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Kai Wong

Dunbar

Period 4

Cellular Functions Performance Task: Part 2 Constructing Explanations

You will now use the IOS app Cell Explorer to simulate the experience of moving through and interacting with the organelles in an animal cell. You will be provided time to move through the various levels of the game based environment to deepen your understanding of cellular functions.

Animal Cell:

Use your wiki project and other group’s wiki projects to help answer the following questions about cellular functions. Provide evidence from the wiki projects and your experience in the simulation Cell Explorer to support your answers. Please provide answers in paragraphs with complete sentences on a separate document. Include both the questions and the answers on your own document.

1. How do organelles work together to maintain a cell's internal process and functions?

All organelles work together to act as on singular cell. In both plant and animal cells, the organelles must work together to surviveand maintain a stable environmentas well as internal processesand functions. The nucleus allows the cell to maintain internal process and function. Without the nucleus, the organelle would not know what to do. Therefore, it would not be able to function. The nucleus is like the “control center”. It keeps the cell in order. The cell membrane, lysosomes, Smooth ER, and vacuole protect the cell from harmful substances. The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell. It blocks bad and harmful substances from accessing the cell. If the cell was a plant cell, then the cell wall would also help restrict what enters and exits. If any harmful toxins happen to breach the outer barriers, the lysosomes would digest these chemicals. If, for some reason, the lysosomes did not digest these substances, then the vacuole would most likely store that waste, never to be seen again. To paraphrase Cell Explorer, the smooth ER detoxifies poisons so the cell can use them to make lipids and perform other chemical reactions. The organelles in the cell work together to maintain the internal process of producing energy. The mitochondria produce energy for the whole cell in the form of fast burning energy of ATP to use for later process. ATP is made with food and oxygen. According to the Cell Explorergame, ATP is energy that a cell can use. The cell membrane allows oxygen and glucose into the cell and the oxygen and glucose then travel in vesicles to the mitochondria. However, in a plant cell's case, the glucose would travel from the chloroplast. To maintain a cell structure, the cytoskeleton and cytoplasm (and cell wall I applicable) work together. The cytoskeleton acts as a frame and grows to areas in need of support. The cytoplasm

holds all the organelles in place. Without the cytoskeleton and cytoplasm, the whole cell would be in disorder. I would not even consider the mess a cell. Also, in plant cells, the cell wall would help a plant stand up-right without the structural support of bones. Lastly, the cell’s transportation relies on the rough ER’s, ribosomes, the vesicles, and the Golgi Apparatus. The ribosomes make proteins that the rough Endoplasmic Reticulum packages and sends to the Golgi Body. The proteins are sent I vesicles, The Golgi Body refines the proteins if necessary. It then sends them where they are needed. In conclusion, all of the organelles in a cell work together. With this collaboration, they accomplish internal process, functions, and a stable environment.

2. How does the cell acquire the energy for these internal processes?

Plant and animal cells both havesimilaritiesand differenceswhen it comes to making energy. Plant cells contain chloroplasts, an organelle where photosynthesis that converts light into energy, in the form of sugar glucose. They also receive ATP energyfrom the mitochondria. A diagram on Cell Explorerdemonstrated that ATP energy is made from sugar and oxygen, so the plant uses its glucose (made in the chloroplast) and oxygen from outside the cell to make energy useable by the cell. Animal cells receive energy from the mitochondria in the form of ATP, a form of energy that is easy to use for later functions. This ATP energy is made the same way as the plant cell’s ATP. The mitochondria convert glucose and oxygen into ATP energy. However, the slight difference is that the glucose does not come from chloroplast. Mitochondria also make a type of energy that burns once it is released into the cell. ATP energy is specifically made to be stored or used later.

3. How does a cell maintain its structure?

Both plant cells and animal cell have ways to maintain their structure. Their structure and shapeare determined by certain organelles that perform many functions crucial the well-being of a cell. To begin, plant cells consist of several organelles that help maintain their structure. One of these many organelles is the cell wall. The cell wall is an organelle of many properties. In fact, to paraphrase the performance task part 1wiki page, the cell wall determines a plant cell’s shape, it functions as the cell’s source of strength and maintains the shape and structure of a cell. The cell wall also acts as a barrier to restrict harmful molecules, such as viruses and bacteria, into the plant cell (cell walls are only found in plant cells). To further elaborate, the plant cell has an organelle known as the cell wall. This organelle maintains the cell’s structure by supporting a plants growth. It allows plant cells to reach very great heights because it is made of very flexible and strong fibers. It gives plants the ability to stand upright without bones. Although the cell wall is crucial for structural support in plant cells, it is not the main organelle that sustains cell structure. Both plant and animal cells consist of the is organelle. The cytoskeleton maintains a cell’s anatomy. It is basically the framework of a cell. It is also referenced as the cell skeleton (“cyto” meaning cell and “skeleton” meaning skeleton). While playing the game Cell Explorer, I learned that the cytoskeleton is not exactly like a skeleton of a human body. Sure, it maintains the structure of the cell; however, this cell organ also can “change constantly, breaking down parts that are

not needed and growing new parts when necessary.” (Cell Explorer) To explain, the cytoskeleton acts as the cells main structure by breaking down hold structures and constructing new ones. It also helps the cell move. If the cell is lacking structural support, a cytoskeleton frame will grow in that area. It is clear that the cytoskeleton maintains both plant and animal cell’s structural support. Cells also have an organelle called the cytoplasm. This gel-like fluid holds all the organelles in place. Is also does not allow the organelles to move drastically. The nucleus is the only organelle not contained within the cytoplasm. This is because nuclear membrane surrounds the nucleus, as an outer layer of protection.

