
these images in files for future use. A single high resolution monitor is used for simultaneous video
and SierraMate software viewing.

2.3.11 Diagnostics
For diagnostic purposes, windows screens are provided to allow verification and correct functioning
of all system inputs, outputs, and sensors. Figures 19 shows on screen while figure 20 focuses
more clearly on thermocouple readings in ambient.

19 20

2.4 SOFTWARE
Software for the SRT is provided to ensure effective, efficient process management. The following
descriptions are offered to indicate software capabilities and use requirements:

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2.4.1 General
The system is controlled with SierraMate for Windows software that includes the Advanced Vision
System.

Different access levels are available. The first is for easy operator use. Second and third levels
provide the ability to create and modify programs, sequences and configurations, perform
diagnostics, etc.

At the first level (operator), the operating procedure only requires BOARD, COMPONENT, and
SEQUENCE selections (figure 21). The available choices shall have been previously programmed
at the second level thus limiting the operator choices to those relevant to the procedure being
performed. Prompts are provided for the operator to verify correct system setup and processing
parameters (figure 22).

21 22

All processing parameters are fully programmable by the responsible engineer or technician.
Access to these parameters, and other data at the second and third levels, are password
protectable.

2.4.2 Thermal Cycles


Thermal cycles consist of PREHEAT followed by REFLOW. The times and temperatures of these
portions of a cycle are independently adjustable using slide bars on the process screen. Ramp
rates, up to specified preheat and reflow temperatures, are adjustable to suit the product being
processed.

All thermal cycle parameters selected for a particular product are saved for that specific board and
site. Operator selection of a specific board and site automatically selects the already stored thermal
cycle.

2.4.3 Forces
PLACE and REMOVAL forces are programmable to suit a particular product by using slide bars on
the process screen. Once chosen, these parameters are saved for that specific board and site.
Operator product selection (substrate/component combination) automatically selects the
appropriate forces to be applied, depending on the sequence selected.

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2.4.4 Temperature Control


Temperatures are sensed at the heaters by k-type thermocouples to effect specified control. Three
mode controls (PID-Proportional, Integral, and Derivative) maintain heater temperatures to within +
or – 5 degrees C. of set-point.

2.4.5 Advanced Vision System (AVS)


AVS provides electronically generated fiducial marks as cross hairs, boxes, or other shapes to
assist component alignment with the substrate on which they are to be mounted. It also permits
using fiducials to aid component to substrate alignment.

2.4.6 Data Logging


Six thermocouple inputs are provided to allow thermal profiles to be logged. Inputs 1 and 2 are
reserved for top and bottom heaters. Inputs 3,4,5, and 6 are available for external thermocouples
that can be attached to the site/assembly to show real time temperatures, thermal separation, etc.

During data logging, a choice is provided to either observe the profiles on the video screen or to
hide them from view. Each thermocouple is represented on the screen by a different color. Thermal
profile data are stored in ASCII format with the ability to be viewed graphically, numerically, or print.

2.4.7 Event Logging


All events occurring on the system are logged and retained in an ASCII file. Logged information
includes date and time, board designation, component designation, sequence, site location, cycle
duration, and data log file (if applicable).

2.5 OPERATIONAL SEQUENCE


The system provides integrated component centering for area array components by means of the
component nest. Leaded components are centered using a separate rotatable component tray that
is attached to the X-Y table.

2.5.1 Removal Sequence


The following outlines the removal Sequence:

1) CHOOSE BOARD, SITE, AND SEQUENCE


2) CLICK GO TO START CYCLE. - PRISM SHUTTLE TRANSPORTS PRISM ABOVE
COMPONENT.
3) ILLUMINATION ON. COMPONENT IS CENTERED IN NOZZLE BY ADJUSTING BOARD IN
X AND Y AXIS
4) PRISM SHUTTLE RETRACTS. - ILLUMINATION OFF.
5) HEATER IS LOWERED TO BOARD - REFLOW CYCLE IS STARTED
6) AS REFLOW CYCLE ENDS, PICKUP TUBE DESCENDS, TOUCHES COMPONENT,
VACUUM IS ACTIVATED, AND PICKUP IS RASED TO NEAR PLACE POSITION – REMOVING
COMPONENT FROM BOARD.
7) HEATER IS RAISED. - PICKUP ASCENDS TO HOME POSITION.
8) COMPONENT SHUTTLE TRANSPORTS COMPONENT NEST UNDER COMPONENT.
9) PICKUP TUBE DESCENDS TO PICK POISITON - VACUUM IS DEACTIVATED.
COMPONENT IS RELEASED INTO NEST.
10) PICKUP TUBE ASCENDS TO HOME POSITION.

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2.5.2 Placement Sequence


The following outlines the placement Sequence:

1) CHOOSE BOARD, SITE, AND SEQUENCE


2) CLICK GO TO START CYCLE.- SHUTTLE TRANPORTS COMPONENT AND PRISM
UNDERNEATH VACUUM PICKUP TUBE.
3) PICKUP TUBE DESCENDS FROM HOME TO PICK POSITION, TOUCHES COMPONENT,
VACUUM ACTIVATES, AND COMPONENT IS PICKED AND RAISED TO HOME POSITION.
4) COMPONENT SHUTTLE RETRACTS. ILLUMINATION ON.
5) OPERATOR PROMPTED TO BRING SITE INTO VIEW UNDER PRISM AND TO CLICK GO.
6) PART LOWERED TO ALIGNMENT HEIGHT.
7) IMAGE ALIGNMENT PERFORMED BY ADJUSTING BOARD IN X AND Y AXES, AND
COMPONENT IN THETA.
8) PRISM SHUTTLE RETRACTS - ILLUMINATION OFF.
9) PICKUP TUBE DESCENDS TO NEAR PLACE - THEN PLACE POSITIONS.
10) VACUUM DEACTIVATED AND PUCKUP TUBE ASCENDS TO HOME POSITION.
11) IF APPROPRIATE, PLACEMENT IS FOLLOWED BY REFLOW CYCLE

2.5.3 Options
Besides alternative bottom side heaters, the following options are available:

1) Extended Y Rails - allows an 18” by 22” board to be handled by the substrate holder.
2) Split Mirror – providing an enhanced capability to handle large, fine pitch perimeter packages
or devices as fine pitch QFP’s. Also allows opposite component corner viewing with high
magnification. By reducing the field of view, large components can be magnified sufficiently for
easy and accurate alignment of fine pitch leaded components or peripherally bumped area array
components.
3) Tool Kit – providing a comprehensive collection of tools needed to align and maintain the
system.
4) Spare Parts Package – provides a part selection allowing repair of critical items and reduce
down time.
5) Workstand – provides replacement for a work bench that conveniently houses the computer
and to provide a free standing capability.
6) Monitor Arm Assembly – attached to the system right T – weldment frame providing
convenient monitor placement 47” above floor level.
7) Earthquake Protection Assembly – consisting of floor anchors and equipment restraints.

2.6 UTILITIES
See operations manual for power and gas requirements as well as physical dimensions (1-13)

2.7 SAFETY AND ESD


Consists primarily of issues concerning heat, burns, breathing heated vapors, etc. (1-13 and
throughout operations manual). All safety and ESD requirements are presented in Section 7.0.

2.8 WARRANTY
Standard information (1-13)

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2.9 SYSTEM INTEGRATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS


The system integrates electrical, pneumatic, optical/video, mechanical, and computer technologies
together under SierraMate for Windows software control in a menu driven format. Sierra Mate
controls all process parameters for components, board in process, and sequence being performed.
The system, under the computer’s direction, controls the I/O function that controls movement
positioning, heat application, and measured force. The menu selection allows software instruction
executing to make the computer control the intended function.

When the SRT is powered on and the START/RESET is pressed, the SierraMate for Windows
program automatically starts with the board, component, and sequence last processed. At this
point, the operator can simply click on the GO button to begin the operation, or click on the change
buttons to select a different board, part and/or sequence - then click GO.

NOTE: THE PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR ALL THE BOARDS AND COMPONENTS/SITES,
FROM WHICH THE OPERATOR CHOOSES, SHOULD HAVE BEEN PREVIOUSLY SETUP.

When the operator clicks on the GO button to begin the sequence, a video window appears with
prompting instructions. Operations are controlled by the operator using the mouse/trackball, or by
system sequence. The keyboard is needed only to setup the process parameters, or to do machine
setup/maintenance.

2.10 MENUS
The following menus are an integral part of the SierraMate, Windows software. They are used to
manage all machine processes.

2.10.1 Board Menu


The board menu is provided to create new boards. Click on Board, or New Board and a dialogue
box appears. The title bar indicates NEW BOARD, MODIFY BOARD, or DELETE BOARD -
depending on the required action. Enter board name to be created as any name up to 20
characters – including spaces.

Select the type board to be created by clicking on one of the board types shown in the list. When a
board type is selected, Board Weight Index and Board Thickness changes accordingly. SierraMate
uses the Board Weight Index to calculate the default times and temperatures used to process this
board. The Board Thickness, along with the component height, is used to calculate the default
Near Place Height and Alignment Height. If the board type required is not displayed in the list
shown, select one most closely matching the board to be created. Then, modify the Board Weight
Index and/or Board Thickness scroll bars accordingly.

When finished, click on the OK button. SierraMate automatically adds a default component for this
board. This may be changed later as explained in the Component Menu section.

2.10.2 Retrieve
Click on Board then Retrieve. This selection allows retrieval of a board that was previously created.
Type in the name of the board to be retrieved or double click on the name shown in the list. To
create a new board, in lieu of selecting an existing board, click on the Create New Board button.
This has the same effect as selecting the New Board menu selection.

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2.10.3 Modify
Click on Board then Modify. This is done to modify a board that was previously created. A dialogue
box appears displaying current board name and values. The board name, thickness, and/or weight
index may be modified.

NOTE: ANY CHANGES MADE TO BOARD THICKNESS CAUSES ALIGNMENT HEIGHT TO BE


UPDATED ACCORDINGLY. ALSO, ANY CHANGES TO BOARD WEIGHT INDEX CAUSES
TIMES AND TEMPERATURE SETTINGS TO CHANGE TO THE DEFAULTS FOR THE
SELECTED WEIGHT INDEX.

2.10.4 Copy
Click on Board then Copy. This menu choice allows copying the current board to another board
name.

2.10.5 Delete
Click on Board then Delete. Select this item to delete a board previously created. A window
appears allowing the user to type in the board name, or to double click on the board to delete it.

2.10.6 Edit List Of Board Types


Click on Board then Edit List of Board Types. This entry allows editing the list of standard board
types located in a file entitled BOARDS.INI. This file contains the list of standard board types,
associated weight indices, and thicknesses. Board types may be modified, added, or deleted as
required. Up to 100 board types may be defined. The windows NotePad program is used to edit
this file. The board type name is shown in square brackets. This is the name appearing in the list of
board types when creating a new board. The associated information should follow the format as
the other types shown. Any changes take effect upon exiting NotePad and returning to SierraMate.

2.10.7 Exit
This menu selection provides the means to quit SierraMate. If the current process settings are not
saved, a save or not message is displayed before exiting.

2.10.8 Component Menu


It shall be noted the terms component, part, or site all are identical references.

2.10.9 Add Component To Board


This menu selection allows the ability to add a component to a board. A dialogue box appears
allowing the selection from a list of Standard Part Types by clicking on the down arrow, or by
defining a part by clicking on the Custom Part button. Standard parts are defined in a file that may
be modified by using the Edit List of Part Type – from the Component Menu.

When clicking the Custom Part button, another dialogue box appears. Enter the name for the
custom part. This may be any name up to 20 characters long- including spaces, but cannot be the
same name as a Standard Part Type.

Use the scroll bars to input part dimensions. The height dimension is used by SierraMate to
calculate the Alignment Height for the chosen component. click on the OK button to save the
information.

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Modify the features by using the scroll bars. The Square Part check box allows specifying whether
X and Y dimensions are the same. When this box is checked, X and Y scroll bars always shall
have the same value. Moving the X or Y scroll bar makes the other move the same amount. When
done, click on OK to save the values.

2.10.10 Delete Component From Board


Select this menu item to delete a component from a board. This item is not available if only one
component exists on the current board (it is disabled in this event). A dialogue box appears. Select
from the component/sites list currently on the board by clicking on the down arrow. Then, click on
the OK button. SierraMate prompts to verify desired component deletion.

2.10.11 Modify Current Component


Use this menu selection to modify the current component dimensions. This menu selection only is
available if the current component is a custom part (not a part selected from the list of Standard
Part Types). Modify part features using the scroll bars. The Square Part check box provides the
ability to specify if the X and Y dimensions are to be the same. When this box is checked, the X
and Y scroll bars always have the same value. Moving the X or Y scroll bar makes the other move
the same amount. When done, click on OK to save the values.

NOTE: AFTER CHANGING A COMPONENT’S HEIGHT DIMENSION, THE SOFTWARE


UPDATES THE ALIGNMENT HEIGHT SETTING TO ITS NEW VALUE.

2.10.12 Fiducial Setup

NOTE: HEATER/PART BOX FIDUCIAL SETUP ONLY IS AVAILABLE IF CURRENTLY


SELECTED ACTION/SEQUENCE USES A HEATER/PART BOX FIDUCIAL.

Select this menu item to modify the size and location of the part box fiducial. This box may be used
by the operator to center the part in the video before picking it. Refer to Section 8 for more details
concerning using sequence commands. This fiducial may be implemented in sequences by using
the commands SHOW PART BOX and HIDE PART BOX.

When this menu item is selected, a screen appears. Use the scroll bars to change the box size.
The box position may be modified by grabbing the box with the trackball and dragging it to the
desired location. When satisfied with the box size and location, click on the Save button. This
saves the information to the board file for the currently selected component.

2.10.13 Edit List of Part Types


This entry allows editing the list of standard part types located in a file entitled PARTS.INI. This is
the file containing the list of part types and associated dimensions. Part types may be modified,
added, or deleted. Up to 100 part types may be defined. The NotePad program is used to edit this
file. The part type name is shown in square brackets. The associated information should follow the
same format as all other types shown. Any changes take effect when the file is saved and NotePad
is exited.

2.10.14 Process Menu

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All process settings discussed in this section are set by SierraMate software to default values
based on information entered by the user for the particular board and part that is currently selected.
Then, these can be modified if needed as described below.

When selecting any process menu item, the right side of the screen shown shall be similar in all
cases. The top right shows the current board, component, and sequence selected. To change any
of these, simply click on the item to be changed. To run the selection shown, click on the Run
button. This is the same as clicking on the GO button on the main screen. Use the save button to
save the current settings to disk. This saves all settings.

2.10.15 Times And Temperatures

NOTE: TIME AND TEMPERATURE SCREEN APPEARS ONLY IF CURRENT SEQUENCE


USES HEATING. CLICK ON A SEQUENCE ON RIGHT OF PROCESS TO PAUSE WHEN
NECESSARY.

Selecting this menu item displays a screen showing heater set-points and heating times. Default
values for these settings are based on the Board Weight Index specified when the board first was
created. These values then may be changed on this screen. For Preheat and Reflow settings, use
the scroll bars to change the values.

NOTE: IF THE HEATER RAMP OPTION IS ON (I.E. HEATER RAMP OPTION = 1 IN THE
CONFIGURATION FILE), RAMP PARAMETERS ALSO shall BE SHOWN. THIS ALLOWS THE
TOP HEATER TO BE RAMPED UP TO THE SPECIFIED PREHEAT OR REFLOW SET-POINT.
THIS RAMPING OCCURS BEFORE THE PREHEAT TIME FOR PREHEAT RAMP, AND
BEFORE REFLOW TIME FOR REFLOW.

2.10.16 Ramps
The Preheat Ramp starts at a 25 degree C. default setting and the set-point ramps at the rate
entered until the ramp set-point is equal to the Preheat Set-point at which time the Preheat time
starts. The Reflow ramp starts at the Preheat Set-point and ramps until the ramp set-point is equal
to the Reflow Set-point at which time the Reflow time starts.

Example:

Settings for Preheat


Ramp = 2 degrees C every second
Preheat top heater set-point = 175 degrees C.
Preheat dwell time = 30 seconds
Settings for Preheat
Ramp = 2 degrees C every second
Reflow top heater set-point = 270 degrees C.
Reflow dwell time = 30 seconds

When heating cycle starts, set-point for the top heater at time 0 shall be 25 degrees C. After one
second, the set-point shall be 27 degrees C., after two seconds it shall be 29 degrees C, etc., until

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the Preheat set-point is attained. The Preheat dwell begins and remains at the Preheat Set-point
for the entire dwell time (30 seconds).

When the Reflow part of the cycle begins (time 0 for reflow), the set-point is 175 degrees C., and
after one second it is 177 degrees C., etc. Once Reflow set-point is reached, the Reflow dwell
begins and remains at Reflow Set-point for the entire dwell time (30 seconds).

Total cycle time is the time required to ramp to Preheat Set-point (75 seconds), the Preheat dwell
(30 seconds), the time to ram to Reflow Set-point (48 seconds), and the Reflow dwell (30
seconds).

The values shown below the Reflow box also may be modified. These are time values for
additional heating and solidification occurring after the Reflow part of the sequence is completed.
To change these values, click on the up or down arrows next to the appropriate setting. Note that
not all settings are used in all sequences. The following is an explanation of these time settings:

Additional Reflow Time: Occurs in Place-Reflow, Reflow-Place, Reflow sequences to allow


proper solder to pad wetting . Also occurs in Remove Sequence to level the solder on the pads
after removing a part.

Post Placement Time: Occurs in Reflow-Place sequence to allow required solder wetting after
part placement.

Solidification Time: Occurs in Place-Reflow and Reflow-Place sequences allowing the solder to
solidify before releasing the part.

The following summarizes when they occur in each sequence:

Remove Sequence
.
.
Preheat
Reflow
(part lifted to Near Place height)
Additional Reflow Time
(heaters turned off; heaters and pickup raised)
.
.
Reflow Sequence
.
.
Preheat
Reflow
Additional Reflow Time
(heaters turned off and raised)
Solidification Time
(pickup raised)

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.
.
Place-Reflow Sequence
.
.
(part is placed)
Preheat
Reflow
Additional Reflow Time
(heaters turned off and raised)
Solidification Time
(vacuum turned off and pickup raised
.
.

Reflow-Place Sequence
.
.
(part is held at Near Place height)
Preheat
Reflow
Additional Reflow Time
(part is placed)
Post Placement Time
(heater turned off and raised)
Solidification Time
(vacuum turned off and pickup raised)
.
.

2.10.17 Alignment Height


This is the height at which the component is held during the part/site alignment part of a sequence.
When a component initially is added to a board, the software calculates the default Alignment
Height as a function of the component height and board thickness.

2.10.18 Force Settings


This screen indicates the amount of force to be used when placing or removing a component.
Current settings are default when adding a new part. To change these values, use the scroll bars
shown. The minimum and maximum forces are specified in the FORCE section of the SRTWIN.INI
configuration file.

2.10.19 Datalog Menu


The Datalog entering feature of SierraMate software allows up to 6 thermocouple inputs to be
logged at once. The data are stored in an ASCII file and may be viewed later using the SierraMate
Graph Utilities program (described later) or imported into a spreadsheet program. Use this menu to
setup datalog entry. A dialogue box appears.

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Datalog Type
Select one of the 3 choices shown for datalog type by clicking on it.

No Datalogging Turns off datalog entry

Datalogging in Background Causes the data to be stored to file but no graph


appears when running a sequence.

Datalogging with Live Viewing Stores data to file but allows data to be viewed as plotted on
a graph

2.10.20 Datalog Name


After electing to datalog (either in background or with live viewing), a file name shall be entered to
store the data. This name shall be a valid DOS name consisting of from one to eight characters.
SierraMate prompts to re-enter the name if not valid. The default extension is LOG.

A different datalog file may be created for each sequence run by entering digits for the last 1, 2, or
3 characters of the filename. This causes the file name to increment each time a sequence is run.
For example, entering a file name dlog00 causes up to 100 datalog files to be created (dlog00
through dlog99). If no digits are entered as described above, the datalog file shall be overwritten
each time a sequence is run.

2.10.21 Datalog Thermocouples


Select thermocouples to be logged by clicking on the appropriate check boxes in the TC’s To Be
Logged panel. Note that TC 1 and TC 2 are the Top and Bottom Heater thermocouples
respectively. Thermocouple jacks are provided for TC 3 through TC 6. Datalog entry of
thermocouples are supplied by the user. When satisfactory selections have been made, click on
the OK button.

If Datalogging with Live Viewing selected, a graph icon appears to the left of the video window
when a sequence is started. To view the graph, click on this icon.

The graph may be moved by dragging it with the trackball/mouse. Use any part of the graph border
to grab it with the trackball. The graph also may be reduced in size by clicking on the Size button.
This provides a less obstructed view of the video window when wishing to view the graph and
video simultaneously.

The data shall be shown on the graph as lines and as numbers in the upper left part of the graph.
The numbers appear in order of TC numbers so TC 1 data is the first number shown, TC 2 data
next, etc. These numbers appear in different colors and correspond to the color of the line being
plotted for that TC. If the TC was not selected to be graphed in the Datalog Setup, its
corresponding numerical value is shown as “---“.

The graph data are updated every second during the sequence. The graph automatically scrolls
when the plot reaches the right side of the graph (figure 27). Up to 10 minutes of data may be
collected.

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27

2.10.22 View Last Graph


When a sequence ends, the datalogging graph automatically is closed. To view it again, select
View Last Graph from the menu. The graph re-appears with data on it. If the amount of data has
exceeded the viewable length of the graph, a scroll bar is visible at the top of the graph. This may
be used to scroll the data on the graph forward or backward. The scroll bar appears only if the
amount of data has exceeded the viewable length of the graph. To view a numeric display of the
temperature at any point on the graph, point with the cursor to the place needed to see the display
and click on it. This moves the time line to that point on the graph. Both time and temperature is
displayed. The time line also may be dragged across the graph. Click on the Close button when
finished viewing the graph.

NOTE: THIS MENU SELECTION ONLY ALLOWS VIEWING DATA JUST ACQUIRED. TO VIEW
ANY DATA PREVIOUSLY COLLECTED, USE THE SIERRAMATE GRAPH UTILITIES
PROGRAM (DESCRIBED IN A LATER SECTION).

2.10.23 Learn Menu


Learn sequence allows the software to Learn the time needed for a board to reach reflow
temperature. This Reflow time then is displayed with option to save its value.

NOTE: LEARN MAY BE ACCOMPLISHED IN ONE OF THE TWO WAYS EXPLAINED BELOW

2.10.24 Use Vacuum Sensing Only


This method uses the Pickup Vacuum sensor to determine when a component has reached reflow
temperature. This is done by repeatedly trying to pick a soldered component from the board during
the Reflow portion of the Remove process and checking the Pickup Vacuum sensor to determine if
the part has been removed. When the software detects that the component has been removed, it
stores the reflow time that was required and updates the Reflow Settings accordingly.

To begin, select Use Vacuum Sensing Only. A dialogue box appears. Enter the maximum number
of pickup tries to be attempted by clicking on the up or down arrows. Click on the OK button to start
the learn sequence. The Remove sequence then shall be run.

The pickup starts trying to pick the component at 19 seconds before the end of the Reflow time
specified in the Reflow settings and then continues trying for the number of tries specified. The

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interval between tries is approximately 5 seconds. If the maximum number of attempts is reached
before the component is removed, the sequence aborts. To repeat the learn mode, a change in
process temperature or increase in the number of tries shall be considered.

2.10.25 Use Temperature And Vacuum Sensing


This type Learn requires that a thermocouple probe, or board instrumented with a thermocouple,
be used. It shall be plugged into TC jack 3 of the machine. This TC shall be located at the pad/lead
solder joint to measure the temperature at this location. To begin this type Learn sequence, select
Use Temperature and Vacuum Sensing from the Learn menu. A dialogue box appears.

Use the scroll bar to enter the required temperature for the Learn TC to reach before the Pickup
attempts to remove the component. Next, enter the maximum number of tries the Pickup shall
make to remove the part. If the component is not to be removed, specify 0 for the number of tries
(Selecting 0 for the number of tries shall learn the time to selected temperature). Click on the OK
button to begin the Learn sequence. If 0 Pickup tries selected, the Reflow sequence is run.
Otherwise, the Remove sequence is run.

2.10.26 View Event Log


This menu item brings up a dialog box representing the system Event Log containing a sequential
record of all operations performed on the system (figure 28). It is an ASCII file that may be
imported into other applications as spreadsheet programs, etc. The maximum Event Log size is
approximately 3,000 events. The system prompts to save (copy to a different file name), then
delete the Event Log when required. The Event Log’s file name is EVENTLOG.TXT.

28

1) Copying Text
To copy portions of the Event Log to the Windows Clipboard, select Copy Selected Text to
Clipboard from the File menu. Once copied, the text can be pasted into other applications using the
paste feature.

2) Searching For Text


To search for particular Event Log text, select Find from the Search menu. Enter the required text
and click on the Find Next button. It is possible to specify the starting point’s search by clicking on
any line in the Event Log.

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2.10.27 Delete Event Log


Select this menu item to delete the Event Log. This is necessary when the Event Log reaches its
maximum size. Password protection is in place.

2.10.28 Setup Menu


The following procedures are required to use the Setup Menu:

1) I/O Diagnostics
This menu item brings up a dialog box. From this window, it is possible to actuate all SRT 1000
outputs and to read all inputs. This is useful for checking machine functionality and to perform
trouble-shooting.

2) Sequences
SierraMate software is installed on the SRT 1000 with standard sequences to attach and remove
components. These sequences do not normally need to be modified. However, there may be
instances when this needs to be done.
3) Configuration
This menu allows changing various system parameters as passwords, delays, etc. that are stored
in the configuration file SRTWIN.INI. Use the Windows NotePad program to edit this file even
though parameters rarely need changing.

4) Force
The SRT 1000 is capable of applying pre-programmed forces on components during placement
and/or removal. Se Force Settings in the Settings menu section for more information about how to
specify required forces for specific components.

2.10.29 Video Menu


Use the following procedures for the Video Menu:

1) Color
This menu item allows switching the video from color to black and white, or the reverse. When
color is selected, a check mark appears next to this menu item. This is the default setting when
Sierra Mate boots up. To change to black and white, select this menu item. The check mark
disappears and the video is in black and white. Select this menu item again to change back to
color.

2) Open/Close Video
This menu item allows opening or closing the video window. If the video window is open (visible),
selecting this menu item closes it. If the video window is closed (not visible), selecting this menu
item opens it to maximum size.

Located to the right of the video window is a Control Box window. This box does not appear when
running a sequence, but it can be accessed if needed by double clicking on the Video Window drag
bar (video area above black horizontal line). The Control Box contains groups of buttons controlling
commonly used functions:

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3) Video
Take SnapShot – Click on this button item to capture the image in the video window to a file. The
image is saved to a file named SNAP.BMP. This is a bitmap file (.BMP extension) that can be
edited using various paint programs and/or imported into word processing or other documents. To
view the SnapShot, use the View ShapShot menu selection described below. It shall be noted that
each time a SnapShot is taken, the previous file is overwritten unless the file is saved as a different
name. When renaming a file, a .BMP extension shall be provided.

4) View ShapShot
Use this menu item to view a bitmap file previously captured using the Take SnapShot button.
When this menu item is selected, a window containing the SnapShot appears.

From this window, other .BMP files may be viewed or saved using new file names. To view a
different bitmap file, select Open from the file menu of the View SnapShot window and an Open file
dialog box appears.

Select the file to be viewed and click OK. The file then appears in the View SnapShot window.

At this point, save the file to a different name by selecting Save from the file menu. Again, the file
shall have a .BMP extension. View a different file by selecting Load from the File menu. It is not
possible to access another software feature while in this window. The menu shall be closed to
continue.

