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Manual for Kuestion ........................................................................... 2
Type 1: Power Semi-Conductor Devices ............................................. 3
Type 2: Phase Controlled Converters .................................................. 6
Type 3: Chopper ................................................................................ 10
Type 4: Inverters ............................................................................... 14
Type 5: DC & AC Drives ..................................................................... 17
Type 6: Commutation Circuit ............................................................ 20
Answer Key ....................................................................................... 23

Manual for Kuestion

Why Kuestion?

It’s very overwhelming for a student to even think about finishing 100-200 questions per
chapter when the clock is ticking at the last moment. This is the reason why Kuestion serves
the purpose of being the bare minimum set of questions to be solved from each chapter
during revision.

What is Kuestion?

A set of 40 questions or less for each chapter covering almost every type which has been
previously asked in GATE. Along with the Solved examples to refer from, a student can try
similar unsolved questions to improve his/her problem solving skills.

When do I start using Kuestion?

It is recommended to use Kuestion as soon as you feel confident in any particular chapter.
Although it will really help a student if he/she will start making use of Kuestion in the last 2
months before GATE Exam (November end onwards).

How do I use Kuestion?

Kuestion should be used as a tool to improve your speed and accuracy chapter wise. It should
be treated as a supplement to our K-Notes and should be attempted once you are comfortable
with the understanding and basic problem solving ability of the chapter. You should refer K-
Notes Theory before solving any “Type” problems from Kuestion.

© 2014 Kreatryx. All Rights Reserved.

Type 1: Power Semi-Conductor Devices
For Concept, refer to Power Electronics K-Notes, Power Semi-Conductor Devices

Sample Problem 1:

An SCR having a turn ON times of 5 μsec, latching current of 50A and holding current of 40
mA is triggered by a short duration pulse and is used in the circuit shown in figure. The
minimum pulse width required to turn the SCR ON will be

(A) 251 μsec

(B) 150 μsec
(C) 100 μsec
(D) 5 μsec
Solution: (B) is correct option

In this given circuit minimum gate pulse

width time= Time required by ia rise up to iL
i2   20mA
5  103
i1  1  e40t 
20  

 anode currrent I=I1+I 2  0.02  5 1  e 40t 

0.05=0.02+5 1  e40t 
1  e40t 
T=150 s

Sample Problem 2:
L − C circuit is used to commutate a thyristor, which is initially carrying a current of 5A as
shown in the figure below. The initial current through the inductor is zero, while the initial
capacitor voltage is 100 V. The values of L and C are 1 mH and 10 µF respectively. The switch
is closed at t = 0. If the forward drop is negligible, the time taken for the device to turn off is

(A) 52 μs
(B) 156 μs
(C) 312 μs
(D) 26 μs

Solution: (A) is correct option
Current through the LC circuit is
i(t)  Vc sin 0t  10sin10 4 t
The device will be turned off only when current through it is zero. Commutation circuit has to
supply 5A current in opposite direction to the thyristor current.
i.e. i(t)=5 A
So, 10sin104 t  5 A  t=52.3 sec

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 The latching current of thyristor is 4mA. The minimum width of gate pulse required to
turn on thyristor in inductive circuit is 4 ms. If the value of inductance is increased, then the
width of the gate pulse would be
(A) 6 s (B) 2 s (C) 4 s (D) None

Q.2 An SCR during it’s turn on process has the following data:
Anode voltage: 300 V 0V
Anode current: 0A 100A
During turn on time of 8s, the anode current and anode voltage very linearly. If triggering
frequency is 100 Hz, the average power loss in thyristor is
(A) 8 W (B) 16 W (C) 48 W (D) 4 W
Q.3 An LC combination circuit with thyristor in the circuit is operated with no external voltage,
but with an initial current of 250 A in inductor. The circuit parameters are L= 10 H, C = 50F.
Then the current extinguishes in the circuit for a time of

(A) 70.25s (B) 35.12s (C) 140.5s (D) 17.56 s

Q.4 A thyristor switching circuit is shown in figure. The thyristor is rated for a latching current
of 10 mA and is switched on within 5  s. Design the value of resistance R?

