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In Partnership with

Student Projects Technical Record

Released on the occasion of

Science & Engineering Fair of Selected Projects

At

National Science Center, Pragati Maidan Delhi


On

10th & 11th February 2016

Organised by

Agastya International Foundation


In support with

Synopsys

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 0


CONTENTS
1. FOREWORD

2. ABOUT AGASTYA INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION

3. ABOUT SYNOPSYS

4. ABOUT ANVESHANA

5. PROJECT SCREENING COMMITTEE

6. COPY OF INVITATION

7. PROGRAM CHART

8. LIST OF PROJECTS EXHIBITED IN THE FAIR

9. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 1


FOREWORD
Science and Technology are the engines that drive the development and progress of a
country. Science is culture of a society and mostly curiosity driven. Technology, especially
science driven technology, is the one which produces wealth for a country. In the present
interconnected world and globalized economy, country which can educate its younger
population to invent and innovate has a greater chance of success in capturing the
market by providing services and products that others are willing to pay to acquire the
same.

Dr. Michael Mumford, a distinguished professor of Psychology at the University of


Oklahoma, says “Over the course of last couple of decades we seem to have reached a
general agreement that creativity involves the production of novel, useful products”. The
question, therefore, is how to create creativity. Clearly education is an essential
ingredient. Arousing curiosity and building self- confidence to think unconventionally are
other necessary attributes.

Over the last couple decades Agastya International Foundation has experimented
successfully in science education, kindling curiosity, and in building self-confidence
among primary and secondary school children. Among the many innovative ideas
implemented by Agastya, Anveshana is a novel one in which the school children are
coupled with science and engineering undergraduates to design and demonstrate simple
S&T projects. This innovative experiment has led to bidirectional learning of the children
and the undergraduates. The themes selected – ecology, environment, energy, water
resources, robotics etc. – besides being topical have generated many creative ideas
some of which are even implement table as products.

Over the last few years the initial success of Anveshana held in Bangalore has led to its
implementation in a few other cities across India. I feel that the spread of this idea is
going to challenge the spread of wild forest fire.

I wish Anveshana 2015-16 all the success. I would soon like to see it all the cities in India.

Dr. V.K. Aatre


Scientist and Former Head of DRDO

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ABOUT AGASTYA

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 3


ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 4
ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 5
ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 6
ABOUT SYNOPSYS

Corporate Background

Synopsys, Inc. (Nasdaq:SNPS) provides products and services that accelerate


innovation in the global electronics market. As a leader in electronic design
automation (EDA) and semiconductor intellectual property (IP), Synopsys'
comprehensive integrated portfolio of system-level, IP, implementation,
verification, manufacturing, optical and field-programmable gate array (FPGA)
solutions help address the key challenges designers face such as power and yield
management, system-to-silicon verification and time-to-results. These technology-
leading solutions help give Synopsys customers a competitive edge in quickly
bringing the best products to market while reducing costs and schedule risk. For
more than 25 years, Synopsys has been at the heart of accelerating electronics
innovation with engineers around the world having used Synopsys technology to
successfully design and create billions of chips and systems. The company is
headquartered in Mountain View, California, and has approximately 90 offices
located throughout North America, Europe, Japan, Asia and India.

- See more at:


http://www.synopsys.com/Company/AboutSynopsys/Pages/About.aspx#sthash.GSEbLS7b.dp
uf

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ABOUT ANVESHANA
Anveshana Program is structured around the concept of mentoring, “catch them young” and
“facilitate the inquisitive minds”.

“Mentoring is a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital, and the
psychosocial support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional
development; mentoring entails informal communication, usually face-to-face and during a
sustained period of time, between a person who is perceived to have greater relevant
knowledge, wisdom, or experience (the mentor) and a person who is perceived to have less (the
protégé)" (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mentorship).

The program looks at Involving school students to provide an opportunity to work with
engineering students to find solutions for the encountered social problems.

The program envisaged to bring together students from various underprivileged schools and
Engineering colleges in respective locations in and around Delhi NCR – in a collaborative
platform (Anveshana).

Engineering colleges will participate as teams with 2 members. The teams will select 2 students
from nearby underprivileged schools (Govt. and Govt. aided schools) to mentor them to design
and build models or projects around an identified social problem. In the process school children
would directly get the opportunity to work together with more qualified under-graduates, and a
chance to ‘learn’ the basic principles (along with hands-on skills on diverse products and
interesting processes). The interaction with Juries and dignitaries would be a life-time
experience for them to cherish. The school students thus will be exposed to entire planning,
designing and building process of the models and in turn will get educated in the scientific and
engineering concepts behind the models in Anveshana-2016. (www.anveshana.org)

Process of Anveshana (Engineering Fair & Competition):

 Initial Screening of Engineering College Teams: Concept synopsis based on social problems
and related Engineering solutions are invited from engineering college teams for pre-
screening by the jury.
 Screening, selection of Synopsis and identifying mentees: Once selected the teams are asked
to contact local schools with underprivileged status and to form school student teams to
plan, design and make the models, while collaborating and mentoring the high school
students.
 Model Creation and Quality Check by Agastya team: Students will create knowledge
networks between them, their peers and with external resource persons to create
conceptual and methodological framework to create the models. Here, Agastya teams along
with assigned senior resource persons (senior educators, engineers etc.) will visit the
colleges to assist the teams conceptually and in the making of the models while providing
inputs including scientific and technological inputs. One of the main reasons for these visits
is to assure the quality of the collaboration and teaching-mentoring-learning outcomes.
ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 8
 Conceptual- Technological advice from Agastya: Agastya will also help the teams to establish
links between prominent institutions like Indian Institute of Science, Institution of Engineers,
Indian Institute Technology etc. –in case they need any technological or conceptual inputs.
 Anveshana Fair begins: The models thus made will be exhibited in Anveshana Engineering
fair where the teams would be presenting the same in front of an expert Jury for Judgment.
During the fair, students display their research projects, working models and present their
findings orally and through written journals to the Jury (mostly a team of scientists and
educators). The judging process involves series of interactions on the concepts, methodology
and objectives of the projects done by the students.
 Delegates attending the fair: After the judging process students from various schools and
delegates representing various institutions are also expected to attend the fair. Delegates
attending the event will include scientists and educators from large number of institutions
across Hyderabad.
 Valedictory: Prizes will be awarded at a valedictory function –towards the end of the fair.

ANVESHANA MILESTONES

2011 - 12 Anveshana launched in Bangalore


2012 - 13 Anveshana 2nd Edition in Bangalore
2013 - 14 Anveshana 3rd Edition in Bangalore
Anveshana Launched in Hyderabad
2014 - 15 Anveshana 4th Edition in Bangalore
Anveshana 2nd Edition in Hyderabad
2015 - 16 Anveshana 5th Edition in Bangalore
Anveshana 3rd Edition in Hyderabad
Anveshana Launched in NCR-Delhi

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PROJECT SCREENING COMMITTEE

MG Subramanian

MG Subramanian is an Advisor to Agastya International Foundation. He enjoys


going around project sites-namely colleges where Anveshana’s projects are in
progress interacting with young mentors and younger mentees pointing out the
immense opportunities to teach and learn, to wonder and innovate.
He is an engineer from IIT Madras and an PGDM from IIM Calcutta with a long
experience in manufacturing, product, business development and Human
resources development. He acknowledges the value of a mentorship and
attributes all his successes in life to his mentors .He says Anveshana’s success is
inevitable!
Dr. H. G. Nagendra

Dr. H. G. Nagendra is Professor and Head at the Department of Biotechnology, Sir


MVIT, Bangalore. He holds a doctorate degree in Biophysics from IISc, Bangalore,
and was a recipient of the BOYSCAST Post-doctoral Fellowship (DST) from
Cambridge University, UK. He has 16 years of teaching and 20 years of research
experience, and has authored 26 international publications in various journals. His
research interests include protein bioinformatics and structural biology of
neurodegenerative peptides. He has made more than 54 presentations at various
conferences / seminars as an invited speaker, and has conducted more than 32
conferences / seminars / workshops.

Dr. M Govindappa

Name: Dr M Govindappa
Qualification MSc, MPhil, PhD, PDF (USA)
Research 06 National
Publications 52 International
PhD guidance 03 students awarded (6 students pursuing)
Guided for BE, M.Tech and MSc students for their academic project work
Membership For various biotechnology bodies
Reviewers For various journals
Editor for International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

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INVITATION

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PROGRAM CHART
9th February 2016

3 pm to 4 pm Student Registration (full team In the venue


should be present)
4 pm to 5 pm Briefing about Anveshana Mr. Suresh

5:00 PM Tea/snacks & break for the day will be served in the venue

8:00 PM Dinner for participants will be served at their respective


accommodation facility provided

10th February 2016

8 am to 8.45 am Breakfast for participants will be served in the venue

10 am to 11 am Inaugural Function NSC Auditorium

11 am to 1 pm Model Judging Process Begins Juries will be visiting each and


every stall
1 pm to 1.30 pm Lunch for participants will be served in the venue

1.30 pm to 3.30 pm Models Judging continues

4:00 PM Tea/Snack Break will be served in the venue

8:00 PM Dinner for participants will be served at their respective


accommodation facility provided

11th February 2016

8 am to 8.45 am Breakfast will be served in the venue

10 am to 1 pm Anveshana Fair Open to School Students &


Visitors
1 pm to 1.30 pm Lunch for participants will be served in the venue

1.30 pm to 2.45 pm Anveshana Fair Open to School Students &


Visitors
3 pm to 4 pm Valedictory Function NSC Auditorium

4:00 PM Tea/Snack Break will be served in the venue

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PROJECTS EXHIBITED IN THE FAIR
S.N PROJECT PROJECT TITLE Page No
CODE
1 AS-A-D-01 Saving Of Power From Street Lamp Using Motion 15
Sensors

2 AS-A-D-02 Autonomous Vehicle For Handicaps 17

3 AS-A-D-03 Trains Got Brains 22

4 AS-A-D-04 Let's Geopark 26

5 AS-A-D-05 Artificial Fiber: Synthesis & Importance 30

6 AS-A-D-06 Design Of 7W LED Bulb Luminary For Interior Lighting 34

7 AS-A-D-07 Street Light And Traffic Light Control System 39

8 AS-A-D-08 Walking Stick for Visually Impaired 43

9 AS-A-D-09 Solar Backpack 47

10 AS-A-D-10 Burglar Alarm 50

11 AS-A-D-11 Colour Blindness Gear 53

12 AS-A-D-12 Water Level Controller 55

13 AS-A-D-13 Smart Safety & Security System: One Stop Solution For 59
Automobile

14 AS-A-D-14 Real Time Battery Charging System By Human Walking 64


With Display Of Blood Pressure, Body Temperature And
Calories Burned
15 AS-A-D-15 ICUV: Internet Controlled Unmanned Vehicle

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16 AS-A-D-16 ADHOC Networking Among Firebird V5 Robots For
Implementing Automated Agriculture System

17 AS-A-D-17 Design And Development Of Smart Medication


Dispenser

18 AS-A-D-18 Design And Synthesis Of Variable Digital Filter On Alys


Board

19 AS-A-D-19 “Roshni”: Inert Waste And Gravitational Pull Generate 66


Electrical Energy.

