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DISTILLATION COLUMN

INTRODUCTION

Distillation is one of the separation method used in the chemical industry to separate the
mixtures of a liquid and gaseous solution. The separation process is depends on the
differences in the volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation is only takes part in the
physical separation process and does not involve any chemical reaction.

In order to produce formalin as the final product, the mixtures consist of


formaldehyde, methanol, and water. For individual design, tray distillation column was
chosen due to the process characteristic which the system is non-foaming, the height of the
column is large and the temperature of the system is high, i.e. 394.6K. Besides, periodic
cleaning is easy in tray column.

A design consists of chemical and mechanical evaluation to calculate for total stages,
height, thickness, support, as well as the insulation. A key in distillation process is relative
volatility, α.

Distillation is most probably is the widely used separation process in the chemical industries.
The design of a distillation column can be divided into several procedures:

1. Specify the degree of separation required: set product specification

2. Select the operation conditions: batch or continuous: operating pressure

3. Select the type of contacting device: plate or packing

4. Determine the stage and reflux requirements: the number of equilibrium stages

5. Size the column: diameter, number or real stages

6. Design the column internals: plates, distributors, packing supports

7. Mechanical design: vessel and internal packing

(References: Chemical Engineering, Coulson & Richardson‟s, Vol.6, US Patent 18235156


Distillation Column)
The separation of liquid mixtures by distillation is depends on the differences in the
volatility between the components. This is known as continuous distillation. Vapor flows up to
column and liquid counter-currently down the column. The vapor and liquid are brought into
contact on plates. Part of the condensate from the condenser is returned on the top of the
column to provide liquid flow above the feed point (reflux), and part of the liquid from the
base of the column is vaporized in the reboiler and returned to provide the flow.

CHEMICAL DESIGN

The purpose of this distillation column is to separate the component mixture. Basically,
components which are methanol, water and Formaldehyde are to be separated to the
bottom stream. These components will go through another seperation process. The feed is
fed to the distillation column at 350 kPa and 365.78K. The products at the top column leave
the column at 250 kPa and 366.58K. The products at the bottom column leave the column at
300 kPa and 412.95K. Methanol and Formaldehyde were chosen as the key components
being Methanol as the light key component while Formaldehyde as the heavy key
component.

Distillation column with perforated tray has been chosen. Basically, this is the
simplest type. The vapour passes up through perforations in the plate, and the liquid is
retained on the plate by the vapour flow. There is no positive vapour liquid seal, and at low
flow rate liquid will weep through the holes reducing efficiency. The perforation is usually
small holes.
COMPLETE DIAGRAM

The composition of the inlet and outlet streams for distillation column is shown in table 3.1:

COMPONENT Feed Distillate Bottom


S

Molar flow Mole Molar flow Mole Molar flow Mole


rate fraction rate fraction rate fraction
(kmole/h) (kmole/h) (kmole/h)

Methanol 22.84 0.1056 3.5 0.7000 0.9417 0.0050

Formaldehyde 69.68 0.3221 - - 69.6826 0.3700

Water 123.81 0.5723 1.5 0.3000 117.7071 0.6250

Bubble and Dew Point Temperature

To estimate the stages, and the condenser and reboiler temperatures, procedures are
required for calculating dew and bubble points. By definition, a saturated liquid is at its
bubble point (any rise in temperature will cause a drop in a liquid form). It can be calculated
in terms of equilibrium constant, K.