5) Heater
Up-Down – Use this button to raise and lower the top heater. Clicking on the Heater Down button
lowers the heater while the button reads Heater Up. Clicking again raises the heater with the button
reading Heater Down.

6) Pick-Up

NOTE: DO NOT LOWER BOARD UNLESS A BOARD IS IN THE BOARD HOLDER.

7) Vacuum
Clicking on the Vacuum On causes the PickUp vacuum to turn on or off depending on current
state.

8) Home
Click on this button to send the PickUp to its home (fully raised) position.

9) Near – Place
Click on this button to send the Pickup from Home to Near Place and to toggle the position of the
Pickup between Near Place and Place.

10) Force
Amount of force applied by pickup in place position. Change as required using scroll bar. If pickup
is in place position, it shall be brought to near place, then place again for a new force value to be
effected.

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NOTE: DOUBLE CLICKING IN THE PICKUP BOX BRINGS UP JOG BUTTONS FOR PICKUP.

11) Prism
In-Out – Clicking on this button makes the Prism to move to View or Home position. The Pickup
always is homed before the Prism is moved in. If the Heater is down, this button is disabled.

Part Lighting – Click on this button to toggle the lamps that illuminate the component - on/off.

Board Lighting – Click on this button to toggle the lamps that illuminate the board – on/off.

12) Resizing Video Window


To resize the video window, use the plus and minus buttons located at the video window’s top right
side. Clicking on the minus button decreases window’s size by a factor of two each time it is
clicked. Clicking on the plus button increases it by a factor of two each time it is clicked. Four sizes
are available as full, one half, one quarter, and one eighth size.

13) Moving The Video Window


To move the video window, use the mouse/trackball to grab the bar at the window’s top. Move the
window by moving the mouse/trackball. This is similar to moving any window in Microsoft Windows
except for concerning where it may be moved (function of the frame grabber card).

2.10.30 Help Menu


Use this menu to obtain help.

1) Help
Use this menu selection to receive complete on-line SRT 1000 help from SierraMate software.

2) About
Use this menu item to obtain information concerning the currently installed software’s revision
level.

3) System Information
Use this menu selection to obtain information regarding current computer configuration.

2.11 RUNNING SEQUENCES


A sequence may be run from either the Main window by clicking on the GO button, or from the
Process windows by clicking on the Run button. The Run button typically is used when setting up a
process for a particular board/component.

This allows running a sequence without having to close the Process window to access the GO
button. Different boards, components, or sequences may be selected while in the Process window
by clicking on the board, component, and/or sequence name shown on the process window’s
upper right position.

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2.12.1 Verifying Machine Settings


After initiating a sequence, the video window appears with a message display window below it. A
prompt appears to perform some task. Once this is done, click on the GO button to continue.
Additional instructions now are provided on the message display window.

2.12.2 Mouse/Trackball Arrow Location


Note that during the sequence, the mouse/trackball arrow automatically is moved to the next most
logical location on the screen. This allows the ability to click on the mouse/trackball button without
having to move the arrow manually.

2.12.3 Accessing Control Box Window


During a sequence, it is possible to access the Control Box window by double clicking on the Video
Window drag bar. The controls in this box allow controlling the Pickup, Prism, and Heater position.
It also allows taking Snapshots of the Video window. To make this box appear, double click on the
Drag Bar at the Video window’s top position. Double clicking again causes the Control Box to
disappear.

NOTE: DURING A SEQUENCE, IT IS POSSIBLE TO TAKE SNAPSHOTS BUT NOT TO VIEW


THEM AS THE VIEW SHAPSHOT BUTTON IS NOT ACCESSIBLE.
2.12.4 Aborting a Sequence
A sequence may be aborted at any time by clicking on the Stop button. If a component is being
held on the Pickup, a prompt is provided to move the table to a discard location to deposit the
component. A sequence also automatically aborts for the following reasons:

1) Low air flow to the Top and/or Bottom heater

2) Top or Bottom heater thermocouples are over maximum temperature or open (450
degrees C. is the default maximum temperature)

3) E-Stop button depressed

NOTE: WHEN ABORTING FOR ANY OF THE ABOVE REASONS, A MESSAGE APPEARS IN
THE MESSAGE DISPLAY WINDOW INDICATING WHY THE SEQUENCE WAS ABORTED.

2.12 GRAPH UTILITIES PROGRAM


The Graph Utilities program is a separate program from SierraMate. It allows viewing, printing, and
creating image files of datalog files created using SierraMate datalogging.
2.12.1 Running Program
To run this program, access the Program Manager screen and double click on the Graph Utilities
icon in the SierraMate group.

2.12.2 Viewing A Graph


To view a file, select Open from the File menu. This brings up a file dialog box. All SierraMate
datalog files are saved s the name entered in the Datalog Setup plus the extension .LOG. the files
are located in the same directory as SierraMate (C:\SRTWIN).

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Click on the file to be viewed and click on the OK button. A graph of the file appears. The graph
displays the data for each thermocouple selected for logging when the graph was created.

Open additional graphs as needed by using the Open menu. If more than one graph is being
viewed, use the Windows menu (tile, etc.) to arrange the graph windows.

2.12.3 Changing The Graph Title


The default graph title displayed is the DOS file name. The graph’s title may be changed before
printing or creating a picture file. This may be done by selecting Graph Title from the Edit menu.
Enter the new title and click on the OK button. The new graph title appears. Note that this new title
applies only to the graph and does not change the datalog file name.

2.12.4 Printing A Graph


To print a graph, select Print from the File menu. It shall be noted that a user printer must properly
be setup before it is possible to use the printing process.

1) Graph Color
A prompt is provided to select whether a graph shall be printed in color or black and white. When
printed in black and white, symbols shall be printed in lieu of colors indicating each of the graph’s
data sets. Printing in color on a black and white printer yields gray scale images. This makes it
difficult to distinguish data and information.

2) Graph Size
The printed graph’s size is dependent on the size of the graph’s appearance on screen. The obtain
the largest size graph, do the following:

From Windows Print Manager, select Landscape as the Orientation and exit Print Manager. Return
to the graph to be printed, click on the Maximize button, and select FILE/PRINT to begin the
printing process.

2.12.5 Image Files


To aid incorporation of displayed graphs into other documents, use the Graph Utilities program to
create an image file of the graph. From the required program, retrieve the image file as needed.

To create an image file, select Create Image File from the File menu and select either Bitmap or
Metafile. Bitmap files may not be scalable in a particular program but may be edited/re-sized in
paint programs to fit as required. Metafiles may be scaled but cannot be modified by some paint
programs. The files created shall have the same name as the datalog files except for their DOS
extensions as .BMP or .WMF. Other programs are available and capable of reading ASCII data al
.LOG files. It is then possible to create graphs from them.

2.12.6 Video Board Demo Program


The Video Board Demo Program is provided by the manufacturer of the frame grabber video
board. Its icon is located in the SierraMate for Windows group of the Program Manager. This
program allows capturing of color images as well as some image processing features as zooming,
sharpening, and blurring. See the file README.WIN in the directory C:\ivc\win for more
information.

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NOTE: THIS PROGRAM AND THE SIERRAMATE PROGRAM SHOULD NOT BE RUN AT THE
SAME TIME SINCE THEY BOTH ACCESS THE FRAME GRABBER VIDEO BOARD. ONLY
ONE PROGRAM IS ALLOWED ACCESS TO THE BOARD AT A TIME. EXIT SIERRAMATE
BEFORE RUNNING THE PROGRAM AND VICE-VERSA.

2.13 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS


The following definitions are provided for all process managers to better visualize each process for
which they are responsible:

2.13.1 Operations
Operations are defined as a series of processes required to provide products or services meeting
certain requirements. Usually these requirements are based on customer needs, desires, or
demands. POD employs many operations as management, engineering, marketing, sales,
manufacturing, accounting, quality assurance, and others to ensure all its customers receive
product meeting their requirements.

2.13.2 Process
A process is defined as a method or procedure. A process may be a single method or procedure,
or may be made up of sub processes and activities. In a manufacturing operation, a process is
employed to turn acceptable raw materials, components, and designs into acceptable product
using various tool and equipment types.

2.13.3 Sub Process


A sub process may be part of a process. In the stencil printing process, several sub processes are
involved to effect acceptable solder paste application. They are discussed in the foregoing section.

2.13.4 Activity
Processes and sub processes most often rely on individuals or teams performing activities to make
product. In manufacturing, such activities may consist of moving or handling materials and
components, changing machine or tool settings, turning equipment on or off, etc.. It is at the activity
level most variability is introduced to manufacturing operations effecting varying degrees of quality.
For this reason, it is vital process managers be well trained to fulfill their responsibilities by
following procedures concerning specific operational and process management requirements.

2.13.5 Process Management


Process management is the act of preventing defect by fulfilling individual responsibilities instead
of reacting to it as the result of not fulfilling them. When process instead of results management is
practiced, product quality is consistently acceptable. Process management differs from process
control in that control means only consistent quality is produced. In a controlled instead of
managed environment, that quality may be consistently good or bad.

2.13.6 Process Capability


Process capability is the measure of how well a process is being managed. Usually, a process’s
capability is expressed in statistical terms as a capability profile or Cpk. When a process is
managed effectively, its Cpk shows how well while often providing an indication of what is needed
to continuously improve. Continuous process improvement assures continuous quality
improvement and that is what process managers always focus on most.

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2.13.7 Solder
Solder is defined as a metallic medium (as an alloy) that melts at temperatures below 800 degrees
Fahrenheit to join metal surfaces having much higher melting points. Solder may be in different
forms. It may be bar solder as used in wave solder machines, or it may be wire with a flux core
used to perform hand soldering. It may also be in the form of a paste composed of solder balls
suspended in a binder with a flux component. None of these forms changes its definition.

2.13.8 Solder Paste


Solder paste is a metallic medium (as an alloy) formed into solder balls (ranging in diameter from
about 4 to 40 microns). The balls are suspended in a binder (composed of flux and other
chemicals). Solder paste, as all solder media, melts at temperatures below 800 degrees Fahrenheit
to join metal surfaces having much higher melting points.

The more spherical are the solder balls, the less surface area they have. This reduces their
oxidation amount and rate at which they oxidize. This is important because more oxidation means
less solderability. Figure 29 shows solder balls removed from their binder. Figure 30 shows solder
balls that have “settled out” in an alcohol solution. The larger balls have moved to the bottom of the
jars.

29 30

The solder paste composition has a high viscosity of approximately 900,000 centipoise. Higher
viscosity aids in preventing solder paste spread on SMT pads. When too high, printing problems
may occur relative to dispensing paste through stencil openings.

Solder paste is applied to solder termination areas using a printing machine, squeegees, and
stencils with openings of specified sizes, shapes, and aspect ratios. All this is done to assure a
precise amount is printed where and in the condition required to effect acceptable solder joints.

2.13.9 Wire/Core Solder


Wire/Core solder is a solder medium composed of a eutectic alloy. Usually it is 60/40 tin-lead
formed into a wire with a hollow flux filled core. Wire/Core solder is specified in varying diameters
(typically from about .012” to .060”) for specific hand soldering activities. It provides a mechanism

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to apply flux from its core to the solder termination areas before solder melts, flows, and wets them
to effect an acceptable solder joint.

2.13.10 Flux
Flux is defined as a chemically and physically active compound that when heated to specified
temperatures it promotes base metal surface wetting by molten solder. It does this by removing
minor surface oxidation, surface films, or other contamination. It then protects the surfaces from re-
oxidation during the soldering process. Various flux types (see POD Hand Soldering and Final
Assembly Course) include:

2.13.11 Rosin
Rosin flux primarily is composed of natural resin extracted from oleoresin of pine trees and refined.
Typically, these fluxes are made up of 60% solvent and 40% solids.

Rosin flux (Type R) is an organic material distilled from pine tree sap. The active ingredients in this
flux type primarily consist of abietic and pimaric acids. After rosin is extracted from pine trees, it is
superficially processed to remove undesirable impurities while neutralizing the acid residues
remaining from the extraction process. The purified material is called water-white rosin. It is used to
manufacture rosin based flux.

Some manufacturers hoping to overcome difficulties associated with obtaining and processing
natural rosin, chemically synthesize substitute materials. These materials are called “resins.”

Pure rosin is a solid at room temperature and is chemically inactive while being insulative. Rosin
melts at about 72 degrees C. (160 degrees F.) and the organic acids become active at around 108
degrees C. (225 degrees F.). This flux type’s peak capability is effected around 262 degrees C.
(500 degrees F.). This is the temperature rosin begins decomposing into reducing gases. At
temperatures above 346 degrees C. (650 degrees F.), the flux becomes inactive and polymerizes.
This causes residue removal difficulties from board and solder joint surfaces.

When solder surfaces require a more active flux, chemical compounds called activators are added
to the rosin. The most commonly known rosin flux containing activators is called rosin, mildly
activated or RMA.

Activators are thermally reactive compounds (such as amine hydrochlorides) that break down at
elevated temperatures. At these temperatures, hydrochloric acid is released to dissolve the surface
oxides, tarnishes, and other contaminates. Mildly activated rosin flux (RMA) may contain a variety
of activators in amounts less than 1%. Limits are placed on their electrical and chemical properties
before and after soldering

Rosin activated flux (RA) typically contains 1% - 5% activators. RA flux is used in applications
when RMA is not strong enough. For military purposes, their use usually is limited to component
tinning of sealed devices and solid wire. When warm, these fluxes can conduct electricity and can
leave residues that can cause corrosion or shorting path formation between conductors.

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2.13.12 Organic Acid Flux


Organic acid (OA) fluxes are types having active ingredients such as organic acids, organic
hydrohalides, amines, and amides. These fluxes are water soluble since they contain no rosin.
Good cleaning is critical with these flux types since the salt residues left by them are corrosive and
conductive.

OA fluxes also are referred to as water soluble fluxes (WSF’s). These fluxes are more aggressive.
They generally are classified in J-STD-004 as types M or H. OA fluxes have active ingredients
such as organic acids, organic hydrohalides, amines, and amides. All are corrosive activator
materials. These fluxes are water soluble or water washable since they contain no rosin, or any low
rosin or resin levels. Good cleaning is critical with these flux types as their residues are corrosive
and electrically conductive.

2.13.13 Resin
Resin flux primarily is composed of natural resins other than rosin types and/or synthetic resins.

2.13.14 Organic
Organic elements are based on carbon atom structures. All life forms are organic. Organic fluxes
are primarily composed of organic materials other than rosin or resin.

2.13.15 Inorganic
Inorganic elements are based on other than carbon atom structures. Inorganic fluxes are solutions
composed of inorganic acids and/or salts.

2.13.16 LR, or No-Clean Fluxes


Low residue (LR) fluxes usually have lower solids content (less than 5%) than traditional high-
solids rosin fluxes. LR fluxes also are referred to as no-clean or “leave on” fluxes. Their residues
are not intended for removal from assemblies so cleaning is not required. Their primary activator
materials are weak organic acids (adipic or succinic acid). These materials are benign on a board
surface and act as electrical insulators. LR fluxes may be higher solvent borne (isopropanol) or
water borne in the case of volatile organic compound (VOC) free no clean fluxes.

Low residue fluxes are not no-residue fluxes. Although benign, visible residues do remain on the
assembly. For this reason, customers may require them to be cleaned. This often is requested for
cosmetic rather than functionality reasons. If the flux residues have a significant thickness, they
could interfere with electrical testing as “bed of nails” types. However, a different probe point,
greater spring strength, or rotating probes often solve this problem. Low residue fluxes also might
build up on test pins over time. This requires preventive maintenance as regular cleaning.

2.13.17 Halides
Halides are organic salts added to flux as activators. Halides are corrosive.

2.13.18 Fluxing Activities And Classes


A liquid flows freely over a surface only if in doing so the total free energy of the system is reduced.
In soldering, the free energy of a clean surface is higher than a dirty one. Therefore, it is more likely
to promote solder flow. With respect to this, fluxing activities are:

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1) Chemical
Chemical fluxing activity reduces the oxides from the surface to be soldered and protects this
surface from oxidation by covering it.

2) Thermal
Thermal fluxing activity assists transferring heat from the heat source to the material being
soldered.

3) Physical
Physical activities allow the transportation of oxides and other reaction products away from the
material surfaces being soldered. In consideration of these three fluxing activities, the following
shall be noted:

There are two basic ways fluxes eliminate oxidation. They dissolve it into “solution” or they reduce
it back to metal. If reduced, it clearly “disappears” and should not be re-deposited as an oxide (to
be determined through supplier qualification). Some old flux types “dissolved” oxides by reacting as
a fatty acid (rosin) with the metal in the oxide. Then, it was “pushed aside” by solder flow and
wetting action. In which mode a flux works, clearly depends on which flux is used. Some fluxes use
both modes.

ANSI/J-STD-004 differentiates flux activities into three classes. They are Low (type L), Medium
(type M), and High (type H). ANSI/J-STD-004 further classifies fluxes as to whether or not they
contain halides. For example, a type L0 flux is a low activity, halide free flux. An L1 flux is a low
activity flux containing some halide amount.

Numbers of industry and consortia studies have been conducted concerning low residue flux
reliability. Type L fluxes have been shown relatively benign concerning corrosion and electrolytic
failure mechanisms. For this reason, Section 4.2 allows the manufacturer to use a type L flux (L0 or
L1) without going through the testing outlined in Appendix D. If the manufacturer chooses to use a
more aggressive flux (types M and/or H), the potential exists for corrosive flux residues. If so, the
manufacturer must go through the Appendix D testing to demonstrate adequate removal of
potentially harmful flux residues.

It is highly recommended that the manufacturer not use a type H flux on printed wiring assemblies
in any way at any time. It is recommended that, if used at all, a type H flux be limited to component
lead tinning. Even then, this may be done only when it can be demonstrated that the highly
aggressive flux residues may be thoroughly removed.

2.13.19 Electrochemical Migration


Electrochemical migration is defined as the movement of metals across an intervening space
between a cathode and anode. This movement is induced by the difference in electrical potential in
the presence of fluid producing a micro-film of water on a substrate’s surface.

2.13.20 Soldering
Soldering is a process in which two metal surfaces are metallurgically joined, using a specified
solder medium (metal filler with a melting point below 800 degrees F.). The process is effected by

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“wetting” the surfaces to be joined requiring diffusion and intermetallic growth. The effect of this
process is called a solder joint.

2.13.21 Intermetallics
In light of the previous definition (soldering), intermetallics always are formed when heated solder
surfaces are brought into contact with solder melted upon them. As soldering requires diffusion and
internetallic growth, each occurs as part of the soldering process. This is immediately so and time
effects intermetallic growth as a continuous process.

Intermetallic compounds (IMC's) have much different physical and mechanical properties than the
metals comprising them. Typically, intermetallics are very brittle and have poor electrical
conductivity. Also, when exposed to air, they oxidize very rapidly. Therefore, excessive
intermetallics, formed either during the soldering process or over time, cause unreliable solder
joints capable of failing under stressful conditions as thermal, or mechanical shock and/or vibration.

2.13.22 Oxidation (oxide, oxidize)


Oxidation is the act of burning. When oxygen is present in an atmosphere, it “burns” or oxidizes all
material with which it comes in contact. When this happens, oxides are formed that resist thermal
input as well as solder wetting. Some materials resist oxidation better than others.

Solder termination areas are copper (oxidizes very rapidly) covered with some protective coating to
prevent further oxidation than that which was present before the coating’s application. In an inert
atmosphere, oxidation is prevented (there is no oxygen or oxidizing agent). This means that if all
processes relating to the use of materials capable of rapid oxidation were performed in an inert
atmosphere, they would be more capable of solder wetting.

2.13.23 Inert Atmosphere


Inert means inactive or static. An inert atmosphere is one without activity such as that containing
no oxygen - one component in our life sustaining atmosphere surrounding earth. Nitrogen is an
inert gas. When totally comprising an atmosphere (as inside a soldering machine), activity is
eliminated concerning oxidation thereby providing protection to solder termination areas. This
promotes or improves thermal input and solder wetting (solderability). This assures a higher rate of
higher quality solder joints.

2.13.24 Surface
Surface is defined as an object’s area having no depth.

2.13.25 Welding
It shall be noted there is a distinction between soldering and welding. Welding is defined as a
process in which diffusion and intermetallic formations are effected to metallurgically join metals
beyond their surfaces to a specified depth. The welding process is effected at temperatures well
above 800 degrees F.. This distinction also provides evidence that solder joining is a reversible
process as it relies on heat to “undo” the solder joint. Welding requires complete joint destruction
thus making repair and/or rework impossible at the component level, as an example.

2.13.26 Solderability

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Solderability is defined as the ease with which solder adheres to a basis metal surface such as a
component lead, PCB solder termination pad, or PCB conductor hole pad and wall. The presence
of contamination (as oxides or residues) interferes with solderability. Acceptable solderability and
solder joint formation, requires good solder wetting and a small contact angle.

2.13.27 Wetting
Wetting is defined as the formation of a relatively uniform, smooth, unbroken, and adherent solder
film to a basis metal. Wetting requires a solid surface to be completely “coated” by a liquid. This
means the liquid maintains intimate contact with all solder termination areas without resistance or
any indication of “pulling” back from their surfaces. In solder joining, the liquid is molten solder.
What distinguishes “liquid” metal from some other liquid media is its change back to a solid when
cooled below its melting point. When two metal surfaces are wetted, they may become joined upon
solder medium solidification (often referred to as freezing). This only is done under effectively
process managed conditions. Figures 31 and 32 clearly show unacceptable wetting conditions on
bare board surfaces. Figure 33 shows an unacceptable solder joint because of J-Lead oxidation.

31 32 33

2.13.28 Contact Angle


Contact angle is defined as the angle at which a solder fillet meets the basis metal. A small contact
angle indicates good wetting whereas a large angle indicates poor wetting.

2.13.29 Eutectic
Eutectic is defined as a combination of two metals (forming an alloy) that melts at a lower
temperature than either as individual metals. Also, eutectic is defined as alloys that change directly
from liquid to solid, and the reverse, with no intermediate plastic states. Various solder types and
their compositions and melting points are found in ANSI/J-STD-006.

2.13.30 Solder Joint


A solder joint is effected in the soldering process. Under effectively managed conditions, solder
joints exhibit acceptable attributes as smooth, usually shiny, clearly defined, well feathered,
completely wetted metallic bonds between two metal surfaces. Figure 34 shows the “perfect”
solder joint in cross section.

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34

2.13.31 Aqueous Cleaning


Aqueous cleaning is defined as process using water as the primary cleaning agent or solvent. It
shall be noted that water is termed the “universal” solvent because it is capable of dissolving all
material types to some extent over time. This type cleaning can mean using pure water, with
detergent additives, or with a saponifier solution. Aqueous cleaning is done most often with water
soluble fluxes, but can be used on rosin and low residue fluxes as well as with the appropriate
additives. Aqueous cleaning generally is a multi-stage operation with most cleaning effected in the
first wash stages with the dirtiest water while rinsing is done in later stages using the cleanest
water.

2.13.32 Manual Cleaning


Manual cleaning is a process used to spot clean flux residues from assembly surfaces. It includes
using a bristle brush with isopropyl alcohol as the cleaning agent or solvent. This process is not
recommended for final cleaning.

2.13.33 Saponification
Saponification is defined as a cleaning process using a biodegradable rosin cleaner. In the
process, the rosin is changed chemically to become water soluble.

2.13.34 Stencil
A stencil is a metal mask (other types are becoming available as polyimide film as an example)
with holes (clearly described openings) either etched (chemically milled) or laser cut in a precise
pattern across and through it. It is attached to a metal frame capable of being precisely mounted in
a stencil printing machine. A stencil printing machine moves a squeegee across it to print,
dispense, or apply solder paste onto PCB solder termination areas. This is done to provide the
medium needed to effect solder joints when components are adequately placed and reflow
soldered.

2.13.35 Stencil Printing Machine


A stencil printing machine is equipment required to move a squeegee across a stencil and its
openings to print, dispense, or apply solder paste onto PCB solder termination areas. This is done
so solder reflow processes may be managed to effect acceptable solder joints.

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2.13.36 Squeegee
A squeegee is a device attached to a stencil printing machine. The machine moves the squeegee
across a stencil’s surface and openings with a specified pressure and speed required to print,
dispense, or apply solder paste onto PCB solder termination areas. This is done so solder reflow
processes may be managed to effect acceptable solder joints.

2.13.37 Reflow Soldering


Reflow soldering is accomplished in a machine using air or an inert gas (nitrogen) as the solder
reflow mechanism. Conversely, wave soldering requires intimate contact between molten solder
and the assembly’s bottom side solder termination areas to effect solder joints. In reflow soldering,
a hot gas envelops the entire printed circuit assembly. In doing so, it activates the flux then melts
the solder medium having been “printed” on the board’s surface onto which components have been
attached. Upon melting, solder wets all termination areas. Upon cooling, the solder joint is made.

The entire process is completed in stages corresponding to increasing temperatures in several


zones until the highest temperature is reached in what is called the liquidous zone. It is in this zone
the solder melts (liquefies) and wets all solder termination areas. Figure 36 shows a typical reflow
profile for a particular solder paste manufacturer’s recommendation.

36

2.13.38 Quality
Quality is defined as conformance to clearly specified, understood, and accepted customer
contract requirements.

2.13.39 Repair
Repair is defined as the process required to restore the functional capability and/or performance
characteristics of a defective article. This is done in a manner that precludes compliance of the
article with applicable drawings or specifications.

2.13.40 Modification
Modification is defined as the process required to revise the functional capability or performance
characteristics of a product to satisfy new acceptance criteria. Modifications usually are required to

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incorporate design changes that can be controlled by drawings, change orders, etc.. Modifications
only shall be performed when specifically authorized and described in detail on controlled
documentation.

2.13.41 Rework
Rework is defined as the act of reprocessing non-conforming or defective articles. This is done
using original or equivalent processing to assure full conformance of the article with applicable
drawings or specifications. Rework is doing something over that should have been done right the
first time.

2.13.42 Other
Other terms are defined in IPC-T-50 and in specific guidelines, standards, and specifications
indicated in Section 5. herein.

2.13.43 SRT Specific Terminology


The following terminology is defined to make it possible to create a new board. The list is
composed of terms used when creating or modifying boards, components, or processes:

1) Area Array Heater (AAH)


An assembly comprised of a heater and plenum nozzle. Nozzles are part specific and are designed
to heat the entire component area.

2) Board Weight Index


An index number acting as a pointer to a file that has default process parameter for preheat and
reflow. This file can be modified if required (SETTINGS.INI).

3) Core
Assembly consisting of the pickup and heater mechanisms mounted to front of top cabinet.
Reference generally made to Upper and Lower Cores.

Upper core: Assembly composed of the bearings, cylinders, and/or motors for pickup theta and Z
motions and heater Z motion

Lower core: Assembly composed of the top heater and any others items associated with it. In the
case of AAH of PAH, there is a plenum for attachment of this nozzle type. For VPH’s there is the
mechanism for sizing the heater, including motors and lead screws.

4) Dialogue Box
This is an MS-Windows term for the box or window appearing for entering information of answering
a question. Dialogue boxes can become nested (having one within another). Only the last dialogue
box shall accept input. To get to the previous dialogue box without entering or changing information
in the last dialogue box, use the CLOSE or CANCEL button.

5) Perimeter Array Heater (PAH)


An assembly consisting of a heater and multi-tube nozzle. Nozzles are component specific and are
designed to heat the perimeter leads of the component. Two styles of the PAH are available. One
has a through the middle viewing PAH and one is for use on the AAH plenum (PAAH).