(A) 100 k

(B) 20 k

(C) 30 k

(D) 40 k

Q.5 The value of ‘L’ required to limit the to 20 A/S for the circuit shown in figure is
(A) 8.7H
(B) 17.2H
(C) 14.7H
(D) 12.3H

Q.6 A thyristor has an i2 dt rating of 15 Amp2.S and is being used to supply the circuit shown
from a 120 V. AC supply when a fault occurs, short circuiting the 10  resistor to earth. What
is the shortest fault clearance time to be achieved, if damage to the thyristor is to be

(A) 1.04 ms

(B) 1.37 ms

(C) 0.96 ms

(D) 2.03 ms

Q.7 The junction capacitance of thyristor used in the circuit is 15 PF. The limiting value of
charging current to turn on thyristor is 5 mA and the critical value dv/dt is 200 V/s. The value
of capacitance Cs so that the thyristor will not be turned on due to dv/dt is---------

(A) 12 PF

(B) 7 PF

(C) 15 PF

(D) 20 PF

Q.8 A string of thyristor is connected in series to withstand a dc voltage of Vs = 10 KV. The

maximum leakage current and recovery charge difference of 100 mA and 150 C respectively
consider a derating factor of 20% and maximum voltage across each SCR is 1000 volts, the
transient voltage capacitance and steady state voltage sharing resistance are?

(A) 0.6 f, 25 K  (B) 0.6 PF, 25  (C) 0.3 F, 25 K  (D) 0.6 F, 25 

Q.9 An SCR can withstand maximum junction temperature of 3900 K with ambient temperature
of 3450 K. Its thermal resistance from junction to ambient is 1.50C/W, the maximum internal
power dissipation allowed will be

(A) 30 W (B) 45 W (C) 60 W (D) 90 W

Q.10 For a thyristor, maximum junction temperature is 1250 C . The thermal resistance for the
thyristor sink combination are  jC  0.16 and CS  0.080 C / W . For a heat sink temperature
of 700 C , In case the heat sink temperature is brought down to 600 C by forced cooling, find
the percentage increase in the device rating.
(A) 8.00% (B) 9.71%
(C) 9.00% (D) 8.71%

Q.11 For the circuit shown in figure, rating of SCR is 350 V / s and its junction
capacitance, is 20 pF. Switch S is closed at t=0. Calculate to value of Cs so that SCR T is not
turn ON due to

(A) 0.0357F

(B) 0.0257F

(C) 2.5F

(D) 3.5F

Type 2: Phase Controlled Converters

For Concept, refer to Power Electronics K-Notes, Phase Controlled Converters

Common Mistake:
In some questions where line commutated converter works as an inverter you need to
reverse the direction of current before calculating terminal voltage.

Sample Problem 3:
A single-phase bridge converter is used to charge a battery of 200 V having an internal
resistance of 0.2 Ω as shown in figure. The SCRs are triggered by a constant dc signal. If SCR2
gets open circuited, what will be the average charging current?

(A) 23.8 A (B) 15 A

(C) 11.9 A (D) 3.54 A

Solution: (C) is correct option
In this circuitry if SCR gets open circuited, than circuit behaves like a half wave rectifier.

So Iavg=Average value of current

Iavg 
2R 

(Vm sin t  E)d

 Iavg  2V cos 1  E(   21 )
2R  m
1 
Iavg  2  230  2 cos 1  200(   21 )
2  2  
1  sin1 ( )
 sin1 ( )  380  0.66 rad
230  2

1 
Iavg   2  230  2 cos380  200(   2  0.66)  11.9A
2  2  

Sample Problem 4:
Consider a phase-controlled converter shown in the figure. The thyristor is fired at an angle α
in every positive half cycle of the input voltage. If the peak value of the instantaneous output
voltage equals 230 V, the firing angle α is close to

(A) 450
(B) 1350
(C) 900
(D) 83.60
Solution: (B) is correct option

We know that Vrms  230V

So, Vm  230  2 V
Vpeak  Vm sin   230
sin      450 or 1350
peak value of output is 230 V(given)
if <900 then the peak value of the out put will be 230  2
  should be >900 i.e. =1350

