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Power Electronics

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Power Electronics

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Contents

Manual for Kuestion ........................................................................... 2

Type 1: Power Semi-Conductor Devices ............................................. 3

Type 2: Phase Controlled Converters .................................................. 6

Type 3: Chopper ................................................................................ 10

Type 4: Inverters ............................................................................... 14

Type 5: DC & AC Drives ..................................................................... 17

Type 6: Commutation Circuit ............................................................ 20

Answer Key ....................................................................................... 23

1

Manual for Kuestion

Why Kuestion?

It’s very overwhelming for a student to even think about finishing 100-200 questions per

chapter when the clock is ticking at the last moment. This is the reason why Kuestion serves

the purpose of being the bare minimum set of questions to be solved from each chapter

during revision.

What is Kuestion?

A set of 40 questions or less for each chapter covering almost every type which has been

previously asked in GATE. Along with the Solved examples to refer from, a student can try

similar unsolved questions to improve his/her problem solving skills.

It is recommended to use Kuestion as soon as you feel confident in any particular chapter.

Although it will really help a student if he/she will start making use of Kuestion in the last 2

months before GATE Exam (November end onwards).

Kuestion should be used as a tool to improve your speed and accuracy chapter wise. It should

be treated as a supplement to our K-Notes and should be attempted once you are comfortable

with the understanding and basic problem solving ability of the chapter. You should refer K-

Notes Theory before solving any “Type” problems from Kuestion.

2

Type 1: Power Semi-Conductor Devices

For Concept, refer to Power Electronics K-Notes, Power Semi-Conductor Devices

Sample Problem 1:

An SCR having a turn ON times of 5 μsec, latching current of 50A and holding current of 40

mA is triggered by a short duration pulse and is used in the circuit shown in figure. The

minimum pulse width required to turn the SCR ON will be

(B) 150 μsec

(C) 100 μsec

(D) 5 μsec

Solution: (B) is correct option

width time= Time required by ia rise up to iL

100

i2 20mA

5 103

100

i1 1 e40t

20

0.05=0.02+5 1 e40t

0.03

1 e40t

5

T=150 s

Sample Problem 2:

L − C circuit is used to commutate a thyristor, which is initially carrying a current of 5A as

shown in the figure below. The initial current through the inductor is zero, while the initial

capacitor voltage is 100 V. The values of L and C are 1 mH and 10 µF respectively. The switch

is closed at t = 0. If the forward drop is negligible, the time taken for the device to turn off is

(A) 52 μs

(B) 156 μs

(C) 312 μs

(D) 26 μs

3

Solution: (A) is correct option

Current through the LC circuit is

L

i(t) Vc sin 0t 10sin10 4 t

C

The device will be turned off only when current through it is zero. Commutation circuit has to

supply 5A current in opposite direction to the thyristor current.

i.e. i(t)=5 A

So, 10sin104 t 5 A t=52.3 sec

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 The latching current of thyristor is 4mA. The minimum width of gate pulse required to

turn on thyristor in inductive circuit is 4 ms. If the value of inductance is increased, then the

width of the gate pulse would be

(A) 6 s (B) 2 s (C) 4 s (D) None

Q.2 An SCR during it’s turn on process has the following data:

Anode voltage: 300 V 0V

Anode current: 0A 100A

During turn on time of 8s, the anode current and anode voltage very linearly. If triggering

frequency is 100 Hz, the average power loss in thyristor is

(A) 8 W (B) 16 W (C) 48 W (D) 4 W

Q.3 An LC combination circuit with thyristor in the circuit is operated with no external voltage,

but with an initial current of 250 A in inductor. The circuit parameters are L= 10 H, C = 50F.

Then the current extinguishes in the circuit for a time of

Q.4 A thyristor switching circuit is shown in figure. The thyristor is rated for a latching current

of 10 mA and is switched on within 5 s. Design the value of resistance R?

(A) 100 k

(B) 20 k

(C) 30 k

(D) 40 k

4

di

Q.5 The value of ‘L’ required to limit the to 20 A/S for the circuit shown in figure is

dt

(A) 8.7H

(B) 17.2H

(C) 14.7H

(D) 12.3H

Q.6 A thyristor has an i2 dt rating of 15 Amp2.S and is being used to supply the circuit shown

from a 120 V. AC supply when a fault occurs, short circuiting the 10 resistor to earth. What

is the shortest fault clearance time to be achieved, if damage to the thyristor is to be

prevented?

