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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

DESIGNS OF INPUT AND OUTPUT DRIVER CIRCUITS FOR 16-BIT ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT (ECU) AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROL STRATEGY FOR ECU USING THESE I/O DRIVER CIRCUITS

Mansi K. Ajudia 1 , Mahesh T. Kolte 2 , Prasanta Sarkar 3

1 Department of Electronics & Telecommunication, M.E. 2 nd Year (E&TC), M.I.T College of Engineering Pune

2 Department of Electronics & Telecommunication, H.O.D (E&TC), M.I.T College of Engineering Pune 3 TTL Pvt. Ltd., Pune, University of Pune, India

Abstract

The rapid prototype based method for design process of control strategy of electronic control unit for input and output driver circuit for 16-bit Electronic Control Unit (ECU). This method saves time and cost for making of an electronic control unit board and uses the electronic control unit board having a type of microcontroller in which we can flash code many times for generation of control strategy. Based on the given circuit, development of control strategy for electronic control unit is done in microcontroller’s supported IDE. Then, test and verify the developed code with the use of given input and output driver circuits for electronic control unit on test bench with virtual engine environment setup or in an actual vehicle. The whole process is associated with development of Engine Management System. In this paper the input and output driver circuit design is given for further development of control code for four wheeler vehicles. Using this technique the validation process of electronic control unit board is done on test bench setup or in actual vehicle.

Keywords- Electronic Control Unit, Integrated Development Environment, Engine Management System, Manifold-air

Pressure, Accelerator Pedal Position, Engine Coolant Temperature, Controller Area Network

----------------------------------------------------------------------***-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1. INTRODUCTION

Electronic Control Unit Consists of input and output drivers circuits with communication devices as its peripherals. Those are used for controlling purpose for internal operation of electronic control unit. The main aim of the peripheral circuits for electronic control unit is to drive vehicle with greater accuracy on road condition for achieving better performance from vehicle. Testing of electronic control unit on bench is required because vehicle’s engine contains dangerous liquids and harmful gases so the vehicle and electronic control unit may get damaged.

So, it necessary to test electronic control unit on test bench earlier and then set up it to actual vehicle. Therefore, the process of development of control code is done in the microcontroller’s IDE and tested the same on test bench or in a vehicle.

IDE and tested the same on test bench or in a vehicle. Fig 1: ECU input

Fig 1: ECU input output circuit diagram

For above given process the circuit of input and output drivers of electronic control unit is required. For designing purpose peripheral circuits of electronic control units is done using circuit

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

tool drafting tool. Here in this paper the schematic for the input and output driver circuits of 16-bit Electronic Control Unit design is given using orcade capture tool.

An Electronic Control Unit consists of functional blocks:

Microcontroller or microprocessor

Power Supply Section

Analog Inputs (continuously varying values)

Digital Inputs (on/off type inputs)

Frequency Inputs (vehicle speed input)

Digital Outputs (on/off type output)

Injector Driver Output

Ignition Coil Driver Output

2. ANALOG INPUT CIRCUIT FOR ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT

An analog signal is a type of signal which represents continuously variable voltage and amplitude with respect to time is called as an analog signal. The analog inputs refer and receive the outcome from sensors. In other words an analog input senses the sensor information and feed them to the ECU using a supported voltage level of microcontroller. Typical analog inputs for ECU include accelerator pedal position sensor signal (APP), manifold-air pressure sensor signal (MAP), and engine coolant temperature sensor signal (coolant) etc. are referred as analog inputs. All analog inputs given here are supplied with 5V with reference to ground potential (zero/negative potential).

VCC

C5 100nF U1 0 3 R1 uC_113 COM 14 Engine_Coolant_Temp Y1 18K 11 uC_84 A
C5
100nF
U1
0
3
R1
uC_113
COM
14
Engine_Coolant_Temp
Y1
18K
11
uC_84
A
C2
C1
10
4.7pF
800pF
uC_85
B
9
R2
0
uC_86
C
0
5
Accelerator_Pedal_Position
Y5
6
uC_83
18K
INH
C3
C4
4.7pF
800pF
Analog_Input
0 0
R3
0
Manif oldair_Pressure_Signal
uC_111
18K
C6
C7
4.7pF
800pF
0
0
8
16
GND
VCC

Fig 2: Analog I/P Circuit for 16-bit ECU

3. DIGITAL INPUT CIRCUIT FOR ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT

A digital input signal is a type of signal that represents two voltage levels first is high and second is low. The digital signals are having two states for representation and transition of data. The digital input provides the on/off (triggered) type data input to the ECU for its operation. Typically the on/off switch input (toggle switches) are given as a reference for digital inputs of electronic control unit. All digital inputs are preconfigured with internal pull up resistors which can be preconfigured or set during the programming of ECU to convene particular environment. All digital inputs are feed with 5V supply with respect to Ground. The digital signal is not having continuously variable value like analog signals. The two state values of digital inputs have been expressed in various ways like high/low, on/ off, 0/1.