Bubble Point: ∑ 𝑦𝑖 = ∑ 𝐾𝑖 𝑥𝑖 = 1.0 (3.1)

Dew Point: ∑ 𝑥𝑖 = ∑ 𝑦𝑖 /𝐾𝑖 = 1.0 (3.2)

Table 4.2 below shows the constants of Antoine equation for each component. (RK Sinnot,
1999) where the constant value for each component is taken from HYSYS

COMPONENT a b C d E

Methanol 82.718 -6904.5 -8.8622 7.4644E-06 2

Formaldehyde 101.51 -4917.2 -13.765 2.2031E-02 1

Water 73.649 -7258.2 -7.3037 4.1653E-06 2


Antoine equation:

𝐵
ln 𝑃0 = 𝐴 − + 𝐶𝑥 ln 𝑇 + 𝐷𝑥𝑇^𝐸 (3.3)
𝑇

𝑃0
𝐾𝑖 = (3.4)
𝑃𝑟

Estimation of feed temperature, ∑ 𝑦𝑖 = ∑ 𝐾𝑖 𝑥𝑖 = 1.0

Bubble point calculation, feed

TBubble(guess) = 367 K

PT = 350 kPa

Component Xi,f at Tbubble = 367 K at Tbubble = 322.60 K

Psat yi Psat yi

Methanol 0.1056 319.75 0.0965 54.21 0.0157

Formaldehyde 0.3221 2986.78 2.7487 1048.21 0.8759

Water 0.5723 169.57 0.2773 12.02 0.1092

Total 1.000 3.1224 1.000

Notes: The satisfactory Tbubble is obtained using Goal Seek operation in Microsoft Excel

Hence, the bubble point temperature is 322.60 K

Dew point calculation, top

TBubble(guess) = 369 K

PT = 250 kPa

Component Xi,f at Tbubble = 369 K at Tdew = 379.53 K

Psat yi Psat yi

Methanol 0.7000 315.43 0.55485 428.92 0.4080

Formaldehyde - 2960.49 - 3859.43 -


Water 0.3000 168.42 1.4451 126.59 0.5925

Total 1.000 1.9999 1.000

Notes: The satisfactory Tbubble is obtained using Goal Seek operation in Microsoft Excel

Hence, the dew point temperature is 379.53 K

Bubble point calculation, bottom

TBubble(guess) = 412.95 K

PT = 300 kPa

Component Xi,f at Tbubble = 369 K at Tbubble = 322.60 K

Psat yi Psat yi

Methanol 0.0050 1165.34 0.0194 34.60 0.0005

Formaldehyde 0.3700 7139.99 8.860 798.59 0.8905

Water 0.6250 317.60 0.6617 7.21 0.1095

Total 1.000 9.4871 1.000

Notes: The satisfactory Tbubble is obtained using Goal Seek operation in Microsoft Excel

Hence, the bubble point temperature is 312.69 K


Equilibrium Constants

The equilibrium constant can be calculated as follows:

𝑦𝑖 𝑃𝑠𝑎𝑡,𝐼
𝐾𝑖 = =
𝑥𝑖 𝑃𝑟
Where Psat,I = saturated pressure of component, i
PT = total pressure

At feed, stream 16

COMPONENT xi,f yi Ki

Methanol 0.1056 0.0157 0.1486

Formaldehyde 0.3221 0.8759 2.7193

Water 0.5723 0.1092 0.1908

Total 1.0000 1.0000

At top, stream 19

COMPONENT xi,f yi Ki

Methanol 0.7000 0.4080 0.5828

Formaldehyde - - 0

Water 0.3000 0.5925 1.9795


Total 1.0000 1.0000

At bottom, stream 18

COMPONENT xi,f yi Ki
Methanol 0.0050 0.0005 0.1000

Formaldehyde 0.3700 0.8905 2.4068

0.6250 0.1747
Water 0.1092

Total 1.0000 1.0000


Determination of Relative Volatility

The equilibrium vaporization constant K is defined for a compound by


𝑌𝑖
𝐾𝑖 =
𝑋𝑖
(3.5)

Where, Yi = mole fraction of component i in vapour phase

Xi = mole fraction of component i in liquid phase

The relative volatility, α which is needed in the calculation is defined as

𝐾
∝𝑖𝑗 = 𝐾𝑖 (3.6)
𝑗

Where i and j represent the components to be separated

From Ideal system, Raoult’s law,

𝑃𝑖 = 𝑃𝑖 𝑋𝑖 (3.7)