Sample Problem 5:
A single phase fully controlled converter bridge is used for electrical braking of a separately
excited dc motor. The dc motor load is represented by an equivalent circuit as shown in the
figure. Assume that the load inductance is sufficient to ensure continuous and ripple free
load current. The firing angle of the bridge for a load current of I0 = 10 A will be

(A) 440

(B) 510

(C) 1290

(D) 1360

Solution: (C) is correct option

Here for continuous conduction mode, by Kirchoff’s voltage law, average load current
V  150
V  2Ia  150  0  Ia 
 I1  10 A
So, V=-130 V


2  2  230
cos   130  1290

Unsolved Problems:
Q.1 A 1-  diode rectifier is feeding a capacitor load. The supply is 230V, 50Hz and capacitor
is 1  F. The conduction time and final voltage across capacitor would be
(A) 1800, 230V (B) 180 0 , 230 2V (C) 900, 230V (D) 90 0 , 230 2

Q.2 A single phase full bridge rectifier with freewheeling diode feeds an inductive load. The
load resistance is 15.53  and it has a large inductance to make current ripple free. The supply
voltage is 230V, 50Hz. For a firing angle delay of 60o, the average value of thyristor current is

(A) 3.33 A (B) 6.66 A (C) 10 A (D) 5 A

Q.3 A single phase half wave rectifier is feeding a resistive load with firing angle   . Then
the form factor of the output voltage waveform will be

(A) 1.11 (B) 2.22 (C) 1 (D) 1.32

Q.4 A 1-  full wave rectifier consists of 3 diodes and 1 thyristor feeding a resistive load of
10  as shown in figure. The average value of output voltage for firing angle delay of 600 is

(A) 181V
(B) 77.65 V
(C) 155V
(D) 210V

Q.5 A semi converter employs 02 thyristors and two diodes. Due to malfunction one of the
thyristor is working as a diode. The converter is feeding from an a.c. supply of 200 sin314 t
and gives power to resistive load of 100 . Then average output current is ………. for firing
angle of  = 60.
3.5 2.5 1.5 3
(A) (B) (C) (D)
π π π π
Q.6 A single phase full converter feeding RLE load has the following data source voltage:
230 V, 50 Hz; R 2.5 , E = 100 V, Firing angle = 30. If load inductance is large enough, so that
the output current is ripple free. Then the load power factor will be
(A)0.78 lag (B) 0.38 lag (C) 0.5 lag (D) unity
Q.7 A single phase semi converter is operated from a 50 Hz, 240 V ac source. If a resistive load
of 10  is connected at the dc terminals of the converter and the average output voltage is
25% of the maximum possible average output voltage, calculate the rms load current

(A) 5.4 A (B) 24 A (C) 10.6 A (D) 8.5 A

Q.8 A single phase fully controlled bridge circuit shown in fig. and the firing angle is
maintained at /3. If SCR3 (T3) is damaged and gets open circuited, Average direct current (Id)
output is

(A) 1 A

(B) 2 A

(C) 4 A

(D) 5 A

Q.9 A single phase fully controlled bridge converter supplies an inductive load (R-L load).
Assuming that the output current is virtually constant at 10 A. Firing angle is maintained at
/3 radians and the supply voltage is 230 V (RMS). Reactive power input and input power
factor are

(A) 1.793 kVAR and 0.45 lag (B) 1.234 kVAR and 0.5 lag

(C) 1.563 kVAR and 0.866 lag (D) 1.372 kVAR and 0.866 lag

Q.10 A three phase fully controlled bridge converter is connected to 440 v (line) supply, having
a reactance of 0.3 /phase and resistance of 0.05 /phase. The converter is working in the
inversion mode at a firing advance angle of 35. Assume load current is constant at 70 A. The
no load output voltage is

(A) 459 V (B) 486 V (C) 372 V (D) 356 V

Q.11 Three-phase fully controlled bridge converter is connected to supply voltage of 400 V
(line), source inductance is 3 mH. The load current on D.C side is constant at 15 A. Load
consists of a D.C source voltage of 400 V having an external resistance of 0.5 , overlap angle