20 AS-A-D-20 Designer Brick From Construction Waste For Better 72


Environment

21 AS-A-D-21 Body Charge

22 AS-A-D-22 Mitti Fridge 75

23 AS-A-D-23 Safety Car 78

24 AS-A-D-24 Hybrid Car

25 AS-A-D-25 Single Seater Racing Car

26 AS-A-D-26 Water Harvesting 81

27 AS-A-D-27 Raspberry PI As A Hidden Camera

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1. Saving of Power from Street Lamp Using Motion Sensors
COLLEGE: NOIDA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, NOIDA

GUIDE: Dr. N.R. CHANDAK

SCHOOL STUDENTS: CHANDAN SINGH, CRS GIRLS INTER COLLEGE, SADARPUR VILLAGE, RSS
INTER NATIONAL SCHOOL, SADARPUR VILLAGE, NOIDA
COLLEGE STUDENTS: ANSHUMAN SINGH, NAVEEN KUMAR SINGH, URVASHI SHARMA

ABSTRACT

In the world today one of the challenge is to save the electricity without compromising the
human needs .The electricity is the life line of today’s society, we can’t even imagine a world
today without electricity. Observing the importance of electricity, everyone in the society is
responsible to think and act in the direction of saving electricity. Today if each person will save
even one unit of electricity in any field, the whole sum of saving will be huge. So, here we are
going to try an idea to save electricity being used in street lamps. We all know that the street
lamps work with the solar sensors installed in them i.e. in case of low light they glow
automatically, and they are on as long as the natural light is dim whether any vehicle is passing
or not. In this project we are going to provide a motion sensor in between two street lamps
which are 30 m apart and in such a way that it will work for both pedestrian and vehicles.
Passive infrared (PIR) sensors will be used for the concerned project with a purpose of activation
of led street lights unless any vehicle or person passes through the motion sensors. A large
amount of electricity can be saved in this manner.

HOW TO IMPLEMENT

We will provide the motion sensors in such a way that a pair of street lamp will glow by one
sensor, out of two lamps one will be 20m ahead and other lamp will be 80m ahead. In this way if
any person will walk on the road the lamp 20m ahead of him will glow and fulfill his
requirement of light, in case of any vehicle passing on the road the lamp 80m ahead will glow
and meet the requirement of light for driver. Another sensor will be installed along with the
motion sensor that will freeze the light for at least 45sec.

EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND OBSERVATIONS

For one LED lamp

Power consumed in one hour - 0.720 KWh


Power consumed in twelve hours – 8.640 KWh
If the electricity cost is – Rs. 5 for 1 KWh (1 unit)
Total cost of electricity for twelve hours – Rs. 43.2/-
Let us assume that the lamp is off for two hours in one night-
Power consumed in ten hours= 7.2 KWh
Cost of electricity for ten hours= Rs. 36/-
Electricity saved in one night= 1.440 KWh

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Total saving by one LED lamp in one night= Rs. 7.2/-
No. of lamps in one kilometer for one way= 1000/30=33.33(approx. 33)
Total saving in one kilometer in one night= Rs. 237.6/-

CONCLUSION:

By implementing this idea huge amount of electricity and money can be saved.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

J.B. Gupta

SUMMARY:

Implementation of street lamp along with Motion Sensors will save both electricity and money.
The Sensors will work in such a way that it can be useful for both pedestrian and drivers.

The pictorial representation of the idea is given below

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2. AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE FOR HANDICAPS
COLLEGE: AJAY KUMAR GARG ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GHAZIABAD

GUIDE: Dr. MAMTA BHUSRY, Dr. INDERJEET KAUR, Mr. DEEPAK RAI

SCHOOL STUDENTS: YOGESH KUMAR, RITIK SHARMA, DHRUV

COLLEGE STUDENTS: SHASHANK SHEKHAR, SRAJIT DEVA, GAGAN SINGHAL, ANIMESH KUMAR

ABSTRACT

World’s current population is around 7.3 billion out of which around 1 billion ( i.e., about 13.5%)
people are suffering from various disabilities. That's 1 of every 7 people and as the population
ages, this number will grow.

The objective of our project is that people with disabilities travel, shop and live in our
community with friends and families, just like everyone else. Hence, we propose an
“Autonomous Vehicle” that welcomes people with disabilities to use it; which not only allow
movement both inside and outside of their home but also provides an interactivity to be
connected with the world. Our project aims to provide a complete solution for people with
disabilities. The chair can be controlled by the joy-stick and voice commands of the disabled
person. Moreover he can also be connected to the social world through Facebook, Twitter etc.

HYPOTHESIS

The propose model will comprise the following:

1) Self-guidance system: The guidance system will enable the vehicle to trace and identify the
path itself using manual or auto mode (i.e., using intelligence).User have to give the location
where he/she want to reach as an input to the machine and then machine will self-guide itself to
the desired location up to a distance of few metres.

2) Path storage: System will comprise of an inbuilt database to store the path and route to
travel along with the location name.

3) Obstacle detection and avoidance: Due to uncertainty of location and environment, a


mechanism is required for security of individual from obstacles both indoors and outdoors.

4) Social connectivity: Our project allows people to get connected with family and friends on
social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter etc. They can post text messages, voice messages
or video messages directly to their account.

METHOD:

The proposed model provides two modes for controlling wheelchair, i.e., Manual Mode and
Auto Mode.

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1) Manual Mode:
1.1) Joystick Control:
This mode provides joystick for controlling the wheelchair. Person can guide the chair in
different direction using it. The output signal (for direction) given by joystick is transmitted to
arduino (microcontroller) which instructs motors to start or stop. In between arduino and
motors, a relay assembly is used to control voltage levels required by motors for their proper
functioning and to generate required torque. According to the direction of motion the relays are
triggered and accordingly the motors rotate resulting in the movement of wheelchair.

1.2) Generating Occupancy Grid Map


In order to perform motion planning it is necessary to define some representation of the
environment and have some method of determining the vehicle location in that environment.
The technique used for map representation is the use occupancy grid maps to approximate the
environment. An occupancy grid map represents the environment as a block of cells, each one
either occupied, so that the vehicle cannot pass through it, or unoccupied, so that the vehicle
can traverse it. Information about the environment is collected from sensors in real time. We
use Ultrasonic sensors to find obstacles. A binary occupancy grid uses simple true (1) and false
(0) values to represent the occupied workspace (obstacles) and free workspace respectively.
MATLAB is used to make the grid map of the path traversed by the wheelchair in the manual.
The grid tools are used to make the occupancy grid map so that map contains the information
about free and the occupied spaces.

Occupancy Grid Map

2) Auto Mode:
During Auto Mode the data is fetched from Grid Map made by using MATLAB and move on that
path according to the input (destination position) given by the user. On its way it detects the
obstacles and avoids them by the help of the software Open CV. Open CV (Open Source
Computer Vision) is a library of programming functions used for real time computer vision. It
dynamically detects the path on which the wheelchair can move and also detects the obstacles
to prevent any collision.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 18


Block Diagram for Instructing motors in Manual and Auto mode

3) Social Connectivity:
To connect people with their friends and family we are including social connectivity by designing
an easy –to-use and interactive .net application using Facebook Graph API to connect with
Facebook. Person can instruct the system using Touch panel or voice commands.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENTS USED

[A] HARDWARE COMPONENTS:


1) ARDUINO MEGA
Arduino is an open-source prototyping platform based on easy-to-use hardware and
software. These are able to read inputs - light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter
message - and turn it into an output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing
something online.
2) RASPBERRY PI 2
The raspberry Pi 2 is a second generation Pi. It consists of a 900MHz quad-core ARM Cortex-A7
CPU and 1GB RAM. It is very useful for development of projects as it acts like a mini-computer.
3) D C MOTOR
It’s a device which converts D.C. electric energy into mechanical energy that is rotation after
been feed by a D.C source.
4) JOYSTICK
A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or
direction to the device it is controlling.
5) ULTRASONIC SENSORS
Ultrasonic sensors generate high-frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is
received back by the sensor, measuring the time interval between sending the signal and
receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object

6) CAMERA
The Raspberry Pi camera module can be used to take high-definition video, as well as stills
photographs.
7) ACCELEROMETER
These are the instruments used for measuring the acceleration of a moving or vibrating body.
They can also be used to measure the distance travelled by a body.

[B] SOFTWARE COMPONENTS

1) MATLAB-
MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computing. It integrates computation,
visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions
are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. Typical uses include: Math and computation.

2) OPEN CV-
Open CV (Open Source Computer Vision Library) is an open source computer vision and machine
learning software library. Open CV was built to provide a common infrastructure for computer
vision applications and to accelerate the use of machine perception in the commercial products.
The library has more than 2500 optimized algorithms, which includes a comprehensive set of
ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 19
both classic and state-of-the-art computer vision and machine learning algorithms. These
algorithms can be used to detect and recognize faces & objects, classify human actions in videos,
track camera movements, track moving objects, etc.

3) .net Visual Studio:


Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft. It is
used to develop computer programs for Microsoft Windows, as well as web sites, web
applications and web services. Visual Studio uses Microsoft software development platforms
such as Windows API, Windows Forms, Windows Presentation Foundation, Windows Store and
Microsoft Silverlight. It can produce both native code and managed code.

EXPERIMENT

In the process of making our project, we analysed many practical aspects and performed some
experiments to decide the correct methodology that should be used, while making the project.
Few are listed as follows:

1) Analysed and verified the range of Ultrasonic sensors used for obstacle detection. Analyse to
what angles they are capable of detecting the objects.

2) Researched and performed experiments to find the best method that should be adopted for
self-guidance system.

3) Studied the drawbacks of GPS (Global Positioning System) and the reasons it can’t be used for
the autonomous vehicles.

COST
Our project completely follows the concept of create more value from less material resources
for more people. We have developed a cost effective wheelchair considering economic
conditions and situations of people living in India and South Asian countries. Our project
provides:
1) Cost effective product comparing to present technology available in market.
2) Allows easy mobility of chair.
3) Less weight of chair compared to other power wheelchairs.

PROTOTYPE AND TEAM PICTURE:

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ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 21
3. Trains Got Brains
COLLEGE: AJAY KUMAR GARG ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GHAZIABAD

GUIDE: DR. MAMTA BHUSRY, DR. INDERJEET KAUR

SCHOOL STUDENTS: DEVENDRA SINGH, PIYUSH, CLASS-9, MAHARISHI DAYANAND


VIDHYAPEETH
COLLEGE STUDENTS: SHASHANK SHEKHAR, SRAJIT DEVA, GAGAN SINGHAL, ANIMESH KUMAR

INTRODUCTION

Train accidents have become part and parcel in our daily routine life. Not a single day passes
without them. It usually occurs when trains, travelling on the same tracks collide or when trains
derail because of technical faults in the rolling stock, the rails or the security systems, or because
of landslides, avalanches or objects obstructing the rails.

Usually, these types of accidents cannot be avoided as the train driver or security personnel do
not have enough time to react, unless they are travelling under special protection, in such type
of exceptional cases. Such accidents cause direct and indirect damage to people and the
environment, especially when they involve trains carrying freight or dangerous or polluting
substances.

They are relatively rare, however, and can be avoided by taking strict preventive and protective
measures.

ABSTRACT

The solution is mainly focused on setting up reliable sensor devices attached with each train (on
both ends).These sensors will be able to detect any train on the same track over a certain
distance.

HYPOTHESIS

This will be made possible by a highly interconnected network of devices, communicating with
each other, attached with each train.

Each device will contain a transmitter and receiver sensor, which will facilitate
intercommunication between devices. A receiver, after receiving signal from transmitter will
trigger an alarm which will in turn, inform the driver about trains on the same track.