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6) Process Variables
The following terms describe process variables associated with SRT operation:

Ramp: Incrementing heater set-point temperature in time intervals. See Process Settings in
creating a new board.

Preheat: Time and temperature settings for the initial heating of a component.

Reflow: Time and temperature settings for reflow of a component.

Post Removal/Additional Reflow Time: Additional heating time after reflow time has elapsed. In
a removal sequence, this time begins after component is lifted to near place position.

Post Placement Time: Additional heating time after reflow time and Additional Reflow Time (if
used) has elapsed. Typically used with a Reflow/Place sequence to allow proper wetting of leads to
pads after placement.

Solidification Time: Additional time with heat off allowed for solder solidification. Used in any
reflow sequence attaching a component to a site.

Sequence: A series of events effecting a complete process. SierraMate software has sequences
appropriate for the customer’s system requirement. Up to 20 sequences may be resident in the
Sequence selection box Sequences are simple ASCII files that are user definable.

2.13.44 Ball Grid Array (BGA)


A BGA is a device (component) having solder “balls” or spheres attached to its underside. These
balls take the place of leads on leaded devices as the means providing input and output from the
component to the board and reverse. There are several BGA types. The most common may be the
plastic BGA or PBGA. Another type is the ceramic BGA or CBGA. There are metal packaged
BGA’s and micro-BGA’s. All are designed to minimize spacing requirements on the board to which
they are assembled. As an example, a quad flat pack (QFP) often requires twice the spacing
between devices as that of a similarly design BGA. Figures 37, 38, and 39 show various BGA
types.

37 38 39

2.13.45 POD Acronyms


A-side The top side of a PC board.
Artwork date code Used to verify that stencil and PC board artwork match

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B-side The bottom side of a PC board


Bank A multi feeder unit used to hold feeders in the IPII machine.
Bar Code A set of parallel bars used for inventory purposes, i.e. batch
tracking
Batch A set of images to be processed in a single programmed run.
Blueline The assembly drawing of a PC board
BTU The name of the reflow oven.
CAD-DLS Computer aided design data link system
CCD level The brightness of the camera on FUJI equipment
CERT Acronym for chemical emergency response team
Cimbridge Drawing A scaled drawing describing a surface mount assembly
Conceptronic A chemical based stencil cleaner
CP-2 A high speed FUJI SM placement machine with 100 feeder
capability.
CP-3 A high speed FUJI SM placement machine with 140 feeder
capability.
CP-4 A super high speed SM placement machine with 140 feeder
capability
CR Enter Key on machine
Customer's parts Parts furnished by the customer for a prototype build.
Cut code Refer to the way components are prepped for surface mount
handload.
Dek An automatic stencil printing machine used to stencil, solder paste
on pcbs
DFMS Design for manufacturability sheets. (Found in the Traveler) Used
for noting external problems found during proto build
E-stop Emergency stop switch; stops all machine actions
ESD Electro-static discharge
Fiducial A reference point on used to align production equipment
Fine Pitch Part with .025 center of lead to center of lead spacing
GAL Gate Array Logic (Programmed PLCC)
GL-2 A FUJI glue dispensing machine.
GSP 1 A manual FUJI stencil printing machine used to stencil solder
paste on PC boards
GSP 2 A semiautomatic FUJI stencil printing machine used to stencil
solder paste on PC boards
Head Nozzle holders on the IPII machine. Also, the printhead (top
section) of Dek
Image A single printed circuit assembly.
IP-2 A surface mount placement machine that places larger parts at a
slower rate of speed than the CP machines
Kwiky Proto order that shall be shipped within 5 days.
Loop A large setup and a large tear down of the CP placement
machines
Main Screen The first screen started allows menu selections from on computer
controlled equipment (auto screen)
Manlink Manufacturing link (software for generating programs)

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MCS The terminal that is used to download programs to the machine


MERT Acronym for medical emergency response team
MFU Refers to multi feeder unit used to hold feeders in the IPII
machine (bank)
MSDS Material safety data sheets - give chemical information
NGS A scaled drawing describing a surface mount assembly
PCB Printed Circuit Board
P.D. Part Data - Information used to describe the shape of parts to the
Fuji machine
P&P or PnP Pick and Place (includes stencil to reflow processes)
PAL Programmable Array Logic (Programmed PLCC)
Panel A term to describe a sheet of printed circuit boards
PDA Process Development Assistant
PFS Process flow sheet (also called router)
PIM Process information management (support group that generates
programs for PnP)
Pipeline Work in process on conveyors
PLCC Plastic body chip carrier; A square part with J leaded legs on 4
sides
Polarity An identification mark showing direction for correct placement of
part according to documentation
Proto Prototype assembly
Raw board number A number assigned to an image before any components are
placed
Recipe A program for assembling a printed circuit assembly
Router Process flow sheet
Screen Screen is what the DEK calls a stencil
SMHL Surface Mount Handload
SMQ62 A solder paste with water soluble resin
SMT 1 The process where solder paste and components are placed on
the A side of the panel and reflowed
SMT 2 The process where solder paste and components are placed on
the B side then reflow and A side then reflowed
SMT 4 The process where solder paste and components are placed on
the A side and reflowed, then glue and components are placed on
B side and the glue cured. B-side parts are wave soldered
SMT 5 The process where solder paste, glue and components are
placed on A side then reflowed
SMT 6 The process where solder paste, glue and components are
placed on the B side and reflowed, then solder paste and
components are placed on the A side and reflowed. Limited to
"chips" on "B" side
SMT 9A or B A process that does not follow the normal rules. It's spelled out on
the Router step-by-step. 9A=A side 1st 9B=B side 1st
SMT Surface mount technology
SMT Carrier Carriers to protect the panels and Bottom side components from
damage during reflow in BTU oven or Vitronics process.

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Smart Sonic A stencil cleaner (using sound to loosen paste)


SOPT List Setup optimization list
SOPT Setup optimization
SPC Statistical process control
Solder Ball Balls of solder on pcboard post BTU >5 mil
Solder Bead Small solder balls <5 mil
Standoffs Hardware that supports a panel while being processed in the FUJI
equipment.
Stiffeners Support rails attached to side of panels before BTU process.
TAT Turn around time
Proto Packet Prototype documentation package
Waffle Tower A tray feeder for the IP-2
XFP Extra Fine Pitch, (.020 lead to lead spacing)

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3.0 RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY


The following responsibilities shall be fulfilled to ensure stencil printing manufacturing operations
are properly effected to assure quality at POD:

3.1 MANUFACTURING ENGINEER


The Manufacturing Engineer is responsible and has authority to provide everything needed by
manufacturing operations personnel to fulfill their responsibilities at POD. This includes
procedures, training, equipment, tools, adequate and safe working conditions, ESD requirements,
and all other required elements.

3.2 MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN


The Maintenance Technician is responsible and has authority to ensure all operational elements
(equipment, tools, etc.) are maintained and calibrated as specified. This assures all facilities,
equipment, and tools are capable of being effectively and efficiently managed to assure product
quality meeting specified requirements.

3.3 MANUFACTURING SUPERVISOR


The Manufacturing Supervisor is responsible and has authority to provide proper direction to all
manufacturing operations personnel at POD. This includes operational procedures, special
instructions, schedules, product changes, drawings, and required materials and components. This
also includes management directives, performance evaluations, and timely individual and team
performance feedback.

3.4 MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS PERSONNEL


Manufacturing Operations Personnel are responsible and have authority to assure manufacturing
operations are carried out in an effective, efficient manner. They are responsible for performing all
manufacturing operations in accordance with current procedures, checklists, and supervisory
direction. All personnel are responsible for effecting management policies and directives to assure
quality meeting or exceeding specified POD requirements.

3.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE INSPECTION PERSONNEL


Quality Assurance Inspection Personnel are responsible and have authority to determine product
quality does or does not meet specified POD acceptance criteria. They also are responsible for
providing appropriate feedback concerning product quality to management and manufacturing
process managers so corrective or continued manufacturing action may be effected.

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4.0 OPERATIONS AND QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS


POD, as an ISO 9000 registered company, bases its quality system on twenty requirements to
ensure a firm foundation is established for continuous process improvement and total quality
management. Primary to this system is the policy and philosophy that processes shall be managed
instead of results as defect. This ensures defect is prevented as early as possible and that quality
is effected and assured the first time, on time, every time, at the lowest cost. The following
requirements form POD’s quality system foundation to ensure effective, efficient operational and
quality system performance:

4.1 MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY

4.2 QUALITY SYSTEM

4.3 CONTRACT REVIEW

4.4 DESIGN CONTROL

4.5 DOCUMENTATION AND DOCUMENT CONTROL

4.6 PURCHASING

4.7 CUSTOMER SUPPLIED PRODUCT

4.8 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION AND TRACEABILITY

4.9 PROCESS CONTROL

4.10 INSPECTION AND TESTING

4.11 MEASURING AND TEST EQUIPMENT

4.12 INSPECTION AND TEST STATUS

4.13 NON-CONFORMING PRODUCT

4.14 CORRECTIVE AND PREVENTIVE ACTION

4.15 HANDLING, STORAGE, PACKAGING, PRESERVATION, AND DELIVERY

4.16 QUALITY RECORDS

4.17 INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL QUALITY AUDITS

4.18 QUALITY TRAINING

4.19 SERVICING

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4.20 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

Other requirements, starting with 4.21, shall pertain specifically to manufacturing assembly
operations. These requirements shall be clearly understood and effected by all manufacturing
assembly operations personnel.

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5.0 REQUIRED OPERATIONS AND QUALITY SYSTEM ELEMENTS


The following elements are required for efficient, effective manufacturing and quality system
operations:

5.1 DOCUMENTATION
The following documentation shall be available for all management, supervisory, quality,
engineering, and operational personnel:

5.1.1 POD, PPM-2050, Safety Procedures

5.1.2 POD, PPM-2045, Electrostatic Discharge Procedures

5.1.3 POD, PPM-2015, Material And Assembly Handling Procedures

5.1.4 POD, QIPM-4030, Audit Of Processes And Procedures

5.1.5 POD Planning Documentation

5.1.6 POD Lot Control Documentation

5.1.7 POD Maintenance Requirements, Specifications And Procedures

5.1.8 POD, QPM-3020, Equipment Calibration Procedures And Logs

5.1.9 POD Quality Assurance Inspection/Test/Analysis Procedures And Logs

5.1.10 POD Operator Operations, And Process Logs

5.1.11 QQ-S-571 Solder Test Results

5.1.12 MIL-F-14256 Flux For Assembly Operations Test Results

5.1.13 MIL-P-55110 Printed Wiring For Electronic Equipment

5.1.14 MIL-P-28809 Printed Wiring Assemblies

5.1.15 POD, POD-5030, Stencil Printing Process Procedures

5.1.16 ANSI/J-STD-001B Requirements For Soldered Electrical And Electronic Assemblies

5.1.17 ANSI/IPC-A-610B Acceptability Of Printed Board Assemblies

5.1.18 IPC-A-600C Acceptability Of Printed Boards

5.1.19 IPC-7721 Repair And Modification Of Printed Boards And Electronic Assemblies

5.1.20 IPC-7711 Rework Of Electronic Assemblies

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5.1.21 IPC-TM-650 Test Methods Manual

5.1.22 IPC-T-50 Terms And Definitions

5.1.23 IPC-D-275 Printed Wiring For Electronic Equipment

5.1.24 POD Pre-operational, Operational, And Post Operational Checklists

5.2 FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT, TOOLS

5.2.1 The SRT Summit 1000 machine

5.2.2 The SRT nozzle appropriate for a part w/ 3050-0229 bent at a 90 degree angle to act as
a spacer at each corner of the nozzle

5.2.3 The SRT nest appropriate for selected part

5.2.4 The SRT support box sized for the component being reworked

5.2 .5 Detachable edge supports and point supports for the SRT

5.2.6 Leather gloves for handling hot boards

5.2.7 Metron mirrors for inspecting the finished product

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6.0 OPERATIONS AND QUALITY SYSTEM ELEMENT EVALUATION AND QUALIFICATION


All operation and quality system elements shall be evaluated and qualified before introduction to or
use in process managed capabilities at POD.

6.1 ROUTER AND DRAWINGS

6.2 SAFETY, HANDLING, AND ESD

6.3 OPERATIONAL AND WORK SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS

6.4 QUALITY SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION

6.5 REPAIR AND REWORK PROCESS MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS

The repair and rework process manager shall ensure the following requirements are met before
beginning production:

1) Tools and equipment are properly prepared before production

2) Printed circuit boards properly cleaned and baked

3) Solder paste as specified

4) Equipment properly maintained, calibrated, and in good working order

5) All safety requirements in place and being met

6) All ESD requirements in place and being met

7) All material handling requirements in place and being met

8) Work area in clean and orderly condition

9) All support elements, tools, and personnel available

10) Work order or traveler correct and available for job

11) Supervisory direction and work instructions available and being used

12) Fiducials bright, shiny, and clearly visible.

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7.0 OPERATIONS USING THE SRT REPAIR/REWORK MACHINE


These procedures are used to ensure effective, efficient BGA and fine pitch device repair and
rework operations at POD. POD operations personnel use specified and approved repair and
rework equipment, tools, and attendant process management elements to effect and assure quality
repair and rework operations. This is done to assure acceptable solder joint and product quality.

7.1 MACHINE OVERVIEW


Figure 40 shows the machine in an operational setting at POD. Figure 41 provides a view of the
machine’s internal mechanisms.

40 41

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7.2 PRE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS


The following requirements shall be met before beginning repair/rework operations:

7.2.1 Handling And ESD Requirements


Ensure proper handling and ESD protection. Figure 42 indicates ESD protection required symbol.
Figure 43 indicates ESD handling requirements shall be effected. Figure 44 shows the preferred
method for handling Class III PCB assemblies. Figure 45 shows an acceptable handling method. In
all cases it is required that ESD protection be provided all assemblies and all boards be handled so
no damage, contamination, or other defect causing possibilities exist.

42 43

44 45

NOTE: SPECIAL CARE SHALL BE TAKEN TO AVOID CONTAMINATING SOLDER


TERMINATION SURFACE AREAS WITH FINGER PRINTS, GREASE, DIRT, OR OTHER
ELEMENTS THAT WOULD CAUSE SOLDERABILITY PROBLEMS OR UNACCEPTABLE
SOLDER JOINT FORMATION.

7.2.2 System Operational Steps (Overview)


The following discussion provides information concerning basic SRT repair/rework operational
steps:

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1) Power On
The operator turns on machine power as well as air/gas and depresses the START button (right
front panel below E-STOP button as in figures 46 and 47).

46 47

2) Computer On
The system computer turns on and boots the following:

• Windows

• SierraMate for Windows software

• Software initialization displaying each segment

3) Operation
Once system initialization completed, the system is ready for operation. The main menu is
displayed on the monitor screen. It lists the last board processes in (1) Board Box. In the screen’s
center, is (2) the component/site, and on the right is (3) the sequence/action. The GO button is very
prominent, as it is located in the screen’s center below (2). This screen is shown in figure 48.

48 49

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The trackball/mouse (figure 49) is used to position the screen’s cursor to initiate action as required.
Action may be effected to select an appropriate box, as described above, make selections or
changes within them or various other Windows locations and menus. After all required settings and
selections are made, activating GO is the primary objective to effect rework or repair operations.

Depending upon sequences selected, other requirements as boards, components, flux, etc. may
need to be specified before effecting operations. Once GO is initiated, an entire sequence is
executed. It shall be understood this is dependent entirely on effective operator/machine
interaction.

NOTE: IT ALWAYS IS POSSIBLE TO CANCEL ANY SEQUENCE OR OPERATION. THIS


SHALL BE DONE IF ANY DISCREPANCY IS OBSERVED THAT MIGHT AFFECT SAFETY,
PERFORMANCE, AND QUALITY OR ANYTHING ELSE DELETERIOUS TO OPERATIONAL
EFFECTIVENESS.

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7.3 PRE-OPERATIONAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS


At this time, inspect inside and around the machine (figure 50) for articles or substances that might
cause damage, or other process problems, and remove or correct them as necessary to effect safe
operations. Figure 51 shows two of the warning labels, found on various machine part locations,
that shall be observed for safe operation.

50 51

7.3.1 Important Terms And Definitions


The following terms, definitions, and information shall be understood and used by all personnel
working with or around the SRT repair/rework machine:

1) DANGER is defined as an imminently hazardous circumstance in which death or serious injury


may result if adequate precautions are not taken.

2) WARNING is defined as a potentially hazardous circumstance in which death or serious injury


may result if adequate precautions are not taken.

3) CAUTION is defined as a potentially hazardous circumstance in which minor injury or damage


to equipment or parts may result if adequate precautions are not taken

7.3.2 SRT Equipment Safety Information


SRT repair and rework equipment operates at high temperatures capable of causing personal burn
injuries. This WARNING is provided indicating it is dangerous for anyone to come in contact with
any surfaces labeled HOT or HOT air. No one must ever breathe HOT air. An exhaust vent
provides a route for heat dissipation and vapor/fume escape – with proper connection.

Another WARNING is provided indicating the hazardous condition existing when pneumatic
mechanisms are activated for various activities and sequences. Additionally, a WARNING is
provided indicating voltages within the cabinet are capable of causing personal injury or loss of life.

DANGER, WARNING, CAUTION: ALWAYS ALLOW THE SYSTEM TO COOL TO A SAFE


LEVEL BEFORE PERFORMING MAINTENANCE OR ADJUSTMENTS.

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The machine’s cabinet is designed to protect operating personnel from internal hazards as
voltages, high temperatures, and pinch points. Only qualified, trained personnel are allowed to
operate equipment with cabinet covers removed. Also, only qualified, trained personnel are allowed
access to internal parts and mechanisms while cabinet covers are removed.

CAUTION: ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES AND PROTECTIVE GLOVES WHEN


WORKING WITH OR NEAR EQUIPMENT.

ALL PERSONNEL MUST ENSURE ALL WARNING AND SAFETY LABELS, SIGNS, OR OTHER
INDICATIONS ARE OBSERVED TO AVOID ACCIDENTS AND PERSONAL INJURY.

THIS PROCESS MAY USE A BOARD WITH WET SOLDER PASTE ON ITS SURFACE.

SOLDER PASTE CONTAINS LEAD.

WEAR LATEX GLOVES DURING THE SETUP OF THE BOARD ON THE MACHINE IF WET
PASTE HAS BEEN APPLIED.

WASH HANDS AFTER WORKING IN THE AREA, EVEN IF GLOVES WERE WORN.

DO NOT EAT, DRINK, OR SMOKE PRIOR TO WASHING HANDS.

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7.3.3 Machine And System Readiness


Ensure all system settings and elements are as specified. This includes determining system
element air pressure (figures 52 and 53), and other requirements such as camera and split mirror
locations relative to calibration markers (figures 54 and 55).

52 53

55
54

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7.4 PREPARATION
The following procedures shall be used to prepare all required elements before beginning repair or
rework operations:

7.4.1 Before Performing Any Work


Before performing any work, ensure the printed circuit board (PCB/PCBA) to be processed is
baked to remove any moisture in the components and PCB substrate. This is necessary to prevent
any visible or microscopic popcorning (semi-explosive release of steam from components making
them defective) of other parts on the board during the heating cycle. Follow the times and
temperatures specified for this baking cycle on the oven and oven documentation.

NOTE: TYPICALLY, THE PCB BAKE PROCESS IS DONE OVERNIGHT AT A TEMPERATURE


OF 250 DEGREES F. FOR 3 HOURS. FOR MOISTURE SENSITIVE COMPONENTS/DEVICES
(MSD's), SEE MSD AND SEALING PROCESSES, HEREIN, STARTING ON PAGE 350.

Inspect the board requiring rework. If the part requiring rework has a heatsink on it, refer to the
product documentation to determine how to remove the heatsink. Usually it is popped off with a
small flat-blade screwdriver. Also, determine all components are in good condition. BGA balls shall
be inspected to ensure they all are present and leaded devices shall be checked to ensure their
leads are straight and properly aligned (figures 56 and 57). It is easily seen that neither of these
parts are acceptable.

56 57

NOTE: IF THE HEATSINK REMAINS ON DURING REWORK, IT IS MUCH MORE DIFFICULT, IF


NOT IMPOSSIBLE, TO PROCESS (INCREASED THERMAL MASS AND THICKNESS). THE
HEATSINK ALSO SHALL INTERFERE WITH THE PICK-UP TUBE.

Also check to see if sufficient access around the part to be reworked is available. It may be
necessary to remove some topside components to provide enough room. Use a metal ruler to
determine if any components are within .200" of the BGA body. If so, remove and set them aside
for later re-assembly. A good technique is to place them on top of a clear ESD folder page with the
board’s reference designator drawing inside. After removal, place each part on its designated spot

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on the drawing. If any parts are damaged during removal, replace them with like parts for the
subsequent attachment process.

7.4.2 Board Flatness (Coplanarity)


The board shall be flat and rigidly held during all rework operations performed using this machine.
This is one of the repair/rework processes’ most important requirements. If boards and tools are
not flat, solder defects result. Inspect all boards to determine their flatness or coplanarity (figure
58).

58 59

NOTE: WHEN ADDING A COMPONENT TO A BOARD, SOLDER PASTE SHALL BE PRINTED


ON THE BOARD’S SPECIFIED SOLDER TERMINATION AREAS (PADS). IN THIS CASE, BE
SURE LATEX OR HEAT-RESISTANT GLOVES ARE WORN DURING SETUP AND WHILE
MOUNTING THE BOARD IN THE MACHINE.

Select the correct nest (figure 59) for the part to be removed or replaced. It must fit closely around
the part’s body so it cannot move while the shuttle moves the part tray to the pick-up tube. Place
the nest over the two tooling pins located on the part shuttle. Do this with the raised end to the
right.

7.4.3 Heating Nozzles And Support Boxes


Heating nozzles deliver hot air from the heating element to the part and board. They provide the
mechanism to ensure required top-side board heating is assured, and that specified reflow and
acceptable solder joints are effected.

Support boxes provide additional printed circuit board support. They also provide additional
localized heating directly under the part to be mounted.

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1) Nozzle Selection
Select the required heating nozzle for the part to be repaired/reworked. Use calipers (from the
toolbox) to measure the part’s length and the width. The correct nozzle’s inner wall is .110" greater
than the component’s outer wall (all around). When a rectangular part is required, compare both its
length and width dimensions to the length and width dimensions inside the nozzle to ensure the
same size relationship exists as before (figure 60). Also, as previously indicated, ensure .200”
spacing exists between the placement area and peripheral components to assure clearance for the
heating nozzle (figure 61).

60 61

2) Nozzle Mounting
Mount the nozzle under the two screws on each side of the pick-up tube. Lift and twist the nozzle
with a clockwise motion to fit it over the screws and onto the machine. If there is difficulty getting
the new nozzle over the spring-loaded screw head, press down lightly on the top of the screw head
(arrow in figure 63) and twist the nozzle into place. To reach the screw, curl a finger up and over
the plate directly above the nozzle.

62 63

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64

To remove a nozzle, use gloves or a tool to grasp its lower section and rotate the nozzle counter
clock-wise, when viewed from the top. Use a counter clockwise motion to remove the heating
nozzle. Rotate the nozzle until it snaps free. Then, slowly pull it downward while taking care not to
damage the pickup tube. Figures 62 and 63 show the nozzle mounting process as described.
Figure 64 provides a view looking up at the pickup tube (center with red grommet attached), and
the two nozzle attachment screws.

CAUTION: IF THE NOZZLE WAS JUST USED FOR HEATING A PART, IT IS VERY HOT. USE
LEATHER OR THERMAL GLOVES TO REMOVE IT FROM THE MACHINE

3) Support Box (Lower Heater “Chimney”) Selection And Mounting – When Required
Select is the SRT support box for the board to be processed. Ideally, the support box shall have
the same inner wall dimension as the inner wall dimension of the heating nozzle. Turn the board
upside down and test fit it on the opposite side of the board from the BGA to be reworked. Ensure it
does not interfere with components on the board’s bottom side. Using its via pattern, center it
around the BGA but on the opposite side of the board as shown in figures 65 and 66. The half
circle vent holes shall be next to the board (opposite those shown).

65 66

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67 68

Use two pieces of Kapton tape to secure it to the bottom of the board. Avoid covering the vent
holes in the support box with the Kapton tape (figures 67 and 68).

7.4.4 Board Mounting


Turn the board over and mount it into the machine’s moveable X-Y table edge guides. Boards
having many massive parts act as a heatsink. When and where possible, place them toward the
machine’s front as it gets hotter than the rear. If overhanging connectors are in the way, mount
detachable edge supports onto the table’s frame. Adjust the support locations so they hold the
board as rigidly as possible. Place magnetic supports under the board to keep it flat. Follow this by
mounting the board in the detachable edge supports by clamping them in place. Adjust all positions
so the area under the part being reworked has plenty of under-side air flow for heating (figures 69
and 70). Figure 71 shows the mounted board with the underside board support (chimney).

69 70

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71

After mounting, the board shall be stiff and flat. If it sags or is floppy when pressed down upon with
a finger, use additional supports, or rearrange the ones already being used to eliminate the
problem.

7.5 SYSTEM OPERATIONS OVERVIEW


When an operator turns on the SRT 1000 system and presses the START/RESET button, it boots
directly into Windows. Then, it opens SierraMate software. As the software comes up, progress is
displayed as each item is initialized.

Once the software has completed initializing, the system is read for operation. On the main screen,
the last board processed is displayed in the Board (1) box. In the middle is the box for
Component/Site (2), and to the right is a box displaying Sequence/Action (3). In the middle of the
screen below (2), the GO button is displayed.

A typical operation is carried out by (1) selecting Board, (2) selecting Site, (3) selecting Sequence,
then GO. Selection of different board/site/sequence is conducted by clicking the CHANGE button
within the respective box (figure 72).

72

Depending on the sequence selected, other items as board, component, flux, etc. may need to be
made available before processing is begun. Once GO has been initiated by clicking, an entire
sequence is executed. Sequences require operator/machine interaction.

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7.5.1 Board
Board is placed into board holder and rests on support bars, support pins, and/or clamped into
holder. Area Array nozzles contact the board in normal operation. Board is placed to provide
support under site to be worked on.

7.5.2 Component
The SRT 1000 accommodates either area array or leaded components. The system features
automatic centering for area array components with a component shuttle and component specific
nests. When using area array components, fit appropriate nest to locating pins on part tray.
Components are placed into nest before sequence is begun if it requires a new component.

Leaded components are accommodated by a component tray fixed to the right rail of board holder
and do not use nests above (figures 73 and 74). A different set of sequences is used for leaded
components.

73 74

7.5.3 Sequence
Select the appropriate sequence. As the sequence is being executed, prompts for operator
interaction are displayed at the bottom of the screen. When the sequence is complete, provision is
made to repeat the same sequence. If this is not needed, click the STOP button and the software
returns to the main screen.

Sequences for leaded components use the prism to align a component to a nozzle, but picks
component from the component tray versus component shuttle. These sequences do not normally
appear as available sequences. They are available after related files are renamed. The following
provides information concerning renaming sequence files for leaded devices:

1) Exit SierraMate for Windows software

2) Open Windows File Manager

3) In the SRTWIN Directory, locate file with extension LD (leaded device).

4) Change all LD extensions to an ACT extension.

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5) Restart the software

Sequences for leaded devices are now available and are designated “L.”

NOTE: THE REMOVAL SEQUENCE FOR LEADED COMPONENTS USUALLY IS THE SAME
AS AREA ARRAY DEVICES. THEREFORE, NO NEST SHALL BE ON THE PART SHUTTLE IN
A REMOVAL SEQUENCE WHEN DOING A LEADED COMPONENT.