The relative volatility of two components can be expressed as the ratio of their K value,

𝐾
∝𝑖𝑗 = 𝐾 𝐿𝐾
𝐻𝐾

Where, KLK = Light key components

KHK = Heavy key components

At feed, stream 16,

Component Ki 𝜶𝑳𝑲,𝑯𝑲

Methanol 0.1486 0.0546

Formaldehyde 2.7193 1.0000

Water 0.1908 0.0701

At top, stream 19,


Component Ki 𝜶𝑳𝑲,𝑯𝑲

Methanol 0.5828 0.5828

Formaldehyde 1.0 1.0

Water 1.9795 1.9795

At bottom, stream 18,

Component Ki 𝜶𝑳𝑲,𝑯𝑲

Methanol 0.1000 0.04155

Formaldehyde 2.4068 1

Water 0.1747 0.072596

The following approximation may be used to calculate the average relative volatility

𝛼𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 3√𝛼𝑓 𝛼𝑡 𝛼𝑏

Where αf = relative volatility of light key to heavy key at feed of column

αt = relative volatility of light key to heavy key at top of column

αb = relative volatility of light key to heavy key at bottom of column

Therefore

Component 𝜶𝑳𝑲,𝑯𝑲 𝜶𝒂𝒗𝒈

Feed Top Bottom

Methanol 0.0546 0.5828 0.0416 0.2099

Formaldehyde 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1

Water 0.0701 1.9795 0.072596 0.3160


Minimum Reflux Ratio

Colburn (1941) and Underwood (1948) have derived equations for estimating the minimum
reflux ratio for multicomponent distillations. The equation can be stated in the form:

𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝑖,𝑓
∑ = 𝑅𝑚 + 1 (3.10)
𝛼𝑖 −𝜃

Where,
αi = the relative volatility of component i with respect to some reference component,
usually the heavy key
Rm = the minimum reflux ratio
Xi,d = concentration of component i in the tops at minimum reflux
and θ is the root of the equation:

𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝑖,𝑓
∑ =1−𝑞 (3.11)
𝛼𝑖 −𝜃

where,

xi,f = concentration of component i in the feed at minimum reflux

q = depends on the condition of the feed

The value of θ must satisfy the relation αHK < θ < αLK. By assuming the feed is enter at its
boiling where q = 1, the value of θ is determined using goal seek in excel application.
𝛼𝑥
By using goal seek, θ = 1.8456 when ∑ 𝛼𝑖 −𝜃
𝑖,𝑓
=0
𝑖

Table 5.16: Relative volatility at feed


Component A Xr 𝛼𝑥𝑟 αxr /α-θ)
Methanol
0.0546 0.1056 0.0058 -0.0445

Formaldehyde
1.0000 0.3221 0.3221 0.3950

Water
0.0701 0.5723 0.0401 -0.3505

∑[αxr /α-θ]
0.000143
The value of θ is then substitute in to the equation as below
𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝑖,𝑓
∑ = 𝑅𝑚 + 1
𝛼𝑖 − 𝜃

Table 5.16: Relative volatility at distillate


Component A Xr 𝛼𝑥𝑟 αxr /α-θ)
Methanol
0.5828 0.7000 0.40796 2.0244

Formaldehyde
1.0 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001

Water
1.9795 0.3000 0.59385 1.3305

∑[αxr /α-θ] 3.3553

Therefore,
𝑅𝑚 + 1 = 3.3553
𝑅𝑚 = 2.3554
Therefore, by Goal seek operation in Microsoft Office Execl, the minimum reflux ratio is
determined to be 2.3554.
Minimum number of stages by Winn’s method