WORKING

An Infrared (IR) sensor is used to detect obstacles in front of them. An IR sensor consists of an
emitter, detector and associated circuitry. The circuit required to make an IR sensor consists of
two parts; the emitter circuit and the receiver circuit.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 22


The emitter is simply an IR LED (Light Emitting Diode) and the detector is simply an IR
photodiode which is sensitive to IR light of the same wavelength as that emitted by the IR LED.
When IR light falls on the photodiode, its resistance and correspondingly, its output voltage,
change in proportion to the magnitude of the IR light received. This is the underlying principle of
working of the IR sensor.

In case of our smart device we can use the above mentioned principles of IR sensors, and hence
can establish communication link between the devices on different trains.

So, when two trains come across each other over a certain distance on the same track, then the
IR photodiode on one device can detect the IR light coming from the other device’s IR LED
(mounted on the other train on the same track). This detection can be acknowledged by
lightening up of a LED, which can act as an alarm to the train driver, so that he can take all
necessary steps so as to avoid any collision.

COST: Rs. 3000/- (Infrared Receiver, Infrared Detector, Microcontroller with base , LED’s , toy
trains , track , etc.)

BLOCK DIAGRAMS

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 23


CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

ADVANTAGES

Absence of any such idea


Only of its type
Focus on lives of mob.
It is of national importance.
Any alternative methodology will be very costly and would take much long to get implemented.
Our smart devices will be easy to install, use and maintain.

FUTURE SCOPE

These sensors will easily communicate among them and with the nearest station as well, and
hence can prove to be a great asset when it comes to prevent train accidents. These devices are
self-capable of realizing any on-coming danger and can react on their own to avoid it. They will
be easy to implement and monitor.

As a result, the trains are going to be smart enough to avoid accidents with minimum human
efforts. Various other features can be added with our smart device resulting into a safer journey.

For example: Separate LED screens can be attached with each compartments of train, these
screens will continuously communicate to the nearest station via our smart device and hence
can be used to fetch information and display it. Information regarding number of trains currently
ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 24
standing on next station with their platform details and status of various trains arriving there as
well, which will avoid a lot of chaos on stations.

These smart trains can not only protect us from unavoidable accidents but can also provide a lot
of other services to the common citizens. On the bright side, the basic abstraction of the device
will award the people with their lives in case of any mishappening which may have occurred
otherwise and will open the gates to a new era of smart trains.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 25


4. Let’s Geopark
COLLEGE: AJAY KUMAR GARG ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GHAZIABAD

GUIDE: Dr. MAMTA BHUSRY, Dr. INDERJEET KAUR

SCHOOL STUDENTS: MANAV KASHYAP, ISHAN AGARWAL, CLASS-9, ST. PAULS ACADEMY,
GHAZIABAD
COLLEGE STUDENTS: SYED INSHA JAWAID, RAJAT SINGH, RASHMI ARYA, SIDHANT KANDPAL,
RAHUL GAUTAM

ABSTRACT

With the increasing population, the need for safety emerges as a major concern of one’s life.
The proposed system provides a solution to this prominent problem.

The basic concept of the proposed system is Geofencing. It primarily refers to a feature in
software program that uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) or Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID) to define geographical boundaries. It can also be interpreted as a “Virtual
boundary”.

The proposed system assists the user by allowing people to create any arbitrary shaped virtual
fence for the places they visit. This fence can be fabricated merely with the employment of
internet (web) over their smart phones.

The proposed system consists of an interface wherein the users can create a Geofencing
according to their requirement. This interface acts as a key to monitor the boundary coordinates
of the barrier. Its center would be the current location of the individual. These boundary
coordinates become the barrier coordinates whose values are regularly compared with the
individual’s current coordinates so as to monitor his/her location. As soon as the current
location lies outside the fenced area, an event is triggered to alert the individual.

Also, the feature of “Updating” the fenced area makes it user friendly and personaliazble. The
proposed system is installed on the vehicle without hindering its functionality.

HYPOTHESIS

1. The prerequisite for the proposed system includes persistent Internet connection.

2. It is believed that the device is present in network coverage area.

METHOD

The proposed system is developed using an amalgamation of cloud and electronic computing.
Cloud forms the major feature of the system. Cloud mainly operates on three services which can
be defined as IaaS (to record data send by the device), PaaS (to run all the codes) and SaaS (to
create web app).

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 26


In the proposed system we will incorporate the web interface along with Google map API, which
is used to fabricate the polygon of our choice, hence moulding the fence area for the vehicle.
This Polygon will be finalized by pressing the “Create Geofence” button on the web interface.
Also the feature of retaining the previously accessed geofence, adds another attribute to the
system.

The proposed system utilizes the Ray-Casting algorithm to constantly scrutinize whether the
vehicle is within the fenced area or not. Also, the GPS module installed in the system will
incessantly log the current location of the system. As soon as the vehicle traverses the geofence,
an event is triggered and an alert message is sent to the vehicle owner.

Fig 1.Hardware

Fig 2.Hardware implementation Fig3.Layout of proposed approach

EXPERIMENT

The proposed system is tested for certain areas in order to test its functionality. For example,
the snapshot of the geofenced web page depicts the geofence created for vehicle HONDACITY
Brown UP 14C 4323 parked at AKGEC (28.725517,77.027206) with three control points
ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 27
Indergrahi (28.683776, 77.499215), Hi-Tech Institute of Technology (28.672681, 77.495690) and
IMS Engineering College (28.680031, 77.509974).As the Fig 4 clearly depicts that the web page
contains four controls:

1. Check preset - Use the saved fenced area.


2. Save - Used to save new fenced area.
3. Create Geofence -To activate geofence within drawn area.
4. Finish Geofence-To stop monitoring.

The device contains GPS module which continuously logs values into the spreadsheet. Using this
data, Ray-Casting algorithm is implemented in order to know whether the vehicle is
inside/outside the fenced area, as it crosses an event is triggered which will send the message to
the owner of vehicle stating “HONDACITY Brown UP 14C 4323 out of the fenced area.” well
depicted by Fig 5. This message is triggered after the last entry of spreadsheet (28.682959,
77.510137) as it is the first coordinate that lies outside the fenced area.

Fig 4.Screen shot of web page

Fig 4.Screen shot of spreadsheet Fig 5.Alert Message

SUMMARY

The proposed system employs the Google API interface to enable the user to contrive a
customized geofence and also retain it. Also, Ray-Casting algorithm and GPS module uniformly
scans vehicle location to trigger the message sending event in case the vehicle spans out of the
fenced area.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 28


COST

S.NO NAME AND DESCRIPTION PURPOSE QUANTITY COST

1. ARDUINO MEGA 2560 Main M.C.U 1 Rs 1050

2. RASPBERRY PI Connecting cloud 1 Rs 3200


to device

3. GPS Module For GPS 1 Rs 1799


coordinates

4. GSM Module For GSM(calls, 1 Rs 999


SMS)

5. PIZEO SENSOR For crash senses 1 Rs 20

Total cost Rs 7068

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 29


5. Synthesis of Rayon
COLLEGE: G D GOENKA UNIVERSITY, GURGAON

GUIDE: Dr. PRIYANKA SHARMA

SCHOOL STUDENTS: MANAN KHARBANDA, DESHANT VERMA, CLASS 10, MEWAT MODEL
SCHOOL, FEROZPUR JHIRKA, MEWAT
COLLEGE STUDENTS: DIKSHA CHAWLA, MAYANK BHARDWAJ

ABSTRACT

Fibers and fabrics play a large role in everyday applications. A fiber is a hair-like strand of
material. They are the smallest visible unit of a fabric. Fibers can be spun into yarn and made
into fabrics. Synthetic or semi synthetic fibers are nothing just enhancement of the properties of
natural fibers like strength, resistant to moths and fungi, abrasion-resistance, low absorbency
etc. Rayon is one of the most peculiar fabrics in commercial use today. It is not an artificial fiber,
because it is derived from naturally occurring cellulose. It is not, however, a natural fabric,
because cellulose requires extensive processing to become rayon. Rayon is usually classified as a
manufactured fiber and considered to be “regenerated cellulose”. Rayon is used in a variety of
textile applications, including shirts and skirts, and appears in both woven and knitted forms,
home furnishing, medical surgical products etc.
Thus, it was, thought to synthesize this important fiber, “rayon (cuprammonium rayon)” in
laboratory by dissolving pieces of filter paper in a deep blue solution containing tetra-ammine
cupric hydroxide. The latter is obtained from a solution of copper sulphate. In the reaction
mixture, NH4OH solution is added to precipitate cupric hydroxide, which is then dissolved in
excess of NH3. Strength of the thread was found to be satisfactory.

Structure of rayon
METHOD:

We are using semisynthetic route method.

EXPERIMENT:

Procedure for preparation of RAYON

A. Preparation of Schweitzer’s Solution:

a) Way 20g of CuSO4.5H20.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 30


b) Transfer this to a beaker having 100ml distilled water and add 15ml of dilute H2SO4 to prevent
hydrolysis of CuSO4.

c) Stir it with a glass rod till a clear solution is obtained. Add 11ml of liquor ammonia drop by
drop with slow stirring. The precipitate of cupric hydroxide is separated out.

d) Filter the solution containing cupric hydroxide through a funnel with filter paper.

e) Wash the precipitate of cupric hydroxide with water until the filtrate fails to give a positive
test for sulphate ions with barium chloride solution.

f) Transfer the precipitate to a beaker that contains 50ml of liquor ammonia or wash it down the
funnel. The precipitate when dissolved in liquor ammonia gives a deep blue solution of tetra-
ammine cupric hydroxide. This is known as SCHWEITZER’S SOLUTION.

B. Preparation of Cellulose material:

a) After weighing 2g of filter paper divide it into very fine pieces and then transfer these pieces
to the tetra-ammine cupric hydroxide solution in the beaker.

b) Seal the flask and keep for 10 to 15 days, during this period the filter paper is dissolved
completely.

C. Formation of Rayon Thread

a) Take 50ml of distilled water in a glass container. To this add 20ml of conc. H 2SO4 drop by drop.
Cool the solution under tap water. In a big glass container pour some of the solution.

b) Fill the syringe with cellulose solution prepared before.

c) Place the big glass container containing H2SO4 solution produced before in ice.

d) Immerse the tip of the syringe in the solution and press gently. Notice the fibers getting
formed in the acid bath.

e) Continue to move your hand and keep pressing the syringe to extrude more fibers into the
bath.

f) Leave the fibers in solution till they decolorize and become strong enough.

g) Filter and wash with distilled water.

SUMMARY:

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 31


Fibers and fabrics play a large role in everyday applications. A fiber is a hair-like strand of
material. They are the smallest visible unit of a fabric .There are different types of fibers natural,
semi synthetic and synthetic.

Rayon is one of the most peculiar fabrics in commercial use today. Rayon is a manufactured
regenerated cellulose fiber. Because rayon is manufactured from naturally occurring polymers, it
is considered a semi-synthetic fiber.

Cuprammonium Rayon:

Cuprammonium rayon is obtained by dissolving pieces of filter paper in a deep blue solution
containing tetra-ammine cupric hydroxide. The latter is obtained from a solution of copper
sulphate. To it, NH4OH solution is added to precipitate cupric hydroxide, which is then dissolved
in excess of NH3.

Reactions:

CuSO4 + 2NH4OH → Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4

Pale blue ppt

Cu(OH)2 + 4NH4OH → [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2 + 4H2O

[Cu(NH3)4](OH)2 + pieces of filter paper left for 10-15 days give a viscous solution called
VISCOSE.