(A) 3.87 (B) 2.62 (C) 4.38 (D) 5.6

Q.12 A three phase fully controlled converter charges a battery from a three phase supply of
400 V (line), 50 Hz supply. The battery e.m.f is 200 V and its internal resistance is 1.5. Battery
charging current is constant at 20A, due to the inductance connected in series with the battery.
If the power flows from D.C. source to A.C., firing angle of the converter for the same current

(A) 107 (B) 116.43 (C) 127.72 (D) 132.3

Q.13 A 230V, 50Hz one pulse SCR converter is triggered at a firing angle of 400 and the load
current extinguishes at an angle of 2100 . Find the circuit turn off time & average load voltage
for R  5, L  2mH and E  110V

tC  9.432ms tC  9.11ms
(A) (B)
V0  142.532V V0  141.16V
tC  8.126ms tC  9.432ms
(C) (D)
V0  112.532V V0  231.63V

Type 3: Chopper
For Concept, refer to Power Electronics K-Notes, Chopper

Point to Remember:
For approximate ripple in Inductor Current we can directly use the concept of Voltage across
the inductor so no need to memorize the formulas for maximum and minimum current in

Sample Problem 6:
In the figure shown below, the chopper feeds a resistive load from a battery source. MOSFET
Q is switched at 250 kHz, with duty ratio of 0.4. All elements of the circuit are assumed to be
ideal. The average source current in Amps in steady-state is

(A) 3/2

(B) 5/3

(C) 5/2

(D) 15/4

Solution: (C) is correct option

Here, the average current through the capacitor will be zero. (since, it is a boost converter).
We consider the two cases :
Case I : When MOSFET is ON
ic1 =- i0 (i0 is output current)
(since, diode will be in cut off mode)
Case II : When MOSFET is OFF
Diode will be forward biased and so
ic1 = Is - i0 (Is is source current)
Therefore, average current through capacitor
ic1  Ic2
Ic,avg 
DT ( i )  (1  D)T0 (Is  i0 )
0 0 0 (D is duty ratio)
Solving the equation, we get
Is 
(1  D)
Since, the output load current can be given as
Vs 12
V0 (1  D) 0.6
i0    1 A
R R 20
i0 1 5
Is   
(1  D) 0.6 3

Sample Problem 7:
In the circuit shown in the figure, the switch is operated at a duty cycle of 0.5. A large capacitor
is connected across the load. The inductor current is assumed to be continuous. The average
voltage across the load and the average current through the diode will respectively be

(A) 10 V, 2 A
(B) 10 V, 8 A
(C) 40 V 2 A
(D) 40 V, 8 A
Solution: (C) is correct option
when switch S is open I0 = IL = 4 A,Vs = 20 V
when switch S is closed ID = 0,V0 = 0 V
Duty cycle = 0.5 so average voltage is =Vs/(1-D)
Average current=(0+4)/2 A
Average Voltage=20/(1-0.5) = 40 V

Unsolved Problems:
Q.1 A step down chopper feeding an inductive load and current is ripple free in the output
circuit. The ratio of average currents through freewheeling diode and chopper is ____ (Take
duty cycle  =0.8)

(A) 0.25 (B) 4 (C) 2 (D) 0.5

Q.2 A step up chopper is required to deliver a voltage of 330 V from 110 V dc source. If the
conduction time of chopper is 200 S, then turn off time of chopper is
(A) 100 s (B) 300 s (C) 200 s (D) 400 s
Q.3 Type-A chopper supplies power to a resistive load of 10 from 200 V dc source. The
output voltage is ON for 4 ms duration and OFF for 6 ms duration. The rms value of
fundamental component of output voltage is

(A) 80 V (B) 126.5 V (C) 90 V (D) 85.6 V

Q.4 A step down d.c chopper feeding a resistive load of R = 20  and input voltage =220 V.
When the chopper remains ON, it’s voltage drop is 1.5 V and chopping frequency is 10 KHz.
What is the chopper efficiency?