For vapor overhead product


𝑏
𝑛+2
𝑉𝐷 𝑊 ′ 𝐵 1−𝑏
𝛽 = ( )( ′ ) ( )
𝑊 𝑉𝐷 𝐷
𝐾𝐿𝐾
𝛽𝐿𝐾/𝐻𝐾 =
(𝐾𝐻𝐾 )𝑏𝐿𝐾
Where VD = mols of a component at distillate
W = mols of a component at bottom product
W' = mols of heavy key component at bottom product
V'D = mols of heavy key component at distillate
B = total mols of bottoms
D = total mols mols of distillate
K = equilibrium contant
β, b = contants

Subscripts LK = Light key component


HK = Heavy key component
TOP BOTTOM
Molar flow 5 kmol/hr 188.3314 kmol/hr
Component XI VI KI XI WI KI
Methanol 0.7 3.5 0.5828 0.005 0.9417 0.1000
Formaldehyde 0.00001 0.00001 1 0.37 69.6826 2.4068
Water 0.3 1.5 1.9795 0.625 117.7071 0.1747
The constants β and b are evaluated as follows
0.5828 = 𝛽(1)𝑏
0.1000 = 𝛽(2.4068)𝑏
Divide to solve for value of b. Then
`5.828 = 0.4155𝑏
𝑏 = 2.007
𝛽 = 1.5828
The minimum number of theoretical stages is calculated as follows

𝑛+2
3.5 69.6826 2.007 188.314 1−2.007
1.5828 =( )( ) ( )
0.9417 1.5 5
𝑛 + 2 = 9.678 = 10 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑠
Therefore the minimum number of theoretical stages is determined to be 10 stages
using Winn’s methods.
Column Efficiency

The prediction of overall column efficiency can be obtained from the correlation given by
O’Connell below:
𝐸𝑜 = 51 − 32.5 log(𝜇𝑎 𝛼𝑎 )
Where μa = the molar average of liquid viscosity, mNs/m2
αa = average relative volatilities of the light key

The molar average liquid viscosity is given by:


1 1
log 𝜇𝑎 = 𝑉𝐼𝑆𝐴 × ( − )
𝑇 𝑉𝐼𝑆𝐵
Where VISA, VISB = constant in the liquid velocity equation
T = Operating temperature
= 139.80oC = 412.95 K
The calculated μa for each component is shown in the table below
Component VISA VISB xf μa
Methanol 555.30 260.64 0.1056 0.1637
Formaldehyde 319.83 171.35 0.3221 0.0809
Water 658.25 283.16 0.5723 0.8727
Thus, the average μa can be calculated as below
(μa )𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 0.1056(0.1637) + 0.3221(0.0809) + 0.5723(0.8727) = 0.5428
Therefore, the overall column efficiency is
𝐸𝑜 = 51 − 32.5 log(0.5428 × 0.2099)
𝐸𝑜 = 81.66%
Therefore the overall column efficiency obtained is 81.66%
Plate Design

Physical Properties

Mole Fraction Ideal Liquid


Molecular
Component Density,
Weight, MW Feed Top Bottom
kg/m3
Methanol 32.042 0.1056 0.7000 0.0050 425
Formaldehyde 30.036 0.3221 0.00001 0.3700 815
Water 18.015 0.5723 0.3000 0.6250 998

Calculation of the Relative Molecular Mass, RMM

Relative Molecular Mass of Feed,

∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝑀𝑊𝑖 = 0.1056(32.042) + 0.3221(30.036) + 0.5723(18.015)

= 23.3682 kg/kmole

Relative Molecular Mass of Top,

∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝑀𝑊𝑖 = 0.7000(32.042) + 0.00001(30.036) + 0.3000(18.015)

= 27.8342 kg/kmole

Relative Molecular Mass of Bottom,

∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝑀𝑊𝑖 = 0.0050(32.042) + 0.3700(30.036) + 0.6250(18.015)

= 22.5230 kg/kmole

Calculation of Density

At top,

Liquid Density, ρL = ∑ xi ρi

ρL = 0.7000(425) + 0.00001(815) + 0.3000(998)