7.5.4 Top Heating Nozzles (As In Section 7.4)


Nozzles are component specific and shall be installed before a sequence is started.

7.6 CREATING BOARDS, COMPONENT/SITES, AND PROCESSES


Programming boards and processes requires accessing the main menu. The menu is displayed
across the top of the main screen after double clicking in the dark gray box surrounding the 1, 2, 3,
and GO boxes on the screen. The main menu may be password protected. If the system arrives
with this menu password protected, the password shall be SYSTEM without being case sensitive.
The password may be removed or changed.

7.6.1 Boards
Board files are comprised of components/sites. All boards must contain at least one
component/site and a default component/site is included when a new board is created. This may
be deleted after other components/sites are added to Board.

7.6.2 Components/Sites
Unique part location that shall have a specific process assigned to it. Designations usually are
component names or site designations.

7.6.3 Variables
All variables needed to carry out a sequence on a particular component/site as preheat and reflow
time temperatures, alignment, height, place/removal force, etc. Variables used depend on the
sequence being performed.

7.6.4 Creating/Modifying a Board


All boards must contain at least one component/site. Because of this, a default component is
assigned to a board. A default process is assigned for all components based upon the board
weight index. Once other components are added to the board, the default component can be
deleted. The default process

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323 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

7.7 OPERATIONS - GENERAL


Use the following procedures to effect process management concerning BGA and fine pitch repair
and rework operations:

7.7.1 Machine Setup


If the machine is off, turn it on by moving the bright yellow and red lever (on the machine’s right
side) to the ON position (figure 75). Turn on circuit breakers 1, 2, and 3 to activate control system,
and top and bottom heater circuits. Once this is done, the machine automatically boots to the SRT
software to run the machine. Figure 76 shows the screen displayed when system turned on.

75 76

7.7.2 Screen Display Steps


The screen shows 3 steps that shall be specified for the board to be reworked.

1) Assembly Number
Determine the assembly number for the selected board. If it is not already displayed in the white
box for the 'Board' in item #1, move the cursor to the 'Change' box and click on it. The list of all the
boards that have been programmed for the machine appears. If the assembly number is not on the
list, contact the engineer or technician for the machine to have it added. Select the assembly
number for the board and click on it so it is highlighted. Hit 'OK'. The required board number now
appears in the white box.

2) Reference Designator
Move to the 'Component/Site' box in item #2. If the reference designator for the part requiring
repair is not shown in the box, move the cursor to the 'Change' box and click on it. Use the pull
down arrow button to display the other reference designators. Select the appropriate reference
designator from the list and hit 'OK'. The correct reference designator is now be visible in the white
box. If the reference designator is not on the list, contact the engineer or technician for the machine
to have it added.

3) Sequence
The third step is to select the sequence for the machine to perform. The choices used for
production rework include:

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• 'Machine Warm-up' - Heats machine’s plenum and heating nozzle. Provides more uniform
heating during the first part of the day.

NOTE: THIS PROCESS STEP NOT USED UNLESS SPECIFIED BY ENGINEERING

• 'Remove' - Heats part, automatically lifts it off the board, then allows the machine to cool
before discarding the part.

• 'Manual Remove' - Heats part, and lifts the heating nozzle so the operator can remove the
part with tweezers while the solder is still molten.

NOTE: THIS PROCESS STEP NOT USED UNLESS SPECIFIED BY ENGINEERING

• 'Place only' - Places component onto board.

• 'Reflow only' - Heats part and allows machine to cool before lifting the heating nozzle out of
the way.

• 'Place and Reflow' - Places component onto board, heats part, and allows machine to cool
before lifting the heating nozzle out of the way.

• 'Squareness Check' - Calibrates pick-up tube vertical alignment to X-Y axis.

NOTE: THIS PROCESS STEP USED ONLY BY ENGINEERING

If required sequence not displayed in white box, move cursor to 'Change' box and click on it. Use
the down arrow to display other sequences. Select appropriate sequence from list and hit 'Go'.
Now it is displayed in box.

7.7.3 Begin Sequence


With correct items shown for #1, #2, and #3 begin sequence by hitting GO. Refer to specific
instructions for each sequence as described in the next section.

7.8 MACHINE WARM-UP (ONLY USED WHEN SPECIFIED BY ENGINEERING)


This sequence is used to warm up the machine at the beginning of use. It helps provide consistent
and more even heating for the first rework cycle of the day.

7.8.2 Sample Board


Place a scrap blank sample board in the machine and clamp it in place as in figure 78.

7.8.3 GO
Hit the "GO" button on the screen by clicking on it with the cursor. The prism moves into position
over the heating nozzle and pick-up tube.

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7.8.4 Move Board Into Position


The machine prompts the user to move the board into position so the nozzle is completely over the
scrap board. When in position, hit "GO".

7.8.5 Warm Up
The heating nozzle moves down into position to go through a 4-minute warm-up cycle (figure 79).
Use this sequence before repair/rework operations – only when specified.

78 79

7.9 REMOVE PART


The following procedures are used to remove parts from the board:

NOTE: GRAPHIC EXAMPLES FOR THIS AND OTHER PROCESSES ARE PROVIDED IN
FIGURES 80 THROUGH 99 STARTING ON PAGE 95.

7.9.1 Standard BGA Removal


To remove a standard BGA part from the board, select assembly number, reference designator,
and 'Remove' sequence from the main screen.

NOTE: IF THE PART TO BE REMOVED IS A SOCKET WITH AN OPEN MIDDLE, OR A PART


THAT HAS AN IRREGULAR TOP, IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO USE THE 'MANUAL REMOVE'
SEQUENCE.

The 'Remove' sequence automatically lifts the part off the board and allows the machine to cool
before discarding the part. This is preferred over the 'Manual Remove' since there is less likelihood
for serious board warpage to occur.

7.9.2 GO
If ready, hit the 'Go' button on the screen by clicking on it with the cursor. The prism moves into
position over the heating nozzle and pick-up tube.

7.9.3 Move Board Into Position


The machine prompts the user to move the board into position so the part to be reworked is under
the heating nozzle. Place a red arrow near the part to be reworked so it is easy to find on the video
display screen. Do not place the red arrow over the middle of the part because the pick-up tube

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326 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

shall have trouble making a seal to the part when trying to lift it off the board. Push the X-Y table to
position so the part is under the machine’s prism box. The part shall be visible in the screen.

7.9.4 Fine Adjustment


Use the fine adjusting X and Y knobs to center the part over the heating nozzle. The nozzle may be
rotated slightly. If so, split the distance between the nozzle to part gap on the part’s left and right.
Repeat this process for the top and bottom gap. Ideally, the same gap shall be visible for the
tightest areas on all 4 sides of the part. When everything is centered, hit the 'Go' button on the
screen.

7.9.5 Preheat, Soak, And Reflow Cycles


The machine begins preheating, soaking, and reflowing the solder paste to effect the solder joint.
During the 'Remove' sequence, it uses the pick-up tube to lift the part from the melted solder. If the
vacuum sensor detects the part was picked up, it turns off the heaters and waits for the machine to
cool down before lifting the heating nozzle up and discarding the part. If the vacuum sensor does
not detect the part was picked up, it shall re-try as many times as has been programmed. Then, it
shall wait for an indication whether to stop trying. Select 'Retry' or 'Cancel' - as appropriate.

7.9.6 Repeat Sequence


The software allows repeating the same sequence again after hitting 'Go' or to stop and go back to
the main menu by hitting 'Stop'. Use the cursor to indicate the decision.

7.10 ADD NEW PART


The following procedures are used to add a new part to an assembly:

NOTE: GRAPHIC EXAMPLES FOR THIS AND OTHER PROCESSES ARE PROVIDED IN
FIGURES 82 THROUGH 99 STARTING ON PAGE 95.

7.10.1 Place And Reflow Sequence


When adding a new part, use 'Place and Reflow' sequence to perform the operation. This
sequence is a combination of 'Place Only' and the 'Reflow Only' sequences linked together. Refer
to section 10.4 for the specifics about how to place the component.

1) Placement
After the alignment process, hit 'Go' and the pick-up tube lowers the part to just above the paste.
Next, the heating nozzle drops over the part and touches the board. Then, the pick-up tube gently
places the part into the paste.

2) Reflow
Do not use the "Place Only' and 'Reflow Only' as substitutes for this combined sequence. If done,
the heating nozzle lowers over the part already having been placed onto the board by the pick-up
tube. It is much better to allow the heating nozzle to rest against the board and let the pick-up tube
place the part into the paste. This does not cause the board to bounce disturbing the part resting in
the paste. This effect is believed to be a primary cause of bridging.

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7.11 PICK AND PLACE PART


The following procedures are used to pick and place a part on the specified board:

NOTE: GRAPHIC EXAMPLES FOR THIS AND OTHER PROCESSES ARE PROVIDED IN
FIGURES 82 THROUGH 99 STARTING ON PAGE 95.

7.12.1 Placement Requirements


To place a new part onto the board and reflow it, only use the 'Place and Reflow' sequence. To
place a part onto the board, use the 'Place only' sequence. Once having determined the required
sequence, verify it is shown in the 'Sequence' box in item #3 on the main menu. Select the
applicable assembly number and reference designator, for the board to be processed, and make
sure they are present in the 'Board' and 'Component/Site' box.

7.12.2 Component Requirements


At this point, the board with the BGA site pasted has been mounted into the machine. Locate a
new part from the stock area. The BGA should have been stored in a sealed container or dry
storage box. If not, it shall need to be baked prior to rework. Look at the bottom of the package to
verify there are no missing balls. Also double check the stock room issued the correct component,
and it is the size and pin configuration required for the board to be processed.

7.12.3 Begin Cycle


Hit 'Go' to start the cycle. The machine prompts component placement into the nest. Orient the
component so its polarity matches the board’s as currently mounted in the machine. Use the
drawing and silk-screen graphics to verify board polarity. Component and board polarity indicators
MUST match. If not, rework time shall have been wasted and the board is scrapped. When the part
is correctly in the nest, hit 'Go'. To provide one other opportunity to verify polarity, the machine
prompts to re-check it. After verification, hit 'Go'.

7.12.4 Site Centering


The machine prompts to roughly center site in video window. To do this, push or pull the table to
position it so the BGA site pads are visible in the middle of the screen. Rotate the microscope’s
magnification knob as needed to view the entire BGA site. This step is provided to achieve only
coarse positioning. Precise positioning doesn't matter yet, so don't dwell on this step other than
assuring the correct reference designator is in view. To encourage this, the machine only turns on
the board lighting. When the BGA's pads are roughly in the middle of the screen, hit 'Go'.

7.12.6 Part Lighting And Precise Alignment


The machine now turns on the part lighting together with board lighting. Precise alignment follows.

1) Fine adjustment knobs


Use the adjustment knobs on the upper left and lower right side of the table to adjust the board
position to make the pads overlap the position of the BGA balls. It is advantageous first to focus on
one row of balls and pads - then position them first.

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2) Part rotation adjustment


Use the silver knob on the upper left side of the shroud (over the heating core and pick-up system)
to adjust part rotation. Focusing on one row of balls and pads at a time helps make this adjustment.

3) Part and board lighting adjustment


Use the part lighting and board lighting adjustment knobs to change the light intensity on each item
in view. These knobs are located on the vertical panel on the right front of the machine. By turning
the lights up and down, verification is made concerning what is being viewed on the screen are
really the BGA balls, or pads on the board. By concentrating on one corner at a time, watch the
pad disappear and the ball reappear in the same spot. This provides assurance the two precisely
overlap.

4) BGA pattern
If the BGA has only 4 rows of balls, around the package’s perimeter, a pattern of only 4 rows of
round objects on each side shall be seen. If more than 4 rows are seen, adjust in left/right, or
up/down to make all pads overlap.

5) Continue adjustment
Continue adjusting left/right, up/down, rotation, and lighting knobs until a perfect overlap appears.
A way to check this is to slightly shift one of the knobs to one side or the other. This makes it
possible to observe the overlapped pad and ball move apart. Return the board to the original
position and they overlap again.

6) More precise alignment


To make a more precise alignment, increase microscopic magnification and turn the knob on the
split mirror - at the front of the prism. While continue turning, the lower left corner of the pads and
balls are seen moving toward the screen’s center. The upper right pads and balls do the same.
Adjust the magnification until the part’s corners (now superimposed upon each other) completely fill
the screen.

7) Corner ball alignment


Perform the same fine adjustment with left/right, up/down, rotation, and lighting knobs until the
corner balls perfectly overlap the corner pads. When satisfied with the part’s position, relative to the
board, return the split mirror and magnification to their original positions.

8) Confirm alignment and/or repeat


With improved alignment, it still is possible to see the appropriate number of rows on each side of
the BGA. If not, a row of pads was skipped. Repeat the steps above to adjust as needed.

7.12.7 Part Placement


When everything appears as required, hit 'Go' and the machine places the part. If the 'Place only'
sequence was run, the machine shall have placed the part into the paste. Visually determine how
well this was done. If the 'Place and Reflow' sequence was used, the machine shall have lowered
the part, lowered the heating nozzle to the board, placed the part, and reflowed it.

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7.12 REFLOWING PART


Use the following procedures to effectively manage reflow operations:

NOTE: GRAPHIC EXAMPLES FOR THIS AND OTHER PROCESSES ARE PROVIDED IN
FIGURES 82 THROUGH 99 STARTING ON PAGE 95.

7.12.1 Reflow After Component Placement


To reflow a part already placed on the board, select the assembly number, reference designator,
and 'Reflow only' sequence from the main screen. If the part to be reflowed has a heatsink on top,
remove it first.

7.12.2 Reflow Only


The 'Reflow only' sequence heats only the board area under the heating nozzle. It does not allow
part removal or placement. Primarily, it is used for parts already having been placed and reflowed,
and when the paste did not fully flow. Another use is with a BGA socket where the solder joints
have been cracked. The reflowing action of this sequence allows the joint’s solder to flow again to
“heal” the crack. This sequence also may be used to eliminate an open under a BGA if enough of
the solder ball is present. Liquid flux shall be applied and allowed to run down between the rows of
the BGA to help its balls reflow and wet to the pad.

NOTE: THIS SEQUENCE SHOULD NOT BE USED IN AN ATTEMPT TO REMOVE A BRIDGE


FROM A BGA. THE ADDITIONAL REFLOW shall DO NOTHING TO REMOVE AN EXISTING
BRIDGE.

Hit the 'Go' button. The prism moves into position over the heating nozzle and pick-up tube.

7.12.3 Coarse Positioning Board For Preheating


The machine prompts the user to move the board into position so the part to be preheated is under
the heating nozzle. Always place a red arrow near the part needing to be reheated so it is easy to
find on the video screen. Push the X-Y table to position the part under the prism box of the
machine. The part shall be visible in the screen.

7.12.4 Fine Adjusting Board For Preheating


Use the fine adjusting X and Y knobs to center the part over the heating nozzle. The nozzle may be
rotated slightly from the part. If so, split the distance between the nozzle to part gap on the part’s
left and right side. Repeat the same process for the top and bottom gap. Ideally, the same gap
shall be visible for the tightest areas on all 4 sides of the part. When everything is centered, hit the
'Go' button on the screen.

7.12.5 Pheheating, Soaking, And Reflow Sequence


The machine begins preheating, soaking, and reflowing the part’s solder joints. After completing
reflow, the sequence allows the machine and board to cool before the heating nozzle is lifted off
the board.

7.12.6 Repeat Sequence


The software allows repeating the same sequence by hitting 'Go', or to stop and go back to the
main menu by hitting 'Stop'. Use the cursor to indicate what is required.

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NOTE: FOR THOSE PROCESSES REQUIRING SOLDER PASTE APPLICATION, ENSURE PAD
SURFACES ARE CLEAN, FREE OF DEBRIS OR EXCESS SOLDER, AND ARE FLAT (FIGURE
80) SO PLACEMENT AND REFLOW IS PROPERLY EFFECTED. FOR PLACE AND REFLOW
PROCESSES, NOT REQUIRING SOLDER PASTE, APPLY SPECIFIED FLUX ONTO
SPECIFIED PAD AREAS (FIGURE 81).

Figure 80) Ensure part mounting site Figure 81) Apply specified flux to part
clean, smooth, and solderable. mounting site as required to assure

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331 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

NOTE: THE FOLLOWING IMAGES SHOW VARIOUS STEPS REQUIRED TO REMOVE, PICK
AND PLACE, REFLOW, PLACE A NEW PART, AND FOR SOLDER PASTE APPLICATION:

Figure 82) Select requirement from Figure 83) Mount board (underside
boxes 1, 2, and 3 as required. chimney too), as specified, and move it

Figure 84) Use Y axis knob for fine Figure 85) Use X axis knob for fine
adjustment adjustment.

Figure 86) Use Theta axis knob for fine Figure 87) View fine adjustment effects
adjustment. on screen assuring part centered within

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332 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Figure 88) Closely watch heater nozzle Figure 89) Monitor display as graph
descend and position over/around part shows heating effects to ensure

Figure 90) When picking and placing, Figure 91) When picking and placing,
center part within heating nozzle. use split mirror to accurately align

Figure 92) Observe pickup tube Figure 93) Observe heating nozzle
descending and placing part precisely descend over and precisely around part

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333 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Figure 94) Visually inspect part to Figure 95) When visually accepted,
determine accurate alignment with PCB have part/PCB X-Rayed to ensure

NOTE: THE NEXT TWO IMAGES SHOW NOTE: IF IN SOME INSTANCES SOLDER
SOMETHING OF THE SOLDER PASTE PASTE APPLICATION IS REQUIRED, THE
STENCIL PRINTING PROCESS. FOR THE NEXT PROCESS STEPS SHALL BE
REWORK OPERATION, THIS SELDOM IS EFFECTED. THERE NOW ARE BETTER
REQUIRED, NOR IS IT PREFERRED. STENCILS AVAILABLE AND THE TOOL
BETTER REFLOW PERFORMANCE, SHOWN NO LONGER IS REQUIRED AS
QUALITY, AND RELIABILITY IS ACHIEVED FLAT STENCILS, THAT CAN BE TAPED TO
WITHOUT THIS PROCESS STEP WHEN THE REWORK SITE'S SURFACE, ARE
USING A PASTE FLUX ONLY. PREFERRED - AS SHOWN IN THIS BOOK'S
PART TWO, 11.4.

Figure 96) Select required micro-stencil Figure 97) Apply solder paste using
for solder paste printing when reqhired. micro-stencil and squeegee ensuring

7.13 SQUARENESS CHECK (PERFORMED ONLY BY ENGINEERING)


Use the following procedures to run the squareness check program:

7.13.1 Program Elements And Requirements


The squareness check program is used to square the pick-up tube to the X-Y table where the
board is held. The SRT suitcase is needed. It contains a rectangular plate and a square for this
process. It is stored by technicians - in the spare parts area.

7.13.2 Mount Rectangular Plate


Remove the detachable edge supports from the X-Y table. Mount the rectangular plate in the edge
guides with the beveled edge facing up (figure 100).

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7.13.3 Bring Up Squareness Check Sequence


Bring up the "Squareness Check" sequence on the Main Screen and hit "GO".

7.13.4 Perform Squareness Measurement


The pick-up tube comes down to its near place position. Use the square to check squareness from
front to back and left to right (figure 101).

100 101

7.13.5 Perform Squaring Process


Bend the pick-up tube slightly to improve its squareness. If severely out of square, consult with the
technician to remove the tube and have it straightened.

7.14 WORK INSPECTION


When a BGA part has been added to the board, quality is inspected to verify successful rework.
Board Test & X-Ray is used to verify the process. As a preliminary step, do the following part
inspection before taking the board to these other areas.

7.14.1 Visual Component To Board Alignment (Squareness)


Check the part squareness relative to the silk-screen or traces on the board (figure 102). A part
having been fully reflowed is very square to the board. If rotated (skewed relative to the reference
line or lifted as in figure 103), this is a common sign the part has not fully reflowed.

102 103

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104 105

7.14.2 Visually Aided Reflow And Solder Joint Quality Verification


Visually inspect, or use a microscope and/or Metron Mirror to look at the 4 sides of the BGA (figure
104). First, check there was total reflow on all 4 sides, and the part collapsed towards the board
into the solder. If any residual solder paste bricks are seen, complete reflow was not effected. If
complete reflow was not effected, consult with the engineer to have the profile changed.

7.14.3 Bridging Verification


Once good solder reflow is verified, verify there are no bridges. X-Ray is used exclusively for this
determination as in figure 105 on previous page.

7.14.4 Repeat Process And X-Ray Or Board Test


Repeat the same process for the part’s other direction. If both sides look good, take the board to X-
Ray or Board Test for verification that there are no opens or other electrical problems (figures 106
and 107). Each BGA that passes X-Ray shall be marked "X-Rayed". Each BGA that does not pass
X-Ray shall be marked with a red arrow. All boards shall be returned to the BGA rework center
following the X-Ray process.

106 107

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NOTE: BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER PROCESS COMPLETION, ENTER REQUIRED


INFORMATION AND NOTES IN THE MANUAL LOG (FIGURE 107). REFER TO THE
DATALOGGER FILE MENU (FIGURE 108) FOR DETAILED INFORMATION CONCERNING
TIME, DATE, AND SEQUENCE.

107 108

7.15 TURN MACHINE OFF


Upon having completed or stopped the last sequence and when ready to turn the machine off, flip
the bright yellow and red lever on the right side of the machine to the 'Off' position.

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7.16 MEASURING AND GRAPHING TEMPERATURE PROFILES (ENGINEERING ONLY)


There are 6 thermocouples on the machine that are used to profile boards and sense the current
temperatures. The first two are built into the machine and are used to measure the top heater and
bottom heater temperatures. The other 4 are located on the left side of the machine. These can be
positioned on a board or in and around the heating nozzle by tacking them down with Kapton tape
(109). The most accurate measurements are made using scrap boards and drilling holes in them to
mount thermocouples in part site corners so tips are in very close proximity to areas to become
solder joints (figure 110).

To show real time temperature measurements, use the cursor to click on the graph icon near the
upper left corner of the screen. A graph appears showing what is being measured. Hit the 'Close'
button to hide the graph or the 'Size' button to reduce the size of it on the screen. Figure 111
shows the beginning of thermal profiling process. Figure 112 shows acceptable profile for a
particular part and board.

Figure 109) One method used to Figure 110) The preferred method used
measure temperature profiles on to measure temperature profiles on

Figure 111) Display showing beginning Figure 112) Final graph showing
of temperature profiling process acceptable thermal profile for particular

7.17 PROCESS CONTROLS AND MONITORS


The following requirements shall be met to ensure effective, efficient process control and monitor:

7.17.1 Stencil Storage


Store the minimicro stencils in their appropriate storage trays on the rework station. Verify they are
clean before using. Inspect the solder paste bricks per the inspection criteria before going on to the
next phase of BGA repair.

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338 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

7.17.2 Troubleshooting Tips

PROBLEM POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS


The board number or component reference designator are not in the list of Get the engineer or technician to set up the correct files
possible parts. for this new board and/or part.
Part placement is offset. Check for squareness on the pick-up tube, using the
square from the SRT tool kit and the "Squareness
Check" sequence. Consult the technician or engineer to
help check this.

Try a dry run of the "Place only" sequence onto a non-


pasted board. See if the placement aligns to the pads.
Balls of the BGA do not line up directly over the pads on the board. (Part Check the alignment offset in the SRT configuration file.
appears to be a different size in the video screen during alignment. It is accessible by choosing Setup, Configuration, Prism,
and finally Alignment Height.

Check that the board thickness and part thickness are


entered correctly on the board and component/site
specification screens.
The video screen is not displaying what is expected. Check that the magnification on the microscope is not
caught between settings.

Check that the split mirror is reset to its original position


and not overlapping images.
There is a gap between the heating nozzle and the board on one or more The board is not flat. Verify the support box was used
sides. and add more underside support pins. This condition
shall probably cause bridges. One of the underside
support pins may be resting on a bottom side
component or a through-hole lead.

Support pins for the Mini-Micro stencil are being used in


place of the SRT pins. The wrong pins shall lift the
board too high and make it bow upward.

The nozzle is resting on a component within the .200"


keepout area. The part shall need to be removed before
rework can proceed.
The board is not flat in the machine. Support pins and/or the support box are not being used
to support the board.

The support pins for the Mini-Micro stencil are being


used in place of the SRT pins. The wrong pins shall lift
the board too high and make it bow upward.

The support box or support pins are resting on bottom


side components or through hole leads.
Nozzle is stuck in the down position against the board. The board may not be flat. Push up gently on the left
side of the heater core to allow the machine to lift it up
out of the way. Re-adjust the board supports on the
assembly.

The air or nitrogen line may have been detached from


the machine.

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339 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

PROBLEM POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS


Nozzle is stuck in the up position. Grab the nozzle on the machine and push on it slightly.
It shall sometimes stick in this position if the machine
hasn't been used in awhile.
Can't pick up the part off of the board during "Remove" sequence. A red arrow or label is on the part and the pick-up tube
can not get a good vacuum seal to it. Remove or shift
the label.

The heatsink was not removed from the BGA prior to


rework.

The profile is not getting the board hot enough to melt


the solder joints of the part. Try using the "Manual
Remove" sequence and lift the part off with tweezers. If
the part is still stuck, consult with the engineer or
technician to modify the profile.
All the solder paste didn't melt when the part was added on. The wrong profile was used to heat the board during the
reflow cycle. The incorrect profile applied too little heat
to the board and part such that the solder in the paste
did not melt. If upon verification, the correct profile was
used, consult with the engineer or technician. A longer
reflow time or higher temperature at reflow may be
needed.
A small number of solder bridges formed under the part. There was too much paste from the mini stenciling
process.

The board was not flat during the reflow cycle. Check
that a support box was used under the part and
additional SRT point supports were used in other areas.
A gap may be visible between the nozzle and the board
surface on one side.

The part may have been out of the dry packaging and
storage environment. This caused the package to warp.

The part may be too heavy and it needs high lead


corner balls to act as a stand-off. Consult with the
engineer on this problem.
A large number of solder bridges formed under the part. The wrong profile was used to heat the board during the
reflow cycle. The incorrect profile applied too much heat
such that the part collapsed too close to the board
surface. If upon verification, the correct profile was used,
consult with the engineer or technician.

There was too much paste from the mini stenciling


process.

The part being removed has stuck to the nozzle. A label on the part may have melted and attached itself
to the pick-up tube. Get a technician or engineer to
clean out the tube. Consult with the material engineer.

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340 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

PROBLEM POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS


Open joints were detected at X-ray or board test. The part may have been out of the dry packaging and
storage environment. This caused the package to warp.

The replacement package may have been missing a


ball.

The board may not be flat. Adjust the under side support
pins to assure flatness. Verify the support pins being
used are only the SRT type.
"Cone-head" shaped joints were detected at X-ray. The solder did not fully flow during heating. Consult with
the engineer or technician to modify the profile.

Solder mask has been flaking off around the pads. Use
micro-taping to cover these areas if it is severe.
The SRT software doesn’t come up when the machine is turned on. Consult with the engineer or technician to determine
what type of software problem or computer hardware
problem is occurring.

7.18 MAINTENANCE AND CALIBRATION


The following procedures shall be used to perform maintenance and calibration processes:

7.18.1 Squareness Check (Engineering Only)


Once a week, and whenever the machine is placing components with an offset from the pads, the
pick-up tube shall be squared. Mount the metal plate from the technician's alignment kit onto the
edge guides of the X-Y table. Select and run the "Squareness Check" sequence from the Main
Menu. Use the square from the kit to see if it is square to the plate. Check it from front to back and
from side to side. Push gently on it to bring it into position. If it does not cooperate, the technician
may need to remove it and straighten it.