(A) 1.04 ms

(B) 1.37 ms

(C) 0.96 ms

(D) 2.03 ms

Q.7 The junction capacitance of thyristor used in the circuit is 15 PF. The limiting value of

charging current to turn on thyristor is 5 mA and the critical value dv/dt is 200 V/s. The value

of capacitance Cs so that the thyristor will not be turned on due to dv/dt is---------

(A) 12 PF

(B) 7 PF

(C) 15 PF

(D) 20 PF

maximum leakage current and recovery charge difference of 100 mA and 150 C respectively

consider a derating factor of 20% and maximum voltage across each SCR is 1000 volts, the

transient voltage capacitance and steady state voltage sharing resistance are?

(A) 0.6 f, 25 K (B) 0.6 PF, 25 (C) 0.3 F, 25 K (D) 0.6 F, 25

5

Q.9 An SCR can withstand maximum junction temperature of 3900 K with ambient temperature

of 3450 K. Its thermal resistance from junction to ambient is 1.50C/W, the maximum internal

power dissipation allowed will be

Q.10 For a thyristor, maximum junction temperature is 1250 C . The thermal resistance for the

thyristor sink combination are jC 0.16 and CS 0.080 C / W . For a heat sink temperature

of 700 C , In case the heat sink temperature is brought down to 600 C by forced cooling, find

the percentage increase in the device rating.

(A) 8.00% (B) 9.71%

(C) 9.00% (D) 8.71%

dV

Q.11 For the circuit shown in figure, rating of SCR is 350 V / s and its junction

dt

capacitance, is 20 pF. Switch S is closed at t=0. Calculate to value of Cs so that SCR T is not

dV

turn ON due to

dt

(A) 0.0357F

(B) 0.0257F

(C) 2.5F

(D) 3.5F

For Concept, refer to Power Electronics K-Notes, Phase Controlled Converters

Common Mistake:

In some questions where line commutated converter works as an inverter you need to

reverse the direction of current before calculating terminal voltage.

Sample Problem 3:

A single-phase bridge converter is used to charge a battery of 200 V having an internal

resistance of 0.2 Ω as shown in figure. The SCRs are triggered by a constant dc signal. If SCR2

gets open circuited, what will be the average charging current?

6

Solution: (C) is correct option

In this circuitry if SCR gets open circuited, than circuit behaves like a half wave rectifier.

1

1

Iavg

2R

(Vm sin t E)d

1

1

Iavg 2V cos 1 E( 21 )

2R m

1

Iavg 2 230 2 cos 1 200( 21 )

2 2

E

1 sin1 ( )

Vm

200

sin1 ( ) 380 0.66 rad

230 2

1

Iavg 2 230 2 cos380 200( 2 0.66) 11.9A

2 2

Sample Problem 4:

Consider a phase-controlled converter shown in the figure. The thyristor is fired at an angle α

in every positive half cycle of the input voltage. If the peak value of the instantaneous output

voltage equals 230 V, the firing angle α is close to

(A) 450

(B) 1350

(C) 900

(D) 83.60

Solution: (B) is correct option

So, Vm 230 2 V

Vpeak Vm sin 230

1

sin 450 or 1350

2

peak value of output is 230 V(given)

if <900 then the peak value of the out put will be 230 2

should be >900 i.e. =1350

7

Sample Problem 5:

A single phase fully controlled converter bridge is used for electrical braking of a separately

excited dc motor. The dc motor load is represented by an equivalent circuit as shown in the

figure. Assume that the load inductance is sufficient to ensure continuous and ripple free

load current. The firing angle of the bridge for a load current of I0 = 10 A will be

(A) 440

(B) 510

(C) 1290

(D) 1360

Here for continuous conduction mode, by Kirchoff’s voltage law, average load current

V 150

V 2Ia 150 0 Ia

2

I1 10 A

So, V=-130 V

2Vm

cos=-130

2 2 230

cos 130 1290

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A 1- diode rectifier is feeding a capacitor load. The supply is 230V, 50Hz and capacitor

is 1 F. The conduction time and final voltage across capacitor would be

(A) 1800, 230V (B) 180 0 , 230 2V (C) 900, 230V (D) 90 0 , 230 2

Q.2 A single phase full bridge rectifier with freewheeling diode feeds an inductive load. The

load resistance is 15.53 and it has a large inductance to make current ripple free. The supply

voltage is 230V, 50Hz. For a firing angle delay of 60o, the average value of thyristor current is