Applications-Synthesized fiber can be used as:

Apparel: Accessories, blouses, dresses, jackets, lingerie, linings, millinery, slacks, sport shirts,
sportswear, suits, ties, work clothes;

Home Furnishings: Bedspreads, blankets, curtains, draperies, sheets, slipcovers, tablecloths,


upholstery;

Industrial Uses: Industrial products, medical surgical products, nonwoven products, tire cord

Other Uses: Feminine hygiene products were synthesized by cellulosic material.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 32


ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 33
6. Design of 7W LED Bulb luminary for domestic interior lighting
COLLEGE: G D GOENKA UNIVERSITY, GURGAON

GUIDE: Mr. RAMANDEEP SINGH,

SCHOOL STUDENTS: KAJAK, SEHNAZ

COLLEGE STUDENTS: MONTI KHATANA, POOJA YADAV

HYPOTHESIS

Our aim was to study about designing and fabrication of circuits and prepare low cost LED bulb for
domestic Interior lighting for the purpose of charity. We came to learn about the difference
between CFL bulb and LED Bulb on the basis of their performance, durability, intensity and many
more.

INTRODUCTION TO LED BULBS

Nowadays LED bulbs have become very popular because of their light weight and high luminosity.
This paper aimed at study and production of low cost LED bulbs which consumed less power supply
and gives more light. LEDs are the next generation in home lighting.

LEDs or Led bulbs are excellent form of lighting and are of low cost and can easily compete with
other forms of lighting that are already available in the market. White LED bulbs can easily be used
in place of incandescent light bulb which consumes more power and energy.

STUDY ABOUT LED DRIVERS

LED Drivers:
Due to increasing energy regulations, most of us are familiar by now with the long life spans and
energy savings associated with LEDs, or light-emitting diodes. However, many are not aware that
these light sources require specialized devices called LED drivers to operate.

LEDs require drivers for two purposes:


1. Mainly, LEDs are designed to run at low voltage (12-24V), DC electricity. However, most places
supply higher voltage (120-277V), AC electricity. So here an LED driver comes into use. It rectifies
higher voltage, AC to low voltage, DC.

2. LED drivers also protect LEDs or LED Bulbs from voltage and current fluctuations. LED output is
proportional to the current being supplied to it. Therefore, too much or too little current can cause
light output to vary due to higher temperatures within the LED.

4. TYPES OF BULBS

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 34


4.1. AC Bulb

As we know LED requires a driver to convert high AC voltage to low DC voltage. However, AC LED
bulb fixtures can operate directly from the normal power supply and work on voltages from as low
as 12V to up to 240V.

4.2. DC Bulbs

The DC bulb requires conversion from AC to DC power.

These focus on:


 Efficiency consideration: A 15% power loss in the conversion from AC to DC is typical but
may be greater if done improperly.
 Sub-components lifetimes: Must be carefully selected to ensure long life.

4.3. Solar Based LED bulbs:

Solar powered LED lights works on solar power and they can be used both indoor and outdoor.
Moreover, they are water proof and have a long lifespan of up to 50,000 hours or 11 continuous
years.

ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR BASED LED BULBS:


I. LED lights operate at an efficiency of 90% as compared to incandescent bulbs which
operate at 5%.
II. Reduced energy bills.
III. Low on maintenance, they have a lifespan of 50, 000 hours.

5. Comparison of LED Bulbs with CFL and Tungsten Filament Bulb

Fields of Comparison Light Emitting Incandescent Compact


S.No Diodes (LEDs) Light Bulbs Fluorescents
(CFLs)
1 Life Span (average) 50,000 hrs. 1,200 hrs. 8,000 hrs.
2 Watts of electricity used 6-8 watts 60 watts 13-15 watts
3 Annual operating cost $32.85/year $328.59/year $76.65/year
(30 Bulbs per year or or or
equivalent) 2081.70 20822.74 4857.31
Rs./year Rs./year Rs./year
4 Contains the TOXIC No No Yes
Mercury
5 Turns on instantly Yes Yes No
6 Durability Very Durable - Not Very Not Very
LEDs can Durable - glass or Durable - glass
handle jarring filament can can break
and bumping break easily easily

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 35


8 On/off Cycling No Effect Some Yes - can
reduce
lifespan
drastically

6. Method and Production

Fabrication of circuit using EXPRESSPCB: The best way of designing a PCB is through an application
named “EXPRESSPCB”

Steps for downloading the application:


1. Opened this link: http://www.expresspcb.com.
2. Downloaded the application from the webpage.
3. Open the application.
4. Learned the basic of the application through online tutorials.
5. Designed the circuit which was to be used in the production of LED Bulb.
6. Got the circuit made in Express PCB printed in a glossy paper.
7. Took a copper plated PCB board, traced the circuit from the glossy paper on the board with the
help of hot iron.

8. Took some amount of ferric chloride in small amount of water and boiled it.
9. Dipped the circuit fabricated PCB board in the boiling solution of water and ferric chloride.

10. Boiled it further until the copper was completely removed from the board.
11. Washed it and rubbed it with a sand paper.
12. Drilled small holes wherever soldering was to be done.
13. Soldered the components on the fabricated board.
14. Tested the circuit.

7. Production Process:
Now when the circuit was ready we were supposed to start working on the final product.

1. Cleaned the work station where the actual work was supposed to be done.
2. Set up different tables for the each step of manufacturing.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 36


3. Kept the raw material on the corresponding tables.
4. Clamping: was done to clamp the plastic body with the lower portion.

5. Then soldering of components was done:

6. Assembly: the components were assembled carefully.

Overall work was done in different steps to make it simpler and faster.

7. Soaking test: testing of each and every single bulb was done.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 37


8. Stocking rack: the bulbs manufactured were placed on a stocking rack.

CONCLUSION/SUMMARY

From this project report we studied the basic introduction of “Design of 7W LED
Bulb luminary for domestic interior lighting”. We studied the difference between CFL,
tungsten bulb and LED bulbs. It was opportunity for us to see how theory is put into practice.
LED bulb helps in reducing the electricity bills.

COST

Each bulb cost us around 180 rupees.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 38


7. Street Light and Traffic Light Automation System

COLLEGE: BHARATI VIDYAPEETH’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

GUIDE: Mr. SANDEEP BANNERJEE

SCHOOL STUDENTS: SALONI, MANSI, ANJALI, CLASS 9, SARVODAYA KENDRIYA VIDYALAY, D


BLOCK
COLLEGE STUDENTS: HIMADRI SINGH, GAGAN BATRA

ABSTRACT:
The proposed model aims at reducing the power consumption in each and every nook and
corner of the country by converting the conventional roads into smart ones with the inclusion of
technology and automation. This in addition to the smart homes can constitute smart cities.
According to Central Electrical Authority , 1% energy consumption in India is on public lightening
and till 2030 the Government of India plans to build 2.5 billion square meters of roads which
would put more pressure not just on the economy but also on the energy resources. Hence, in
the proposed model the current problem has been addressed with the use of LED bulbs and light
dependent resistor(LDR) to make the process of turning the lights on and off automatic. In
addition to that, for reducing the number of deaths due to delay in reaching the hospital in India
the model uses an IR sensor to detect the special vehicles like ambulance to automatically
enable it to pass through traffic checkpoint in the condition of a red light also. There is also a
provision of displaying the color of the next traffic light on LCD screens in the vehicles to
decongest the roads.

HYPOTHESIS:
The motivation behind the model fabrication has been not just to reduce the power
consumption but also to effectively and efficiently consume the power available to facilitate
sustainable growth.

Hence three major hypothesis have been researched upon-


1- The LED bulbs consume less power as compared to the generally used incandescent bulbs.
2- All the street lamps are not required to function for the whole day and hence their turn off
time has to be regulated.
3- The easy passage of special vehicles like ambulances and police vehicles is possible by pre-
programming the traffic lights to sense them.

METHOD:
The methodologies undertaken are simple but effective. Before adopting any methodology we
have kept in mind that there are two ways in which we can develop sustainably-
a- By using renewable sources of energy
b- By using the available energy judiciously

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 39


Hence we have tried to implement the second approach. Our proposed model comprises of
three main features-

1- AUTOMATIC STREET LAMPS


 These street lamps automatically turn on and off according to the light availability
 This saves energy and is done using a Light Dependent resistor

2- Automatic Traffic Light


 For ordinary vehicles like cars and trucks at red light the barricade attached to it is closed
 But for special vehicles like ambulance the barricade attached to it is open

 This helps the general public in emergency situations and is done using an Infrared sensor

3- Live feed to the vehicle drivers


 The color of the next traffic light is displayed on the LCD screens of the vehicles
 This is represented by 7 segment

LCD 7 SEGMENT DISPLAY

FOR ALL THE LAMPS, WE HAVE USED SMALL COLOURED LED BUT FOR PRACTICAL PUROSES WE
ADVOCATE THE USE OF SUITABLE LED BULBS OF THE REQUIRED WATTAGE.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 40


EXPERIMENT:
Apparatus used are

DEVICE FUNCTIONS
ARDUINO UNO It is the microcontroller
INFRARED SENSOR It detects the proximity of the object
L293D MOTOR DRIVER IC It moves the motor in the forward and
backward direction
LIGHT EMITTING DIODE ( LED ) It emits light of different color
MOTOR It moves the barricade in an automatic
traffic light system and also drives vehicles

LDR-The experiment consists of the LDR sensing the amount of light present and sending a signal
to the microcontroller which turns the LED on automatically in the presence of low light. The
LDR is a resistor and its resistance varies according to the amount of light falling on its surface.
When the LDR detect light its resistance will get decreased, thus if it detects darkness its
resistance will increase.

Traffic light- In case of traffic light the IR sensors sense the special vehicle through their
transmitter – receiver mechanism and subsequently the barricade is raised with the action of
the motor attached to it when the signal is sent by the sensor to the controller even in case of a
red light. Also, the output of the red light to the incoming vehicles on a LCD

LDR IR SENSOR WORKING IR SENSOR

SUMMARY:
The experiment explained above yielded results stated below-

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 41


1-The use of Light Emitting Diode( LED) bulbs reduce the power consumption to 58% and hence
the cost is subsequently reduced to less than half with the LED’s also offering longer service due
to a longer lifespan.

2-The use of Light Dependent Resistor further decreases the power consumption by checking
the power wastage when sufficient amount of light is present and hence also indirectly reduce
CO2 emissions.

3-The use of automated traffic lights incorporating an Infrared sensor is successfully used to
detect the special vehicles and hence not obstruct their movement.

4-The live feed to vehicles about the color of the next traffic light will help them to plan and use
an alternative route in the case of a red light which leads to decongestion of roads.
Hence , on the practical application of the proposed model the energy consumption can be
reduced many folds and the available energy is consumed effectively and efficiently .The
number of deaths due to delay in the patient reaching the hospital would be reduced thereby
helping the general public.

COST:
For a street light automation system- Consider a street with 10 lamps. This cost goes down
further when LDR is used to reduce the power wastage.