ρL =596.9082 kg/m3
𝑅𝑀𝑀 𝑇𝑆𝑇𝑃 𝑃
Vapor Density, ρV = 𝑉 × 𝑇
×𝑃
𝑆𝑇𝑃 𝑆𝑇𝑃

27.8342 273 250


ρV = 22.4
× 366.58 × 101.325

ρV =2.2832 kg/m3

At bottom,

Liquid Density, ρL = ∑ xi ρi

ρL = 0.005(425) + 0.3700(815) + 0.6250(998)

ρL =927.425 kg/m3

𝑅𝑀𝑀 𝑇𝑆𝑇𝑃 𝑃
Vapor Density, ρV = × ×
𝑉𝑆𝑇𝑃 𝑇 𝑃𝑆𝑇𝑃

22.5230 273 300


ρV = 22.4
× 412.95 × 101.325

ρV =1.9681 kg/m3
Liquid and Vapor Flowrates

Above the feed point


Vapor rate:
𝑉𝑛 = 𝐷(𝑅 + 1)
=5(2.3554+1)
=16.777 kmole/h

Liquid Rate:
𝑉𝑛 = 𝐿𝑛 + 𝐷
𝐿𝑛 = 𝑉𝑛 − 𝐷
=16.777-5
=11.777 kmole/h

Below the feed point

Liquid Rate:
𝐿𝑚 = 𝐿𝑛 + 𝐹
=11.777+216,3314
=228.1084 kmole/h

Vapor Rate:
𝑉𝑚 = 𝐿𝑚 − 𝑊
=228.1084 − 188.3314
=39.777 kmole/h
Column Diameter

There are several approaches to column diameter design. In general, a better approximation
is based on flooding considerations. The flooding velocity can be determined using the
correlation given by Fair in 1961

𝜌𝐿 − 𝜌𝑉
𝑢𝑓 = 𝐾1 √
𝜌𝑉

Where uf = flooding vapor velocity, m/s


K1 = a constant obtained from Appendix 5.3A

The liquid-vapor flow factor FLV can be calculated using

𝐿𝑊 𝜌𝑉
𝐹𝐿𝑉 = √
𝑉𝑊 𝜌𝐿

Where LW = liquid molar flowrate, kmole/h


VW = vapor molar flowrate, kmole.h

𝐿𝑚 𝜌𝑉 228.1084 1.9681
𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 𝐹𝐿𝑉 = √ = √
𝑉𝑚 𝜌𝐿 39.777 927.425

𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 𝐹𝐿𝑉 = 0.2642

𝐿𝑛 𝜌𝑉 11.77 2,2832
𝑇𝑜𝑝 𝐹𝐿𝑉 = √ = √
𝑉𝑛 𝜌𝐿 16.77 596.9082

𝑇𝑜𝑝 𝐹𝐿𝑉 = 0.0434

Take a plate spacing as 0.6 m, from Appendix 5.3A


Bottom K1 = 0.20
Top K1 = 0.

Therefore

927.425-1.9681
Bottom, uf = 0.20√ = 4.3369 m/s
1.9681

596.9082-2.2832
Top, uf = 0.21√ = 3.3889 m/s
2.2832
For design, assumption of 85 per cent of the flooding velocity is used
Bottom 𝑢̂𝑣 = 4.3369 × 0.85 =3.1334 m/s
Top 𝑢̂𝑣 = 3.3889 × 0.85 =2.8805 m/s
Maximum volumetric flow rate
Vm RMM
𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 =
ρV
39.77×22.5329
=
1.9681
= 12.6487 𝑚3 /𝑠
Vn RMM
𝑇𝑜𝑝 =
ρV
16.77×27.8342
=
2.2832
= 8.5184 𝑚3 /𝑠

Net area can be calculated as below


𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒
𝐴𝑛 =
𝑢̂𝑣
12.6487
𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚𝐴𝑛 = = 4.0367 𝑚2
3.1334
8.5184
𝑇𝑜𝑝𝐴𝑛 = = 2.9573 𝑚2
2.8805

As a first trial take the downcomer area as 12 per cent of the total
4.0367
𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚𝐴𝑑 = = 4.5872 𝑚2
0.88
2.9573
𝑇𝑜𝑝𝐴𝑑 = = 3.3606 𝑚2
0.88

Therefore the column diameter can be determined as below

4𝐴𝑑
𝐷=√
𝜋

4 × 4.5872
𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 𝐷 = √ = 2.4167 𝑚
𝜋

4 × 3.3606
𝑇𝑜𝑝 𝐷 = √ = 2.0685 𝑚
𝜋

Therefore the column diameter is calculated approximately 2.5 m.