Q.3 A single phase half wave rectifier is feeding a resistive load with firing angle . Then

2

the form factor of the output voltage waveform will be

8

Q.4 A 1- full wave rectifier consists of 3 diodes and 1 thyristor feeding a resistive load of

10 as shown in figure. The average value of output voltage for firing angle delay of 600 is

(A) 181V

(B) 77.65 V

(C) 155V

(D) 210V

Q.5 A semi converter employs 02 thyristors and two diodes. Due to malfunction one of the

thyristor is working as a diode. The converter is feeding from an a.c. supply of 200 sin314 t

and gives power to resistive load of 100 . Then average output current is ………. for firing

angle of = 60.

3.5 2.5 1.5 3

(A) (B) (C) (D)

π π π π

Q.6 A single phase full converter feeding RLE load has the following data source voltage:

230 V, 50 Hz; R 2.5 , E = 100 V, Firing angle = 30. If load inductance is large enough, so that

the output current is ripple free. Then the load power factor will be

(A)0.78 lag (B) 0.38 lag (C) 0.5 lag (D) unity

Q.7 A single phase semi converter is operated from a 50 Hz, 240 V ac source. If a resistive load

of 10 is connected at the dc terminals of the converter and the average output voltage is

25% of the maximum possible average output voltage, calculate the rms load current

Q.8 A single phase fully controlled bridge circuit shown in fig. and the firing angle is

maintained at /3. If SCR3 (T3) is damaged and gets open circuited, Average direct current (Id)

output is

(A) 1 A

(B) 2 A

(C) 4 A

(D) 5 A

Q.9 A single phase fully controlled bridge converter supplies an inductive load (R-L load).

Assuming that the output current is virtually constant at 10 A. Firing angle is maintained at

/3 radians and the supply voltage is 230 V (RMS). Reactive power input and input power

factor are

(A) 1.793 kVAR and 0.45 lag (B) 1.234 kVAR and 0.5 lag

(C) 1.563 kVAR and 0.866 lag (D) 1.372 kVAR and 0.866 lag

9

Q.10 A three phase fully controlled bridge converter is connected to 440 v (line) supply, having

a reactance of 0.3 /phase and resistance of 0.05 /phase. The converter is working in the

inversion mode at a firing advance angle of 35. Assume load current is constant at 70 A. The

no load output voltage is

Q.11 Three-phase fully controlled bridge converter is connected to supply voltage of 400 V

(line), source inductance is 3 mH. The load current on D.C side is constant at 15 A. Load

consists of a D.C source voltage of 400 V having an external resistance of 0.5 , overlap angle

is?

Q.12 A three phase fully controlled converter charges a battery from a three phase supply of

400 V (line), 50 Hz supply. The battery e.m.f is 200 V and its internal resistance is 1.5. Battery

charging current is constant at 20A, due to the inductance connected in series with the battery.

If the power flows from D.C. source to A.C., firing angle of the converter for the same current

is

Q.13 A 230V, 50Hz one pulse SCR converter is triggered at a firing angle of 400 and the load

current extinguishes at an angle of 2100 . Find the circuit turn off time & average load voltage

for R 5, L 2mH and E 110V

tC 9.432ms tC 9.11ms

(A) (B)

V0 142.532V V0 141.16V

tC 8.126ms tC 9.432ms

(C) (D)

V0 112.532V V0 231.63V

Type 3: Chopper

For Concept, refer to Power Electronics K-Notes, Chopper

Point to Remember:

For approximate ripple in Inductor Current we can directly use the concept of Voltage across

the inductor so no need to memorize the formulas for maximum and minimum current in

chopper.

Sample Problem 6:

In the figure shown below, the chopper feeds a resistive load from a battery source. MOSFET

Q is switched at 250 kHz, with duty ratio of 0.4. All elements of the circuit are assumed to be

ideal. The average source current in Amps in steady-state is

10

(A) 3/2

(B) 5/3

(C) 5/2

(D) 15/4

Here, the average current through the capacitor will be zero. (since, it is a boost converter).