Incandescent Bulbs LED bulbs


POWER=60W, TIME DURATION= 10 h, PERIOD= POWER OF LED= 12 WATTS ONLY
30 days Total Power= 12*10*10*30=36000
Total power= 60*10*10*30=180000 = 180 UNITS Units =36
COST= Rs 1260 Money = Rs 252

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 42


8. Walking Stick for the Blind
COLLEGE: BHARATI VIDYAPEETH’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

GUIDE: Mr. SHASHI GANDHAR

SCHOOL STUDENTS: ANKITA NAND, SHIRIN ANSARI, SHIVANI GUPTA, NISHIKA

COLLEGE STUDENTS: ABHISHEK MATLOTIA, AJAY KUMAR, SHAKSHI BHARDWAJ

ABSTRACT

Walking stick is an innovative stick designed especially for visually disabled people, helping them
becomes self-sustained and connecting them to technology. Our prime purpose is to alarm the
visually disabled person, as and when any problem comes in the way. There are three main parts
of the stick namely, the microcontroller, sensors and indicators. The brain of the walking stick
lies in the microcontroller. The sensors are used to detect any change in input and then alarm
the person through indicators. The cost of such stick available in the market is worth thousands,
so we have designed a low cost yet very efficient walking stick.

HYPOTHESIS

The project works on the basic principle of detection of variation in input by sensors and
indicating the change by indicators. Sensors need to be such that they can be easily griped inside
the walking stick. The indicators need to be such that the message can be easily conveyed to the
blind person.

METHOD

The whole stick comprises of three basic devices namely, sensors, indicators and
microcontroller. The microcontroller used is arduino nano. The microcontroller is the brain of
the stick. The sensors used are ultrasonic sensor, dark light sensor and water sensor. The
indicators used are buzzer and vibration motor. The arduino nano is one of the smallest
microcontrollers, so we have used it in the stick.

The ultrasonic sensor would detect the distance of the coming object and give a signal to
arduino nano. Arduino nano would then give a signal to buzzer and vibration motor. The sound
of buzzer can be easily heard by the person and the vibrations can also be felt by the person
because of the vibration motor. Hence the blind person gets to know that there is an object
coming close and so an appropriate action can be taken.

The water sensor detects whether there is water in front and indicates the person through the
sound of buzzer.

The dark sensor is used to indicate the other person, when the blind person enters the dark
room the other person would come to know. Hence, it would be very helpful for the blind
person and his safety would be insured.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 43


WALKING STICK BASIC DESIGN

EXPERIMENT

Apparatus used are-

DEVICE FUNCTIONS

A. ARDUINO NANO It is the microcontroller

B. ULTRA SONIC SENSOR It detects the proximity of the object

C. DARK LIGHT SENSOR It detects a dark place

D. WATER SENSOR It detects water ahead

INDICATORS FUNCTIONS

A. LIGHT EMITTING DIODE ( LED ) It emits light AR


B. VIBRATION MOTOR It vibrates and indicates the person. DUI
NO
NA
NO

It is the microcontroller. It has various input and output pin. The ultrasonic sensor, buzzer and
vibration motor are connected to it.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 44


ULTRASONIC SENSOR

Ultrasonic sensors broadcast a powerful, ultrasonic frequency, then detects the ultrasonic sound
waves as they bounce off of the objects and return to the sensor. Ultrasonic sensors depend on
two separate devices, an ultrasonic transducer and a detector. An ultrasonic transducer is any
device that converts energy into an ultrasonic frequency. Ultrasonic transducers are usually
made from piezoelectric crystals that can change size when a voltage is applied to them. When
an alternating current is applied to a piezoelectric crystal, it vibrates extremely fast and
produces an ultrasonic sound wave. The detector is also made of a piezoelectric crystal, but
produces a voltage when an ultrasonic frequency comes in contact with it.

Figure 1 ULTRA SONIC SENSOR Figure 2 WATER SENSOR

VIBRATION MOTOR

It is a small motor running at 3V. It produces vibrations when supply is given to it. These
vibrations can be easily felt by the blind person and hence vibration motor becomes an
indicator. In the stick the motor will vibrate when any object comes in the proximity of the
person.

DARK LIGHT SENSOR

Input is LDR and output is led. When light falls on LDR, led will be off and when there is dark light
on LDR, the led will get on. When led is on, it indicate the other person that blind person is
there. Hence, blind person is safe and secure.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 45


COST

The overall cost of project is 700 rupees

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 46


9. Solar Backpack
COLLEGE: BHARATI VIDYAPEETH’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

GUIDE: Mr. SANDEEP BANERJEE

SCHOOL STUDENTS: SHOBHA, SHWETA GIRI, ISHA KATARIA, CLASS 9, SARVODAYA KANYA
VIDYALAY
COLLEGE STUDENTS: SHUBHAM BAUNTHIAL, VAIBHAV BALUJA

ABSTRACT:

A Solar backpack is a cloth sack carried on one's back and secured with two straps that go over
the shoulders, equipped with thin film solar cells and batteries. The solar panels convert sunlight
into electricity, which is stored in the batteries and can be used to power portable electronic
appliances like mobile phones and mp3 players.

HYPOTHSIS:

The solar backpack contains a flexible monocrystalline solar panel, battery, charge controller,
plugs, cords and light bulbs. It provides users with power up to 120 watt hours/days, capable of
powering electronic equipment rated up to 300 W. It can also be utilized in international
aid, disaster relief, emergency power and field research.

This can power or charge all your gadgets (cell phone, mp3 player...) while on the road. HAMs
can use it to power small QRP transmitters and receivers on a field day etc.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 47


METHOD

Connect the panels in series (red-to-black etc.) and solder. Insulate with heat shrink tubing.
At the end you will have a black and red cable (minus and plus). Solder a 0.5m cable to this and
attach a connector plug to go to the battery box. Use this to charge 4 NiMH AA batteries rated
capacity C=2600mAh.

Drill holes for the connectors, one coming from the solar panel and one to go to your gizmos.
Once the circuit is ready, connect a load (say 100 ohm). Then using a power supply, go up slowly
starting from zero volts. Adjust the trimmer so the circuit trips at 4.8V. Then go down again, the
circuit should disconnect the load somewhere between 4.0V and 3.6V NOT LOWER. To adjust
the lower threshold, you can also replace the 470kohm resistor with a trimmer if needed.

SUMMARY

It is used to power electronic devices with a charging time of just 6 hours. As it weighs at around
10 pounds, it can be carried as a backpack easily. In addition to solar power, it can also convert
ac power from wall outlets and utilize power from disposable batteries and vehicles.

 Solar backpacks can also power laptops for up to 3 hours.


 After an exposure of about six hours, it can power an emergency light for 14 hours.
 Solar backpacks can also be used to power medical equipment and humanitarian relief
efforts where power from the utility grid is not available.
 These types of backpacks can also be used to power cameras for use in remote areas.

ADVANTAGES
 Solar backpacks are light-weight, hence making it easier to carry.
 Solar backpacks carry a green energy source for the environment.
 Solar backpacks have a wide range of ideas and opportunities to the society itself.
(Modern phones use about 1-2 amps of energy. According to research, calculations expected as
10-20% of our electric bills). This can decrease the usage of our energy bills. Flexible solar panels
also are light and portable.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 48


COST
Solar panel – 300Rs
Transformer-100Rs
Rest electronic components-50Rs
Re chargable Battery-100Rs
Bag -700Rs
Total cost of project-1250Rs

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 49


10. Burglar Alarm - Autonomous Security System
COLLEGE: BHARATI VIDYAPEETH'S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, NEW DELHI

GUIDE: Mr. SANDEEP BANNERJEE

COLLEGE STUDENTS: SHUBHAM BAUNTHIYAL AND SAARTHI BHATIA

SCHOOL STUDENTS: YAMINI, POOJA AND ARYAN, CLASS 9TH

ABSTRACT:

A security alarm is a system designed to detect intrusion – unauthorized entry – into a building
or area. Security alarms are used in residential, commercial, industrial, and military properties
for protection against burglary (theft) or property damage, as well as personal protection
against intruders.

A Burglar Alarm is a microcontroller based autonomous home security system. It is highly


sensitive to any kind of burglary movement. Our system on sensing any kind of manly movement
in the home, in the absence of the owners, triggers an alarm.

Instead of using usual Infrared sensors we're using PIR sensors which are more sensitive than
Infrared sensors. PIR sensors are used to detect motion, usually human movement. Whenever a
sensor senses any movement, it gives an output else it doesn't.

The other important part of our Security system is GSM module. A GSM module is similar to a
mobile phone but integrated with a microcontroller based environment for communication
purpose. In our project, the GSM module shall help the Security system to communicate with
the owner of the house on detection of a burglar. The system can be made to either phone call
or message the owner.

HYPOTHESIS:

With the advancement of technology and automation now common people are also willing to
have access to these security systems. Such system doesn’t require regular surveillance. They
work automatically. Whenever the system detects an illegal access into the home, the system
automatically sets the alarm ON and side by side also sends an sms or call to the master of the
home or to the local police (with the help of GSM modules).

The system can be also be made to have access to internet (via use of Ethernet modules) and
controlled by using a smartphone or laptops. But such additions add to the cost of the system.

The major problem with present day security systems in our country is their automation part.
They don't work automatically and need to have someone for the controlling part of the system.
Further, the system usually doesn’t communicate with their owners as in our Security system.
Further the sensors we've used doesn't get triggered by all obstacles but only by some living
animal obstacle like human, dog, cat, etc. So we hypothise that our system shall provide suitable
solution for all these problems by adopting modern day technology equipment’s.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 50


METHOD:

Components used -

1. PIR sensors
2. Keypad
3. LCD screen
4. Gate lock system
5. Arduino Uno Microcontroller
6. GSM module
7. Buzzer
8. LEDs
9. Breadboard
10. Jump wires

WORKING

The method or working of this security system is very easy to understand. Our home security
system comprises of a password based gate lock system. The password keypad helps in
activating and deactivating the system as well as locking and unlocking the gate. The sensors are
placed at all the suitable locations in the house.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 51


When the owner leaves the house he/she activates the system by entering the password via the
keypad. As soon as the system is activated the gate is locked and the sensors are commanded to
work. If some burglar enters the home, his movement is sensed by the PIR sensors. The sensors
are connected to a Radio frequency transmitter which transmits an output on receiving an
output from the sensor. The signal is transmitted to a security room where it is received by the
microcontroller via a Radio frequency receiver.

On receiving the news of a burglary movement, the microcontroller immediately commands the
GSM module to communicate with the owner of the house and with the local police or security
service. At the same time an alarm is triggered which warn the neighbors about an act of
burglary.

SUMMARY:

Our security system thus provides a smart, suitable solution against burglary at a really low cost.
Considering the present day world where there's always a chance of thievery, where thieves are
gradually becoming smarter, it is time that people should also adopt smart solution for the
protection of their assets.

COST:

This system cost us around Rs. 2000, which i don't think is high enough for a smart security
system.

The system can be made even smarter by additional features like floor pressure sensors, CCTV
cameras with or without face recognition, finger print module, eye retina sensing module, etc.
This shall definitely add to the cost but it should be kept in mind that a person who demands for
such a ultra-smart security system will definitely be able to pay for it. However, we believe that
we can provide such a system with all features within a price of Rs. 10000.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 52


11. Gear for Colour Blind
COLLEGE: BHARATI VIDYAPEETH'S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, NEW DELHI

GUIDE: Mr. SANDEEP BANNERJEE

COLLEGE STUDENTS: CHETNA GAUTAM, KHUSHI, RITIK CHOPRA

SCHOOL STUDENTS: VAIBHAV BALUJA, GAGAN BATRA

ABSTRACT

Gear for colour blind is a gadget which senses various colours. This gear can be worn by a colour
blind and the colour of a particular object can be recognised by using it. The person using it will
get display on 7-segment display and on his smartphone.