Column Height

Height of a column is given by


𝐻 = 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑦 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔 × 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑠
= 0.6 × 10
=6𝑚
Therefore column is determined to be 6 m in height.

Liquid Flow Pattern

An initial selection of plate type either reverse, single pass or multiple pass can be
determined using the theory proposed by Huang and Hodson (1958). The selection will
depend on the liquid flow rate and column diameter.

𝐿𝑚 𝑅𝑀𝑀 228.0184 × 22.5329


𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 = = = 0.02188𝑚3 /𝑠
𝜌𝐿 927.425 × 3600

Based on the graph by Huang and Hodson (1958), at liquid flow rate = 0.02188 m3/s
and Dc = 2.5 m a single pass (cross flow) can be used.
Provisional Plate Design

Column Diameter, DC = 2.5 m

Column Area, Ac = 4.9087 m2

Down comer Area, Ad


Take as 12 per cent of AC = 0.12 × 4.9087
= 0.5890 m2 at 12 per cent

Net Area, An = AC - Ad
= 4.9087 – 0.5890
= 4.3196 m2

Active area, Aa = AC - 2Ad


= 4.9087 – (2)0.5890
= 3.7307 m2

Hole area Ah
Take as 10 per cent of Aa = 0.10 × 3.7307
= 0.3730 m2
Weir Dimension

Weir Length

By referring to the figure in Appendix, the relationship between weir length and newcomer
could be seen.
The y-axis
𝐴𝑑 0.5890
× 100 = × 100 = 11.99
𝐴𝑥 4.9087
From the Appendix, the weir length can be determine as below
𝐼𝑤
= 0.74
𝐷𝑐
𝐼𝑤
= 0.74
2.5
𝐼𝑤 = 1.85 𝑚

Weir Height

Since the distillation column operating above atmospheric pressure, 40 mm to 50 mm of weir


height is recommended.

Take Weir height, hw 45 mm

Hole Diameter

The holes are made by drilling or punching. Punching would be cheaper than drilling,
however the minimum size of hole that can be punched will depend on the plate thickness.
The preferred hole diameter is 5mm. Typical plate thicknesses used for design are 5 mm for
carbon steel and 3 mm for stainless steel.

Take Hole diameter, dh 5 mm


Plate thickness, tp 5 mm
Weir Liquid Crest

The height of weir liquid crest can be determined using the Francis weir formula as below
2
𝐿𝑤 3
ℎ𝑜𝑤 = 750 ( )
𝜌𝐿 𝐼𝑤
Where ℎ𝑜𝑤 = weir crest, mm liquid
𝐿𝑤 = liquid flow rate, kg/s
𝐼𝑤 = weir length, m
228.1084 × 22.5329
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝐿𝑤 = = 1.4277 𝑘𝑔/𝑠
3600
Minimum 𝐿𝑤 at 70 per cent turn down = 0.70 × 1.4277 = 0.9994 kg/s

Therefore
2
1.4277 3
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 ℎ𝑜𝑤 = 750 ( ) = 6.6352 𝑚𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
927.425 × 1.85
2
0.9994 3
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 ℎ𝑜𝑤 = 750 ( ) = 5.2310 𝑚𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
927.425 × 1.85
Check Weeping

The weep point is considered to be the minimum vapor velocity that will provide a stable tray
operation, preventing liquid from passing through the holes and bypassing the overflow weir
and downcomer. The minimum vapor velocity can be estimated using correlation given by
Eduljee in 1959