We consider the two cases :

Case I : When MOSFET is ON

ic1 =- i0 (i0 is output current)

(since, diode will be in cut off mode)

Case II : When MOSFET is OFF

Diode will be forward biased and so

ic1 = Is - i0 (Is is source current)

Therefore, average current through capacitor

ic1 Ic2

Ic,avg

2

DT ( i ) (1 D)T0 (Is i0 )

0 0 0 (D is duty ratio)

2

Solving the equation, we get

i0

Is

(1 D)

Since, the output load current can be given as

Vs 12

V0 (1 D) 0.6

i0 1 A

R R 20

i0 1 5

Is

(1 D) 0.6 3

Sample Problem 7:

In the circuit shown in the figure, the switch is operated at a duty cycle of 0.5. A large capacitor

is connected across the load. The inductor current is assumed to be continuous. The average

voltage across the load and the average current through the diode will respectively be

11

(A) 10 V, 2 A

(B) 10 V, 8 A

(C) 40 V 2 A

(D) 40 V, 8 A

Solution: (C) is correct option

when switch S is open I0 = IL = 4 A,Vs = 20 V

when switch S is closed ID = 0,V0 = 0 V

Duty cycle = 0.5 so average voltage is =Vs/(1-D)

Average current=(0+4)/2 A

Average Voltage=20/(1-0.5) = 40 V

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A step down chopper feeding an inductive load and current is ripple free in the output

circuit. The ratio of average currents through freewheeling diode and chopper is ____ (Take

duty cycle =0.8)

Q.2 A step up chopper is required to deliver a voltage of 330 V from 110 V dc source. If the

conduction time of chopper is 200 S, then turn off time of chopper is

(A) 100 s (B) 300 s (C) 200 s (D) 400 s

Q.3 Type-A chopper supplies power to a resistive load of 10 from 200 V dc source. The

output voltage is ON for 4 ms duration and OFF for 6 ms duration. The rms value of

fundamental component of output voltage is

Q.4 A step down d.c chopper feeding a resistive load of R = 20 and input voltage =220 V.

When the chopper remains ON, it’s voltage drop is 1.5 V and chopping frequency is 10 KHz.

What is the chopper efficiency?

Q.5 A DC chopper circuit is connected to a 120 V DC source supplies to inductive load having

50 mH in series with a resistance of 6. A Freewheeling diode is placed across the load. The

load current varies between the limits of 12 A and 16 A. Time ratio (Ton / Toff) of chopper is

12

Q.6 A simple D.C chopper is operating at a frequency of 4 kHz from a 100 VDC source to

supply a load resistance of 6. The load time constant is 6 ms, average load voltage is 62 V.

Assume load current variations are linear. Magnitude of ripple current is

Q.7 The chopper shown in figure operates at a frequently of 100 Hz with an “ON” time of 4ms.

The average value of load current is 25A, with a peak to peak ripple of 6A. Average value of

source and diode currents are

(A) 10A, 8A

(B) 12.5A,12.5A

(C)13.7A/7.4A

(D) 9A, 7A

Q.8 The step up chopper shown in figure operates at a frequency of 1kHz. The source voltage

is 100v D.C and the load resistance is 4 .If the average value of load current is 200 A, the

average value of the switch current is

(A) 200A

(B) 300A

(C) 100A

(D) 400A

Q.9 A battery with it’s terminal voltage of 200 volts is supplied with power from type-A

chopper ckt. The output voltage of the chopper consists of rectangular pulses of 2 ms duration

in an overall cycle time of 5 ms. The average, rms values of output voltage, Ripple voltage and

ripple factors are respectively -------

(A) 80 V, 126.49 V, 149.66 V, 1.87 (B) 80 V, 126.49 V, 97.98 V, 1.87

(C) 80 V, 126.49 V, 149.66 V, 1.581 (D) 80 V, 126.49 V, 97.98 V, 1.2247

Q.10 A voltage commutated chopper has the following parameters: Vs = 220 V, load circuit

parameters = 0.5, 2 mH, 40 V commutation circuit parameters L = 20 H, C = 50 F

Ton = 800 s, T = 2000 s. For a constant load current of 80 Amps, the effective on period, peak

current through main thyristor are?

(A) 525 s, 427.85 A (B) 525 s, 160 A

(C) 1075 s, 80 A (D) 1075 s, 427.85 A

13

Q.11 In figure, the ideal switch “S” is switched on and off with a switching frequency f = 10KHz.