VPWR VDD

C9 U2 C10 100nF 100nF 0 0 2 uC_124 SI 3 uC_125 SCLK 4 uC_126
C9
U2
C10
100nF
100nF
0
0
2
uC_124
SI
3
uC_125
SCLK
4
uC_126
CS
32
uC_123
SO
7
Ignition_Switch_Input(on/of f )
SP2
30
uC_104
AMUX
C8
4.7pF
0
29
uC_106
INT
Digital_Input
0
16
VPWR
1
GND
31
VDD

Fig 3: Digital I/P Circuit for 16-bit ECU

4. DIGITAL OUTPUT DRIVER CIRCUIT FOR ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT

The Low-side Switch and Low-side Drive outputs are used to control the low side of relay coils and other devices. These outputs current on the low-side (zero potential), they are

constantly attached to the negative potential a zero potential region of circuit. An example of a Low-side Switch output enabling an external relay.

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

uC_125

uC_8

uC_124

uC_123

uC_109

SOPWR VPWR

C11 100nF U3 C12 100nF 0 0 20 SCLK 23 CS 32 33 Main_Relay _Startup_Switch(on/of
C11
100nF
U3
C12
100nF
0
0
20
SCLK
23
CS
32
33
Main_Relay _Startup_Switch(on/of f )
SI
OUT10
35
SO
C13
50
4.7pF
PWM
0
Digital_Output
0
5
SOPWR
42-44
GND
8
VPWR

Fig 4: Digital O/P Circuit for 16-bit ECU

The low-side driver switch outputs are selected as low voltage and current range probably the ranges are 2A which indicates low value, 5A which indicates medium value, or 10A which indicates high value with respect to their current conducting capabilities. The only care must be taken to make sure that the devices related with the ECU, which do not exceed the ratings of their respective outputs.

VCC VPWR VPWR C19 C18 U4 100nF 100nF 0 0 17 uC_124 DI 20 S5
VCC VPWR
VPWR
C19
C18
U4
100nF
100nF
0
0
17
uC_124
DI
20
S5
16
uC_125
SCLK
18
uC_68
CS
32
uC_123
DO
19
uC_113
IN5
21
Fuel_Pump_Switch
D5
14
uC_110
IN6
C20
4.7uF
0
Digital_Output
0
2
VDD
1
GND
31
VPWR

Fig 5: Digital O/P Circuit for 16-bit ECU

5. FREQUENCY INPUT CIRCUIT FOR ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT

The Electronic Control unit senses the input signal coming from variable reluctance sensor (VR); these inputs are being

used to provide trigger sensor information to the ECU. These

is used in many other applications, typically these are uses

include in Cam-shaft/Crank-shaft Position/Vehicle Speed

Sensors and wheel speed sensors. VCC C17 100nF U5 0 R5 1 Crank_Signal_Input_+v e IN+
Sensors and wheel speed sensors.
VCC
C17
100nF
U5
0
R5
1
Crank_Signal_Input_+v e
IN+
18K
C15
C14
R4
4.7nF
800nF
1k
R6
0
2
Crank_Signal_Input_-v e
IN-
7
uC_11
COUT
1k
4.7nF
1n
4
0
IN_BIAS
0
Frequency _Input
0
6
ZERO_EN
9
10
INT_THRS
VCC
5
GND

Fig 6: Frequency I/P Circuit for 16-bit ECU

6. INJECTOR AND IGNITION COIL DRIVER CIRCUIT FOR ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT

Injectors are driven with the help of output signal, which is coming from ECU having lower voltage range. Supply of 12

V feed to injectors, which is coming from main power relay of

vehicle. High impedance or low impedance injectors can be

used with engine lab controllers without the need for higher

value resistors. Similarly, Ignition coils are driven with the help of output signal, which is coming from the ECU and having lower voltage range. So, many different types of ignition characteristics are supported, such as Multi-

Sequential, Multi-Wasted Spark, Single, Distributor coil and

many more. In multi-coil package, the spark gap is used which supports a igniters pack, which are supplied by the positive 12V main relay signal from the main power relay

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

VDD VPWR C23 C22 100nF U6 100nF 0 0 6 1 uC_124 Injector_Driver_Output SI OUT0
VDD
VPWR
C23
C22
100nF
U6
100nF
0
0
6
1
uC_124
Injector_Driver_Output
SI
OUT0
5
R8
uC_125
SCLK
2
Ignition_Driver_Output
FB0
36K
4
uC_10
CS
Q1
C21
3
1
4.7nF
GD0
1
7
uC_123
SO
0
IGBT1
40mOhm
10
26
uC_36
DIN0
RSP
R9
24
uC_40
GIN0
27
RSN
20
uC_18
SPKDUR
0
Injector_Ignition_Drive_Circuit
0
8
VDD
33
GND
25
VPWR
4
4
3
2
3
2