HYPOTHESIS

Colour blind or colour vision deficiency is an inability or decreased ability to see colour or
perceive colour differences under normal lighting conditions. They often face problem in
recognising colour in their day today life. Thus, they require a gadget or gear which they can use
to recognise colours. We thus made a gear for colour blind which is portable enough to be
carried easily, and almost everywhere. It is economical and quite efficient. It can sense a wide
range of colours.

METHOD

This colour blind gear uses TCS3200 module, arduino, 7-segment display, resistors, PCBs,
Bluetooth module, wires etc.

TCS3200 is intensity to frequency converter. It has a matrix of 8x8 photodiode. These


photodiodes are covered with three types of filters. There are RED, GREEN, BLUE and clear filters
with sixteen sensors each, thus making total of 64 sensors.

Arduino is a microcontroller which is used to control various hardware used. Bluetooth module
sends information from the gear to smartphone

EXPERIMENT

Hold the color sensor at a distance of around 2 cm - 4 cm from the object whose color is to be
detected and then run the code.

Logic of the code:


 Select the RED photodiode and store the number of pulses received.
 Select the BLUE photodiode and store the number of pulses received.
 Select the GREEN photodiode and store the number of pulses received.
 Now compare the number of pulses received after using each type of photodiode.
 The photodiode which gave highest number of pulses is the color of the object.

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 For eg. If the RED photodiode gave more pulses than BLUE photodiode and GREEN
photodiode then the color of the object is RED.

SUMMARY

 The project is a sensor which is used to identify the color of an object for color blind people.
 It can be used to identify four colors which are RED, BLUE, GREEN and BLACK.
 It serves as a very cost effective product for people with color blindness.

COST

Total project cost around – 1000 Rupees

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 54


12. Water Level Controller
COLLEGE: BHARATI VIDYAPEETH'S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, NEW DELHI

GUIDE: Mr. NEERAJ KUMAR

COLLEGE STUDENTS: SOURABH SINGH, GAURAV, PUSHPENDER SINGH

SCHOOL STUDENTS: AJAY KUMAR, ABHISHEK MATLOTIA

ABSTRACT

The drinking water crisis in India is reaching alarming proportions. It might very soon attain the
nature of global crisis. Hence, it is of utmost importance to preserve water. In many houses
there is unnecessary wastage of water due to overflow in Overhead Tanks. Automatic Water
Level Controller can provide a solution to this problem

HYPOTHESIS

The principle of water level controller works upon the fact that water conducts electricity. So
water can be used to open or close a circuit. As the water level rises or falls, different circuits in
the controller send different signals. These signals are used to switch ON or switch OFF the
motor pump as per our requirements

METHOD

We know the property of 555 timer IC, i.e. its output goes HIGH when voltage at the second
pin(trigger pin) is less than 1/3 Vcc. Here 3 wires are dipped in water tank. Let us define two
water levels- Bottom (Low) level and Top (Up) level. One of the wire or probe is from Vcc. The
probe from bottom level is connected to the trigger (2nd) pin of 555 IC. So the voltage at 2nd pin
is Vcc when it is covered by water.

When water level goes down, the 2nd pin gets disconnected (untouched) from water i.e.
Voltage at the trigger pin becomes less than Vcc. Then the output of 555 becomes high. The
output of 555 is fed to a BC547 transistor, it energizes the relay coil and the water pump set is
turned ON. While the water level rises, the top level probe is covered by water and the
transistor becomes ON. The low voltage at the 4th pin resets the IC. So the output of 555
becomes 0V. Hence the motor will turn OFF automatically

EXPERIMENT

The apparatus used are as follow -

Relay: Relay is defined as controlled electrical switches that are controlled by another switch.
Relays allow a small current flow in a circuit to control a higher current circuit. The relay used
here is a Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) relay who’s magnetizing coil terminals operate on 6V
DC supply. It has the following terminals: COIL- This is one end of the coil.

COIL: This is the other end of the coil. These are the terminals where we apply voltage to in
order to give power to the coils (which then will close the switch).
ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 55
NO: This is Normally Open switch. This is the terminal where the device is connected that we
want the relay to activate when the relay is powered.

NC- This is the Normally Closed Switch. This is the terminal where we connect the device that we
want powered when the relay receives no power

COM- This is the common terminal of the relay. When the relay is powered and the switch is
closed, COM and NO will be shorted. If the relay isn't powered and the switch is open, COM and
NC get shorted. It is used in normally open mode

Transistor -: A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals


and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for
connection to an external circuit. The three terminals of the transistor are namely called as
emitter base and collector.

DIODE -: A diode is a specialized electronic component with two electrodes called the anode and
the cathode. Most diodes are made with semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, or
selenium. .

A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor
material with a p–n junction connected to two electrical terminals. A vacuum tube diode has
two electrodes, a plate (anode) and a heated cathode. Semiconductor diodes were the first
semiconductor electronic devices.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 56


LED: A light emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a pn-
junction diode, which emits light when activated. When a suitable voltage is applied to the
leads, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in
the form of photons.

555 Timer -: The 555 timer chip is extremely robust and stable 8-pin device that can be operated
either as a very accurate monostable, bistable or astable Multivibrator to produce a variety of
applications such as one-shot or delay timers, pulse generation, LED and lamp flashers, alarms
and tone generation, logic clocks, frequency division, power supplies and converters etc., in fact
any circuit that requires some form of time control as the list is endless.

The 555 timer which gets its name from the three 5kΩ resistors it uses to generate the two
comparators reference voltage

SUMMARY:
This system is very beneficial in rural as well as urban areas. It helps in the efficient utilization of
available water sources.
If used on a large scale, it can provide a major contribution in the conservation of water for us
and the future generations.
Water level controller is a simple yet effective way to prevent wastage of water. Its simplicity in
design and low cost components make it an ideal piece of technology for the common man

COST:

The main advantage of the water level controller is it has very low cost than the conventional
one available in markets. For example, some commercial controllers use microcontrollers which

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 57


are costly. But for our system, the components used are less in number and easily available.
Hence losses will be less leading to a better efficiency. The cost of our project is approx. Rs.200.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 58


13. Smart Safety & Security System: One Stop Solution for Automobile
COLLEGE: JSS MAHAVIDYAPEETHA, JSS ACADEMY OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION, NOIDA

GUIDE: Ms. GAYATRI SAKYA, Ms. MONIKA MALIK

COLLEGE STUDENTS: RAJAT KUMAR SONI, SURABH SINGH, SUHIT SAXENA

SCHOOL STUDENTS: HIMANSHU, SAGAR JHA, NEELIMA

OBJECTIVE

To implement automated vehicle safety and security system and Android application for it

ABSTRACT

The population of our country has been increasing rapidly which indirectly increases the vehicle
density and leads to many road accidents. The aim of the project in to minimize the road
accidents which causes the loss of invaluable human life and other valuable goods. Besides, the
provision for the safety of the vehicle is also provided to avoid the theft action. In this fast
moving world, new technologies have been evolved for every second for our human life style
improvement. There have enormous advancement in automobile technologies already and still
to come. Because of these technologies, now we are enjoying the necessary comfort-ness and
safety. But there is lot of accidents happening now-a-days. It is because of increased vehicle
density, violating rules and carelessness. The embedded technology is used to prevent accidents
due to drunk driving, using mobile phones while driving etc, If accidents occurs in remote areas,
the feature of auto-providing the accident area to the emergency centers for help and support is
also provided. On the other hand, the security for the vehicle is also enhanced. This is made
possible because the theft vehicle area can be known to the user and the vehicle fuel can be cut
off and center lock is enabled. By using these concepts, we hope that the road accidents due to
violating rules and careless-ness will be minimized and this will be one of the project required
for now-a-days and with the significance of low cost.

HYPOTHESIS

In this fast moving world, new technologies have been evolved for every second for our human
life style improvement. There have enormous advancement in automobile technologies already
and still to come. Because of these technologies, now we are enjoying the necessary comfort
and safety.

But there are lots of accidents happening now-a-days. It is because of increased vehicle density,
violation of rules and carelessness. India ranks fifth in the road accidents over the world.

We have the objective to minimize the road accidents due to above mentioned facts in real time
using embedded systems platform in low cost. In our project, we proposed few concepts to

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 59


minimize the accidents due to violating rules and carelessness and proper safety after it
happens.

METHOD:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE PROJECT:

HARDWARE/SOFTWARE TOOLS REQUIRED

Arduino Uno R3

ESP 8266 Wifi Module

MQ3GasSensor

GPS Module NEO6MV2

Fingerprint Module

EXPERIMENT:
1. Create channel

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 60


2.Make the required no. of fields

3. Got an API KEY

4.Can export/import data

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5. Output visualization

SUMMARY:
This project is basically based Internet Of Things (IOT). Smart safety and security system deals
with the problem faced by common people in India. Android application makes it more user
friendly. The embedded technology is used to prevent accidents due to drunk driving, using
mobile phones while driving etc, If accidents occurs in remote areas, the feature of auto-
providing the accident area to the emergency centers for help and support is also provided. On
the other hand, the security for the vehicle is also enhanced. This is made possible because the
theft vehicle area can be known to the user and the vehicle fuel can be cut off and center lock is
enabled and corresponding notifications to user will be sent.
ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 62
COST: Approximately 5,000

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14. Real Time Battery Charging System by Human Walking
COLLEGE: JSS MAHAVIDYAPEETHA, JSS ACADEMY OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION, NOIDA

GUIDE: Mr. SUMIT KHANDELWAL

COLLEGE STUDENTS: RASHMI SINGH, PANKHURI PRABHAKAR, RASHMI GUPTA

SCHOOL STUDENTS: VINITA YADAV, KALYANI JHA, NEETA MANDAL, CLASS 9

ABSTRACT:

With the extend use of technology, it has been the vital function to develop something new in
both software and hardware. A worn out battery or a lost charges are the two difficulties every
electronic device user undergoes through. To overcome this we have proposed a new
technology to adopt charging of these portable electronic devices with the help of human
walking. Walking is the best and common activity in day to day life. As per the study of
biomechanics, we came to realize that ground reaction force (GRF) exerted from the foot, when
converted into voltage gives enough power supply to run a device. While walking the person
loses some energy from foot in the form of vibrations which are sensed and converted into
electric form. Piezoelectric crystal does the work of generating output out of foot moment.
Piezoelectric materials have the capability of absorbing mechanical energy from surroundings,
especially vibrations and transform it into electric energy that can be used as power supply in
real time to other appliances like mobile phones, power banks, various small handy biomedical
instruments etc. This project can be implemented while jogging in the morning, gym, walking on
trade-mill, in dense populated areas like railways, bus stands, etc.

HYPOTHESIS:

The world’s energy consumption is high all the time with the demand continuously increasing.
With the advent use of portable machines in this technological world; it has become a major
issue of power source.

The situation brings up several challenges that need to be addressed.

 Power supply
 Battery discharging
 Availability of power source

METHOD:

In Biomechanics, the ground reaction force, GRF is the force exerted by the ground on the body
in contact with it. For example, a person standing motionless on the ground exerts a contact on
it which is equal to the person’s weight and at same time an equal and opposite GRF is exerted
by the ground on the person .Thus, as the human starts walking, this GRF increases which
generates power in greater amount. The utilization of waste energy of foot power with human
locomotion is very much relevant for highly populated countries in places like roads, railway
ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 64
stations, bus stands, temples, etc. The human bio-energy if made possible for utilization, will be
a very useful energy source.

