Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 85

Lecture Presentation

Chapter 3

Molecules,
Compounds, and
Chemical
Equations

Christian Madu, Ph.D.


Collin College
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
----Revised by Wang
Clearing about concepts of molecule,
compound and element

True of false?

(A) A molecule contains at least two atoms bonded together.


(B) All molecules are compounds.
(C) An element is always composed of many single atoms
with the same atomic number.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water

Element Element Compound

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Definite Proportion

• A hydrogen–oxygen mixture can have


any proportions of hydrogen and oxygen
gas.

• Water, by contrast, is composed of water


molecules that always contain two
hydrogen atoms to every one oxygen atom.

• Water has a definite proportion of


hydrogen to oxygen.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chemical Bonds

• Compounds are composed of atoms held


together by chemical bonds.
• Chemical bonds result from the attractions
between the charged particles (the electrons
and protons) that compose atoms.
• Chemical bonds are classified into two types:
– Ionic
– Covalent

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Ionic Bonds

• Ionic bonds—which occur between


metals and nonmetals—involve the
transfer of electrons from one atom to
another.
• When a metal interacts with a nonmetal, it
can transfer one or more of its electrons
to the nonmetal.
– The metal atom then becomes a cation.
– The nonmetal atom becomes an anion.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ionic Bonds

• These oppositely charged ions attract one


another by electrostatic forces and form
an ionic bond.
• The result is an ionic compound, which
in the solid phase is composed of a
lattice—a regular three-dimensional
array—of alternating cations and anions.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Ionic Bonds

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Covalent Bonds

• Covalent bonds—which occur between


two or more nonmetals—involve the
sharing of electrons between two atoms.
• When a nonmetal bonds with another nonmetal,
neither atom transfers its electron to the other.
Instead the bonding atoms share some of their
electrons.

• The covalently bound atoms compose a


molecule.
– Hence, we call covalently bonded compounds
molecular compounds.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Representing Compounds: Chemical
Formulas and Molecular Models
• A compound is represented with its
chemical formula.
• Chemical formula indicates the elements
present in the compound and the relative
number of atoms or ions of each.
– Water is represented as H2O.
– Carbon dioxide is represented as CO2.
– Sodium Chloride is represented as NaCl.
– Carbon tetrachloride is represented as CCl4.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Types of Chemical Formulas

• Chemical formulas can generally be


categorized into three different types:

• Empirical formula
• Molecular formula
• Structural formula

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Types of Chemical Formulas
• An empirical formula gives the Simplest
relative number of atoms of each element
in a compound.
• A molecular formula gives the actual
number of atoms of each element in a
molecule of a compound.
(a) For C4H8, the greatest common factor is 4.
The empirical formula is therefore CH2.
(b) For B2H6, the greatest common factor is 2.
The empirical formula is therefore BH3.
(c) For CCl4, the only common factor is 1, so the
empirical formula and the molecular formula
are identical.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Types of Chemical Formulas

• A structural formula uses lines to


represent covalent bonds and shows how
atoms in a molecule are connected or
bonded to each other. The structural
formula for H2O2 is shown below:

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Types of Chemical Formulas

• The type of formula we use depends on how much we


know about the compound and how much we want to
communicate.

• A structural formula communicates the


most information,
• while an empirical formula
communicates the least.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Types of Chemical Formulas
Example 3.1 Molecular and Empirical Formulas
Write empirical formulas for the compounds represented by the
molecular formulas.
a. C4H8 b. B2H6 c. CCl4

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Molecular Models
• A molecular model is a more
accurate and complete way to
specify a compound.
• A ball-and-stick molecular
model represents atoms as
balls and chemical bonds as
sticks; how the two connect
reflects a molecule’s shape.
• The balls are typically color-
coded to specific elements.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Molecular Models

• In a space-filling molecular model, atoms


fill the space between each other to more
closely represent our best estimates for
how a molecule might appear if scaled to
visible size.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Ways of Representing a Compound

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Ways of Representing a Compound

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


An Atomic-Level View of Elements and
Compounds
• Elements may be either atomic or molecular.
Compounds may be either molecular or ionic.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Molecular Elements

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Molecular Compounds

• Molecular compounds are usually


composed of two or more covalently
bonded nonmetals.
• The basic units of molecular compounds
are molecules composed of the
constituent atoms.
• Water is composed of H2O molecules.
• Dry ice is composed of CO2 molecules.
• Propane (often used as a fuel for grills) is
composed of C3H8 molecules.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Ionic Compounds
• Ionic compounds are composed of cations
(usually a metal) and anions (usually one
or more nonmetals) bound together by
ionic bonds.
• The basic unit of an ionic compound is the
formula unit, the smallest, electrically neutral
collection of ions.
• The ionic compound table salt, with the
formula unit NaCl, is composed of Na+ and
Cl– ions in a one-to-one ratio.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Molecular and Ionic Compounds