Fig 7: Injector and Ignition Coil Circuit for 16-bit ECU

7. CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK (CAN) CIRCUIT FOR ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT

The Can Bus is used to control and communicate with Can devices on the vehicle. To control the air pollution and emission of harmful which are produced by today’s automotive industry, the automotive industry has developed multiple electronic systems. Those main functions are to improve pollution and fuel consumption. Those systems having more complication that’s why those required the data exchange among them, therefore they required so many hard- wired connections for performance of dedicated lines for signal operations. The CAN Communication protocol gives the complete solution path for its function. With, the help of CAN, microcontrollers, vehicle sensors and output directed actuators communicate or interact with each other devices in the given node network, in real(synchronized)-time, with a speed of up to 1Mbit/second, over a two wire cable serial (ongoing) data bus.

VDD C25 U7 100nF 0 12 V_SUPPLY VSUP 27 uC_22 CS C24 100nF 24 uC_125
VDD
C25
U7
100nF
0
12
V_SUPPLY
VSUP
27
uC_22
CS
C24
100nF
24
uC_125
SCLK
0
26
18
uC_124
CAN_High
MOSI
CANH
25
uC_123
MISO
5
uC_71
INT
19
CAN_Low
CANL
2
uC_134
TXD
1
uC_135
RXD
CAN
0
6-9,20-23
3
GND
VDD

Fig 8: Controller Area Network Circuit for 16-bit ECU

8. EXPERIMENT AND RESULTS

Procedure for Generating the Control Algorithm for input and output driver circuits of 16-bit Electronic Control Unit (ECU) in the microcontroller’s given Integrated Development Environment (IDE) using the input and output driver circuit and pin mapping of input and output driver circuits with using above given figures for input and output driver circuits.

/**************

*************************/

read

A_HC4851_SetVal();

B_HC4851_ClrVal();

C_HC4851_SetVal();

analog

I/ps

AD1_Measure(1);

AD1_GetValue8(Analog_values);

Acc_Pedal_Signal = Analog_values[2];

//Measure Accelerator pedal signal

A_HC4851_SetVal();

B_HC4851_ClrVal();

C_HC4851_ClrVal();

AD1_Measure(1);

AD1_GetValue8(Analog_values);

Eng_Coolant_Temp_Signal = Analog_values[2]; u32_vECT_couRaw = Eng_Coolant_Temp_Signal;

//Measure Engine Coolant temp signal

MAP_Signal =

pressure signal

Analog_values[0]; //Measure Manifold air

/************** end

of

read

analog

I/ps*******************/ /************** read digital I/p ******************/

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

read break switch i/p

if(!MC33972_vRead_IP(Rd_Buffer)){

if((Rd_Buffer[0]&0x01)){//if ignition on

// MC33999B_MainRelay_SetVal(); //switch on main relay

MC33999B_MainRelay_ClrVal();

FuelPump_ClrVal(); } else {

// MC33999B_MainRelay_ClrVal(); //switch off main relay

MC33999B_MainRelay_SetVal();

FuelPump_SetVal();

} /************** end of read digital I/p ****************/

}

/************** end of read digital I/p ****************/ } Fig 9: Results of ECU Variables in INCA

Fig 9: Results of ECU Variables in INCA Window

In the given figure the results of ECU inputs are shown. This result shows the variable value in the software tool for ECU variables and its parameters.

9. CONCLUSIONS

The actual development process of electronic control unit board takes much time and cost. For solution of these difficulties we can use such type of microcontroller based ECU board in which we can use a controller which supports the flash programmable memory. Therefore, we can easily do flashing of code on microcontroller of ECU board. This technique is very useful because we can get many applications as per our desired code. By, using this method, development process of control code increases the code flexibility, efficiency, reuse ability and reliability in case of testing or validation process for Electronic Control Unit on test bench, on virtual environment PC setup and in a vehicle.

This process is initial and essential for testing purpose of automotive electronic circuits on test bed setup. This is the best example of component based Electronic Control Unit design

method. With using this method we can develop a code for input and output driver circuits for ECU.

REFERENCES

[1]

Jian HU, Gangyan LI and Jun XU, “Component-Based ECU Design Method of Passenger Car Information Integrated Control System,” International Conference on

[2]

Automation and Logistics, Shenyang, China August 2009. Daniel D.Gajski, Frank Vahid, Sanjiv Narayan, Jie Gong, “Specification and Design of Embedded Systems”, Prentice Hall PTR, ISBN: 978-0131507319, 1994.

[3] EAST-EEA consortium, “EAST-EEA Embedded Electronic Architecture”, Available: www.east-eea.net,

2008.

[4] AUTOSAR development partnership, “TECHNICAL OVERVIEW”, Available: www.autosar.org, 2008. [5] AUTOSAR Layered Software Architecture, R3.0, Rev.0001, November, 2007.

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