The circuit is operated in steady state at the boundary of continuous and discontinuous

conduction, so that the inductor current ‘i’ is as shown. Find the ON time of the switch

Q.12 A D.C Chopper is used for Regenerative breaking of a separately excited D.C motor. The

D.C supply voltage is 400 V. The motor has ra = 0.2, Km = 1.2 V-S/Rad. The average armature

current during regenerative breaking is kept constant at 300 A with negligible ripple, For a

duty cycle of 0.55 for a Chopper. Power returned to the supply is

Q.13 In a boost converter, the duty ratio is adjust to regulate the output voltage V0 at 48 V.

the input voltage varies in a wide range from 12 to 36 V. the maximum output power is 120W.

for stability reasons, it is required that the converter always operate in a discontinuous current

conduction mode. The switching frequency is 50 kHz. Assuming ideal components and C as

very large, Calculate the maximum value of L that can be used.

(C) 20H (D) 9H

Type 4: Inverters

For Concept, refer to Power Electronics K-Notes, Inverters

Point to Remember:

The understanding of basic operation of Inverter is a must to tackle some non-trivial

problems other than that remember the basic formulas of Inverters.

Sample Problem 8:

mode with a pulse width of 1500 in each half cycle. Total harmonic distortion is defined as

Vrms

2

V12

THD 100

V1

14

where V1 is the rms value of the fundamental component of the output voltage. The

THD of output ac voltage waveform is

(A) 65.65% (B) 48.42% (C) 31.83% (D) 30.49%

Solution: (C) is correct option

Given that, total harmonic distortion

Vrms

2

V12

THD 100

V1

Pulse width is 1500

150

Here Vrms V 0.91Vs

180 s

0.4Vs

V1 Vrms(fundamental) sin750 0.8696Vs

2

0.91Vs 0.87Vs

2 2

THD 31.9%

0.87Vs

2

Sample Problem 9:

An inverter has a periodic output voltage with the output wave form as shown in Figure. When

the conduction angle α = 1200, the rms fundamental component of the output voltage is

(A) 0.78 V

(B) 1.10 V

(C) 0.90 V

(D) 1.27 V

Solution: (A) is correct option

Output voltage

4Vs

V0 sinnd sinnt sinn

n1,3,5 n 2

RMS value of fndamental component

4Vs

Vrms(fundamental) sind 1

2

1200 ,2d 1200 d 600

4Vs

Vrms(fundamental) sin600

2

0.78Vs 0.78V

15

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A single phase full bridge inverter is supplying power to RLC load with R=3 , and

X L 12 The bridge operates with a periodicity of 0.2 ms. The circuit turn off time required

for transistors is 24 s. The suitable value of c that results in to load commutation would be

Q.2 In single pulse modulation of PWM inverters, the pulse width is 80. For an input voltage

of 330 V dc, the r.m.s value of output voltage is

(A) 110 V (B) 220 V (C) 330 V (D) 200 V

Q.3 A 1 - full bridge inverter is supplied from 230 V d .c and load is series RLC with R = 1 ,

L = 2 and 1 / = 1.5 . The output voltage is controlled by single pulse modulation and

pulse width is 1200. The r.m.s values of fundamental and third harmonic components of current

are

Q.4 A single phase-bridge inverter delivers power to a series connected RLC load with R = 3

and XL = 12. The periodic time is 0.2 ms. Thyristor turn off time is 1.2 s. Circuit turn off time

is 1.5 tq (where tq is the each SCR turn off time). Assume that load current contains only

fundamental component. The value of ‘C’ should be in the load circuit in order to obtain the

load commutation of SCR is

Q.5 A 3-phase inverter is fed from a 600 V source. For a star connected resistive load

15 / phase, the rms load current for 120 conduction is.

Q.6 Output voltage of inverter is controlled by one of the PWM technique as shown in fig is

multiple pulse modulation (two pulse modulation)

16

Q.7 A single phase full bridge inverter has RMS value of the fundamental component of output

voltage, with single pulse modulation, equal to 110v, and DC source voltage is 220v. If we take

the two symmetrically speed pulses per half cycle, RMS value of 3rd harmonic of the two pulse

waveform is

(A) 54.3v (B) 37.4v (C) 29.6v (D) 41.8v

Q.8 The output voltage from inverter is controlled by a single pulse modulation. The output

voltage waveform is shown in figure. The peak value of 5th harmonic is

(A)0.9 V

(B)1.273 V

(C)0.11 V

(D)0 V

Q.9 A D.C Chopper Circuit connected to a 100 V DC source supplies an inductive load having

40mH in series with a resistance of 5. A freewheeling diode is placed across the load. The

load current varies between the limits of 10 A and 12 A. The time ratio of the Chopper is?