EXPERIMENT

Although small electronic devices are mostly powered by batteries, there is an increasing
number of wireless sensors using energy harvesters instead of batteries. For consumers of
electronic devices, there are different emerging technologies that are under research or in
commercialization stages. Harvesting energy from humans is particularly useful for not only
common people, but also for soldiers’ portable electronic equipment. These harvesters produce
energy from human’s kinetic energy, thermal energy or body biological processes

SUMMARY

5V output is obtained while walking which is later boosted up by the DC to DC boost converter
.This boost converter gives the 15V voltage output, which can be used to charge the mobile
phone (requiring 3.7V) in real time .Thus, in all we conclude that with this process, we can
extract the energy from the human feet, convert it into electric energy and use it in real time
application of charging the devices

COST: ₹ 1000-1200

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 65


19. “Roshni”: Inert waste and Gravitation pull to generate electrical
energy

COLLEGE: G D GOENKA UNIVERSITY, GURGAON

GUIDE: Dr. ANINDITA ROY CHOWDHURY (ASSISSTANT PROFESSOR)

SCHOOL STUDENTS: RITIK RAJ, SONU

COLLEGE STUDENTS: PARVESH TANEJA, SIDDHARTH SAINI

HYPOTHESIS

“Roshni”: Inert waste and Gravitation pull generate electrical energy”.

Our aim was to make an alternate source of energy from which we can glow a LED bulb with
Non-Conventional, Renewable source of energy, Gravitational Energy. Power is still a scarcity
in many rural corners of developing countries. So, we aim at a project which may be a solution
during power cut in these rural areas.

We knew that gravity of earth could help us in generating electricity but we didn’t know how to
extract this energy from gravitational pull of earth. Our project is a working model on how we
can generate electricity using the power of gravity.

Till now we only know some Non-conventional, Namely-


• Solar power
• Hydro-electric power (dams in rivers)
• Wind power
• Tidal power
• Ocean wave power
• Geothermal power (heat from deep under the ground)
• Ocean thermal power (the difference in heat between shallow and deep water)
• Biomass (burning of vegetation to stop it producing methane)
• Biofuel (producing ethanol (petroleum) from plants

There can be more sources of renewable energy which are still to be found. Hazardous kerosene
lamps are still used in many parts of our countries. Poor households typically spend at least
10 percent of their income on kerosene, as much as $36 billion a year worldwide, according to
the World Bank.

The World Bank estimates that, as a result, seven hundred million women and children inhale
smoke equivalent to smoking 2 packets of cigarettes every day.
Majority of adult, female lung-cancer victims in developing nations are non-smokers.
The burning of Kerosene for lighting also produces 244 million tonnes of Carbon Dioxide annually.

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INTRODUCTION TO GRAVITY LIGHT

Gravity Light is a gravity-powered lamp for use in developing or third-world nations, as a


replacement for kerosene lamps. It uses a bag filled with rocks or earth, attached to a cord, which
slowly descends.

Lot of inert waste which otherwise have no use and are usually dumped into landfills can be
collected in sacks to give the requisite weight and hung over a pulley at the extreme elevated point
in the room. Using the gravitational pull of the earth at no extra cost, electricity can be generated
using a mechanical system that would convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Electricity thus generated can be used to charge a battery, mobile phones, or glow an LED during
power cuts in rural areas.

For operation, pull the rope attached to weight to raise it above the ground, higher the weight
more will be the energy supply.

The gradual downward motion of the weight would ensure continuous constant supply of
current to run low power devices. These devices can be connected through the USB port
provided in the machine.

The speed of this motion can be changed to trade-off with output power thus offering an
adjustment between power and run-time. The estimated operation time of the machine varies
from 10 to 30 minutes in a single-run depending on the configuration.

Thus, low power devices like mobile phones, USB LED, battery, and other devices can be
powered during the power cuts. This is especially useful at the time of unforeseen
disaster/calamity when power cuts are prolonged even for days with no source of electricity.

ADVANTAGES

1. Gravity Light is unique - it doesn't need batteries or sunlight and costs nothing to run.
2. It takes seconds to lift the weight that powers Gravity Light creating 20 minutes of light on
its descent.
3. Gravity Light provides:

a. Instant light, any time.


b. It takes just a few seconds to lift the weight that powers Gravity Light. There's no need to
charge in advance, it's ready when you need it.
c. No running costs.
d. Gravity Light pays for itself within weeks of switching from a kerosene lamp.
e. No sun or costly solar panels needed.
f. No batteries are required in Gravity Light electric city can be stored indefinitely, without
the risk of batteries degrading.
g. With no need for the sun, it can be used whatever the weather outside and works even
at night when there is no sun.

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WORKING GRAVITY LIGHT

Potential Energy

Gravity Light is installed to provide a 6ft/ 1.8m drop of a 12-15 kg weight. This weight is lifted
and on release starts falling very slowly (about 1mm / second).

Kinetic Energy

This movement powers a drive sprocket, which rotates very slowly with high torque
(force). Wheel rim acts as a big gear and the pulley and sprocket as small thereby multiplying the
number of rotations.

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Electricity and Light

This generates just under a tenth of a watt, a deciwatt, to power an on board LED and ancillary
devices. Given the ever-increasing efficiency of LEDs, this produces a light over 5 times
brighter (lux) than a typical open-wick kerosene lamp.

Once the weighted bag reaches the floor, which depends on how high it was installed, it is
simply lifted to repeat the process.

Gravity Light Specifications

Comparison of Gravity Light with Solar Powered lighting

A commonly held view is that solar powered lighting is the answer to these problems in the
developing world. However a number of conflicting factors combine to complicate matters.
Solar panels produce electricity only when the sun shines, so the energy needs to be stored in a
battery to produce the light when it becomes dark. The amount of energy stored is dependent
on the size of the panel, the size of the battery, and how much (if any) sun has shone.

However batteries, panels and lights are expensive, and beyond the reach of people with no
savings. Solar lighting projects continue to provide lighting for thousands of people in the

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developing world, but the spread is slow because the cost is too high for individuals, so they
need to be bought and installed by communities instead.

Lower cost self-contained lamps are becoming more widely available, but batteries are the weak
link, because they are expensive and deteriorate through use and over time. Very often, when
buying a low cost solar lamp with an inbuilt rechargeable battery, a full third of what you're
paying for is the battery, and you will need to replace it every few years. Assuming you can get a
new battery. The capacity is often reduced to save money which limits the use time, after which
there is no light.

With Gravity Light, however, it only takes a few seconds to lift the weight, which creates enough
energy for half an hour of light, whenever it is needed. It has no batteries to run out, replace or
dispose of. It is completely clean and green.

Because there are no running costs after the initial low cost purchase, it has the potential to lift
people out of poverty, allowing them to use the money they have saved to buy more powerful
solar lighting systems in the future.

S. Parameters SOLAR LIGHT (Solar Energy ) Gravity Light (Gravitational


No. Force)

1. Space Consumes a lot of space(Solar Consumes lesser space


Consumption Panels)

2. Cost Higher cost (Solar Panels) Lesser Cost

3. Dependencies Depends on Sun Depends on gravity

4. Batteries Compulsory Optional

5. Maintenance High Negligible


Cost

CONCLUSION/SUMMARY
A new technology might be very helpful in certain situations as an alternate power source which
can be built from scrap materials for domestic energy consumption. Hence, experimental
project is successful and can be implemented with further cost cutting,

COST
The actual model setup for this project is immovable i.e. it could be hanged on the wall. So, for
display we made Steel Structure which is about three-fourth of the cost of model.

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20. Designer Brick from Construction Site Waste
COLLEGE: G D GOENKA UNIVERSITY, GURGAON

GUIDE: Dr. ANINDITA ROY CHOWDHURY (ASSISSTANT PROFESSOR)

SCHOOL STUDENTS: PRADEEP CLASS 10, VISHNU, CLASS 9, GOVT. BOYS SENIOR SECONDARY
SCHOOL, SOHNA
COLLEGE STUDENTS: ARUN KUMAR TAYAL, HEMANT JOSHI

ABSTRACT

A variety of waste materials is generated at a construction site which is referred as inert.


Dumping such waste materials in a landfill do not generate any further useful by-product like gas
or fertilizer. Here, the aim is to reuse and recycle waste materials generated at construction site
to make a designer brick. It has been tested to be hard and durable to serve the purpose of
being used as a part of a wall. An electric circuit has been installed inside the brick which lights
up the LED strip in the brick. This mode of production of designer brick follows the cradle-to-
cradle approach and helps in better sustenance of the environment.

HYPOTHESIS

Population, urbanization and affluence contribute to the generation of waste. Waste generated
is usually broadly categorized as ‘solid waste’ or ‘waste water’. Municipal solid waste refers to
nonhazardous solid waste from a city, town or village that requires periodic collection and
disposal. Construction and demolition waste is not considered to be a part of municipal solid
Figure 3waste. It constitutes about 20% of the total solid waste generated .It has been proposed
to reuse and recycle the waste materials generated at construction site and produce a designer
brick. The waste generated is thus, reclaimed and reused in making value added product. This
would in turn help to maximize economic and environmental benefit.

METHOD:

Various materials discarded at a construction site are used to create a designer brick. Fallen
plaster, plaster of Paris, wall putty, ash and clayey substance obtained during floor polish were
first accumulated. Wooden shredding and small pieces, glass cuttings were also collected.
Different power tools and accessories were available at the site itself. After this a mould was
designed as per the size of the standard brick , Waste material was grinded into fine powder and
mixed with binding agent , then the mixture was poured in the mould. It was dried for six hours
and then the brick was polished. The designed circuit was then placed in the hollow part of the
Designer Brick.

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+ +

EXPERIMENT

The designer brick had a mass of 1.52 kg. Its length, breadth and height were 8.75 inches, 4
inches and 3 inches respectively. A dummy finished product of designer brick was put to
Compression Test using the FMI make Universal Testing Machine, Model - TFUC-100 kN, Sr. No.
2011/150. It showed that the product could bear a maximum force of 9.9 kN. The graph of Load
Vs Displacement Curve is given below in Fig. 7. The brick made is hard enough as there were no
impressions left on its surface when pressed with finger nails, which is a good way to assess the
surface hardness . A common brick of mass 3.72 kg can bear a maximum load of 22 kN (Fig. 8).
However, the load bearing capacity of 9.9 kN of the proposed brick is sufficient for its intended
designer purpose. It is to be noted that construction site waste materials have been reused and
recycled for making a ‘designer brick’ which is intended to be used for making a non-load
bearing partition or projection wall to enhance the look and ae

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 73


SUMMARY

The waste materials generated at a construction site can be collected and transformed into a
‘Designer Brick’ based on the principle of reuse and recycle which could add value to a room or
give an enhanced look to a stage show. Thus, the construction site waste has been utilized for
making a product that can add value to the same or other construction project. At no extra cost
of machinery, the construction companies can make an attempt to manage their waste better
without much of a waste disposal logistics or cost. This method of recycling is referred to as
cradle-to-cradle system. Usually, there is a linear progression of materials from input to output
and in the process the material is either consumed or disposed as waste. This course is usually
termed as cradle-to-grave. Cradle-to-cradle approach is an eco-efficient way towards
sustainability. This mechanism generates positive possibilities and thus, allows for economic
growth. As life evolved on earth, the planet has developed a mechanism of reusing the same
material and thus, has sustained itself for billions of years. So mimicking the rules of the
biosphere may help the individuals and industries to manage waste in a better way.