7.18.2 Setting Up New Profiles (Engineering Only)


The engineer or technician shall need to set up all new profiles for parts not already in the system.
The rework process is designed to try and mimic the original assembly process as closely as
possible. To do that, a preheat, a soak, a reflow, and a cool down cycle are all part of the reflow
profile to correspond to the same cycles in the reflow ovens.

1) To successfully set-up a reflow profile, a little bit of know-how, a little bit of luck, and a lot of
trial-and-error is needed. This usually is done on a prototype board that a customer wants to use.
For this reason, usually is best to start on the cool end of the spectrum increasing temperatures
and times as needed.

2) Sequences are all set up to follow the same preheat, soak, and cool down cycle. The
machine's reflow temperature and duration are specified by the engineer or technician in the
"Times and Temperatures" pull-down menu. Access this by double-clicking the mouse inside the
grey box on the screen. Type in the password and access is gained to all the maintenance and set-
up menus. The standard profile is shown in figure.

3) From "Times and Temperatures" screen, select the required board number and reference
designator. The sequence also can be selected, but it does not seem relevant for SRT's software.

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341 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Modify the top header reflow temperature, time and additional reflow time as required. Other
variables may be modified but, as the sequences are written, they do not affect the profile.

4) To set up a new board, go into the board and component/site pull-down menus to add them to
the lists. Go into the "Times and Temperatures" and estimate the peak temperature and the time
settings. Some general rules of thumb are:

• For boards with 8 layers or less, start a peak temperature between 250 degrees C and 290
degrees C.

• For boards with more than 8 layers and lots of ground planes, start with a peak
temperature between 290 degrees C and 340 degrees C.

• Metal heat sinks on the top of the part seem to help evenly distribute the heat. This tends to
reduce the peak temperature needed to reflow the part.

• Generally, adding a part onto the board takes more heat than removing it (up to 50% more).

• The sides and corners of the part tend to reflow last. If the sides have complete reflow, the
interior balls shall have complete reflow.

• Different reference designators of the same part on the same board may require different
profiles.

• The nearer the part to the board center or to heat-sinking parts, the more heat shall be needed
to reflow it.

5) An effective, non-destructive way to thermocouple a new part is to tape the thermocouples to


the board’s surface at the 4 corners of the part. Do this to a board where the part needs to be
removed. Avoid thermocoupling a part in wet solder paste.

6) Run the removal sequence with initial time and temperature settings. Ideally, all 4
thermocouples shall indicate a minimum of 210 degrees C for at least 30 seconds, and a peak
temperature no more than 250 degrees C. Since the back of the part is much cooler than its front,
due to the machine's air flow, pay close attention to the bounds on this recommendation. It also is a
good idea to not allow the solder to be molten at any place on the part for more than 2 1/2 minutes.

7) After first attempting part removal, much knowledge may be applied concerning future time and
temperature relationships, as well as peak temperature requirements.

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342 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

8.0 QUALITY SYSTEM AND OPERATIONS AUDIT CHECKLIST


The following checklist shall be used by all repair/rework process managers to ensure effective,
efficient repair/rework process management. The checklist shall be used before, during, and after
operations.

8.1 PRE PROCESS START REQUIREMENTS AND SAFETY INSPECTION

INSPECT AROUND AND IN MACHINE FOR ANY SAFETY VIOLATIONS OR ANY


OBJECTS THAT MIGHT CAUSE PERSONAL INJURYU OR MACHINE DAMAGE

MACHINE SETUP – POWER ON

COMPUTER BOOT – PROPER DISPLAY SCREEN

SCREEN DISPLAY STEPS - SHOWS 3 STEPS FOR BOARD TO BE REWORKED

 1 - ASSEMBLY NUMBER FOR BOARD - CHANGE - SELECT

 2 - COMPONENT/SITE – CHANGE – SELECT – REFERENCE DESIGNATOR

 3 - SELECT SEQUENCE

 REMOVE
 PLACE ONLY
 PLACE AND REFLOW

IF REQUIRED SEQUENCE NOT DISPLAYED - CHANGE BOX – SELECT

BEGIN SEQUENCE - WITH CORRECT ITEMS SHOWN FOR #1, #2, AND #3 - BEGIN
SEQUENCE (GO) - NEXT SECTION

8.2 MACHINE WARM-UP (ONLY WHEN SPECIFIED)

SAMPLE BOARD - CLAMP IN PLACE

MOVE BOARD INTO POSITION - MACHINE PROMPTS TO MOVE BOARD INTO POSITION
- NOZZLE COMPLETELY OVER SCRAP BOARD - WHEN IN POSITION - GO

WARM UP HEATING NOZZLE - MOVES INTO POSITION – 4 MINUTE WARM-UP CYCLE

8.3 PART REMOVAL

STANDARD BGA REMOVAL - SELECT ASSEMBLY NUMBER - REFERENCE


DESIGNATOR - REMOVE SEQUENCE FROM MAIN SCREEN

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343 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

NOTE: IF PART TO BE REMOVED IS A SOCKET WITH AN OPEN MIDDLE, OR A PART THAT


HAS AN IRREGULAR TOP, IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO USE 'MANUAL REMOVE'
SEQUENCE

REMOVE SEQUENCE - AUTOMATICALLY LIFTS PART OFF BOARD - ALLOWS


MACHINE TO COOL BEFORE DISCARDING PART

NOTE: PREFERRED OVER 'MANUAL REMOVE' - LESS SERIOUS BOARD WARPAGE

GO - PRISM MOVES INTO POSITION OVER HEATING NOZZLE AND PICK-UP TUBE

MOVE BOARD INTO POSITION - MACHINE PROMPTS TO MOVE BOARD INTO POSITION
SO PART TO BE REWORKED IS UNDER HEATING NOZZLE

NOTE: PLACE RED ARROW NEAR PART TO BE REWORKED SO IT IS EASY TO FIND ON


VIDEO DISPLAY SCREEN. DO NOT PLACE OVER MIDDLE OF THE PART - PICK-UP TUBE
SHALL HAVE TROUBLE MAKING A SEAL TO PART WHEN IT TRIES LIFTING IT OFF

PUSH X-Y TABLE TO POSITION PART UNDER MACHINE’S PRISM BOX - PART VISIBLE
ON SCREEN

FINE ADJUSTMENT - FINE ADJUST X AND Y KNOBS - CENTER PART OVER HEATING
NOZZLE - NOZZLE MAY BE ROTATED SLIGHTLY - IF SO, SPLIT DISTANCE BETWEEN
NOZZLE TO PART GAP ON PART’S THE LEFT AND RIGHT - REPEAT PROCESS FOR TOP
AND BOTTOM GAP

NOTE: IDEALLY, SAME GAP VISIBLE FOR TIGHTEST AREAS ON ALL 4 SIDES OF PART.

WHEN EVERYTHING CENTERED - GO

PREHEAT, SOAK, AND REFLOW CYCLES - MACHINE NOW PREHEATS, SOAKS, AND
REFLOWS SOLDER PASTE TO EFFECT SOLDER JOINT

NOTE: DURING REMOVE SEQUENCE IT SHALL USE THE PICK-UP TUBE TO LIFT PART
FROM MELTED SOLDER. IF VACUUM SENSOR DETECTS PART PICKED UP, IT SHALL
TURN OFF HEATERS AND WAIT FOR MACHINE TO COOL DOWN BEFORE LIFTING
HEATING NOZZLE UP AND DISCARDING PART. IF VACUUM SENSOR DOES NOT DETECT
PART PICKED UP, IT RETRIES - TIMES PROGRAMMED - WAITS FOR INDICATION TO STOP
TRYING. RETRY OR 'CANCEL - AS APPROPRIATE

REPEAT SEQUENCE - SOFTWARE REPEATS SAME SEQUENCE - GO OR STOP

8.4 ADD NEW PART

 PLACE AND REFLOW SEQUENCE - SEQUENCE IS COMBINATION - PLACE


ONLY/REFLOW ONLY SEQUENCES LINKED

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344 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

 USE SPECIFIED PART NUMBER WITH SPECIFIED BOARD WITH SPECIFIED HEATING
NOZZLE (PART PERIMETER INSIDE HEATING NOZZLE WITH .110” CLEARANCE ALL
AROUND).

 USE SPECIFIED BOARD SUPPORT AS REQUIRED

 FLUX SITE WITH SPECIFIED FLUX (TYPE, SHELF LIFE, ETC.) AT SPECIFIED LOCATION
AND ENSURE NOT ON SITE LONGER THAN ½ HOUR

NOTE: BE SURE TO INSPECT PART FOR MISSING BALLS (BGA’S) OR BENT LEADS
(LEADED DEVICES).

 ALIGN PART USING VISION CAMERA AND SPLIT MIRROR ENSURING ALL BALL OR
LEAD ROWS ALIGN PROPERLY WHILE ENSURING ALL PADS ARE COVERED WITH
CORRESPONDING BALLS OR LEADS

 PLACEMENT AFTER ALIGNMENT – GO - PICK-UP TUBE LOWERS PART TO JUST


ABOVE PASTE (WHEN SPECIFIED) - HEATING NOZZLE DROPS OVER PART - TOUCHES
BOARD - PICK-UP TUBE GENTLY PLACES PART INTO PASTE

 REFLOW - DO NOT TO USE PLACE ONLY/REFLOW ONLY AS SUBSTITUTES FOR THIS


COMBINED SEQUENCE AS HEATING NOZZLE LOWERS OVER PART ALREADY PLACED
BY PICK-UP TUBE - ALLOW HEATING NOZZLE TO REST AGAINST BOARD AND LET PICK-
UP TUBE PLACE PART INTO PASTE

NOTE: THIS DOES NOT ALLOW BOARD TO BOUNCE TO DISTURB PART RESTING IN
PASTE. THIS EFFECT IS BELIEVED TO BE A PRIMARY CAUSE OF BRIDGING

CAUTION: OPERATORS ONLY REFLOW ONCE. IF UNSUCCESSFUL, CONTACT


ENGINEERING TO CHANGE PROFILE AS ONLY THREE REWORK CYCLES ARE PERMITTED
THEN BOARD SHALL BE SCRAPPED. ALSO, DO NOT ROTATE OR MOVE BOARD FROM
POSITIONS SHOWN IN FOLLOWING PHOTOS AS ENGINEERING HAS PROFILED FROM
PRECISE LOCATIONS.

8.5 PICK AND PLACE PART

 PLACE NEW PART ON BOARD AND REFLOW - ONLY USE PLACE AND REFLOW
SEQUENCE. VERIFY SHOWN IN THE 'SEQUENCE' BOX (ITEM 3) ON MAIN MENU -SELECT
APPLICABLE ASSEMBLY NUMBER AND REFERENCE DESIGNATOR, FOR BOARD TO BE
PROCESSED - SURE PRESENT IN BOARD AND COMPONENT/SITE BOX

 BOARD WITH REQUIRED BGA SITE PASTED (AS REQUIRED)

 BOARD MOUNTED ONTO MACHINE WITH REQUIRED “HEAT CHIMNEY” AND


PERIPHERAL SUPPORTS

 NEW PART FROM STOCK

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345 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

NOTE: THE BGA SHALL HAVE BEEN STORED IN A SEALED CONTAINER OR DRY
STORAGE BOX. IF NOT, IT SHALL NEED TO BE BAKED PRIOR TO REWORK. LOOK AT THE
BOTTOM OF THE PACKAGE TO VERIFY THERE ARE NO MISSING BALLS. ALSO DOUBLE
CHECK THE STOCK ROOM ISSUED THE CORRECT COMPONENT AND IT IS THE SIZE AND
PIN CONFIGURATION REQUIRED FOR THE BOARD TO BE PROCESSED.

 BEGIN CYCLE - GO - MACHINE PROMPTS - PLACE PART INTO NEST. ORIENT PART’S
POLARITY - MATCH BOARD MOUNTED IN MACHINE.

NOTE: USE DRAWING AND SILK-SCREEN GRAPHICS TO VERIFY BOARD POLARITY.


COMPONENT AND BOARD POLARITY INDICATORS MUST MATCH. IF NOT, REWORK TIME
WASTED AND BOARD SCRAPPED.

 WHEN PART CORRECTLY IN NEST - GO - MACHINE PROMPTS TO CHECK POLARITY


AGAIN - GO

 MACHINE PROMPTS - COARSE CENTER SITE IN VIDEO WINDOW - PUSH OR PULL


TABLE AROUND TO POSITION - BGA SITE PADS VISIBLE IN MIDDLE OF SCREEN. ROTATE
MICROSCOPE MAGNIFICATION KNOB TO VIEW ENTIRE BGA SITE AT ONE TIME.

NOTE: THIS STEP PROVIDED ONLY TO ACHIEVE COARSE POSITIONING. PRECISE


POSITIONING NOT NOW IMPORTANT - ASSURE ONLY CORRECT REFERENCE
DESIGNATOR VIEWABLE. TO ENCOURAGE THIS, MACHINE ONLY TURNS ON BOARD
LIGHTING. WHEN BGA PADS ROUGHLY IN MIDDLE OF THE SCREEN

 GO

 MACHINE TURNS ON PART AND BOARD LIGHTING. PRECISE ALIGNMENT FOLLOWS:

 USE ADJUSTMENT KNOBS ON UPPER LEFT AND LOWER RIGHT SIDE OF TABLE TO
ADJUST BOARD POSITION MAKING PADS OVERLAP BGA BALL POSITIONS. FOCUS ON
ONE ROW OF BALLS AND PADS - POSITION FIRST

 USE SILVER KNOB ON UPPER LEFT SIDE OF SHROUD OVER HEATING CORE AND
PICK-UP SYSTEM TO ADJUST PART ROTATION. FOCUS ON ONE ROW OF BALLS AND
PADS AT A TIME TO ADJUST

 USE PART AND BOARD LIGHTING ADJUSTMENT KNOBS TO CHANGE LIGHT


INTENSITY ON EACH ITEM IN VIEW.

NOTE: BY TURNING LIGHTS UP AND DOWN, VERIFICATION MADE ABOUT WHAT IS SEEN
ON SCREEN ARE BALLS OR PADS ON BOARD. CONCENTRATE ON ONE CORNER AT A
TIME - WATCH PAD DISAPPEAR AND BALL REAPPEAR IN SAME EXACT SPOT. THIS
HELPS ASSURE PRECISE OVERLAP. IF BGA HAS ONLY 4 ROWS OF BALLS ALL AROUND
PERIMETER, THERE ONLY SHALL BE SEEN 4 ROWS OF ROUND OBJECTS ON EACH SIDE.
IF MORE THAN 4 ROWS SEEN, ADJUST IN LEFT/RIGHT, OR UP/DOWN TO GET ALL PADS
TO OVERLAP

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346 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

 PART PLACEMENT - GO - MACHINE PLACES PART. IF PLACE ONLY SEQUENCE RAN -


MACHINE PLACES PART INTO PASTE - VISUALLY OBSERVE PLACEMENT RESULTS. IF
PLACE AND REFLOW SEQUENCE USED, MACHINE LOWERS PART, LOWERS HEATING
NOZZLE TO BOARD, PLACES PART, AND REFLOWS IT.

8.6 REFLOW OPERATIONS

REFLOW PART PLACED ON BOARD

 SELECT ASSEMBLY NUMBER, REFERENCE DESIGNATOR, AND REFLOW ONLY


SEQUENCE FROM MAIN SCREEN.

 COMPONENT SITE FLUXED AS SPECIFIED AND LOWER SUPPORT “HEAT CHIMNEY”


IN PLACE WITH SPECIFIED BOARD EDGE SUPPORTS.

NOTE: IF PART TO BE REFLOWED HAS A HEATSINK ON TOP, REMOVE IT FIRST. REFLOW


ONLY SEQUENCE ONLY HEATS BOARD AREA UNDER HEATING NOZZLE. IT DOES NOT
ALLOW PART REMOVAL OR PLACEMENT. ALSO, THIS SEQUENCE SHOULD NOT BE USED
TO TRY AND REMOVE A BRIDGE FROM A BGA. THE ADDITIONAL REFLOW SHALL DO
NOTHING TO REMOVE AN EXISTING BRIDGE

 GO - PRISM MOVES INTO POSITION OVER HEATING NOZZLE AND PICK-UP TUBE

 MACHINE PROMPTS USER TO MOVE BOARD INTO POSITION SO PART TO BE


PREHEATED IS UNDER HEATING NOZZLE.

NOTE: PLACE A RED ARROW NEAR PART TO BE REHEATED SO IT IS EASY TO FIND ON


VIDEO SCREEN. PUSH X-Y TABLE TO POSITION PART UNDER MACHINE’S PRISM BOX.
THE PART SHALL BE VISIBLE IN THE SCREEN

 FINE ADJUST BOARD FOR PREHEATING

 MACHINE BEGINS PREHEAT, SOAK, AND REFLOW SEQUENCE. AFTER REFLOW


COMPLETE, SEQUENCE ALLOWS MACHINE AND BOARD TO COOL DOWN BEFORE
HEATING NOZZLE LIFTED OFF BOARD

 SOFTWARE ALLOWS SAME SEQUENCE REPEAT – GO - OR TO STOP AND GO BACK


TO MAIN MENU BY HITTING STOP.

8.7 SQUARENESS CHECK PROGRAM (ENGINEERING ONLY)

USE SQUARENESS CHECK PROGRAM TO SQUARE PICK-UP TUBE TO X-Y TABLE


WHERE BOARD IS HELD

REMOVE THE DETACHABLE EDGE SUPPORTS FROM X-Y TABLE. MOUNT


RECTANGULAR PLATE THE EDGE GUIDES WITH BEVELED EDGE UP

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347 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

BRING UP THE "SQUARENESS CHECK" SEQUENCE ON THE MAIN SCREEN

GO

PICK-UP TUBE COMES DOWN TO ITS NEAR PLACE POSITION. USE SQUARE TO
CHECK SQUARENESS - FRONT TO BACK - LEFT TO RIGHT

BEND PICK-UP TUBE SLIGHTLY TO IMPROVE ITS SQUARENESS. IF SEVERELY OUT


OF SQUARE, CONSULT WITH TECHNICIAN TO REMOVE TUBE AND HAVE IT
STRAIGHTENED

8.8 WORK INSPECTION (CHECKLIST UNDER CONSTRUCTION)

AFTER BGA PART ADDED TO BOARD - QUALITY INSPECTED TO VERIFY SUCCESSFUL


REWORK. BOARD TEST & X-RAY IS USED TO VERIFY THE PROCESS. AS A PRELIMINARY
STEP, DO THE FOLLOWING PART INSPECTION BEFORE TAKING THE BOARD TO THESE
OTHER AREAS:

COMPARE PART SQUARENESS TO BOARD’S SILK-SCREEN OR TRACES. A PART THAT


HAS FULLY REFLOWED IS VERY SQUARE TO THE BOARD. IF IT IS ROTATED, THE PART
HAS NOT FULLY REFLOWED

 USE A METRON MIRROR TO LOOK AT THE 4 SIDES OF THE BGA. FIRST, CHECK THAT
THERE WAS TOTAL REFLOW ON ALL 4 SIDES, AND THE PART COLLAPSED TOWARDS
THE BOARD INTO THE SOLDER. IF ANY RESIDUAL SOLDER PASTE BRICKS ARE SEEN,
COMPLETE REFLOW WAS NOT EFFECTED. IF COMPLETE REFLOW WAS NOT EFFECTED,
USE THE "REFLOW ONLY" PROFILE TO TRY AGAIN. BEFORE RUNNING THE SEQUENCE,
ROTATE THE BOARD 180 DEGREES IN THE MACHINE. IF THIS DOESN'T TAKE CARE OF
THE COMPLETE REFLOW PROBLEM, CONSULT WITH THE ENGINEER OR TECHNICIAN TO
GET THE PROFILE CHANGED

 ONCE A GOOD SOLDER REFLOW IS VERIFIED, VERIFY THERE ARE NO BRIDGES. TO


DO THIS, USE A LONG, RECTANGULAR BGA METRON MIRROR AND A FIBER OPTIC LIGHT
SOURCE TO INSPECT DOWN THE ROWS OF THE BGA. POSITION THE FIBER OPTIC LIGHT
SOURCE DIRECTLY IN FRONT. PLACE IT CLOSE TO THE BALLS OF THE BGA. PLACE THE
BGA IN FRONT OF THE LIGHT. PLACE THE MIRROR AGAINST THE BOARD SURFACE AT
ABOUT A 45 DEGREE ANGLE

NOTE: WITH THE LIGHT AND MIRROR POSITIONED CORRECTLY, BRIGHT HOURGLASS
BEAMS OF LIGHT SHALL BE SEEN COMING THROUGH THE ROWS OF THE BGA.
REPOSITION TO SEE THE OTHER END OF THE PART

 REPEAT PROCESS AND X-RAY OR BOARD TEST REPEAT THE SAME PROCESS FOR
THE PART’S OTHER DIRECTION. IF BOTH SIDES LOOK GOOD, TAKE THE BOARD TO X-
RAY OR BOARD TEST FOR VERIFICATION THAT THERE ARE NO OPENS OR OTHER
ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS. (SEE FIG. 6). EACH BGA THAT PASSES X-RAY SHALL BE

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348 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

MARKED "X-RAYED". EACH BGA THAT DOES NOT PASS X-RAY SHALL BE MARKED WITH
A RED ARROW. ALL BOARDS SHALL BE RETURNED TO THE BGA REWORK CENTER
FOLLOWING THE X-RAY PROCESS

8.9 TURN MACHINE OFF (ONLY WHEN REQUIRED)

 TURNING OFF THE MACHINE UPON HAVING COMPLETED OR STOPPED THE LAST
SEQUENCE AND WHEN READY TO TURN THE MACHINE OFF, FLIP THE BRIGHT YELLOW
AND RED LEVER ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE MACHINE TO THE 'OFF' POSITION

 GRAPHING THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE W/ THERMOCOUPLES THERE ARE 6


THERMOCOUPLES ON THE MACHINE THAT ARE USED TO PROFILE BOARDS AND SENSE
THE CURRENT TEMPERATURES. THE FIRST TWO ARE BUILT INTO THE MACHINE AND
ARE USED TO MEASURE THE TOP HEATER AND BOTTOM HEATER TEMPERATURES. THE
OTHER 4 ARE LOCATED ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE MACHINE. THESE CAN BE
POSITIONED ON A BOARD OR IN AND AROUND THE HEATING NOZZLE BY TACKING
THEM DOWN WITH KAPTON TAPE. TO SHOW WHAT IS BEING MEASURED BY THEM, USE
THE CURSOR TO CLICK ON THE GRAPH ICON NEAR THE UPPER LEFT CORNER OF THE
SCREEN. A GRAPH SHALL APPEAR AND SHOW WHAT IS BEING MEASURED. HIT THE
'CLOSE' BUTTON TO HIDE THE GRAPH OR THE 'SIZE' BUTTON TO REDUCE THE SIZE OF
IT ON THE SCREEN

 PERFORM MAINTENANCE AND CALIBRATION

8.10 ABREVIATED AUDIT CHECKLIST – SYSTEM OPERATIONS SEQUENCE

CHOOSE BOARD, SITE, AND SEQUENCE


CLICK GO TO START CYCLE. - PRISM SHUTTLE TRANSPORTS PRISM ABOVE
COMPONENT.
ILLUMINATION ON. COMPONENT IS CENTERED IN NOZZLE BY ADJUSTING BOARD IN
X AND Y AXIS
PRISM SHUTTLE RETRACTS. - ILLUMINATION OFF.
HEATER IS LOWERED TO BOARD - REFLOW CYCLE IS STARTED
AS REFLOW CYCLE ENDS, PICKUP TUBE DESCENDS, TOUCHES COMPONENT,
VACUUM IS ACTIVATED, AND PICKUP IS RASED TO NEAR PLACE POSITION – REMOVING
COMPONENT FROM BOARD.
HEATER IS RAISED. - PICKUP ASCENDS TO HOME POSITION.
COMPONENT SHUTTLE TRANSPORTS COMPONENT NEST UNDER COMPONENT.
PICKUP TUBE DESCENDS TO PICK POISITON - VACUUM IS DEACTIVATED.
COMPONENT IS RELEASED INTO NEST.
PICKUP TUBE ASCENDS TO HOME POSITION

PLACEMENT SEQUENCE

CHOOSE BOARD, SITE, AND SEQUENCE

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349 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

CLICK GO TO START CYCLE.- SHUTTLE TRANPORTS COMPONENT AND PRISM


UNDERNEATH VACUUM PICKUP TUBE.
PICKUP TUBE DESCENDS FROM HOME TO PICK POSITION, TOUCHES COMPONENT,
VACUUM ACTIVATES, AND COMPONENT IS PICKED AND RAISED TO HOME POSITION.
COMPONENT SHUTTLE RETRACTS. ILLUMINATION ON.
OPERATOR PROMPTED TO BRING SITE INTO VIEW UNDER PRISM AND TO CLICK GO.
PART LOWERED TO ALIGNMENT HEIGHT.
IMAGE ALIGNMENT PERFORMED BY ADJUSTING BOARD IN X AND Y AXIS, AND
COMPONENT IN THETA.
PRISM SHUTTLE RETRACTS - ILLUMINATION OFF.
PICKUP TUBE DESCENDS TO NEAR PLACE - THEN PLACE POSITIONS.
VACUUM DEACTIVATED AND PUCKUP TUBE ASCENDS TO HOME POSITION.
IF APPROPRIATE, PLACEMENT IS FOLLOWED BY REFLOW CYCLE

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350 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

12.11 MSD AND VACUUM SEALING PROCEDURES

1.0 PURPOSE
The purpose of these procedures is to provide standardized sensitivity classifications and handling
procedures to avoid damage to moisture sensitive devices.

2.0 SCOPE
This scope of these procedures applies to all integrated circuits in packages which, because of
absorbed moisture, could be sensitive to damage during solder reflow.

3.0 DEFINITIONS/ACRONYMS
• Moisture Sensitive Device (MSD) - Any component that may have its reliability degraded by
reflow soldering due to the moisture content inside the component.
• RH – Relative Humidity
• Desiccator – Humidity controlled environmental space (may also be referred to as Dry Box).
• Critical Moisture Limit - The maximum safe moisture content a part can have for reflow
soldering.
• Humidity Controlled Space - A storage chamber that can maintain a maximum relative humidity
level of 20% at building ambient temperature. These are dry boxes, nitrogen chambers and
desiccators.
• Moisture Barrier Bag - A bag that is stamped with DRY PACK or has a sticker stating there are
moisture sensitive devices inside. MIL-STD-81075 TYPE I.
• Desiccant - A moisture absorbing material in a bag form meeting MIL-D-3464, TYPE II
• Humidity Indicator Card - A card with % humidity markings having instruction about reading the
humidity.
• Dry Pack - A moisture barrier bag with desiccant and humidity indicator card inside.
• Exposure Limit - The maximum time a component can be out of a humidity-controlled
environment, or out of a dry pack.
• Dry box – Container (chamber or dry environmental storage unit) used to store moisture
sensitive devices for short periods.
• Level 2 - Allows component to be out of a humidity-controlled environment for one year at
<30°C/60% RH.
• Level 3 - Allows component to be out of a humidity-controlled environment for a maximum of
168 hours <30°C/60% RH.
• Level 4 - Allows component to be out of a humidity-controlled environment for a maximum of
72 hours <30°C/60% RH.
• Level 5 - Allows component to be out of a humidity-controlled environment for 24 to 48 hours
<30°C/60% RH.
• Level 6 – Component always shall be baked before use and once baked shall be reflowed
within the time limit specified on the label.

NOTE: DUE TO A GEOGRAPHICAL AREA'S LOW HUMIDITY AND HIGH PARTS TURN OVER
IT MAY BE POSSIBLE ONLY TO BE CONCERNED WITH LEVEL 3 AND ABOVE. LEVELS 1 &
2 SHALL BE TREATED AS NON-SENSITIVE PARTS.