(A) 0.55 (B) 1.22 (C) 0.67 (D) 0.73

Q.10 A single phase full bridge inverter controls the power in a resistive load. The nominal

value of input dc voltage is Vs = 220 V and a uniform pulse width modulation with five pulse

per half cycle is used. For the required control, the width of each pulse is 250 . Determine the

r.m.s. value of the load.

(A)200.8 V (B)183.33 V

(C)166.67 V (D)150 V

Point to Remember:

For AC and DC drives remembering the basic formulas of Machines and Power Electronics is

sufficient.

has a back emf constant of 0.5 V/rpm. The armature current is 5 A without any ripple. The

armature resistance is 2 Ω. The converter is working from a 230 V, single-phase ac source with

a firing angle of 300. Under this operating condition, the speed of the motor will be

(A) 339 rpm (B) 359 rpm (C) 366 rpm (D) 386 rpm

17

Solution: (C) is correct option

E.m.f. constant Kb=0.5 V/rpm

For separately excited d.c. motor

Ea= KbN and

E V0 IaRa

Vm 230 2

E (1 cos ) 5 2 (1 cos300 ) 10

E 183.20

E 183.20

N 366.4r.p.m.

Kb 0.5

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A separately excited DC motor is fed from two single phase semi converters, one in the

armature circuit and other in the field circuit. Field current is constant at 2A, motor armature

resistance is 0.8 and motor constant is K=0.5 V.S/A. rad. AC voltage is 230V, 50HZ. For a

ripple free armature current and speed of 1500rp.m, firing angle of 300. The torque developed

by the motor would be

Q.2 A 3–, 440 V, 50 Hz ac mains fed thyristor bridge is feeding a 440 V, ac, 15 kw, 1500 rpm

separately excited dc motor with a ripple free continuous current in the dc link under all

operating conditions neglecting the losses, the motor is running at 3/4 rated speed. The rms

value of line current is

Q.3 A Separately excited d.c. motor is fed from the single phase semi converters, one in the

armature circuit and the other in field circuit. Field current is constant at 2A, motor armature

resistance is 0.8 and motor constant is K = 0.5 V.S/A-rad. AC voltage is 230 V, 50 Hz. For a

ripple free armature current and speed of 1500 r.p.m. Motor torque is

Q.4 A small separately excited DC motor is supplied via a half controlled, single phase bridge

rectifier. The supply is 240v, the thyristors are triggered at 1100, and the armature current

continuous for 500 beyond the voltage zero. The motor torque characteristic is 1.0Nm/A and

its armature resistance is 6. Motor speed at a torque of 1.8Nm is (neglect all converter losses)

(A) 864rpm (B) 778rpm (C) 932rpm (D) 884rpm

Q.5 A D.C. motor with armature resistance of 0.2 is fed from a step down chopper in the

continuous mode and operates at some known speed and known excitation current. The

motor current rises from 6A to 10A in the ON period of the chopper and drop from 10A to 6A

18

in the off period of the chopper of the same circuit. Both rise and fall of the current may be

assumed linear. Calculate the average power loss in the machine armature

(A) 27.2 W (B) 46.67 W (C) 13.07 W (D) 11.02 W

Q.6 A separately excited D.C. motor has the following name plate data 220V, 100A, 2200 R.P.M.

The armature resistance is 0.1 and inductance is 5m.H. The motor is fed by a chopper, which

is operating from a D.C. supply of 250V. The chopper is operated at a duty cycle of 80%.

Determine the speed at which the motor can be operated at rated torque.

