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INTORDUCTION TO COMPUTER

SYSTEM
1b: Looking Inside Computer System

B.Ed Spring’18 (First Semester)


Neha, Qaiser, Naveera, Rashida & Maria
Contents
Parts of Computer System ........................................................................................................................... 2
MotherBoard ............................................................................................................................................ 2
Processor (CPU)......................................................................................................................................... 2
Hard Drive ................................................................................................................................................. 2
Display Adapter ......................................................................................................................................... 3
RAM........................................................................................................................................................... 3
Information Processing Cycle....................................................................................................................... 3
Input: ......................................................................................................................................................... 3
Processing: ................................................................................................................................................ 4
Output: ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
Storage: ..................................................................................................................................................... 4
Essential Computer Hardware ..................................................................................................................... 4
Processing Devices/Processor................................................................................................................... 5
Memory..................................................................................................................................................... 5
Input and Output devices ......................................................................................................................... 5
Storage devices ......................................................................................................................................... 5
Software Brings The Machine to Life:.......................................................................................................... 6
Computer data.............................................................................................................................................. 6
Computer User ............................................................................................................................................. 6
Parts of Computer System
MotherBoard

The motherboard is the part of your computer that wires all of the other parts together.
It is a printed circuit board and includes the CPU and memory. Every component of your
computer connects directly into the motherboard

Processor (CPU)

The processor, or CPU, of a computer is basically the brains of the computer. The
processor is responsible for interpreting every code it receives from the other computer
components, and making it usable to your operating system.

Hard Drive

The hard drive part of your computer is also called the hard disk. Essentially, it is the
part of the computer that stores your information. If you upload a picture to your computer, it
is stored on the hard drive. Hard drive capacity is measure in megabytes, or MB, though some
massive computer store in terrabytes, or TB.
Display Adapter

A graphic card or part of the motherboard, the display adapter is the component of your
computer that interprets video signal. They define how frequently your monitor refreshes, how
many colors the display supports and the maximum resolutions.

RAM

Random Access Memory, or RAM, is the part of your computer that is used as instant
memory. RAM is always in use as a temporary location to execute instructions from your
computer.

Information Processing Cycle


The task of computer, in low level, is to process given data to produce information. The
generated information can be treated as data in the next cycle. These operations are part of a
process called Information Processing Cycle which is a set of steps that computer follow to
receive data, process the data and then either display the output to user or store the output to
storage or do both.

Input:

In this phase the computer receives data from input source by user or a program. An
input source by user can be an input device like keyboard, mouse, microphone etc.
Processing:

After receiving data, here the computer performs actions on the data like mathematical
operations or logical comparisons etc. as per being instructed by user or a program.

Output:

After processing the data computer has generated information that now can be sent to
output. Output can be sent for display in monitor, or to printer or speaker as sound etc. It is also
as per required by the user or program.

Storage:

Again, after processing the data, computer can also store the data into an storage device
for future use.

Essential Computer Hardware


Hardware is the term given to the components that make up a computer. Now
hardware can be broken up into four parts:
 Processor
 Memory
 Input and Output (I/O)
 Storage
Processing Devices/Processor

The processor is the most important piece of hardware within your computer. It is the
brain, the very intellect of these electronic machines.The processor, decodes and executes
instructions that are sent to in via the many lanes within the motherboard.

Memory

There are two types of memory that are very common.


 Static memories are memories that do not store data always (as soon as you
switch off the computer) - the memory becomes empty or resets itself.
 Dynamic memory or volatile memory stores data that is fixed and does not go off
even if the computer is switch off.

Input and Output devices

These devices are known as input and output or shortly (I/O) because their purpose is to
provide either input into the computer system or to provide an output from the computer
system.

Typical I/O hardware devices are :


 Monitor
 Keyboard
 Mouse
 Speakers
 Microphone
 Modem
 Webcam
 Headphones
 Printers
 Scanner
 Touchpad

Storage devices

Storage devices are also known as magnetic storage devices because of the nature of
these storage devices. This is the disk drive or the hard disk as it is commonly known.
Software Brings The Machine to Life:
The ingredient that enables any computer to perform any task is software, which contains
instructions. Set of instructions that drive a computer to perform specific tasks is called a
program. These instructions tell the machine's physical components what to do; without the
instructions the computer can not do anything.
Though the array of available programs is vast and varied, most software fall into two
major categories:
 System software
 Application software

System software is a program that controls the computer hardware or that can be used
to maintain the computer in some way. An operating system tell the machine how to use its own
components. An operating system is essential for any computer, because it acts as in interpreter
among the hardware, application program and the user. When a program wants the hardware
to do something, it communicates through the operating system. When user wants the hardware
to do something, the request of the user is handled by the operating system.

That's why and how the software gives the life to the machines. Otherwise it turned to be
a dead machine.

Computer data
Computer data is information processed or stored by a computer. This information may
be in the form of text documents, images, audio clips, software programs, or other types of data.
Computer data may be processed by the computer's CPU and is stored in files and folders on the
computer's hard disk.

Computer User
A user is a person who uses a computer or network service. Users generally use a system
or a software product without the technical expertise required to fully understand it.