(A) 99.3 % (B) 89% (C) 99% (D) 98.3%

Q.5 A DC chopper circuit is connected to a 120 V DC source supplies to inductive load having
50 mH in series with a resistance of 6. A Freewheeling diode is placed across the load. The
load current varies between the limits of 12 A and 16 A. Time ratio (Ton / Toff) of chopper is

(A) 2.122 (B) 1.222 (C) 2.333 (D) 1.732

Q.6 A simple D.C chopper is operating at a frequency of 4 kHz from a 100 VDC source to
supply a load resistance of 6. The load time constant is 6 ms, average load voltage is 62 V.
Assume load current variations are linear. Magnitude of ripple current is

(A) 0.127 A (B) 0.164 A (C) 0.237 A (D) 0.282 A

Q.7 The chopper shown in figure operates at a frequently of 100 Hz with an “ON” time of 4ms.
The average value of load current is 25A, with a peak to peak ripple of 6A. Average value of
source and diode currents are
(A) 10A, 8A

(B) 12.5A,12.5A


(D) 9A, 7A

Q.8 The step up chopper shown in figure operates at a frequency of 1kHz. The source voltage
is 100v D.C and the load resistance is 4 .If the average value of load current is 200 A, the
average value of the switch current is
(A) 200A

(B) 300A

(C) 100A

(D) 400A

Q.9 A battery with it’s terminal voltage of 200 volts is supplied with power from type-A
chopper ckt. The output voltage of the chopper consists of rectangular pulses of 2 ms duration
in an overall cycle time of 5 ms. The average, rms values of output voltage, Ripple voltage and
ripple factors are respectively -------
(A) 80 V, 126.49 V, 149.66 V, 1.87 (B) 80 V, 126.49 V, 97.98 V, 1.87
(C) 80 V, 126.49 V, 149.66 V, 1.581 (D) 80 V, 126.49 V, 97.98 V, 1.2247
Q.10 A voltage commutated chopper has the following parameters: Vs = 220 V, load circuit
parameters = 0.5, 2 mH, 40 V commutation circuit parameters L = 20 H, C = 50 F
Ton = 800 s, T = 2000 s. For a constant load current of 80 Amps, the effective on period, peak
current through main thyristor are?
(A) 525 s, 427.85 A (B) 525 s, 160 A
(C) 1075 s, 80 A (D) 1075 s, 427.85 A

Q.11 In figure, the ideal switch “S” is switched on and off with a switching frequency f = 10KHz.
The circuit is operated in steady state at the boundary of continuous and discontinuous
conduction, so that the inductor current ‘i’ is as shown. Find the ON time of the switch

(A)60 s (B) 72 s (C) 83.37 s (D) 74.34 s

Q.12 A D.C Chopper is used for Regenerative breaking of a separately excited D.C motor. The
D.C supply voltage is 400 V. The motor has ra = 0.2, Km = 1.2 V-S/Rad. The average armature
current during regenerative breaking is kept constant at 300 A with negligible ripple, For a
duty cycle of 0.55 for a Chopper. Power returned to the supply is

(A) 54 KW (B) 48KW (C) 58KW (D) 42KW

Q.13 In a boost converter, the duty ratio is adjust to regulate the output voltage V0 at 48 V.
the input voltage varies in a wide range from 12 to 36 V. the maximum output power is 120W.
for stability reasons, it is required that the converter always operate in a discontinuous current
conduction mode. The switching frequency is 50 kHz. Assuming ideal components and C as
very large, Calculate the maximum value of L that can be used.

(A) 9H (B) 12H

(C) 20H (D)  9H

Type 4: Inverters
For Concept, refer to Power Electronics K-Notes, Inverters

Point to Remember:
The understanding of basic operation of Inverter is a must to tackle some non-trivial
problems other than that remember the basic formulas of Inverters.

Sample Problem 8:

A single-phase voltages source inverter is controlled in a single pulse-width modulated

mode with a pulse width of 1500 in each half cycle. Total harmonic distortion is defined as
 V12
THD   100

where V1 is the rms value of the fundamental component of the output voltage. The
THD of output ac voltage waveform is
(A) 65.65% (B) 48.42% (C) 31.83% (D) 30.49%
Solution: (C) is correct option
Given that, total harmonic distortion
 V12
THD   100
Pulse width is 1500
 150 
Here Vrms    V  0.91Vs
 180  s
 