(A) 1200 R.P.M (B) 400 R.P.M (C) 1900 R.P.M (D) 2090 R.P.M

Q.7 The speed of the separately excited D.C motor is controlled by a Chopper. The D.C supply

voltage is 100 V, armature circuit resistance is Ra=0.4, armature circuit inductance La= 10 mH

and the motor constant is Ka = 0.05v/R.P.M. The motor drives a constant torque load

requiring an average current of 30A. Assume that the motor current is continuous. The range

of duty cycle is

(A) 1/44<α<1 (B) 0.12< α <1 (C) 0.3< α <1 (D) 0.27< α <1

Q.8 A single phase ac regulator fed from 50 Hz system supplies a load having resistance and

inductance 4.0 ohms and 12.73 mH respectively. The control range of firing angle is ___________

(C) 450 1800 (D) 00 450

Q.9 In the following circuit, The RMS value of load current in amps by assuming 900 is

____________ (in amp)

(A)10

(B)20

(C)30

(D)40

Q.10 A 200 V, 1000 rpm, 10 A separately excited DC motor is controlled in constant torque

mode by using a buck-boost converter. Armature resistance Rs 1 . If the motor is to be run

at 700 rpm. What is the duty cycle required (Input to the converter is 220 V)

(A)0.216 (B)0.316

(C)0.416 (D)0.516

19

Type 6: Commutation Circuit

For Concept, refer to Power Electronics K-Notes, Power Semi-Conductor Devices.

Point to Remember:

Try to understand the basic operation of Commutation Circuits as sometimes some non-

standard case may come where you need to apply the principle of operation. Remember

Standard cases direct formulas as well.

Figure shows a chopper. The device S1 is the main switching device. S2 is the auxiliary

commutation device. S1 is rated for 400 V, 60 A. S2 is rated for 400 V, 30 A. The load current

is 20 A. The main device operates with a duty ratio of 0.5. The peak current through S1 is

(A) 10 A

(B) 20 A

(C) 30 A

(D) 40 A

When S1 is triggered, tank CKT is formed by C(2µF) and L(200µH).

The current through the circuit is

Vs

ic sin 0t

0L

Peak capacitor current

Vs C

Icp Vs

0L L

Therefore peak current through S1 is

I Icp I0

C 2 106

Vs 20 200 20

L 200 106

40 A

Unsolved Problems:

Q.1 A voltage commutated chopper shown in figure employs a thyristor of device turn off time

100 s. Factor of safety is 2. The chopping frequency is 500Hz.

The average value of output voltage is

20

(A) 88 V

(B) 110 V

(C) 131 V

Q.2 A voltage commutated chopper is shown in figure. The chopper operates at frequency of

400 Hz and 50 % duty ratio. The load current remains constant 10A. Assuming the input

voltage to be 200 V and device to be ideal. Maximum value of current through capacitor is

(A) 8.94 A

(B) 9 A

(C) 10 A

(D) 9.5 A

Q.3 A resonant pulse commutation circuit is shown in fig. For this circuit C = 16 F and

L = 4H. Initial voltage across capacitor is 250 V. Load current is constant at 360 A. Voltage

across main thyristor (VT) when it gets commutated is

(A) 173.5 V

(B) 137.8 V

(C) 152.3 V

(D) 167.4 V

Q.4 A voltage commutated circuit is shown in fig. For this circuit VS = 250 V, L = 24 H and

C = 52 F. Load current is constant at 132 A. Circuit turn off time for auxiliary thyristor (TA) is

21

Q.5 For the circuit shown in figure, the value of resistance “R” is 10, VDC = 100v and thyristor

turn “OFF” time is 50 sec. The value of C is required for commutation of thyristor is

(A) 8.4F

(B)5.7 F

(C)7.2 F

(D)6.3 F

Q.6 The circuit of figure employing a resonant pulse commutation has C=20 F and L=5 H.

Initial voltage across capacitor Vs is 230V. For a constant load current of 300 A, the circuit turn

of time for the main thyristor?

(A) 31.46 s

(B) 15.70 s

(C) 11.62 s

(D) 23.24 s

L=1 mH

(C) C 0.3F

(D) C 0.3F

Q.8 An impulse –commutated chopper feeds inductive load requiring a constant current of

260 A. The source voltage is 220 V dc and the chopping frequency is 400 Hz Turn – off time

for main thyristor is 18s . Peak current through main thyristor is limited to 1.8 times the

22

constant load current. Taking a factor of safety 2 for the main thyristor, calculate the value of

commutating components C and L.

(C) C 42.545F, L 47.596H (D) C 36.712F, L 37.16H

Answer Key

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Type 1 A D B B C A B D A D A

Type 2 D A B A A A C B A B C C A

Type 3 A A D A C B B A D D A A D

Type 4 D B D D B D C C B B

Type 5 A A A A C C B C B C

Type 6 B C A D C C B C

Type 7

Type 8

23

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