Existing as No discrete
discrete units units

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Polyatomic Ion

• Many common ionic compounds contain


ions that are themselves composed of a
group of covalently bonded atoms with
an overall charge.
• This group of charged species is called
polyatomic ions.
– NaNO3 contains Na+ and NO3–.
– CaCO3 contains Ca2+ and CO32–.
– KClO Contains K+ and ClO–.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Polyatomic Ion

Remember all these


polyatomic anions
(1) Formula
(2) Charge
(3) Name
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Polyatomic Ion Remember all these
polyatomic anions
(1) Formula
(2) Charge
(3) Name

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Elements and Compounds
Example 3.2 Classifying Substances as Atomic Elements,
Molecular Elements, Molecular
Compounds, or Ionic Compounds

Classify each of the substances as an atomic element,


molecular element, molecular compound, or ionic
compound.
a. xenon
b. NiCl2
c. bromine
d. NO2
e. NaNO3

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Ionic Compounds: Formulas and Names

• Summarizing Ionic Compound Formulas:


– Ionic compounds always contain positive and
negative ions.
– In a chemical formula, the sum of the charges
of the positive ions (cations) must equal the
sum of the charges of the negative ions
(anions).
– The formula of an ionic compound reflects the
smallest whole-number ratio of ions.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Ionic Compounds: Formulas and Names
Example 3.3 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
Write the formula for the ionic compound that forms between
aluminum and oxygen.

Example 3.4 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds


Write the formula for the ionic compound that forms between
calcium and oxygen.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Ionic Compounds: Formulas and Names

• The charges of the representative elements


can be predicted from their group numbers.
• The representative elements forms only one
type of charge.
• Transition metals tend to form multiple
types of charges.
• Hence, their charge cannot be predicted as
in the case of most representative
elements.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ionic Compounds: Formulas and Names

Those common metals with variable charges


Remember

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Naming Ionic Compounds

• Ionic compounds are usually composed of


metals and nonmetals.
• Anytime you see a metal and one or
more nonmetals together in a chemical
formula, assume that you have an ionic
compound.
• NaBr, Al2(CO3)3, CaHPO4, and MgSO4 are
some examples of ionic compounds.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Naming Ionic Compounds

Ionic compound naming rule

First word Second word


Cation name (Cation charge Anion name
in Roman #, I,
II, III…)
Needed only
when the cation Just the name of the
has variable element+ide (if
charges single atom)

Just the name of or the name of


the element polyatomic anion

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Naming Ionic Compounds (with no variable
charge)

• KCl
KCl is potassium chloride.
• CaO
CaO is calcium oxide.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Base Names of Monoatomic Anions

• Single atom anion (element name + ide)

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Naming Ionic Compounds (with variable
charge)

• CrBr3
Total charge on cation + total anion charge = 0.
Cr charge + 3(Br– charge) = 0
Cr charge + 3(–1) = 0
Cr charge = +3
CrBr3 is chromium(III) bromide.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Naming Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic
Ions
• NaNO2 is named according to
– its cation, Na+, sodium, and
– its polyatomic anion, NO2–, nitrite.
NaNO2 is sodium nitrite.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Hydrated Ionic Compounds
• Hydrates are ionic
compounds containing a
specific number of water
molecules associated
with each formula unit.
– MgSO4 • 7H2O is
magnesium sulfate
heptahydrate.
– CoCl2 • 6H2O is cobalt(II)
chloride hexahydrate.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Molecular Compounds

• Molecular compounds are composed of


two or more nonmetals.

Binary Molecular compound naming rule

First word Second word

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Binary Molecular Compounds

• These prefixes are the same as those


used in naming hydrates:
mono = 1 hexa = 6
di = 2 hepta = 7
tri = 3 octa = 8
tetra = 4 nona = 9
penta = 5 deca = 10

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Binary Molecular Compounds

First word Second word

When it is “mono” here,


Omit “mono”.