V1  Vrms(fundamental)  sin750  0.8696Vs
 2

0.91Vs   0.87Vs 
2 2

THD   31.9%
0.87Vs 

Sample Problem 9:
An inverter has a periodic output voltage with the output wave form as shown in Figure. When
the conduction angle α = 1200, the rms fundamental component of the output voltage is
(A) 0.78 V
(B) 1.10 V
(C) 0.90 V
(D) 1.27 V
Solution: (A) is correct option
Output voltage
  4Vs   
V0      sinnd sinnt   sinn 
n1,3,5  n   2
 RMS value of fndamental component
Vrms(fundamental)  sind  1
  1200 ,2d  1200  d  600
Vrms(fundamental)  sin600
 0.78Vs  0.78V

Unsolved Problems:
Q.1 A single phase full bridge inverter is supplying power to RLC load with R=3  , and
X L 12  The bridge operates with a periodicity of 0.2 ms. The circuit turn off time required
for transistors is 24  s. The suitable value of c that results in to load commutation would be

(A) 3  F (B) 2.5  F (C) 4  F (D) 2  F

Q.2 In single pulse modulation of PWM inverters, the pulse width is 80. For an input voltage
of 330 V dc, the r.m.s value of output voltage is
(A) 110 V (B) 220 V (C) 330 V (D) 200 V
Q.3 A 1 -  full bridge inverter is supplied from 230 V d .c and load is series RLC with R = 1 ,
L = 2  and 1 /  = 1.5 . The output voltage is controlled by single pulse modulation and
pulse width is 1200. The r.m.s values of fundamental and third harmonic components of current

(A) 50 A, 0 A (B) 160 A, 55 A (C) 82.3 A, 31.4 A (D) 160 A, 0 A

Q.4 A single phase-bridge inverter delivers power to a series connected RLC load with R = 3
and XL = 12. The periodic time is 0.2 ms. Thyristor turn off time is 1.2 s. Circuit turn off time
is 1.5 tq (where tq is the each SCR turn off time). Assume that load current contains only
fundamental component. The value of ‘C’ should be in the load circuit in order to obtain the
load commutation of SCR is

(A) 1.37F (B) 2.23 F (C) 1.87 F (D) 2.62 F

Q.5 A 3-phase inverter is fed from a 600 V source. For a star connected resistive load
15 / phase, the rms load current for 120 conduction is.

(A) 32.66A (B) 16.33A (C) 8.16A (D) 12.33A

Q.6 Output voltage of inverter is controlled by one of the PWM technique as shown in fig is
multiple pulse modulation (two pulse modulation)

Peak value of fundamental voltage component is

(A) 278 V (B) 343 V (C) 247 V (D) 175 V

Q.7 A single phase full bridge inverter has RMS value of the fundamental component of output
voltage, with single pulse modulation, equal to 110v, and DC source voltage is 220v. If we take
the two symmetrically speed pulses per half cycle, RMS value of 3rd harmonic of the two pulse
waveform is
(A) 54.3v (B) 37.4v (C) 29.6v (D) 41.8v
Q.8 The output voltage from inverter is controlled by a single pulse modulation. The output
voltage waveform is shown in figure. The peak value of 5th harmonic is
(A)0.9 V
(B)1.273 V
(C)0.11 V
(D)0 V
Q.9 A D.C Chopper Circuit connected to a 100 V DC source supplies an inductive load having
40mH in series with a resistance of 5. A freewheeling diode is placed across the load. The
load current varies between the limits of 10 A and 12 A. The time ratio of the Chopper is?
(A) 0.55 (B) 1.22 (C) 0.67 (D) 0.73

Q.10 A single phase full bridge inverter controls the power in a resistive load. The nominal
value of input dc voltage is Vs = 220 V and a uniform pulse width modulation with five pulse
per half cycle is used. For the required control, the width of each pulse is 250 . Determine the
r.m.s. value of the load.