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351 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

4.0 ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD) PROTECTION


The relatively low humidity of the baking environment requires that ESD precautions shall be
observed in the handling of components.

Use standard ESD handling during entire procedures.

Consult the packaging materials specification before reusing packaging media such as trays.

5.0 BAKING CONDITIONS (REQUIREMENTS OR SHALL BE's)


When baking components, the part number shall be logged as well as the date and time
components are placed in the oven. Also, the date and time components shall be removed from
the oven, and actual removal, shall be logged.

Components shall be placed in a dry pack after removal from the bake oven.

Baking temperature shall be determined by verifying what temperature the shipping media has
marked on it.

Unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer, bake components shipped in high temperature
shipping media for 12 hours at 125°C (+10°C/-10°C). Electronic Assembly Development Center
recommends a 12-hour bake instead of the 24-hour bake specified by IPC.

Components packed in shipping media which shall not withstand the 125° C temperature shall be
baked at 40°C (+5°C/-0°C) for 168 hours at <5% RH. Electronic Assembly Development Center
recommends a 168-hour bake instead of the 192-hour bake recommended by IPC.

6.0 MOISTURE SENSITIVE DEVICE IDENTIFCATION.


Moisture sensitive device level 1 through level 6 shall be clearly identified and designated by the
manufacturer.

Moisture sensitive devices shall be packaged in DRY PACK’S or shall be stored in humidity
controlled environments.

DRY PACK’S containing parts labeled as level 3 through level 6 shall be considered moisture
sensitive devices.

7.0 OPENING DRY PACKS AND VERIFYING MOISTURE CONTENT


DRY PACKS shall be opened by carefully cutting straight across the package near the heat seal
with a pair of scissors.

Remove the humidity indicator card and ensure the humidity level has not exceeded 20%.

If the humidity indicator card reads 20% or less, proceed with normal, specified operations.

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352 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

If the 20% RH dot has turned pink and the 30% RH dot is not blue, components have been
exposed to a level of moisture beyond that recommended, and the usable “dry” pack life has
expired. These components shall be baked prior to reflow as specified herein.

Carefully inspect moisture barrier bags for holes or tears. If any bag is damaged, discard it
immediately and use an undamaged bag.

Place all components, fresh desiccant, and humidity indicator card into the DRY PACK.

Reseal bag with vacuum heat sealer with nitrogen purge as clearly indicated in these procedures.

Humidity Humidity
reading reading
20% or greater than
less 20 %

8.0 LEVEL 3 THROUGH LEVEL 6 MOISTURE SENSITIVE DEVICE EXPOSURE TIME


TRACKING AND TRACEABILITY.

Component packaging shall have bar code labels with Hewlett-Packard part number, moisture
sensitivity level, date, and exposure limit label affixed to packaging. Personnel applying blank
exposure limit labels are responsible for the following:

Place the Exposure limit label on the component package, on the same side as the part number
label. If components are new or if they just came out of the drying oven, fill in the Previous
Exposure Time with a 0 (zero). If components are not new and all the lines on the previous
Exposure limit label were filled in, enter the cumulative time from the old label in the Previous
Exposure Time on the new Exposure limit label.

General guidelines for filling out “Time Open and Time Sealed” data on Exposure Limit labels.

a) Fill in the current date & time when opening a dry pack and loading components on a machine.

b) Time exposed shall be written in tenths of an hour.

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353 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

c) Personnel unloading components upon job completion are responsible for bag sealing, and
entering the date, and time on the Exposure Limit label.

d) Determine how long components were most recently exposed and add this to the # of hours a
reel was previously exposed. This provides the Cumulative Exposure Time.

e) Components now shall be in a dry pack and resealed.

Maximum hours 168 Prev. Exposure time 0


Time Open Time Sealed Cumulative
Date Time Date Time Exposure Time
2/5/98 7:30 AM 2/5/98 10:45 AM 3.3
4/3/98 8:44 AM 4//98 11:12 AM 5.8

0-6 minutes .1 31-36 minutes .6


7-12 minutes .2 37-42 minutes .7
13-18 minutes .3 43-48 minutes .8
19-24 minutes .4 49-54 minutes .9
25-30 minutes .5 55-60 minutes 1

9.0 REACTIVATING DESICCANT BAGS


Determine if bag can be reactivated by baking. If bag cannot be reactivated discard the bag in the
normal trash (not hazardous waste).

Bags shall be marked with reactivation instructions. Example, REACTIVATION TIME IN BAG 16
HOURS AT 245° F (+ 10°F /- 10°F).

Verify that bags are in good condition, before and after the bake cycle.

Bake bags per instruction marked on the bag.

Store desiccant in a moisture proof container (original container).

Reactivation
information

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10.0 CORRECT PACKAGING FOR MOISTURE SENSITIVE PARTS


Select proper size moisture-barrier bag. Look inside bag towards light, to check for holes. If the bag
has holes throw the bag in the trash, and select a new bag.

Insert fresh desiccant pack and one humidity indicator card in a moisture barrier bag. The indicator
shall change colors with the Relative Humidity level of its environment.

Place moisture sensitive parts inside prepared bag.

Seal bag using vacuum/heat sealer. Part number and Moisture Sensitivity Caution Label shall be
on outside of bag.

11.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

IPC-SM-786A Procedures for Characterizing and handling of MSD's

Reflow Sensitive ICs


MIL-STD-81075 TYPE I Barrier materials Flexible. Electrostatic-free Heat sealable
MIL-D-3464 TYPE II Desiccant, Activated, bagged, Packaging use and Static

Dehumidification
A-5951-1589-1
Hewlett Packard document ESD 5961-7344 May 26, 1995 Plastic BGA Project
Notebook

12.0 EQUIPMENT

NAME DESCRIPTION
Oven Used to bake components at low
temperature.

Oven Used to bake components at high


temperature. And reactivate
desiccant bags.
Desiccator Used to store components in when
not in Dry packs

Vacuum heat sealer Used to vacuum seal component in


moisture proof bags

13.0 Primary Stock Receiving


Receive components into primary stock.

Check moisture sensitivity level on Moisture sensitive caution label. If moisture level is not
indicated, either by level number or maximum exposure time, contact materials engineering to
obtain correct information.

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355 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Enter part number in database and compare moisture sensitive level in database with moisture
sensitive level on caution label. If two levels match, proceed to next step. If levels do not match,
contact materials engineering to verify which is correct. If part number is not found in database,
enter it as required.

If packaging is sealed and in good condition, proceed as required. If bag is not sealed or is
damaged, re-bake and/or reseal in new bag as required.

Components shall be baked to remove moisture, as required. Place used desiccant bag in storage
container for bags needing reactivation. Enter date and time bag is resealed on the exposure limit
label. Reseal excess components, fresh desiccant bag, and humidity indicator card in a moisture
barrier bag.

Place dry pack in the specified stock location.

14.0 Primary Stock Issue Parts


Pull components to be issued from stock location.

Open package by cutting along heat seal to allow bag reuse. Remove components, desiccant bag,
and humidity indicator card. Place desiccant bag in storage container for bags needing
reactivation. Enter date and time bag opened on exposure limit label.

Determine if the humidity indicator card indicates humidity is above 20% the components shall be
baked. If the humidity is 20% or lower, proceed to next step.

Components shall be baked to remove moisture, as required. Place used desiccant bag in storage
container for bags needing reactivation.

Separate issue quantity components from total quantity of component on hand.

Enter date and time bags are resealed on exposure limit labels. Reseal excess components, fresh
desiccant bags, and humidity indicator cards in moisture barrier bags.

Ship components issued to customer.

Return excess components to specified stock location.

15.0 Secondary Stock Returned parts


Read cumulative exposure time label to determine if exposed time is within specified sensitivity
level limits. If exposed time is within sensitivity level limits, proceed. If exposed time is over
specified sensitivity level limits, perform baking process.

If bag is sealed and in good condition, proceed with next step.

Components shall be baked to remove moisture when required. Place desiccant bag in storage
container for bags needing reactivation.

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356 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Place components in moisture barrier bag with a fresh desiccant bag and humidity indicator card.
Reseal bag using vacuum heat sealer.

Return components to specified stock location.

16.0 Secondary Stock Parts Issue


Verify quantity issued is the same as part quantity contained in the package received. If so,
proceed to next step. If quantity is different, notify stock and correct.

Open package by cutting along heat seal to allow bag reuse. Remove components, desiccant bag,
and humidity indicator card. Place desiccant bag in storage container for those needing
reactivation. Enter date and time the bag opened on exposure limit label.

Determine if the humidity card indicates humidity is higher than 20%. If so, rebake. If the humidity
is 20% or lower then proceed.

Components shall be baked to remove moisture, as required.

Separate component issue quantity from total component quantity.

Enter date and time bags are resealed on exposure limit labels. Reseal excess components, fresh
desiccant bags, and humidity indicator cards in moisture barrier bags. For correctly issued
components, proceed. Notify stock when excess components are found.

Place a date label on package if missing.

Ship components to customer.

Return excess components to primary stock.

17.0 Recycle Desiccant Bags


Inspect bags assuring bags are marked with baking instructions for bag reactivation.

Example: Reactivation time in bag 16 hours at 245°° F (+ 10°°F /- 10°°F).

Discard bags in specified trash containers if they have no reactivation instructions.

Visually inspect bag to determine the condition of the bags before baking. If bag condition
unacceptable, discard bags in specified trash containers.

When baking required, place bags in oven, set temperature to 245° F. and bake bags for sixteen
hours before removing from the oven.

Visually inspect bags after baking to determine bag condition. If bag condition unacceptable,
discard bags in specified trash containers. If bag condition acceptable, proceed.

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357 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Reactivated bags shall be stored in original shipping containers.

18.0 Pick and Place


Receive parts from stock and immediately verify part number on bag matches part number
ordered.

Open package by cutting along heat seal allowing bag reuse. Record date and time bag was
opened as indicated on exposure limit label. If parts are new but with no exposure limit label, the
operator shall attach an exposure limit label to component package.

Determine if humidity indicator card in bag indicates humidity higher than 20%. If so, components
shall be sent back to secondary stock to be baked. If humidity is 20% or lower, proceed to next
step.

Load components on feeder, complete machine setup, and proceed.

If production is interrupted, remove feeders with moisture sensitive devices for proper disposition. If
not, proceed to next step.

Store moisture sensitive devices on feeders in dry box until the assembly line is ready to complete
operation within specified time required for moisture sensitive devices.

When assembly line is ready to resume the production run, remove feeders with moisture sensitive
devices from dry box, and proceed.

Run assemblies until production is complete.

When the production run is complete, the operator shall tear down the set up, remove moisture
sensitive devices from the feeders, and proceed to next step.

Record date and time on exposure limit label.

Determine if cumulative exposure time is within sensitivity level limits. If exposed time is within
sensitivity level limits, proceed to next step. If exposed time is over the sensitivity level limits,
rebake.

After rebake, place components in moisture barrier bag with a fresh desiccant bag and humidity
indicator card. Reseal bag using the vacuum heat sealer.

Return remaining components to secondary stockroom.

19.0 Programming
Receive parts from stock for programming, and verify whether components are moisture sensitive
parts.

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358 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Open bags as describe in section 7.0 of this document. If bags never opened and/or there is no
exposure limit label, add it/them. Record date and time bag was opened on the exposure limit
label.

Determine if the humidity indicator card in bag indicates humidity is higher than 20%. If so,
components shall be baked.

Program components as specified for individual part numbers and proceed.

NOTE: NON-PROGRAMMED PARTS SHALL BE RETURNED TO PRIMARY STOCK.

Record date and time that the moisture barrier bag is closed on the exposure limit label.

Determine if cumulative exposure time is within sensitivity level limits. If exposed time is within
sensitivity level limits, proceed to next step. If exposed time is over sensitivity level limits, rebake.

Place components in moisture barrier bag with a fresh desiccant bag and humidity indicator card.
Reseal the bag using the vacuum heat sealer.

Ship programmed parts to the customer.

Return all non-programmed parts to the Primary stock.

20.0 Rework
Determine if printed circuit board to be assembled has any moisture sensitive parts. For boards
without moisture sensitive parts, proceed. Boards with moisture sensitive parts must be assembled
only as specified in this procedure.

Determine whether any moisture sensitive parts, required on the printed circuit board, are near a
rework area. If the moisture sensitive parts are not in rework area, move them to the required
location. When moisture sensitive parts are in rework area, proceed and exercise caution as in
next step.

If moisture sensitive parts are to be heated to a point that could cause damage, proceed to next
step with caution while ensuring all requirements in this procedure are followed. If the moisture
sensitive parts are not be heated enough to cause any possible damage, proceed.

Confirm all the components required for board assembly or rework and can be heated to 125° C.

Remove any components from any board that can not be heated to 125° C.

Bake the printed circuit board for 12 hours at 125° C (See 5.0). Remove baked board from oven
and proceed.

Rework boards, as required exactly following specific rework procedures.

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359 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

VACUUM SEALING MOISTURE SENSITIVE DEVICES

1.0 PURPOSE
The purpose of this document is to provide basic instruction to Vacuum Seal components using the
Accu-Seal Model 35 vacuum heat sealing equipment.

2.0 SCOPE
This procedure covers the Vacuum Sealing of components as required by IPC for moisture
sensitive parts handling.

3.0 DEFINITIONS

Moisture Sensitive Devices (MSD) – Any device thats reliability is degraded by reflow soldering due
to the moisture content the component has absorbed.

Moisture Barrier Bag – A bag that is stamped with dry Pack or has a sticker stating that there are
moisture sensitive devices inside. All shall meet MIL-STD-81075-TYPE I requirements.

Foot pedal – the part of the vacuum sealing equipment that starts the vacuum sealing process

4.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS


Accu-seal Operating Instructions

A-5951-1589-1 - ESD

5.0 SAFETY
This unit uses a quick “Heat-Up” strip element protected by a Teflon strip. Do not touch this
surface. THIS IS A BURN HAZARD.

Ensure hands and fingers are not underneath either of the sealing jaws when in operation. This is a
pinch point.

6.0 MAINTENANCE
Daily Operators maintenance

Wipe down all surfaces on workstation and the Accu-Seal to remove any dust. Only use a specified
ESD topical cleaner on workstation surfaces.

If a “hot spot” occurs (noticeable by overheating and bag melting at any point on the seal) the
heating element may need replacement.

Contact maintenance for any necessary repairs.

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360 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

7.0 MACHINE LAYOUT

Operating Mode Switch Main Power Switch


Heat Timer Vacuum gauge

Cool Timer

Vacuum Sealing Jaws Gas Pressure Regulator

Gas Timer

Vacuum Timer

Heat Sealing Jaws

Support
Tray

Heat strip with Teflon cover on both top and Plastic tubing for sealing bag during vacuum
bottom of opening operation

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361 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

8.0 EQUIPMENT SET-UP


Machine settings: If seal on the MBB is not adequate to hold vacuum, contact engineering.

Air pressure – 3cfm @ 70 PSI Min., Max air pressure 100 PSI.

Nitrogen – Gas pressure may be regulated as indicated by pressure gauge on top panel (factory
set at 30 PSI).

Heat Timer – Set heat timer to position # 3.

Cool Timer – Set the cool timer to position # 5.

Vacuum timer – Set Vacuum timer to position # 4.

Gas Timer - Set gas timer to position # 4.

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362 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

9.0 MACHINE OPERATION


Turn sealers Main Power switch to “ON” indicated by green lamp.

Verify that settings of the Cool Timer, Heat Timer, Vacuum Timer, and Gas Timer are set as
required.

Operating Mode Switch - Push switch to the amber side. The amber lamp shall be on and the blue
lamp shall be off.

Orange lamp Blue lamp off


on switch in This side of switch
down in up position

Practice process by leaving heat timer set on 0 seconds and by operating machine in vacuum
mode. This allows the operator to become familiar with the vacuum process without wasting bags.

Locate product in the bag being sealed as close to the nozzle as is possible without interfering with
the front (Heat) sealing jaw closing. The product thickness helps prevent the bag from collapsing
over the vacuum nozzle. If the product is cylindrical, position it farther away from the sealing jaw to
prevent creases in the sealing area.

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363 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Keep bag from covering the Bag unacceptably collapsed over the
opening vacuum operation Vacuum nozzle

Position the bag over the vacuum nozzle. The above views are from the vacuum sealer's backside
showing nozzle in bag opening.

Hold the bag at an angle as shown in the second figure below. This shall help to prevent the bag
from collapsing over the vacuum nozzle opening during operation.

Back of Vacuum nozzle

KEEP FINGERS AWAY FROM SEALING JAW. Tap foot switch and the vacuum jaws close until
the end of the cooling cycle. Simultaneously, as the vacuum jaws close, gently pull the bag back

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364 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

and up away from the nozzle. Otherwise the bag can collapse in front of the vacuum nozzle,
preventing further evacuation.

Heat sealing jaws in open position Vacuum and Heat sealing jaws both
in closed position

NOTE: THE SEALING CYCLE MAY BE ABORTED AT ANY TIME BY TURNING “OFF” THE
MAIN POWER SWITCH.

The Heat sealing jaw closes as the heat time lamp illuminates. Both jaws shall be closed during the
remainder of the cycle.

NOTE: TAPPING THE FOOT SWITCH A SECOND TIME SHALL OVERRIDE THE GAS TIMER
AND START THE SEALING CYCLE.

Jaws shall open upon the completion the cooling cycle.

Remove the vacuum-sealed bag from the machine and inspect bag seal.

NOTE: THE SEAL SHALL NOT HAVE ANY LARGE CREASES ALLOWING AIR BACK INTO
THE VACUUM-SEALED BAG.

The seal shall have a uniform heat seal across the width of the bag.

The operator may seal the bag a second time if the first seal was not adequate, or there are any
concerns about the bag being sealed as required.

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365 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Crease in seal not


acceptable

Two desiccant bags


clearly visible

The bag shall be pulled tightly around the item showing the outline of bag contents including
desiccant bags.

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366 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

12.12 LIQUID SOLDER MASKING PROCEDURES

CAMALOT MODEL 1818 "AUTO MASK" LIQUID DISPENSING MACHINE


NOTE: H-P SPOKANE (NOW AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES) USED MASK INSTEAD OF
SELECTIVE WAVE SOLDERING PALLETS FOR A LONG TIME. THE ONLY PROBLEM I SEE
NOW IS THE PREVALENCE OF NO-CLEAN OPERATIONS. IT JUST WORKED WELL AND
WAS VERY CHEAP COMPARED TO SELECTIVE WAVE SOLDER PALLETS.

1.0 PURPOSE
The purpose of this document is to provide operators within the Pre-Wave process area with the
safety and machine operating instructions for the SMTC Auto Mask process utilizing the Camalot
Model #1818 liquid dispenser.

The Model 1818 dispenser has many operating features. This document assumes that all
operators of this piece of equipment have under gone one-on-one training with a skilled trainer,
technician, or engineer and have read this document in its entirety before operating this piece of
equipment. An operator is deemed qualified after he/she has been signed off by a designated
trainer (reference the section on Camalot Model 1818 in the Operator Training Checklist.).

2.0 DEFINITIONS & ACRONYMS

Pre-Wave: A process cell within SMTC's assembly area that comes directly after the Pick and
Place process and prior to the Post-Wave process. Activities such as panel racking, masking,
riveting, and through hole assembly take place within the Pre-Wave process area/

Camalot #1818: An automated liquid dispensing system used to apply water soluble mask to
SMTC standard 1/3 and 1/2 size sub-panels.

3.0 THEORY OF OPERATION


The SMTC automatic mask dispensing process is based on the use of the Camalot Model #1818
Liquid Dispenser. This machine is designed to dispense water soluble mask on populated printed
circuit assemblies that are located within the constraints of the corporate 1/3 and 1/2 size sub-
panel, while registered in SMTC's 17" x 20" wave solder rack. Mask is dispensed on those areas of
the printed circuit assembly where solder wetting is undesirable or prohibited.

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367 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

The Camalot 1818 utilizes an automatic fiducial correction vision system that is used to align the
printed circuit assembly to the mechanics of the dispensing head. In addition, the model 1818 has
new technology dispensing features such as automatic height detection capability via a touch
probe sensor, XYZ automatic needle calibration, and a dual valve toggle dispensing head for both
coarse and fine mask applications.

4.0 SAFETY - GENERAL


All personnel shall note the location of the nearest fire extinguisher and be familiar with the
evacuation procedure for their area (consult with the safety coordinator for the area)

Required Safety Clothing and Equipment:

Safety glasses shall be worn at all times when running this piece of equipment.

ESD heel straps or approved ESD shoes shall be worn when in the production area.

ESD cords shall be worn when running this piece of equipment.

Emergency Procedures
In case of an Emergency (Medical, Chemical, or Fire) CALL EXTENSION 2222. Report the type of
emergency and its location.

In the event of an evacuation, remain calm, and follow the evacuation route for the area. Do not
stop to turn-off equipment or to collect personal items.

5.0 CAMALOT MACHINE SAFETY


The Camalot Liquid Dispenser, like any other automated machine can cause serious injury if the
appropriate safeguards are ignored or when inappropriate or unsafe practices are followed.

Emergency Stop - There is one Emergency stop on the front panel of the Camalot Masker. The
Emergency Stop switch is a large red push/pull palm button that is located on the front panel of the
machine. When depressed, the entire machine is shut down.

To restart the machine, after the reason for the Emergency Stop has been cleared, the
Emergency Stop Button shall be pulled out, the Machine Reset button pressed, and the machine
"ON" button pressed to re-start the machine;

Safety Interlocks - The Camalot masker is equipped with two safety interlocks

1) Low Pressure Interlock - In the event of low air supply pressure to the machine, the machine
will shut down automatically. Maintenance shall be called to resolve the condition for the low
pressure shut down. Once resolved, the Machine Reset button shall be pressed, and the Machine
"ON" button pressed to re-start the machine.

2) Door Interlocks - With the front doors of the masker closed, the doors will automatically lock
when a program is requested to "RUN". If the doors are open and a program is requested to

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368 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

"RUN", the machine will run at 50% of its normal dispense speed. The machine shall never be
operated with the doors open.

Machine Safety Enclosure - The Camalot Masker is equipped with a safety enclosure which
covers the top and sides of the machine. The front of the machine has two access doors for panel
loading and unloading and for machine maintenance and calibration access.

6.0 CONSUMABLE MATERIALS

Water Soluble Mask:

WonderMask "WA" w/glycerin (blue)


6250 +/- 250 cP @#6, 20rpm
HP Part Number 8500-4442
Dispensing Needles
18 gauge needle used for valve #1 Camalot P/N 9591
22 gauge needle used for valve #2 Camalot P/N 9594

Ordering Info: Camalot Systems Inc.


145 Ward Hill Ave.
Haverhill, Mass. 01835
(508) 521-730

MACHINE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

Before Operating Masker


Ensure the daily and/or weekly maintenance has been performed as defined in "Operator
Maintenance" section of this document before operating this equipment.

Ensure the pressure gauge located on the top of the pressure pot is set to: Masker A/B 38 psi

Masker C: 38 psi - Do not change tank pressures.

System Start-Up
Ensure the Emergency Stop button has been released and the machine access doors are closed.

Press the "RESET" button on the machines front panel and then press the green "ON" button to
turn-on the machine.

NOTE: THE CAMERA LIGHT WILL ILLUMINATE IMMEDIATELY, THE GREEN "ON" BUTTON
WILL ILLUMINATE IN APPROXIMATELY 10 SECONDS AND THE MONITOR DISPLAY WILL
BEGIN BOOTING UP. THE ENTIRE MACHINE STARTUP TAKES APPROXIMATELY 1
MINUTE. THE SCREEN WILL PROMPT TO SELECT EITHER 1) PRODUCTION MODE OR 2)
DEVELOPMENT MODE. SELECT 1) PRODUCTION MODE.

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369 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Selecting a File
Using the track ball select the "FILE OPERATIONS" icon in the upper left corner of the display by
placing the trackball pointer on the icon and by pressing the left button. Note the left trackball
button is used for all commands other than specific editing commands or when prompted by the
machine.

The file naming convention is as follows. File names are a total of 8 characters long and are
derived by using the last 3 digits of the board prefix, the last 3 digits of the boards suffix, and 2
digits of the panel revision.

Example:
Board Number E4400-63003 Panel Revision B-122294
Resulting Masker file Name = 40000312

Select the "PRODUCT" directory and locate the directory corresponding to the assembly prefix
(first five numbers of the assembly number). Within that directory, locate the specific board file to
be dispensed. First click on the board file and then on the "LOAD" command. The system will
prompt whether or not to over-write the file currently in memory - or it simply will load the selected
file.

Close the "FILE OPERATIONS" window by placing the trackball pointer on the bar in the upper left
corner of the menu and by pressing the left button. A pattern now is ready to be dispensed.

File Operating Mode


The Camalot Masker has 3 file operating Modes

1) Edit Mode - this mode is used for editing a file. In this mode power to the system axis motors is
terminated. The axis motors cannot and will not move while in Edit Mode. Gantry can move without
warning when leaving the diagnostics mode.

2) Trace Mode - this mode is used for dispensing a pattern. In this mode material is actually
dispensed on the product. This is the normal operator "RUN" mode.

3) Camera Mode - this mode is used for board programming, real time editing, and for program
verification. In this mode the machine operates just as if in Trace mode but from the position of the
camera. An image of the camera position is displayed on the screen at all times while in this mode.

Running (dispensing) a program


After selecting a program that shall be dispensed, the program is ready to be run.

1) Open the machine access doors. If the doors are locked, place the trackball pointer on the
padlock icon and press the left button. Note the padlock icon now indicates an "unlocked"
condition.

2) Most assemblies use the two panel tooling holes as reference points for aligning the panel to the
camera. If there is any plating around these tooling holes, use a black pen to blacken the area
around the tooling holes. This will prevent an error in the vision system.

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370 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

3) Place the racked panel, with the bottom bar to the left (unless otherwise specified) and the
circuit side up, onto the guide rails in the machine. Gently slide the rack forward until it comes to a
complete stop against the rack locating pin.
Close the machine access doors (They will automatically lock when the Camalot is requested to
"RUN").

NOTE: IF THE MACHINE ACCESS DOORS ARE NOT CLOSED AND A PROGRAM IS
REQUESTED TO "RUN", THE MACHINE WILL RUN AT 50% OF ITS NORMAL SPEED. THE
MACHINE SHALL NEVER BE RUN WITH THE MACHINE ACCESS DOORS OPEN.

4) Ensure the dispensing head is either at the "HOME" position (at the extreme right rear corner of
the machine above the purge cups) or at the "PARK" position (at the extreme left rear corner of the
machine where the needles are emerged in the water cup) before dispensing a pattern.

5) To move the machine to the "HOME" position, place the trackball pointer on the "HOME" icon
and press the left button. Note the machine shall be in either "TRACE" or "CAMERA" mode in
order for the machine to move to the "HOME" position.

6) To move the machine to the "PARK" position, place the trackball pointer on the "PARK" icon
(lower right corner of the display) and press the left button. Note the machine shall be in "TRACE"
mode in order for the machine to move to the "PARK" position.

7) With the machine in Trace mode, position the trackball pointer on the "RUN" icon (bottom right
corner of the display) and press the left button. The machine will begin executing the program. If
the vision system does not locate the reference points, refer to the troubleshooting section at the
end of this document.

8) If for any reason the stop a dispense pattern is paused, hit any of the three buttons on the
trackball. After dispensing the remaining line commands still in the machines memory buffer, the
machine will stop. Then, the display prompts to " Abort Dispense", to "Continue Dispense", to "Go
Back One Command", or to "Unlock Doors". If it is decided to unlock the doors and view the
dispensed product, the doors shall be locked before the "Continue Dispense" command is selected
or the machine will run at half speed through the remainder of the program.