When there is ONLY ONE combination ratio between these


two elements, both prefixes should be omitted.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Binary Molecular Compounds
Example 3.8 Naming Molecular Compounds
Name each compound.
a. NI3 b. PCl5 c. P4S10 d. HCl

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Acids

• Acids are molecular compounds that


release hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved
in water.
• Acids are composed of hydrogen (usually
written first in their formula) and one or
more nonmetals (written second).
– HCl is a molecular compound that, when
dissolved in water, forms H+(aq) and Cl–(aq) ions,
where aqueous (aq) means dissolved in water.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Acids

• Acids are molecular compounds that


form H+ when dissolved in water.
– To indicate the compound is dissolved in water
(aq) is written after the formula.
» A compound is not considered an acid if it does
not dissolve in water.
• Sour taste
• Dissolve many metals
– such as Zn, Fe, Mg; but not Au, Ag, Pt

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Acids

• Binary acids have H+ cation and nonmetal


anion. For example, HCl, HI
• Oxyacids have H+ cation and polyatomic anion.
For example, H2SO4, HClO3

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Naming Binary Acids

First word Second word

Example 3.9 Naming Binary Acids


Name HI(aq), HCl(aq), HCN(aq).

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Naming Oxyacids
oxyanions ending with -ate

oxyanions ending with -ite

ClO3-, chlorate HClO3, chloric acid


ClO2-, chlorite HClO3, chlorous acid

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Name the Following

1. H2S

2. HClO3

3. HC2H3O2

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Name the Following

1. H2S hydrosulfuric acid

2. HClO3 chloric acid

3. HC2H3O2 acetic acid

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Inorganic Nomenclature Flow Chart

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Inorganic Nomenclature Flow Chart
Example 3.11 Using the Nomenclature Flow Chart to Name
Compounds

Use the flow chart in Figure 3.10 to name each compound.


a. SO2 b. HClO4(aq) c. CoF2

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Formula Mass
• We already know atomic mass in amu.
For example,
H atomic mass = 1.008 amu
Na atomic mass = 22.99 amu

Now, can we calculate formula mass?

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Formula Mass
Example 3.12 Calculating Formula Mass

Calculate the formula mass of glucose, C6H12O6.

Solution

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Molar Mass of Compounds

The molar mass of a compound—

the mass in grams of 1 mol of its


molecules or formula units.

It is numerically equivalent to its formula


mass.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Molar Mass of Compounds

For example: For example:

O atomic mass: 16.00 amu 1 mole O atom mass: 16.00 g


H atomic mass: 1.008 amu 1 mole H atom mass: 1.008 g
H2O formula mass: 18.02 amu 1 mole H2O mass: 18.02 g

• Molar mass = formula mass (in g/mole)

Try this:
What is the molar mass of acetylsalicylic acid (C9H8O4)

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Using Molar Mass to Count Molecules by
Weighing

Use molar mass to convert to the amount in


moles.
Then use Avogadro’s number to convert to
number of molecules.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Using Molar Mass to Count Molecules by
Weighing

Example 3.13 The Mole Concept—Converting between Mass


and Number of Molecules
An aspirin tablet contains 325 mg of acetylsalicylic acid (C9H8O4).
How many acetylsalicylic acid molecules does it contain?

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Composition of Compounds

Chemical formula,
Molar masses of each element

Mass percent of each element

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Composition of Compounds
Example 3.14 Mass Percent Composition
Calculate the mass percent of Cl in Freon-112 (C2Cl4F2), a
CFC refrigerant.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Conversion Factors from Chemical Formula

• Chemical formulas contain within them


inherent relationships between numbers
of atoms and molecules.
– Or moles of atoms and molecules

1 mol CCl2 F2 : 2 mol Cl

• These relationships can be used to


determine the amounts of constituent
elements and molecules.
– Like percent composition
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Determining a Chemical Formula from
Experimental Data
Empirical Formula
• Simplest, whole-number ratio of the atoms of
elements in a compound
• Can be determined from elemental analysis
– Masses of elements formed when a compound is
decomposed, or that react together to form a
compound
• Combustion analysis
– Percent composition
Note: An empirical formula represents a ratio of atoms
or a ratio of moles of atoms, not a ratio of masses.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Finding an Empirical Formula

1. Convert the percentages to grams.


a) Assume you start with 100 g of the
compound.
b) Skip if already grams.
2. Convert grams to moles.
a) Use molar mass of each element.
3. Write a pseudoformula using moles as
subscripts.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Finding an Empirical Formula

4. Divide all by smallest number of moles.


a) If the result is within 0.1 of a whole number,
round to the whole number.
5. Multiply all mole ratios by a number to
make all whole numbers.
a) If ratio .5, multiply all by 2.
b) if ratio .33 or .67, multiply all by 3.
c) If ratio 0.25 or 0.75, multiply all by 4, etc.
d) Skip if already whole numbers.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Molecular Formulas for Compounds

• The molecular formula is a multiple of the


empirical formula.
• To determine the molecular formula you
need to know the empirical formula and
the molar mass of the compound.