Producing Designer Bricks would lead to growth of business for the construction company as
well; facilitating environmental sustainability.

As a future scope of the project, a wall made of designer bricks is planned. We are working on it.
This wall will show us equalizing effect with the change in frequency of the running music in the
background.

COST
Cost of One Designer Brick
Material Cost
Wasted plaster of paris Nil
Wooden shredding Nil
Wasted plaster Nil
Pure plaster of paris 12
Black cement 1
Latex 2
Fevicol SH 5
LED strip 25
TOTAL 45

One Time Cost Involvement for Multiple Bricks


Glass Sheets for Mould 250
Glass Cutter 120
ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 74
22. Mitti Fridge

COLLEGE: MANGALMAY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

GUIDE: Mr. ANKIT SAXENA

SCHOOL STUDENTS: HARSHIT SHARMA, VINIT SHARMA, CLASS 10, BIHARILAL INTER COLLEGE
DANKAUR, GAUTAM BUDDHA NAGAR
COLLEGE STUDENTS: ASHWANI KUMAR, SARITA VERMA< VICKEY KUNDAL

ABSTRACT

This report discusses about the modification of old technique of preserving food items. Simple
innovation like this could have a significant impact on the places where a person is not able to
preserve their food items for long time with the conventional electric refrigerator. It would also
enable them to preserve their products long enough to sell at urban markets where prices are
much more amenable to them. This work is the extension of the pot in pot refrigeration
technique. Use of this simple refrigeration mechanism would mean that food can be store and
sold even in remote areas with the greatest demand.

All renewable items are utilized to complete the work which is also the need of the hour. Mitti
fridge is based on a simple principle of physics: the water contained in the sand between the
two pots evaporates towards the outer surface of the larger pot where the drier outside air is
circulating. By virtue of the laws of thermodynamics, the evaporation process automatically
causes a drop in temperature of several degrees, cooling the inner container, destroying harmful
micro-organisms and saving perishable food inside. Cost is the major factor of every project so a
strict procedure is followed to constraint the cost of the work. Mitti fridge is so convenient to
carry even for camping where you need a fridge to keep your food preserve. Mitti fridge does
not use any kind of electricity and wiring for its functioning. This is an eco-friendly system with
low cost as comparison to available in market.

HYPOTHESIS

A Mitti fridge is based on the basics of pot-in-pot refrigerator or zeer (Arabic) is an evaporative
cooling refrigeration device which does not use electricity. It uses a porous outer earthenware
pot, lined with the sand, contains an inner pot within which the food is placed, the evaporation
of the outer liquid draws heat from the inner pot. The device can be used to cool any substance.
This simple technology requires only a flow of relatively dry air and a source of water. Mitti
fridge uses simple principle of physics: the water contained in the sand between the two pots
evaporates towards the outer surface of the larger pot where the drier outside air is circulating.
By virtue of the laws of thermodynamics, the evaporation process automatically causes a drop in
temperature of several degrees, cooling the inner container.

HISTORY
ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 75
Old kingdom of Egypt around 2500 BC is assumed to use technology of evaporative cooling.
Frescos show slaves fanning water jars, which would increase air flow around the porous jars
and aid evaporation, cooling the contents. Many earthenware pots were discovered in Indus
Valley Civilization around 3000 BC which were probably used for storing as well as cooling water
similar to present day ghara or matki used in India.

Despite being developed in Northern Africa, the technology appears to have been forgotten
with the advent of modern electrical refrigerators. In Spain, botijos are popular. A botijo is a
porous clay container used to keep and to cool water; they have been used for centuries. and
are still relatively widespread. Botijob are favoured most by the low Mediterranean climate;
locally, the cooling effect is known as “botijo effect”.

In the 1890s gold miners in Australia developed the Coolgardie safe, based on the same
principles.

In rural northern Nigeria in the 1990s Mohamed Bah Abba developed the pot-in-pot
preservation cooling system, consisting of a small earthenware pot placed inside a larger one.
and the space between the two filled with moist sand. The inner pot is filled with vegetables and
covered with a wet cloth.

Abba, hired skilled pot makers to mass-produce the first batch of 5000 pot-in-pots. He received
Rolex award for enterprise in 2001 and used his award to make the invention available
throughout Nigeria.

After the millennium several international NGOs started to work on the dissemination of this
technology in various African countries: Practical action in Sudan and Humanity first in Gambia
and Movement e.g. in Burkina Faso.

METHOD AND CONSTRUCTION

Mitti fridge is constructed by placing a rectangular clay pot within a larger pot with wet sand in
between the pots as shown in figure 1.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 76


Fig.1. Process of construction “MITTI FRIDGE” installed with solar light.

COST AND SUMMARY

Cost of construction is kept very less. The overall cost is about 2500 Indian rupee which is far
lesser than the cost of mud fridges available in market commercially. Moreover this fridge also
provides 2 litre capacity of water storage which is not seen in the commercially available mud
fridges.

The unique feature of this construction is its solar operated light which turns ‘OFF’ when door
closes and ‘ON’ on vice-versa as we generally found on commercially available electric fridge. So
this can be carried and used in area with no electricity.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 77


23. Safety Car

COLLEGE: MANGALMAY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

GUIDE: Mr. HARISH BHATIA

SCHOOL STUDENTS:DIGANT PAWAN DIXIT, ANUJ TIWARI, CLASS 10, BIHARILAL INTER COLLEGE
DANKAUR, GAUTAM BUDDHA NAGAR
COLLEGE STUDENTS: SHAMMI KUMAR, ANKIT SINGH

ABSTRACT

From the experimental investigation it may be concluded that technical advancement of a car
makes it safe. The safety feature like as impact unlocking, starting only seat belt and emergency
message alert after impact, make a car safer. This technical advancement make a car safer for
human and death which happens due to door jammed and no information about accident may
be reduced. These features help us to safe drive or accident free drive.

We tested this car in many formats on way all the tests very well. After the tests we come to
the conclusion that using this technology in today” car is possible to save more and more life.

Main advantage of the system is women safety in cars and taxies. Today it is very important
features as per women safety concern.

HYPOTHESIS

If I can use crash sensor instead of push button, It is flexible for our system and help in making
our system efficiently. Our system is support every four wheeler vehicles using crash sensor.

METHOD
1. Automatic door open after crashed.
2. Send an emergency message with the location.
3. To Make Seat Belt compulsory to tie.
4. Made women safer.
5. Smoke and fire indication through emergency message.
6. ON /OFF car through mobile.

EXPERIMENT

1 .Automatic door open after crashed:-


10% of the death is because of the gate jammed after crash. Incase car catches fire and the
person stuck inside and die because of the suffocation and also caused by not getting first aid
on time.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 78


2. Send an emergency message with the location:-
When our beloved ones are driving so far from us or travelling without our knowledge or met
with an accident, an SMS is sent by the car automatically to their relatives.

3. To Make Seat Belt compulsory to tie:-


50% of death in car is because of not wearing seat belt. We have made a system which does not
allow the car to start till you tie up the seat belt. If you remove seat belt the ignition stops or
turn off itself.

4. Made Women Safer:


43% of Women are raped in car or four-wheeler. We have tried to make women safer to travel
in taxies and buses. We use panic button to provide safety to women. Through the panic button
emergency message is delivered to the nearest police station.

5. To indicate the smoke, alcohol & fire.


Through the fire sensor, alcohol sensor and smoke sensor indication of fire, alcohol & smoke
through is known through the mobile SMS.

SUMMARY

I chose to investigate that thousands of people are died in road accidents due to some reasons:
1. Looked at the car after accidents die due to suffocation
2. Ambulance not available on time
3. Medical facilities not available on time
4. Serious head injury

These reasons of death are overcome by using our flexible system. This reduces 47% - 48% death rate.

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AUTOMATIC DOOR OPEN SYSTEM

FUTURE SCOPE
This project also deals with the design & development of a theft control system for an
automobile, which is being used to prevent or control the theft of a vehicle. The simulations of
the circuit design and its implementation is done using PROTEUS software. This system is
designed to improve vehicle security and accessibility. With the use of wireless technology
vehicle owners are able to enter as well as protect their automobiles with more passive
involvement.

ANVESHANA 2016 – ABSTARCT BOOK – NCR-DELHI 80


26. Using of Rain Water for Domestic Use or for Recharging the
Ground Water
COLLEGE: NOIDA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, NOIDA

GUIDE: Dr. N.R. CHANDAK

SCHOOL STUDENTS: SUMER KUMAR

COLLEGE STUDENTS: AVINASH YADAV, ANMOL RASTOGI, PAYAL SHARMA

ABSTRACT

As we all know water is very important for our livelihood, without water life would be
impossible. We know that 2/3 of earth is covered with water but mostly of salty water
which is of no use. Even we have plenty of water but only about 0.003% water is available
with us as fresh or unpolluted water. In India water crisis are occurring slowly as the ground
water falls significantly year by year. If the groundwater table continues to fall then a day
will come when water will not be available for the future generation.

So to avoid such problem we came with idea of saving rain water and letting it used in
domestic purpose or used in recharging of groundwater. This process is called as
RAINWATER HARVESTING. In this process we accommodate the rain water in a sump tank
by collecting the water falling on the terrace through pipes passing through filter.

In our project we tried to encourage the people for opting the technique of rainwater
harvesting. In our project we created a model of building from which water collected from
its terrace is passed through the filters twice through pipes and then collected in a sump
tank and after which with the help of motor the water is sprinkled in the garden. Motor we
used in our project is of 10volts.

HOW TO IMPLEMENT

Implementing this technique is quite easy and the cost estimated in this process is negligible
as compared to the cost of construction of building. In this technique a slope is created on a
terrace and the water is passed to the filters through pipes with contain a mesh gauge on
his opening. Then the filter of different types helps in cleaning the water. The filter which
are to be used are based on the type of demand we have. These filters help in cleaning the
water by removing impurities from it. Then after cleaning the water passes to sump tank
with the help of pipes n collected there.

This water can be used either in domestic purpose or for recharging the groundwater table.
This water can be used even for drinking just by passing it through the water purifying

Anveshana 2015-16 – NCR-Delhi – Abstract Book 81


machine. Even after all this process if some impurity is left in the water then it will not harm
the body.

Places in India where rain water harvesting is applied

 In the state of Tamil Nadu, rainwater harvesting was made compulsory for every
building to avoid ground water depletion. It gave excellent results within five years, and
every state took it as role model.
 In Rajasthan, rainwater harvesting has traditionally been practiced by the people of
the Thar Desert. There are many ancient water harvesting systems in Rajasthan, which
have now been revived.
 At present, in Pune (in Maharashtra), rainwater harvesting is compulsory for any new
housing society to be registered.
 In state of Kerala, rainwater harvesting is applied recently

Amount of water can be saved


Suppose an area of 100sqm. Taking the average annual rainfall in Delhi as 600 mm, and
assuming 70% harvesting efficiency (as some rainwater will be lost due to evaporation,
collection etc.), we can calculate the amount of water harvested thus:
Volume of water harvested = 100 x 0.6 x 0.7 = 42,000 liters

CONCLUSION

By implementing rain water harvesting the water can be saved for future generation.

SUMMARY

Implementation of rainwater harvesting save both water and energy as it does not contain
any sort of energy. All the process happens under gravitational flow.

The pictorial representation of the idea is gives as below:

Anveshana 2015-16 – NCR-Delhi – Abstract Book 82