9) When a dispense pattern has finished running, the machine will automatically return to the
"PARK" position and the doors will unlock to allow the removal of the finished product.

10) If additional panels are to be run that have the same file name, simply load the racked panel
into the machine (as described in paragraph 6.5.3) and activate the "RUN" icon.

11) If a new program shall be selected, see "Selecting a File" above.

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371 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Verify Mask Program

1) If board to be masked has a "Verify Mask Program" step on router, follow steps in Selecting a
File.

2) If the filename is in the Product Directory and documentation is in the cabinet, operator may
follow normal masking procedure (operator/trainer shall initial "Verify Mask Program" step on router
and notify FYI PIM programmer to steps taken).

3) If filename is not in the Product Directory, place the boards on-hold and notify PIM Programmer
of a mask program to be verified.

CAUTION: OPERATION OF PRESSURE TANK - DANGER FAILING TO FOLLOW


INSTRUCTIONS TO DEPRESSURIZE TANK PRIOR TO OPENING COULD RESULT IN
SERIOUS INJURY. ALWAYS ENSURE THAT TANK IS FULLY DEPRESSURIZED BEFORE
OPENING.

NOTE: PRESSURE SETTING FOR ALL MASK TANKS SHALL BE SET AT 38LBS.

Checking Mask Level in Tank


It is not necessary to open the tank to check the mask level. The tank rests on a scale constantly
weighing the tank and its contents. The low-level weight is 100 lbs. Add mask according to the
instructions in this document if the mask level falls below this level. The high level weight is 160
lbs. Do not allow weight to go above 160 lbs. Do not make any changes to the scale indicator unit.

AUTOMATIC NEEDLE CALIBRATION


The Camalot dispensing system uses an automatic needle calibration process to align the
dispensing needle to the XY and Z axes of the machine. Through this calibration process the
machine performs a mechanical offset to all three axis to compensate for the variability between
needles. The needle calibration process is used when a needle is changed, if an needle is bent, if
the dispense height of the needle is in question (dispensing to high or to low) or if there is an
obvious offset between the mask being dispensed and the PCB geometry to the point that it is
affecting product quality. The offset information from the needle calibration is saved in the
machines memory until the next needle calibration is run.

During the needle calibration process, the dispensing head goes through a calibration routine (for
the specified needle) where the Z axis travels downward until the dispensing needle strikes a
spring loaded cylindrical piston which calculates the length of the dispensing needle. The needle
then travels to a calibration plate where a Z axis touch probe extends to calibrate the height of the
surface to be dispensed. The needle then dispenses three purge dots and then a final dot that is
looked at by the camera system. The camera is then calibrated to the final dot and the offset
information is saved in the machine's memory.

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372 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

A needle calibration shall be performed when:

1) A needle is changed

2) If a needle is bent

3) If the dispense height of the needle is in question (dispensing too high or too low)

4) If there is an obvious offset between the mask being dispensed and the PCB geometry to the
point that it is effecting product quality.

Needle Calibration

1) From the Product directory select and load the file "NEEDLE.CAM". "NEEDLE.CAM" can be
loaded as a subpattern if another file is already loaded in memory.

2) Open the machine doors and with finger while ensuring the Z-axis plunger is operating smoothly.
If necessary, use a cotton swab with isopropyl alcohol and clean in and around the plunger to allow
it to move freely.

3) Ensure the calibration pad (where mask is dispensed during the needle calibration process) is
clean of mask. Wipe mask away with a damp sponge if necessary. Wring excess water out of
sponge before wiping.

4) Select the "HOME" icon and if not already in "TRACE" mode, select the "TRACE" mode icon.
The machine will home accordingly.

NOTE: THE MACHINE SHALL BE IN TRACE MODE IN ORDER TO RUN THE NEEDLE
CALIBRATION ROUTINE.

5) Select the Needle Calibration icon (icon has picture of a needle with "xy" in the bottom left hand
corner).

6) Select which valve shall be calibrated (i.e. valve 1 or valve 2). The machine will automatically
run the calibration routine as required.

7) After running the calibration routine, the camera will align over the final dispensed dot and the
following message will be displayed:

LEFT BUTTON FOR LIGHT MATERIAL,


CENTER BUTTON FOR DARK MATERIAL,
RIGHT BUTTON TO CANCEL

NOTES: IF A POORLY DISPENSED DOT (LACKING MASK MATERIAL OR HAS A POORLY


DEFINED CIRCUMFERENCE) IS PRESENTED TO THE CAMERA PRESS CANCEL AND
RESTART THE NEEDLE CALIBRATION.

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373 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

IF A WELL DEFINED DOT IS PRESENTED TO THE CAMERA SELECT THE LEFT BUTTON.
THE CAMERA CROSS HAIRS ON THE DISPLAY WILL IMMEDIATELY ALIGN OVER THE
DISPENSED POINT AND THE FOLLOWING MESSAGE WILL BE DISPLAYED

IMAGE FOUND DISPLAYED - HIT LEFT BUTTON TO CONTINUE

8) Hit left button and with the trackball pointer close the window. Closing the window finalizes the
calibration and the dispensing head will automatically move to the HOME position.

9) Clean plunger and platform with a clean sponge (ensure all excess water has been wrung from
sponge). Clean immediately to prevent mask from drying and becoming difficult to remove.

10) If necessary select the next needle to be calibrated, otherwise the needle calibration process is
complete.

RUN MASK COUPONS


Mask Coupons are 4" x 5" FR4 panels that are used to run a program to determine the amount of
mask being dispensed at any given time. This program will dispense mask in an area about 2" x 3"
on each of the coupons. When the valves are dispensing the correct volume of mask, then the
mask on each coupon shall weigh between 3.5 grams and 4.1 grams.

Mask Coupons shall be run:

At the beginning of each shift (daily)

When a valve has been rebuilt or adjusted

1) Locate the copper-clad panel with thick tape on top divided into six equal sections. This panel
shall be stored in a SMTC Solder Rack by the workstation for the maskers.

2) Slide racked panel into masker.

3) Close all windows on the electronic balance (the scale located on masker workstation)

4) Turn the scale 'ON' or if it is already 'ON' press "RE-ZERO'

5) The display shall view "o 0.000" (indicates the scale is stable and level)

If the display does not indicate the scale is level:

1) Adjust the feet of the scale so the bubble towards the front of scale on the left side is centered
between the lines

2) Press "RE-ZERO" again

3) Gently slide the left window open

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374 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

4) Place one of the 4" x 5" FR4 mask coupon panels inside on the tray

5) Close the window

6) Record the weight on the "MASK COUPONS" spreadsheet for "SAMPLE 1" in the "COUPON
TEAR WEIGHT" column.

7) Place the coupon in the first compartment of the copper clad panel located in the masker (see
diagram on masker window)

8) Repeat for "SAMPLE" and "SAMPLE 3"

Load mask coupon program

1) Using the track ball select the "FILE OPERATIONS" icon located in the upper left corner of the
display.

2) Select the "PRODUCT" directory.

3) Load "COUP6X.CAM"

4) For File Operating Mode, select "TRACE" Mode

5) Click "RUN"

Weight mask coupons


Upon completion of "COUP6X.CAM, the operator shall weigh mask coupons. To obtain an
accurate weight reading of the mask, the coupons shall be weighed within a 5 minute period - upon
completion of the dispense program.

1) Remove the first coupon from the masker.

2) Gently slide the left window open

3) Place the masked coupon on tray

4) Record the weight on the "MASK COUPONS" spread sheet for "SAMPLE 1" in the "WET
WEIGHT" column

5) Repeat for "SAMPLE 2" AND "SAMPLE 3".

6) Subtract "COUPON TEAR WEIGHT" from "WET WEIGHT" for "MASK WEIGHT".

7) Record coupon information on mask coupon spread sheet each time the function is performed
until mask weight is within he desired parameters.

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375 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

8) If mask does not weigh within the acceptable parameters - Depending on the amount of mask
that was dispensed;

Too much mask - using 1/2" flare-nut wrench over pneumatic fitting - turn valve clockwise.

Not enough mask - using 1/2" flare-nut wrench over pneumatic fitting - turn valve counter-
clockwise.

NOTE: BECAUSE OF THE CONSISTENCY OF THE MASK, RUN SEVERAL COUPONS (3 AT


LEAST) AFTER THE FINAL ADJUSTMENT TO THE VALVE TO OBTAIN AN ACCURATE
WEIGHT MEASUREMENT.

9) Perform until dispensed mask weight is within acceptable parameters.

10) Wash coupons in the sink and place on work station next to scale.

11) Remove racked copper clad coupon panel from masker and set next to work station.

Skipping Bad Images


It is not unusual for a panel to have one or more bad or "X-OUT" images in a subpanel. These
images are considered scrap and shall not be assembled or in this case masked as it provides no
value. The Camalot software allows the skipping of these images prior to running a dispense
pattern.

1) With the program containing the bad image loaded on the display, determine which image needs
to be skipped by referencing the " Camalot Masker SubPanel Programming Sequence" diagram
(Appendix "A").

2) After determining which image needs to be skipped, select "Edit" mode at the bottom of the
screen. Using the trackball, place the caret before the first line number to be skipped and press the
left button.

3) With the trackball move the pointer to the last line number to be skipped and press the right
button. All lines to be skipped will now be highlighted.

4) With the trackball select the "ENABLE/DISABLE" icon (top left of display, 2nd row of icons, 4th
icon from left... green with series of yellow dots) and press the left button. All highlighted lines will
now turn lower case.

5) All upper case lines in the program will be dispense, all lower case lines will be ignored.

6) To reverse this command and to reactivate the skipped images, select the commands in lower
case and again select the "ENABLE/DISABLE" icon.

7) The highlighted lines will now turn upper case and will be included in the dispense program.

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376 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

System Shut Down

1) Select the "PARK" icon from the lower right hand corner of the display, then select "TRACE"
mode. The dispensing head will move to the left rear of the machine and the Z axis will move
downward into the water cups and submerge the needles.

2) Open the access doors and remove all articles in and around the dispensing area. If not already
done, remove the racked panel from the dispensing area.

3) Close the access doors. Note that once the access doors are closed and power to the machine
is turned off, the doors can not be reopened without turning on the machine.

4) Press the "OFF" button on the front of the machine. This will turn-off the Camalot system and its
computer.

Valve/Needle Purging
Needle purging is required any time a needle has been exposed to the air for a prolonged period of
time (15 minutes or greater) without fluid being dispensed or after needles have been in the park
position water cups for greater than and hour.

As a rule, needles shall be purged at the start of a new shift, after break periods, or when the
material at the needle tip begins to skin and dry thus restricting fluid flow. It is better to error on
purging more frequently than less. For valve 2, it is especially important to purge frequently.

Performing a Needle Purge

1) A needle purge shall be performed when the dispensing head is at the machines HOME
position.

2) There are two cups located under each valve when the dispensing head is located at the
Camalot's home position. When purged, each valve shall dispense material into these cups.

3) On the front control panel of the machine, locate the purge selector switch for V1 and V2. Select
the valve to be purged.

4) Press the black PURGE button and observe material flowing from the selected valve. Hold the
button for 10 to 30 seconds or as required to get a uniform flow of material from the valve.

5) Pushing the PURGE button several times for very short periods may be effective for dislodging
dried material from the dispensing needle.

6) After the Purge is complete it may be necessary to use a damp sponge to wipe the tip of the
needle. USE EXTREME CAUTION when wiping the needle. If a needle is bent during wiping, a
needle calibration shall be performed.

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DAILY OPERATOR MAINTENANCE

At the Beginning of each Shift

1) HOME the machine and remove the water cups from the PARK position cup holder. Empty and
refill the cups with fresh water. Install the cups in the holder being careful not to spill water in the
dispensing area. Replace the cups with new ones when necessary.

2) With 409 cleaner and a soft paper towel, wipe the inside and out side of the machine access
doors to improve visibility.

3) Remove the copper clad panel used to catch dripping mask from under the panel dispense area.
After wiping down the panel dispense area with a damp sponge to remove all mask, replace the
dirty copper clad panel with a clean one and send the dirty copper clad panel through the in-line
washer and store for reuse. Alternatively, the panel may be cleaned and dried at the sink in the
process area.

4) Stir mask in pressure tanks 20-30 turns.

5) From the "PRODUCT" directory select and load the file "NEEDLE.CAM".

6) At the End of each Shift

7) Clean and organize work area for the next shift.

8) With a damp sponge, wipe down the inside of the machine. Be sure to wipe mask from the slide
rails of the rack fixture and all machine surfaces.

Weekly Maintenance

Adding mask - add mask when scale reads 100 lbs. or below.

1) When adding mask: add mask from sealed containers only! DO NOT add mask from partially full
containers.

2) Release pressure in tank by opening the back valve so the arrow points toward the vacuum
pump. Allow tank to fully depressurize before opening.

3) Open the cap on top of the material entry tube.

4) Place funnel inside the material entry tube.

5) Add mask until the scale reads about 160 lbs., the high mask limit. Carefully clean the threads of
the tube and replace cap.

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378 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

6) De-gas 10-15 minutes. To de-gas, keep back valve pointed towards the vacuum pump (the
depressurization setting), and open the front valve so the arrow points toward the vacuum pump.
The vacuum will de-gas the mask material, removing any air bubbles in the mask.

7) To stop the de-gassing process, close the front valve (valve head shall be at a right angle to the
air line).

8) Repressurize tank by turning back valve so arrow points toward regulator.

Stirrer - This tank has a blue handle at the top which, when turned, stirs the mask. Mask shall be
stirred once per shift.

Stir mask 20-30 turns.

Needle Purge
At the beginning of the graveyard shift each Sunday evening operators shall purge both needles
(Valve 1 & Valve 2) in each machine. The purge shall be run after the mask has been stirred,
before any production is run.

1) With the valves parked in the water cups, remove the two drip cups from the "HOME" position
and replace them with two 8 ounce Styrofoam cups.

2) From the Product directory load "NEEDLE1.CAM"

3) Press "RUN"

4) The gantry will move close to the doors and "PAUSE"

5) Open the doors and remove both needles (Valve 1 & Valve 2). If there is a noticeable bend in
the needle, any damage in the tip of needle or if the there is any questionable feature about a
needle then dispose of it immediately.

6) Wash the needle in the sonic cleaner located on the masker work station.

7) Inspect any needles already in the cleaner, blow them out with the air hose located next to the
sink and set them in the packet with the other needles.

8) “HOME" the gantry

9) Click on the I/O icon (located on top row of the screen toward the right side)

10) Move the pointer to the "SET OUTPUTS" section of screen and click on "1". This will purge
valve 1.

11) Set the timer located in the plastic tray next to the monitor for 8 minutes. When the timer
sounds, click on "1" again. This will shut the valve off.

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379 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

12) Move the pointer to the "SET OUTPUTS" section of screen and click on "2". This will purge
valve 2.

13) Set the timer located in the plastic tray next to the monitor for 8 minutes. When the timer
sounds, click on "2" again. This will shut the valve off.

14) Close the doors and "PARK" the gantry.

15) Replace the Styrofoam cups with the 4 ounce plastic drip cups. Click on the upper left corner
box to close the "I/O" window.

16) Replace the needles:

51112.3.23.1. Run "NEEDLE1.CAM"


51112.3.23.2. Install new needles for Valve 1 and Valve 2. Gently push up on the needle as it is
threaded it into the valve.

CAUTION: THE BLACK PLASTIC COLLAR ON THE TIP OF THE VALVE WILL STRIP IF TOO
MUCH PRESSURE IS EXERTED WHILE INSTALLING NEEDLE.

Machine Clean-Up
With a 409 cleaner and a soft paper towel, clean all external surfaces of the machine including the
top Plexiglas cover. Note that dust will accumulate on the top of the cover and will affect the
lighting inside the equipment if not cleaned.

TROUBLESHOOTING

Vision System Does Not Accept Reference Points

1) The reference points are the most important part of the program. If the vision system does not
align the reference points correctly, the mask will not be dispensed in the correct locations.

2) If the vision system fails to find the reference points, ensure the tooling holes are not plated. If
they are, blacken them with a black marker, and run program again.

3) Only as a last resort, re-teach the reference points. When the vision system does not accept the
reference points, the monitor will prompt to re-teach the reference points. Click on the XY
coordinates of the point to make the trackball active in moving the camera. Manually align the
cross hairs into the center of the tooling hole. It is extremely important to center as closely as
possible. Accept the position, and align the second reference point in the same way.

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380 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

PRODUCTION QUALITY REQUIREMENT - CAMALOT MASKERS


Mask Thickness: Mask thickness shall be less than or equal to 0.020" measured dry.

Coverage

1) Ground Plane Areas: No exposed (shiny) areas greater than 0.010" wide.

2) Ground Plane Areas attached to through holes which shall be soldered: mask must maintain
clearance of at least 0.060" but no more than 0.080".

3) Plated Holes: Inside of barrel shall be covered. Complete hole fill is not necessary.

4) Material shall be dispensed around 5-pin RF connectors with sufficient setback from plated thru-
holes. The material does not flow onto the plated thru-hole at any point.

5) 0603 components (pepper chips): Mask must make contact with the board on any 2 opposite
sides of the part.

6) 3-Dimensional Parts: On components that are masked on ends without leads, mask must make
a seal between the part and the board to prevent solder from getting underneath the part. For
components that are masked on leads, the leads shall have, as a minimum, a thin coating of mask.

7) Leads may be visible through mask, as long as they are not exposed (shiny). Holes between
adjacent leads are acceptable as long as the leads are not exposed.

8) Threaded standoffs: Threads shall have, as a minimum, a thin coating of mask. Threads may be
visible through mask, as long as they are not exposed (shiny).

Process Control

1) Do not touch-up anything that meets quality criteria.

2) If quality requirements are not met as described above, verify process setup (pressures, amount
of mask in tank, etc.) per documentation. If more than 5 touch-ups are required per panel (not to
exceed 1 minute per panel), stop the process and contact PIM or Process Engineering.

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381 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

CAMALOT MODEL 1818 OPERATOR TRAINING CHECKLIST

Operator Name: ______________________ Trainer Name: ____________________

Begin training date: ______________________ End training date:__________________

Machine overview

Difference between the Camalot masker and the Creative Automation masker

 Two valves with 2 needle sizes - V1 = 18 gauge, V2 = 22 gauge

 Touch probe height sensor for panel warpage compensation

 Masking panels while they are in the wave solder rack

 Auto fiducial recognition

 Needle height set by program, not by operator

Overview of machine safety features

 System safety enclosure/light tower/buzzer

 Door interlocks

 Low air pressure shut-down

 Location of emergency stop button

Pressure Pot - differences between new pressure pot and Creative Automation pot

 Vacuum purging of pressure pot (why and how often)

 Pressure settings of pots (Masker A/B = 38 lbs., Masker C = 38 lbs.)

 Location of mask feed lines and "off/on" valve

 Pressurizing/depressurizing pot

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382 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Machine Start-up

Overview of the Camalot 1818 front panel

 Location and purpose of machine reset and "on/off" buttons

 Location and purpose of emergency stop button

Turn machine on

 Approximate 1 minute wait period during machine turn-on

Machine Operating Modes

 Complete tour of machine software (do's and don'ts)

 Review machine operating modes (edit, trace, and camera)

 Review "HOME" and "PARK" positions - how and when they are used

 Demonstrate use of trackball

Door Lock/Unlock

 Review door lock and unlock modes - relationship with audio and visual alarms

 Unlocking door during program interruption

Needle Purging

 Review needle purging (purpose, frequency) and importance of water well

 Valve 2 especially sensitive to clogging if not purged often

 Locate purge select knob on front panel and demonstrate

File Selection

 Review directory structure (production, assembly prefix)

 Demonstrate program selection and loading files

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383 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Changing Needles

 Change whenever severe damage or bending has occurred (more than 5 degrees)

 CAMERA-TO-NEEDLE Offset shall be performed anytime a new needle is installed or if there


is an obvious offset between the mask being dispensed and the PCB geometry to the point
that it is affecting product quality.

 How to change a needle - demonstrate removal and replacement

NOTE: NEEDLE CALIBRATION SHALL BE DONE ANYTIME A NEW NEEDLE IS INSTALLED


OR IF A NEEDLE IS BENT.

Run Mask Coupons

 If there is a discrepancy determining the amount of mask being dispensed.

 Anytime the operator/trainer has adjusted the knurl-knob thumb screw on top of the valve.

 At the beginning of the work week (approximately 3 or 4 hours into the first shift)

 Go to the File Operations screen, in Product directory

 Load COUPON6X.CAM

 Locate copper-clad panel with tape dividing it into 6 equal sections

 Weight three clean 4" x 5" FR4 coupons

 Record the weight of each, and place in the first three partitions of the panel

 Run COUPON6X.CAM

Upon completion, weight each coupon

 Subtract tear weight of coupon from masked coupon for mask weight (mask weight shall be
between 3.5 - 4.1 grams)

Needle Calibration

 After replacing a needle

 If the needle dispense height is in question (dispensed and the PCB geometry to the point that
it affects product quality).

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384 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Needle calibration for both valves

 Ensure z axis plunger is working smoothly-clean with clean sponge with all excess water
wrung from sponge.

 Load needle.cam from product directory in trace mode

 Wipe away the dispensed material immediately after each needle is calibrated.

Skipping Bad Images

 Highlight items with the right and left trackball keys

 Show relationship of highlighted item and use of enable/disable icon

 Review image numbering convention

Running a Program

 Have trainee select file "testpan.cam" from the Product directory and dispense the program on
a blank copper clad panel.

 Have trainee skip the second image and dispense again.

 While the panel is dispensing, have the trainee demonstrate interrupting the program.

Mask Quality

 When is hand touch-up allowed: No more than 1 minute per panel - any areas that consistently
have skips or voids in the mask shall be brought to the attention of the programmer so they
can be changed.

 When shall a programmer be called or a product placed on-hold because of mask quality
issues? If all troubleshooting procedures have been studied, including calibrating needle and
weighing mask coupon, without resolving the problem, contact programmer or Maintenance
Technician.

Machine "A" Acceptable Mask Weight: 3.5 - 4.1 grams

SAMPLE 1 SAMPLE 2 SAMPLE 3


MACHIN VALV WET WEIGHT COUPON MASK WET WEIGHT COUPON MASK WET WEIGHT COUPON
E E
A W/IN 10 MIN TEAR WEIGHT WEIGHT W/IN 10 MIN TEAR WEIGHT WEIGHT W/IN 10 MIN TEAR WEIGHT

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385 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

12.13 PANELIZATION AND DE-PANELIZING


This sub-section is about de-panelization. Though seemingly not a very exciting subject, I find
nearly as many questions asked about it as most others. Not only that, most all designers with
whom I've worked nearly always ask questions, or make wrong assumptions, about panelizing
during the design phase. This is interesting because there are so many other complex and much
more important questions that should be asked - or are there?

Of course, before one can de-panelize, one must panelize. The biggest problem in this relatively
simple step is to work concurrently with board suppliers and assemblers. The issue becomes who
to work with first - the board shop or the assembly house? The answer is very simple. You work
with both starting with the board shop. However, at nearly the same time (just after receiving the
fabricator's input), you work concurrently with the assembly house to compare notes, so to speak.

Each has its panelization and de-panelization requirements - most often for different reasons not
always understood or communicated - one to the other. Very often, the two capabilities do not talk
concurrently with one another. Therefore, the designer needs to get them together or, at the very
least, make objective decisions based on input from each.

Board shops need, so they meet your ever-increasing need for lower cost product, to place as
many boards up on, say, an 18" x 24" panel as possible. Assembly capabilities must have distinct
requirements met as being able to use panels that fit their PnP and other processes. What to do?
Just do it, but do it right!

Because everyone has a point of view and distinct needs, this becomes another important
compromise issue. Again, compromise is what's all about. Making the right decisions at the design
level, using DFM/CE, ensures most negative compromise effects are minimized and acceptable
product is assured.

This whole book is about compromise concerning what goes into very complicated processes and
process management effects. I mean we've discussed hole to pad relationships, component to
edge relationships, solder and soldering requirements, and about a zillion other things affecting a
design choices and product quality/reliability. Panelization is no different.

When consulting with PCB design "experts," I mostly find very talented, well-educated folks never
having set foot in a board shop or even an assembly capability. Therefore, many are left to make
assumptions - something any good engineer never does. So, let's eliminate assumption making
and the problems attendant to it. Besides, even though it is a benefit, design types needn't visit
such capabilities as long as they have the ability to communicate effectively with experts in their
fields - using DFM/CE principles as set forth in this book.

A good designer, working within a well-managed business organization, has most all tools required
to design PCB's. Though it's a never-ending struggle to keep up with all design tool upgrades, the
important tools must be justified and brought on-board. Another important DFM/CE tool, used to
better manage processes, is a good CAM package.

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386 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Valor procedures are detailed in this book's Part 1. Another good package is Innoveda's CAM 350.
Each has very good panelization capabilities. One just costs one hell of a lot more, but does one
hell of a lot more. The following image shows the panelization menu, among others:

Just as most designers have learned they cannot rely totally on their CAD software's auto-route
capability, most understand they simply cannot panelize by just doing it. They must work
concurrently with their suppliers to do it right.

As for the de-paneling process, it is important to understand available options and compromises.
These options and compromises are very important. I have reduced many to ONE for MLB's
supporting complex SMT assemblies.

As I've said many times before, I cannot tolerate pizza cutters when used, on MY MLB's, with fine
pitch or numerous chip devices - especially close to board edges. Too much damage occurs with
"V" scoring and breaking apart panels with this process. This is true of any such crude attempts to
excise, or singulate, individual boards from the panels to which they once belonged.

I have no de-paneling procedures or process photos here, but there is much evidence supporting
my position and I have worked with several process developers concerning this process. Also, I've
witnessed many hours, over several years, of this type de-paneling process and have observed not
one single failure - when the process is properly managed. Simply, buy or find a contract
manufacturer having routing capabilities if you are faced with such a situation. Most everyone is, of
course.

If assembling only small quantities, use designs with pre-routed slots and obtain an under or over
table router capable of finishing the job. Sears even sells them but remember proper tooling, setup,
router-bit selection, installation, and care to change bits when even slightly worn. This certainly
includes drills as well.

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387 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Keep in mind, with routing, there are no second operations required as hand operations to clean up
rough edges left by the pizza cutter or snap a-part activities in the de-panelizing process. There are
no filing or other routing operations required.

Most importantly, there are no second operations required to repair, rework, or otherwise correct
busted devices and solder joint terminations - notwithstanding possible expensive damage to MLB
structures. These factors alone are enough to chill one's blood and make a believer out of
everyone ever having experienced this garbage.

Routing, with vacuum cleaning and ESD capabilities, is a very smooth operation, as I have
demonstrated and used many times before. This depends on how well the process is managed.
This means what equipment is used, how well it is maintained, and how well the router bits are
managed.

You all know what multiple-up panels look like. The following two images show them (note the
small "starter" slot (in the blue circle) used to facilitate final PCBA routing. The third image is from
IPC-2221 depicting fiducial location requirements concurrent with panelization design.

Following them is an image depicting "V" groove dimensional and physical requirements. However,
this image cannot be duplicated as manufacturable because no router-bit can configure such
grooves (only variations) - NO DFM/CE HERE. Discuss concurrently with your qualified board shop
for master drawing and note requirements. After that are photos of typical routing machines
suitable for use in an assembly environment but without required enclosures. Laser routers also
are available but I have no experience with them.