Molecular formula = (empirical formula)n,


where n is a positive integer.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Molecular Formulas for Compounds

• The molar mass is a whole-number multiple


of the empirical formula molar mass, the
sum of the masses of all the atoms in the
empirical formula:

molar mass
n=
empirical formula molar mass

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Combustion Analysis
• A common technique for analyzing compounds is to
burn a known mass of compound and weigh the
amounts of product made.
– This is generally used for organic compounds containing
C, H, O.
• By knowing the mass of the product and
composition of constituent element in the product,
the original amount of constituent element can be
determined.
– All the original C forms CO2, the original H forms H2O, and
the original mass of O is found by subtraction.
• Once the masses of all the constituent elements in
the original compound have been determined, the
empirical formula can be found.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Combustion Analysis

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Chemical Reactions

• Reactions involve chemical changes in


matter resulting in new substances.
• Reactions involve rearrangement and
exchange of atoms to produce new
molecules.
– Elements are not transmuted during a reaction.

Reactants  Products

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Chemical Equations

• Shorthand way of describing a reaction


• Provide information about the reaction
– Formulas of reactants and products
– States of reactants and products
– Relative numbers of reactant and product
molecules that are required
– Can be used to determine weights of reactants
used and products that can be made

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Combustion of Methane

• Methane gas burns to produce carbon dioxide


gas and gaseous water.
– Whenever something burns it combines with O2(g).
CH4(g) + O2(g)  CO2(g) + H2O(g)
• If you look closely, you should immediately
spot a problem.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Combustion of Methane

• Notice also that the left side has four


hydrogen atoms while the right side has
only two.

• To correct these problems, we must


balance the equation by changing the
coefficients, not the subscripts.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Combustion of Methane, Balanced

• To show the reaction obeys the Law of


Conservation of Mass the equation must
be balanced.
– We adjust the numbers of molecules so there
are equal numbers of atoms of each element
on both sides of the arrow.

1C + 4H + 4O 1C + 4H + 4O
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Organic Compounds

• Early chemists divided compounds into two


types: organic and inorganic.
• Compounds from living things were called
organic; compounds from the nonliving
environment were called inorganic.
• Organic compounds are easily decomposed
and could not be made in the lab.
• Inorganic compounds are very difficult to
decompose, but are able to be synthesized.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Modern Organic Compounds
• Today organic compounds are commonly
made in the lab and we find them all
around us.
• Organic compounds are mainly made of C
and H, sometimes with O, N, P, S, and
trace amounts of other elements
• The main element that is the focus of
organic chemistry is carbon.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Carbon Bonding
• Carbon atoms bond almost exclusively
covalently.
– Compounds with ionic bonding C are generally
inorganic.
• When C bonds, it forms four covalent bonds:
– 4 single bonds, 2 double bonds, 1 triple + 1
single, etc.
• Carbon is unique in that it can form limitless
chains of C atoms, both straight and
branched, and rings of C atoms.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Carbon Bonding

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Hydrocarbons
• Organic compounds can be categorizing
into types: hydrocarbons and functionalized
hydrocarbons.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Hydrocarbons

• Hydrocarbons are
organic compounds
that contain only
carbon and hydrogen.
• Hydrocarbons
compose common
fuels such as
– oil,
– gasoline,
– liquid propane gas,
– and natural gas.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Naming of Hydrocarbons
• Hydrocarbons containing • The base names for a
only single bonds are number of
called alkanes, hydrocarbons are
• while those containing listed here:
double or triple bonds are – 1 meth 2 eth
alkenes and alkynes, – 3 prop 4 but
respectively. – 5 pent 6 hex
• Hydrocarbons consist of a – 7 hept 8 oct
base name and a suffix. – 9 non 10 dec
– alkane (-ane) Base name
Suffix
determined by
determined by
– alkene (-ene) number of C atoms
presence of
multiple bonds

– alkyne (-yne)

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Common Hydrocarbons

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Functionalized Hydrocarbons

• The term functional group derives from


the functionality or chemical character that
a specific atom or group of atoms imparts
to an organic compound.
– Even a carbon–carbon double or triple bond
can justifiably be called a “functional group.”
• A group of organic compounds with the
same functional group forms a family.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Functionalized Hydrocarbons

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


Families in Organic Compounds

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.