4. How does a cell control what enters or leaves the cell?

Depending on the type of cell, animal or plant, the way of controlling what enters and exits the cell varies. Plant cells contain cell walls and the cell membrane. Both control what enter and leave the cell. An animal cell, however, does not have a cell wall, just the cell membrane. In a plant cell, the cell wall is a semi-permeable layer that allows many substances to travel to the cell membrane. The cell wall is acts as a very broad filter, it filters the obviously harmful molecules, but not much else. Its main job is to keep a plant cell stable. After molecules pass through this barrier, the cell membrane will regulate what enters and leaves. Our wiki sitesuggested that the cell membrane is a very precise security system, it only allows certain molecules through into the cell, like carbon dioxide and water. When some substance needs to leave, the cell membrane will allow access out. However, this is very rare because the vacuole usually stores waste and toxins, if the lysosomes do not digest them first. Plant cells have large vacuoles to store waste, therefore they have less vacuoles. In an animal cell, the cell membrane regulates and determines what enters and leaves the cell. Very much like a plant cell membrane, the animal cell membrane is a very secure barrier. It only allows certain molecules into the cell. The plasma membrane (cell membrane) is very strict. Oxygen and water are about the only materials that can access the cell. In Cell ExplorerI learned that lysosomes take care of toxins that make their way into the cell. I never understood exactly what lysosomes did. If the lysosomes do not digest these toxins, the cell’s vacuoles just store them. Like in a plant cell, waste rarely leaves the cell; but if it does the cell membrane grants the permission to exit.

5. What does the cell wall do for plant cells and why do animal cells not need one?

The cell wallis a crucial organelle to the plant cell. It serves many purposes and fulfils those jobs well. In fact, this organelle determines the shape of the cell, maintains the cell’s structure (it gives the cell strength), and acts as a barrier. The cell wall determines the shape of a plant cell, as well as maintains a cell’s structure. In fact, it acks as an extra support. It not as crucial for structure as the cytoskeleton, however. But, this cell organ is very flexible and strong, so this allows plants to reach great heights. It allows plants to stand upright, without the use of bones. Also, the cell wall acts as a barrier to harmful viruses and substances. This organelle does not let obviously bad substances into the cell. The cell wall leaves the careful filtering to the cell membrane. In fact, Asija Berry’scontent block reads, “The cell wall is the protective, semi-permeable

outer layer of a plant cell. A major function of the cell wall is to give the cell strength and structure, and to filter molecules that pass in and out of the cell.” To explain, the cell wall protects the cell and is semi-permeable. This means that the cell wall allows certain substances to pass through to the plasma membrane but blocks others. As you have noticed, the animal cells do not have a cell wall. This is because the main advantage of having a cell wall is to allow a plant to stand tall and upright, without the use bones. This is very crucial for a plant because being taller than the other plants means you will receive more sunlight, therefore having a higher change of to reproduce. However, being taller is not crucial for animals, animals that are taller will not receive a greater chance to reproduce and carry out life processes. Additionally, animals can move freely around, they do not need stand upright for sun energy like plants. Most animals have bones, making it unnecessary to consist of a cell wall.

6. What do chloroplasts do for plant cells and why do animal cell not need them?

The chloroplastis a mandatory organelle found inside of plant cells only. It is where the process of photosynthesisis conducted. Photosynthesis is a process in which light is turned into energy, in the form of glucose (a type of sugar). This energy can use this stored energy for later, such as for growth, reproduction, or to carry out life. For photosynthesis to occur, the chloroplast must receive light energy, water, and carbon dioxide. According to Mackenzie Cullinan, “The chloroplast includes the chlorophyll, which helps the plant conduct photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is where the sun is turned into energy for a plant cell.” To clarify, inside the chloroplast is the chlorophyll, “a green pigment responsible for the absorption of light (to provide energy for photosynthesis)”. (dictionary.com) The chlorophyll takes in the light energy, the vacuoles provide water, and the cell membrane intakes necessary carbon dioxide. This is also why plants “breathe” carbon dioxide. To summarize, the purpose of the chloroplast is to create energy (in the form of glucose) and store this energy for later use. Additionally, animal cells do not need the chloroplast. This is because animal cells receive energy from the they belong to organisms ingesting food. A plant cannot “eat”, therefore they must receive energy from the chloroplast. To clarify, animal cells do not receive their energy from the sun. Instead, they receive their energy in the form of nutrients from other organisms. They also must intake oxygen because it is the gas we use for many functions. One of which, to convert nutrients in food into glucose energy. Therefore, animals breathe oxygen. As you can clearly see, animal cells do not require the chloroplast. It is unnecessary for the animal cells because they do not convert light into energy, rather receive energy from ingesting food.

Category

Description

Score

Completeness

● Each response has an answer.

 

● At attempt was made at applying your knowledge of cellular terms and processes in your responses.

Accuracy

● Responses are accurate and made using your own words.

 

● Detailed evidence is given for each claim.

Proofreading

● Sentences are complete, including transition words/phrases.

 

● Grammatical and spelling errors are minor or absent.

Total Average