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FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING AND SURVEYING, UITM MALAYSIA

SHAH ALAM SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN

BACHELOR OF SURVEYING SCIENCE AND GEOMATICS (HONOURS) – AP220

GLS411: INTRODUCTION TO GEOMATICS

Title: Leveling

Assigned: 25/10/17

Due: 01/11/17

PREPARED BY:

NAME :

UITM ID :

GROUP : AP2201A

PREPARED FOR :
1.0 INTRODUCTION

Leveling is defined as “an art of determining the relative height of different points on
above or below the surface”. The process of leveling is to find the elevation at a specified
location relative to another known elevation. The general term applied to any of the various
processes by which elevations of points or differences in elevation are determined. It is a
vital operation in producing necessary data for mapping, engineering design, and
construction. Leveling has two types of layouts which are the rise and fall method and the
height of collimation method. Leveling operation is done by surveyor using a level, tripod,
staff, ranging rod and measuring tape. This practical is carried out by us on 12th October
2017 which is on Wednesday. During the practical, Encik Hisyam taught us about how to
use the instrument that has being used during leveling session was done. This practical
takes place at in front of G-store science surveying geomatic and was conducted for 1 hour.

2.0 OUTLINE OF APPARATUS

2.1 Optical Levels

Figure 1.1 optical level

Optical level is a professional leveling tool used by land surveying professionals who
demands accurate leveling every time. They are simple to use, take measurements quickly,
and minimise human error, while the integrated programs enhance leveling work. Before we
can use optical level, we must set up and make sure the spirit bubble is in the centre of the
black circle.
2.2 TRIPOD STAND

Figure 1.2: Tripod stand

A tripod is a three-legged stand. Adjustable-leg tripods are the more common of the two in
the construction work especially outdoors because generally uneven terrain. The adjustable-
leg tripod is easier to set up on uneven ground because each leg can be adjusted to exactly
the height needed to find level even on a very steep slope. The adjustable-leg tripod is also
easy to transport due to having retractable legs. Once the tripod is moved, it must be set up
again which is to loosen the screw and adjust again and lock it back tight.

2.3 Leveling Staffs

Figure 1.3: leveling staffs


Leveling staffs are scales on which these distances are measured. Leveling staffs can
determine the relative height of the different points in the area under survey. Leveling staffs
can be a lot of types including versions for optical and digital sighting and record keeping.
Staff can be constructed of wood, metal or fiberglass.

2.4 Horizontal bubble level

Figure 1.4: horizontal bubble level

Horizontal bubble is an instrument used to indicate the horizontal level. An out of adjustment
of spirit bubble level will cause accumulative error in level lines. It can be used in traversing
and leveling measurements in fieldworks. To get an accurate measurement, spirit bubble
must be inside the middle of the black circle. A slightly curved glass tube with in incompletely
filled with either spirit or alcohol.
3.0 Procedure of Leveling

Figure 1.5: procedure of leveling

In order to get a accurate measurements, procedure of leveling must be correct.


First we need to set up the leveling instrument at Level position 1. Then person in charge at
holding the staff, hold the staff on the Datum and take a reading. This will be a backsight,
because it is the first staff reading after the leveling instrument has been set up. Then, move
the staff to A and take a reading. This will be an intermediate sight. After that, move the staff
to B and take a reading. This step is repeated until C. This also will be an intermediate sight.
After that, move the staff to D and take a reading. This will be a foresight because after this
reading the level will be moved. A changeplate should be placed on the ground to maintain
the same level. The distance between the stations should be measured and recorded in the
fieldbook.

Set up the level at Level position 2 and leave the staff at D on the changeplate.
Turn the staff so that it faces the level and take a reading. This will be a backsight. Then,
move the staff to E and take a reading. This will be an intermediate sight. Move the staff to F
and take a reading. This will be a foresight because after taking this reading the level will be
moved. Now move the level to leveling position 3 and leave the staff at F on the
changeplate. The step is repeated until all station is measured. All staff readings should be
recorded in the fieldbook. To eliminate errors resulting from any line of sight (or collimation)
backsights and foresights should be equal in distance
4.0 Conclusion

After this practical, I learnt that leveling must be done at least by two people. One
person is in charge at reading the staff using optical level and other person is in charge at
holding the staff. The staff must be held vertical. During this practical also, we had learnt to
set up the leveling instrument and the precautions that we needed to be aware to reduce the
error. The height of the instrument will remain the same for each observation made until the
instrument is moved to a new location.
5.0 References
1. SURVEYING EQUIPMENT AND LEVEL SET-UP
http://www.boeingconsult.com/tafe/ss&so/survey1/Module4/equipment-s1.htm

2. "What Is A Tripod? How Do Tripods For Laser Levels Work? | How To Use Laser
Level With Tripod | Laser Levels | Johnson Level & Tool Mfg Company".
Johnsonlevel.com. N.p., 2016, Web. 4 July 2016.
http://www.johnsonlevel.com/News/WhatisaTripodHowdoTripods

3. Procedure for Leveling, Azhar Shahzad, October 25, 2014 in Tips & Articles
http://www.civilers.com/topic/224-procedure-for-leveling/?tab=comments#comment-
239

4. BUILDING SITE SURVEY AND SET OUT,


http://www.boeingconsult.com/tafe/ss&so/survey1/level/notes-sur1.htm