(A)200.8 V (B)183.33 V
(C)166.67 V (D)150 V

Type 5: DC & AC Drives

Point to Remember:
For AC and DC drives remembering the basic formulas of Machines and Power Electronics is

Sample Problem 10:

A single-phase half-controlled rectifier is driving a separately excited dc motor. The dc motor

has a back emf constant of 0.5 V/rpm. The armature current is 5 A without any ripple. The
armature resistance is 2 Ω. The converter is working from a 230 V, single-phase ac source with
a firing angle of 300. Under this operating condition, the speed of the motor will be
(A) 339 rpm (B) 359 rpm (C) 366 rpm (D) 386 rpm

Solution: (C) is correct option
E.m.f. constant Kb=0.5 V/rpm
For separately excited d.c. motor
Ea= KbN and
E  V0  IaRa
Vm 230  2
E (1  cos  )  5  2  (1  cos300 )  10
 
E  183.20
E 183.20
N    366.4r.p.m.
Kb 0.5

Unsolved Problems:
Q.1 A separately excited DC motor is fed from two single phase semi converters, one in the
armature circuit and other in the field circuit. Field current is constant at 2A, motor armature
resistance is 0.8  and motor constant is K=0.5 V.S/A. rad. AC voltage is 230V, 50HZ. For a
ripple free armature current and speed of 1500rp.m, firing angle of 300. The torque developed
by the motor would be

(A) 45.12Nm (B) 90.24Nm (C) 22.66Nm (D) 10.24Nm

Q.2 A 3–, 440 V, 50 Hz ac mains fed thyristor bridge is feeding a 440 V, ac, 15 kw, 1500 rpm
separately excited dc motor with a ripple free continuous current in the dc link under all
operating conditions neglecting the losses, the motor is running at 3/4 rated speed. The rms
value of line current is

(A) 32.5 A (B) 37.5 A (C) 25 A (D) 40 A

Q.3 A Separately excited d.c. motor is fed from the single phase semi converters, one in the
armature circuit and the other in field circuit. Field current is constant at 2A, motor armature
resistance is 0.8  and motor constant is K = 0.5 V.S/A-rad. AC voltage is 230 V, 50 Hz. For a
ripple free armature current and speed of 1500 r.p.m. Motor torque is

(A) 45 Nm (B) 22.5 Nm (C) 90 Nm (D) None

Q.4 A small separately excited DC motor is supplied via a half controlled, single phase bridge
rectifier. The supply is 240v, the thyristors are triggered at 1100, and the armature current
continuous for 500 beyond the voltage zero. The motor torque characteristic is 1.0Nm/A and
its armature resistance is 6. Motor speed at a torque of 1.8Nm is (neglect all converter losses)
(A) 864rpm (B) 778rpm (C) 932rpm (D) 884rpm
Q.5 A D.C. motor with armature resistance of 0.2 is fed from a step down chopper in the
continuous mode and operates at some known speed and known excitation current. The
motor current rises from 6A to 10A in the ON period of the chopper and drop from 10A to 6A

in the off period of the chopper of the same circuit. Both rise and fall of the current may be
assumed linear. Calculate the average power loss in the machine armature
(A) 27.2 W (B) 46.67 W (C) 13.07 W (D) 11.02 W

Q.6 A separately excited D.C. motor has the following name plate data 220V, 100A, 2200 R.P.M.
The armature resistance is 0.1 and inductance is 5m.H. The motor is fed by a chopper, which
is operating from a D.C. supply of 250V. The chopper is operated at a duty cycle of 80%.
Determine the speed at which the motor can be operated at rated torque.
(A) 1200 R.P.M (B) 400 R.P.M (C) 1900 R.P.M (D) 2090 R.P.M
Q.7 The speed of the separately excited D.C motor is controlled by a Chopper. The D.C supply
voltage is 100 V, armature circuit resistance is Ra=0.4, armature circuit inductance La= 10 mH
and the motor constant is Ka = 0.05v/R.P.M. The motor drives a constant torque load
requiring an average current of 30A. Assume that the motor current is continuous. The range
of duty cycle is

(A) 1/44<α<1 (B) 0.12< α <1 (C) 0.3< α <1 (D) 0.27< α <1

Q.8 A single phase ac regulator fed from 50 Hz system supplies a load having resistance and
inductance 4.0 ohms and 12.73 mH respectively. The control range of firing angle is ___________

(A) 00    1800 (B) 900    1800

(C) 450    1800 (D) 00    450

Q.9 In the following circuit, The RMS value of load current in amps by assuming   900 is
____________ (in amp)





Q.10 A 200 V, 1000 rpm, 10 A separately excited DC motor is controlled in constant torque
mode by using a buck-boost converter. Armature resistance Rs  1 . If the motor is to be run
at 700 rpm. What is the duty cycle required (Input to the converter is 220 V)

(A)0.216 (B)0.316
(C)0.416 (D)0.516

Type 6: Commutation Circuit
For Concept, refer to Power Electronics K-Notes, Power Semi-Conductor Devices.