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388 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

X-OUTS
We cannot forget this important facet. X-Outs always are a factor in PCB fabrication and assembly.
They affect profitability for both. They also may be process indicators concerning PCB fabrication
capabilities. After all, yields for both fab and assembly are adversely affected when too many are
found.

The first image in the foregoing series shows only one. However, it is part of a four-up panel. One
in four isn't that good. What is? Try one in twenty or fifty depending on board density and
complexity.

Fortunately, the image shown was representative of only one in about forty. With this company, we
demanded high first pass yields from our suppliers and our assembly operations. Some folks don't
get it, as CE is a very important factor in this equation. It starts with DFM and the supplier
evaluation and qualification processes. It all ends up at PnP, etc.

SUMMARY

There is little mechanical shock involved in the routing process provided, again, the process is well
managed. There is much, no matter conditions, associated with snapping or pizza cutting panels.
That's all I have to say about that.

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389 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

12.14 FINAL ASSEMBLY (SYSTEM OR "BOX" BUILD)

This is where it all comes together as a final assembly or sub-assembly going into a total system
package. The term box build originated many years ago. For me, in the commercial world, it was in
the mid-1980's. At that time, many contract manufacturers were just catching on to what they could
offer their customers beyond simply placing components on boards.

Commercial contract types really were just starting to figure it all out, they thought. They also
thought, at that time, SMT was the saving grace and many such folks just didn't see the BIG picture
and how they could add "value" for their customers as they were looking almost desperately for a
niche (what's changed?). Customers didn't get it either as most large OEM's remained vertically
integrated - from design through test. That would all change, but not for a time.

Hewlett-Packard, as one example, had their board shops, assembly operations, and plastics
manufacturing capabilities. It was pervasive, expansive, and expensive. H-P even used their sheet
metal and machine shops to the exclusion of outsourcing - as much as possible. Every "big"
organization, providing "final" product, was vertically integrated.

In 1992, that all started rapidly changing. IBM was on the brink of disaster as they still were
mainframe manufacturers with little PC experience of the type needed to be competitive. Others
were equally in trouble, as it was becoming a "cheap" world demanding better product quality and
significantly reduced prices (sound familiar?). There were headlines in most major business and
trade magazines to that effect. There had to be an answer.

It was callout out-sourcing, partnering, and a host of other terms meaning the end to archaic
vertical design and manufacturing practices. At first, this didn't work well as there were problems
with the emerging systems. There were but a few large contract manufacturers. SCI, Solectron,
Flextronics, and but a few others were on the scene. None understood, had, or offered what was
needed in terms of total production capabilities - to the final assembly, nor did they know how to
practice "partnering" on such a huge scale. No one had a sufficient quality system with which to do
so. DFM/CE was not practiced or understood, in this arena, at that time.

A combination of things started happening. Solectron's top brass folks (Winston Chin and Les
Nishimura), with whom I worked, were mostly ex-IBMers. They got together with their former
employers and put together some plans to relieve the situation. Also, IBM had a pretty good quality
system that trickled down, or was forced upon, their suppliers before the revolution (it was IBM's
way or the highway). The same thing was going on with other companies and the race was on for
major corporations to rid themselves of non-value added operations, and for contract
manufacturers to take over whatever they could.

Just look over the past ten or so years at what's happened to the CEM world. There are so many,
spawned usually from their former associations, it's hard to count them all. Then you have folks like
Sanmina, once a lowly board manufacturer with a bad reputation, taking over so many other board
shops and assembly operations. They last gobbled up SCI, that at one time was the largest CEM
on the block if not planet.

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Anyway, without getting to carried away on a complex subject, there simply now are no successful
large OEM's building everything in-house. Out-sourcing is in, just as has been in the military and
aerospace complex for years. One big difference exists, as the latter folks did it much better though
not able to do so now with such restrictive cost demands placed on all manufacturing operations.

DFM/CE is needed now more than ever. This especially true when dealing with off-shore
manufacturing suppliers. This is a time of huge adjustments for us all, but that never changes.

In truth, this type assembly has been around forever, of course. Mostly, box builds were always
part of the electro-mechanical design and assembly world. OEM's mostly did this and "passed"
product along to higher "tier" manufacturers as in automobile manufacturing.

In the military/aerospace community, the first suppliers were those providing raw materials. Then,
sub-contractors were suppliers. They supplied product to others of their type until the major sub-
assemblies were installed in final production for major contractors. In-turn, they supplied to
whatever government agency or military complex, or to aircraft manufacturers.

This is when and where the term supply chain management (SCM) took on serious meaning. A
simplified graphic illustrates how SCM works.

Being a complete contract manufacturer (CM) means understanding, completely, DFM/CE and
SCM. Without this knowledge, all is lost - as history has proven so many times. The same is true
for quality programs housing all factors and elements required as part of DFM/CE and SCM.

Having been involved with many military and aerospace contract negotiations, as an engineer and
board shop owner, I understand what is required to be successful. In this book's Section 14.0
concerning quality and reliability, I discuss how many quality program requirements were
developed, implemented, and used over the years.

I talk about how, in my early career days, I was exposed to military quality requirements. These
were MIL-I-45208 inspection requirements as part or independent of MIL-Q-9858A quality program
requirements. I emphasize the "A" revision for 9858 because it hasn't changed one bit from its

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inception in the early 1960's. This requirement, ISO admittedly, evolved into ISO 9000 as its
primary foundation element. H-50 served well as the quality program audit instrument.

What's most fascinating about this is how I used to negotiate with purchasing agents, with
government contractors, and come away with an order from time to time. It was too easy once
proven capable of qualifying and conforming to these early quality program requirements. For me,
in the PCB industry, qualification and conformance to such requirements as MIL-P-55110, 50884,
and 28809 also was essential.

What's funny though, as I later found out, was the purchasing people loved playing jokes - in a
sense. They honestly enjoyed seeing "rookie" folks like me self-destruct. Sure, I got the first order
based on our qualification and conformance, but there was much more to the equation. I/we now
had to meet customer specified quality requirements - no matter how good we thought we looked. I
go into this more in the aforementioned quality and reliability section following this sub-section. For
now, naivete prevails, as it will - always.

I remember having a meeting with a relatively young Sanmina's Milan Mandarec and Jure Sola.
They asked me if this SMT thing ever was going to become something. This was in the mid-80's
and I had just come in from the cold, cruel military SMT world (I dearly loved) so I said, "of course."
They weren't sure at first, but much later they became believers, as did we all.

They also asked whether there was a future producing sub and final assemblies. I again said yes
and they took this a bit more to heart and started their first press fit back-plane operations.

Look at Jure now. He's the CEO of Sanmina-SCI. When I first met him, he'd just come off Milan's
soccer fields in Yugoslavia to become Sanmina's sales manager. He made sales alright. He made
tons of them using whatever means it took, but shipments almost always were late and returns
were many and often.

I take no credit in their success. I was fought by them most of the way, especially when it came to
quality through process management instead of constantly reacting to defective results - as often
was the case with them and many others at this time. I even gave them several very objective
presentations during which they chided (more like warned me) me that I was disrupting their
operation by apparently criticizing that which to everyone was obvious. I did battle with many
others of the day. Where are they now? They went bye-bye. The handwriting clearly was on every
wall everywhere.

The image atop the next page (one of many) was provided by a major customer for many suppliers
at the time. A Memorex engineer contacted me asking what happened. I told him that wrong
material choices were subjected to poorly managed lamination processes. Many meetings
followed. None were fruitful as Sanmina and many others kept on keeping on with used car sales
rhetoric and obscene sales tactics (let me make you a deal you can't refuse). Jure and I remained
friends, as we both were likable folks though not sharing common ground upon which to stand or
walk.

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I remember also seeking PCB fabricators that could produce boards finer than 50 mil pitch SMT
designs. Some of that time's best said this never could be done let alone assembling the things
and making them work in boxes.

Sales, for many at that time, were the dominating factor - not shipments, quality, or reliability.
Times have changed somewhat, but most folks still think mostly SALES and CHEAP. Why else
would we be in China? Why, because have real problems allowing our companies to stay in
business - for many reasons including such a high tax burden. Sure, they have low labor rates, but
that really is only part of the equation (% gross profit - not the whole enchilada). We just don't have
it anymore nor do off shore suppliers due to lack of, WHATELSE but DFM/CE, and the urgency to
just get it out the door.

This is where and when DFM/CE is most important. If the major contractor doesn't have it right, it's
most often because it did not consult concurrently with all its sub-contractors. This is why
traceability became, and is, so important. This means knowing exactly what element or component
went into what assembly and that element or component was/is capable of being traced back to its
origin for cause and effect determination. Of course, we aren't even talking about commercial off
the shelf (COTS) and the negative impact it's having on product.

Examples of this include aircraft accidents or incidents (there is no such thing as either, by the way,
as everything has cause and is preventable) and the investigations that follow. If a plane
crashed/crashes, it is essential to establish cause and hopefully prevent its recurrence. However,
this is getting much more difficult with current quality and reliability issues being more difficult to
resolve with COTS, as one example.

COTS has generated a whole new world of concern and increased burden on buyers and users.
Most high reliability suppliers now must do their in house quality evaluations and reliability studies.
This was not the case some time ago when "special" product was manufactured (actually culled
out of normal production runs) and certified to certain specifications for use in hi-rel assemblies.

I have worked in many situations where other's designs or mine may have been cause. More than
this, I have worked on fabrication and assembly projects wherein designs were not acceptable for
our process capabilities but, because of contract requirements and a lack of good DFM/CE, we
were required to continue.

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There were occasions when, because of this or certain material types were unavailable, our
processes rendered what ultimately caused serious problems. This was/is unfortunate and totally
unacceptable mostly because we were in contract situations wherein little reliability data or
information was yet available. No matter, the government agency required us to proceed. These
decisions lost lives.

I can cite many examples regarding stupid commercial design and production tricks - as can you
all. Most effected only business failures without threatening or endangering lives. Some cost lives. I
won't go into them all, but I will tell of four occasions. One was about a year ago. The others go
back over the last twenty years.

1) "CONBOX"
I was consulting as a DFM/CE, manufacturing, process, component, and quality engineer for this
company. I was there for about fourteen months at a reasonable rate, considering recent
conditions in this country.

From day one, I received little respect. It wasn't for some time I found the reason. This simply came
down to this company's total lack of design, manufacturing, quality, reliability, test, and cost
understanding. I've always enjoyed a challenge, but this?

I walked into this place and immediately was asked, no grilled, about what I could do to make
things right. I offered my standard rhetoric concerning DFM/CE and extolled all its benefits. The
three folks in charge looked at me slightly askew as if to say, "what is this all about?" It turns out
these very nice, well educated (two PhD and one Masters types) were total rookies having set out
to make product they "designed" for their only Asian client/customer - who paid all the bills.
Unknowingly at the time - this was the big reason I was there.

One of the first images in this book's Part 1 (you know, the "C" clamp) turned out to be their first
serious, or not, endeavor into high technology aside from creating some pretty neat software. They
just figured, I guess to them, this whole product design and manufacturing thing was no big deal.
This turned out to be the case so their Asian partner forced them to hire me, or someone like me
(not possible, of course).

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Over the contract period, I fixed many problems including the one above. They included all the
problems associated with PCB fabrication and assembly. Things, into the first six or so months,
went pretty well with a lot of high fives and "ataboys" as product started working without benefit of
clamps. We went from near 0% yields to 99% within three months. Then things changed
drastically.

These folks, now numbering about forty highly educated and talented but un-cohesive individuals,
had taken on an additional challenge. They were about to design and build a commercial system (a
box) for use all over Asia. This is because that part of the world does not have the cable and other
communication infrastructures we enjoy in this country. They were/are starting to do it by satellite.
That's another story but for the box that was designed to sell millions as product connected by
satellite link.

The box was/shall be sold to companies and individuals without thought of environmental affects
and consequences, or any other reliability concerns. It was to be housed in a simple injection
molded plastic case - open to the elements (via cooling slots, etc.). This all was being done by a
company not even having a rudimentary quality system, let alone a notion of what DFM/CE was
about but for the little I provided to keep them in business.

The assembly I named the "CONBOX" is somewhat of a sarcastic acronym for a product I'll not
divulge but for the associated design, manufacturing, and reliability issues inherent in it. One of the
"big three" company hierarchy types hired a very talented project manager who obviously had not
managed a project until this time. However, I use the term "managed" loosely as this thing was
anything but well managed.

This individual had the highest "management" respect. He was given complete authority for the box
design and production though not close to being hardware oriented. The PCB/PCBA part of the
equation worked well enough alone - in a relatively "sterile" environment. The box into which it
went was another story.

The box was to be a two piece injection molded part (top and bottom) that encased the guts as the
board, power supply, and exhaust fan vented directly to whatever environment. The problem
simply was the box, and all in it, could not survive in the harsh environmental conditions to which it
was to be subjected. Actually, I doubted/doubt it would survive anywhere for long or short periods.

Initially this was proven using simple thermal cycling accomplished by placing the assembly in a
heat chamber. There wasn't even humidity applied, let alone mechanical stress or shock. This was
a debacle or MCF, if you prefer. Many failures resulted as no true understanding of reliability
principles was even remotely apparent.

Other relatively minor issues prevailed. One, as an example, was the plastic injection molded
housing design. First, the board was designed using my rules but they were violated. One example
excluded requirements for tooling/test holes versus mounting holes. These fine folks just made the
holes all the same size - .250" as I recall. The board fabricator couldn't work with these just as
could not the assembly house. The board had to go back to the original design I specified. This
meant redesigning the boards with both tooling and mounting holes. That meant retooling the box

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at a very high cost. Then, at least, the thing became manufacturable though not even close to
being proven reliable.

This really gets back to quality and reliability issues surrounding any design without benefit of
DFM/CE. Because of cost and schedule constraints (what's new), the project manager listened to
nothing I, or anyone else, had to say or present concerning the best design requirements for
manufacturability, cost, quality, servicing, and reliability. He just forged ahead and it got exciting. I
hardly blame him for needing a paycheck in extremely declining economic times but jeez! I only
blame management for not applying or practicing the DFM/CE principles and requirements I set
forth.

I can't even tell you how many products were returned and continue to be returned. I cannot even
tell you how pissed off is the customer. I can't begin to imagine what such a bright group (in no way
a team) of INDIVIDUALS are now doing with their lives. China, maybe!

2) DIGITAL ENGINE CONTROL PROGRAM


In the early days of 1980, or so, everything was going digital. At least attempts were being made to
do so.

The F-16 would become the first combat, or any other type aircraft, to "fly by wire." First there had
to be digital systems capable of this concept. One of the first and most important were digital jet
engine control systems housed in a box capable of surviving, and providing survivability for the
stuff in it, enormous stresses and shock encountered in daily operational use.

Pratt and Whitney, under Navy contract, was assigned to produce evolutionary jet engine
technology for military aircraft. Included in these efforts were digital jet engine controls. This was to
be a box capable of being computer controlled with input from the pilot via the throttle mechanism
using 0's and 1's instead of hard cables.

Just as with the F-16, polyimide PCB's and wiring systems were to be used. They were, but not
without incident and serious consequences. Flight failures occurred and were traced back to the
material choices. In the F-16, polyimide insulated wiring harnesses were cause as they began
deteriorating causing them to short against other wires in the harness bundles and to the plane's
fuselage. This would be fixed in time as would the rigid MLB's in the jet engine control systems.
Neither was an easy fix.

For the jet engine control MLB's, the Navy's Lab in Indianapolis (now EMPF or ACI in Philadelphia,
I think) determined cause as designing and fabricating polyimide boards taken to full cure. This
meant the boards were relaminated with a 270 degree C. Tg as was typical at that time.

I worked with Jerry Kirschenbaum, at Trace Labs in CA as somewhat of an observer. He provided


information that would forever change polyimide lamination cycles.

It was determined that innerlaminar and foil bond strengths were diminished very rapidly after
thermal cycling. Factually, findings were shocking. After but a few cycles, foil bond strengths were
reduced from a normal 5-7 pounds to less than 1 pound.

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This finding had laminate material and board suppliers changing profiles. Typically, relamination
profiles forced Tg reductions from 270 to 250 degrees C. This dramatically increased reliability and
resolved most issues relating to the digital engine control systems and the boxes in which they
reside.

This example shows that no box design or product can be made reliable without DFM/CE. Digital
engine controls and most all fly by wire applications work just fine now but for some in railroad
applications. That's another story but very interesting. I won't take time here to discuss much of this
but to say, as a semi-frequent train traveler, most maintenance people despise the systems. I didn't
like them much when having to change locomotives several times on several journeys though I did
have more peaceful meals without train motion.

3) MX MISSILE PROGRAM
This is a REAL box build story. Where else could one find such a story with so much at stake - but
for the highly successful Trident missile program - using very "conventional" interconnect
technologies?

This program was doomed from the outset. We're talking multiple nuclear warheads independently
guided by navigational boxes within each. Unlike the Trident missile program, the MX went all the
way with supposedly high reliability rigid/flex interconnect systems. Originally, there were 79 layers
of the stuff in each box.

Initially, this was the way to go. Conventional wiring was not acceptable as it added much bulk and
weight to the boxes.

The problems were simple. Rigid/flex circuitry, as all circuit types, had/has limitations. Exceeding
11 layers was the problem with this design and its unsuccessful production and flight.

Each guidance system's main board was comprised of 22 rigid and flexible circuit layers. It was
found, through many studies and one in particular, that exceeding 11 layers created many non-
resolvable problems. One was related to processing especially after lamination and drilling wherein
circuitry had to go through dry film lamination to allow imaging.

During the dry film lamination process, heat and pressure is applied to the circuitry to assure
adhesion. When layer count is higher than 11, due to the rigid/flex circuit nature, electroless plating
often "collapses" preventing electroplating, as shown again in the next image:

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This appears as delamination. It is and isn't. Actually, the electrolessly "plated" hole walls collapsed
during dry film lamination as the material is very "soft," for lack of a better term. It compresses very
easily and prevents through-hole electrical continuity.

Additionally, the adhesive materials used in the MLB constructions has a very low Tg. This, in itself,
eliminates the ability to laminate very high layer count rigid/flex circuitry. Not only does the material
"cold-flow" at room temperatures, it is very hygroscopic so moisture issues are constant threats to
reliability. These factors contribute to delamination in operational product.

This places a great deal of emphasis on how to design the boxes into which these circuits must
reside and survive. Though this type hardware need only fly once, it faces the widest ranges of
mechanical thermal stress and shock possible in addition to extreme environmental challenges.
Hence, box designers and builders must use all possible DFM/CE tools available.

4) COMMERCIAL CHEMICAL CLEANING ASSEMBLY PROJECT


Once I worked with a pretty nifty contract manufacturer in South Dakota (great place but for
tornadoes). They produced, or attempted production of many sophisticated commercial electronics
and electro-mechanical designs.

Most production was successfully accomplished though some rendered less than desirable quality,
reliability, and PROFIT. There were several reasons for this. Among them was a lack of knowledge
or ability negotiating concurrent contracts without benefit of DFM/CE or SOW's. It was a dart
throwing debacle. When prototypes were assembled, little cost or other important data was
collected or properly used.

One of the projects was total system box build for a major commercial and industrial cleaning
product. It entailed procuring all electronic and mechanical elements. Then, the product was
assembled. The "boxes" within the "big box" were comprised of PCB's, PCBA's, sheet metal,
plastics, tubing, O-Rings, machined parts and all manner of other things electro-mechanical.

In the end, the customer demanded lower prices while the supplier sought increased revenues.
Neither understood the other and this situation became a standoff with the box in limbo.

Fortunately or unfortunately, it was and always will be this way when living on the cutting edge
where the envelope constantly is being pushed. Usually, this is where "breakthrough" technology is
employed - instead of that being evolutionary.

I’m too cool and Patience my


know how to get ass! I’m going
it done right – the to kill
first time! It's just something,
part of my even if it’s the
heredity and design. This is
evolution. revolutionary
for me and my
kind.

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398 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

SUMMARY
You can't design and build the box without knowing and preparing for what goes into it and what
will affect it all. The few examples presented clearly are an indicator of this.

Despite, the sometime negative effects, revolutionary efforts often lead to great advances very
quickly though reliability information may be delayed for some time. Simply, as I said before in this
book's Part 1, evolutionary is preferred for most DFM/CE requirements but revolutionary efforts are
required in others. No matter, the box must be designed for what's inside it, how it is to perform -
under what conditions, and what initial quality and long-term reliability requirements are.

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399 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

12.15 CLEANING AND CLEANLINESS


Cleaning is a dead issue, right? Wrong, of course. Even with no-clean fluxes, issues still exist. One
of which is cleaning no-clean flux residues after touchup. Another pertains to some high reliability
applications require more conventional fluxes are required to effect acceptable solder joints. Yet
another are applications, especially those with through hole components in very thick MLB's,
requiring very active fluxes. One more are applications with uniquely plated or coated component
surfaces, as RF filters (using "German Silver," or?) requiring very active fluxes.

This story, as does the one for lead-free soldering, also has no ending. It would be very nice if "one
size fits all," but that isn't possible. So, what to do?

Nostalgia - just a bit more! Back in the good/bad old days, when SMT was a gleam in everyone's
eyes, solder paste formulation gurus mixed brews with many different fluxes and tin/lead variations.
We were cautioned to use only pastes with spherical solder balls as more rapid oxidation rates
would become a bit of a factor with solder shapes other than round.

We, trying to assemble and clean our product, could not always determine what to do. Many types
of equipment, wash capabilities, machines, and chemistries were used. Do you remember this
monster? Technical Devices made and sold this fourteen-foot long machine.

At H-P we scavenged the magnahelic gauges and used them in out BTU ovens to determine how
clogged up the vents were due to escaping flux gases and resulting residues. I know not what
happened to the machine as we changed over to no-clean and hardly every looked back.

The machine used several separate chambers to do the job and many times with saponificants
added. As is typical, the first chamber used the dirty water while the second was clean and the final
was a rinse. In the early days, high pressure was attempted with fine pitch devices (less than 50
mils) to "blast" out the crud from underneath these devices.

Nothing really worked well in the beginning. The recipe just wasn't available then and flux
entrapment nearly always was apparent effecting real problems with solder joint reliability over
time.

Just as now, DI water was used in addition to other mixes. You may remember MIL-P-28809 being
our guide for resistivity of solvent extract (ROSE) testing requirements as primary. We used/use
de-ionizing tanks with resin beds, to ensure the water was capable of meeting board cleanliness
requirements (I think it was 2 megohms/cm). Is that right? That meant, the water had to have much
higher resistivity readings coming out of the tanks - something on the order of 6 plus megohms.

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When lower than 4 the tanks were replaced. This became a very expensive but seemingly
necessary proposition.

You also remember using the Omega-Meter. I apologize for the following image as it got a bit
degraded over the last twenty or so years. This test method involved using 70% alcohol and 30%
DI water, as mixed in the cone shaped glass apparatus. Then the board was rinsed in this mixture
and the meter was used to determine resistance.

With all this there was a severe problem. The solder paste chemical types didn't talk to the cleaning
chemical types. This left us in a lurch, if you will. We just didn't know what was in the solder paste
binder. Therefore, it was difficult and often impossible to assure cleanliness requirements were
being met.

With fine pitch devices, and some others, water molecules alone could not get under the devices
and clean. Visual flux evidence often was apparent driving us up walls. Saponification and high-
pressure (sometimes 40-80 psi) processes worked to some extent but you should have seen all the
little chip components at the cleaning machine's sump bottom when its cleaning time was upon us.

CLEANLINESS NOW BUT THE DEBATE CONTINUES


Now cleanliness has taken on newer meaning. It also uses more and better, than ROSE, to test
cleanliness though ROSE often is used as a process indicator and the first step leading to better
testing and analysis. The following comments were taken from the IPC Technet some time ago:

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401 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

Sender: TechNet <TechNet@ipc.org>


From: Tegehall Per-Erik <per-erik.tegehall@IVF.SE>
Subject: Re: Ionograph measurements
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="ISO-8859-1"

Even if you could find a method to scientifically measure cleanliness of an assembly (which I doubt
will ever happen since flux residues are absorbed into the epoxy resin) you would also need to be
able to tell how the concentration of the various contaminants varies over the surface of the
assembly in order to assess the impact on reliability. This means that you also must be able to
transform contamination levels into reliability figures. You must then know which of the
contaminants that are hygroscopic and which are hydrophobic, which are ionic and which are non-
ionic, but also which contaminants that cause synergistic effects when mixed.

Therefore, I think, a scientific approach for verifying quality ought to focus on methods for
assessing the impact on reliability instead of methods for measuring the cleanliness. Surface
Insulation Resistance (SIR) measurement is such a method (described in Appendix B in J-STD-
001C) but, as it is used today, its scientific base including acceptance criterion is not what it ought
to be.

Per-Erik

Sender: TechNet <TechNet@ipc.org>


From: Mel Parrish <mparrish@SOLDERINGTECH.COM>
Subject: Re: Ionograph measurements
X-To: Tegehall Per-Erik <per-erik.tegehall@IVF.SE>
In-Reply-To: <6F20075C0DD9074ABCB3BE3C50EB0C7514799F@DAVID.ivf.se>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"

Good input! From an historical perspective, Ionograph testing was intended to support rosin base
fluxes closely controlled by flux qualification specifications which is certainly not the case today.
Given the consistent contamination resource as well as cleaning chemistries the correlation to
cleanliness to performance was a valid consideration. Good application for the time and common
processes allowed. Today we must rely more heavily upon SIR/MIR types of testing however IC
testing resources can add a degree of confidence as it can identify and quantify the contamination
type. Unfortunately these tests are not inline process tests as were the quick and simple Ionic tests
when life was simpler.

Mel Parrish Director, Training Materials Resources Soldering Technology International 102 Tribble
Drive Madison, AL 35758 256 705 5530 256 705 5538 Fax mparrish@solderingtech.com
www.solderingtech.com

Date: Wed, 2 Oct 2002 08:18:36 -0400


Reply-To: joyce.koo@efos.com
Sender: TechNet <TechNet@ipc.org>
From: joyce <joyce.koo@EFOS.COM>
Subject: Re: Ionograph measurements
X-To: Tegehall Per-Erik <per-erik.tegehall@IVF.SE>

POD DFM/CE - REVISION 3


402 Proof Of Design DFM/CE PART 3

In-Reply-To: <6F20075C0DD9074ABCB3BE3C50EB0C7514799F@DAVID.ivf.se>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"

guys, I am bit confused here. Are we talking about process development or process control at
assembly level? (1) all the cleanliness establishment shall be done at development stage.
Ionograph is not a good tool. Liquid chromatography might be the better way to go to define what is
the compatibility problem and what kind of contamination is on the board.

If you get the right personnel, you might be able to pin point what is the root cause if you exceeding
the spec. (2) Ionograph is good for process control after you defined your "process". It give a lump
sum of ionic reading without differentiate where it come from and what it is. If you got 6 sigma
control of everything, you should not see any difference between your process development stage
and control.

If you change vendor, as long as you know what to look for, you should be fine after vendor qual.
(3) sure you can use Ionograph machine as cleaner (did that before)...provide you know what are
you doing and have enough money to replace some of the parts in the Ionograph
machine...(depend upon who is going to do the replacement, if it is you, you most likely will have
second thought).

In theory, if the process development were done properly, the chances for the exceeding spec is
very very slim. Normally, when it is start to drift towards the limit, someone should start walk on the
floor to play detectives. However, that does not give you any glory status of "problem solver" or
"team player".

jk

Date: Thu, 3 Oct 2002 10:59:54 +0100


Reply-To: mfenner@indium.com
Sender: TechNet <TechNet@ipc.org>
From: Mike Fenner <mfenner@INDIUM.COM>
Subject: Re: Ionograph measurements
In-Reply-To: <00e501c26a0d$d5423400$afc809c0@efos.com>