Point to Remember:
Try to understand the basic operation of Commutation Circuits as sometimes some non-
standard case may come where you need to apply the principle of operation. Remember
Standard cases direct formulas as well.

Sample Problem 11:

Figure shows a chopper. The device S1 is the main switching device. S2 is the auxiliary
commutation device. S1 is rated for 400 V, 60 A. S2 is rated for 400 V, 30 A. The load current
is 20 A. The main device operates with a duty ratio of 0.5. The peak current through S1 is

(A) 10 A

(B) 20 A

(C) 30 A

(D) 40 A

Solution: (D) is correct option

When S1 is triggered, tank CKT is formed by C(2µF) and L(200µH).
The current through the circuit is
ic  sin 0t
Peak capacitor current
Vs C
Icp   Vs
0L L
Therefore peak current through S1 is
I  Icp  I0
C 2  106
 Vs  20  200   20
L 200  106
 40 A

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A voltage commutated chopper shown in figure employs a thyristor of device turn off time
100  s. Factor of safety is 2. The chopping frequency is 500Hz.
The average value of output voltage is

(A) 88 V

(B) 110 V

(C) 131 V

(D) cannot be evaluated

Q.2 A voltage commutated chopper is shown in figure. The chopper operates at frequency of
400 Hz and 50 % duty ratio. The load current remains constant 10A. Assuming the input
voltage to be 200 V and device to be ideal. Maximum value of current through capacitor is

(A) 8.94 A

(B) 9 A

(C) 10 A

(D) 9.5 A

Q.3 A resonant pulse commutation circuit is shown in fig. For this circuit C = 16 F and
L = 4H. Initial voltage across capacitor is 250 V. Load current is constant at 360 A. Voltage
across main thyristor (VT) when it gets commutated is

(A) 173.5 V

(B) 137.8 V

(C) 152.3 V

(D) 167.4 V

Q.4 A voltage commutated circuit is shown in fig. For this circuit VS = 250 V, L = 24 H and
C = 52 F. Load current is constant at 132 A. Circuit turn off time for auxiliary thyristor (TA) is

(A) 26.7 s (B) 33.3 s

(C) 44.4 s (D) 55.5 s

Q.5 For the circuit shown in figure, the value of resistance “R” is 10, VDC = 100v and thyristor
turn “OFF” time is 50 sec. The value of C is required for commutation of thyristor is
(A) 8.4F

(B)5.7 F

(C)7.2 F

(D)6.3 F

Q.6 The circuit of figure employing a resonant pulse commutation has C=20 F and L=5 H.
Initial voltage across capacitor Vs is 230V. For a constant load current of 300 A, the circuit turn
of time for the main thyristor?

(A) 31.46 s

(B) 15.70 s

(C) 11.62 s

(D) 23.24 s

Q.7 In the circuit shown below, load draws a constant current of I O

Pick the condition of C for reliable communication of T1

L=1 mH

(A) C  0.1F Io=10A

(B) C  0.1F Vs=100 V

(C) C  0.3F

(D) C  0.3F

Q.8 An impulse –commutated chopper feeds inductive load requiring a constant current of
260 A. The source voltage is 220 V dc and the chopping frequency is 400 Hz Turn – off time
for main thyristor is 18s . Peak current through main thyristor is limited to 1.8 times the

constant load current. Taking a factor of safety 2 for the main thyristor, calculate the value of
commutating components C and L.

(A) C  41.545F, L  46.596H (B) C  34.214F, L  44.72H

(C) C  42.545F, L  47.596H (D) C  36.712F, L  37.16H

Answer Key
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Type 1 A D B B C A B D A D A
Type 2 D A B A A A C B A B C C A
Type 3 A A D A C B B A D D A A D
Type 4 D B D D B D C C B B
Type 5 A A A A C C B C B C
Type 6 B C A D C C B C
Type 7
Type 8