(𝐾2 − 0.90)(25.4 − 𝑑ℎ )
𝑢̂ℎ =
𝜌𝑣 1/2
Where 𝑢̂ℎ = minimum vapor velocity through the holes, m/s
𝑑ℎ = hole diameter, mm
𝐾2 = constant, dependent on the depth of clear liquid on the plate
At minimum rate
ℎ𝑤 + ℎ𝑜𝑤 = 45 + 5.2310 = 50.2310 𝑚𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
From appendix,
𝐾2 = 30.25
Therefore,
(30.25 − 0.90)(25.4 − 5)
𝑢̂ℎ (min) = 1 = 8.8259 𝑚/𝑠
1.96812
Actual minimum vapor velocity
𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒
𝑢̂ℎ =
𝐴ℎ
12.6487 × 0.7
𝑢̂ℎ =
0.3730
𝑢̂ℎ = 23.7375 𝑚/𝑠

Therefore, the actual minimum vapor velocity is calculated to be 23.7375 m/s which is above
the minimum vapor velocity pf 8.8259 m/s. This indicates that the minimum operating rate
will be well above weep point.
Plate Pressure Drop

The total pressure drop is taken as the sum of the dry plate drop (hd) the head of clear liquid
on the plate (hw + how and residual head hr)

Dry Plate Drop

The pressure drop calculated for the flow of vapor through the dry plate can be calculated as
below
𝑢̂ℎ 2 𝜌𝑣
ℎ𝑑 = 51 ( )
𝐶0 𝜌𝐿
Where
hd = dry plate drop, mm liquid
û h = velocity through the holes, m/s
C0 = orifice coefficient
Maximum vapor velocity through holes
12.6487
𝑢̂ℎ = = 33.9107 𝑚/𝑠
0.3730
The value of C0 can be obtained from Appendix
𝐴ℎ 0.3730
× 100 = × 100 = 9.9981
𝐴𝑎 3.7307
𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠, 𝑡𝑝 5
= =1
𝐻𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟, 𝑑ℎ 5
Therefore
𝐶0 = 0.84
33.9107 2 1.9681
ℎ𝑑 = 51 ( ) = 176.381 𝑚𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
0.84 927.425
Residual Head

The residual head can be estimated the simple equation proposed by Hunt (1955). The
equation is defined the residual drop as a fixed value of 12.5 mm of water.

12.5 × 103 12.5 × 103


ℎ𝑟 = = = 13.478 𝑚𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
𝜌𝐿 927.425

Total Pressure Drop

The total pressure drop is given by


ℎ𝑡 = ℎ𝑑 + (ℎ𝑤 + ℎ𝑜𝑤 ) + ℎ𝑟
ℎ𝑡 = 176.381 + (50.2310) + 13.478
ℎ𝑡 = 240.09 𝑚𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
Therefore the total pressure drop is 240.09 mm liquid.

Downcomer Liquid Back Up

The downcomer from a tray must be adequate to carry the liquid flow plus entrained foam
and froth. The area of the downcomer and plate spacing must be such that the level of the
liquid and froth in the downcomer is kept below the top of the outlet weir on the plate above
otherwise the column will flood. In terms of clear liquid the downcomer backup can
expressed as below
ℎ𝑏 = (ℎ𝑤 + ℎ𝑜𝑤 ) + ℎ𝑡 + ℎ𝑑𝑐
Where
hb = downcomer back-up, measured from plate surface, mm
hdc = head loss in the downcomer, mm
The head loss in the downcomer is given by
𝑙𝑤𝑑 2
ℎ𝑑𝑐 = 166 ( )
𝜌𝐿 𝐴𝑚
Where
lwd = liquid flow rate in downcomer, kg/s
Am = either the downcomer area Ad or the clearance area under the downcomer
Aap, whichever is the smaller, m2
The clearance area is given by
𝐴𝑎𝑝 = ℎ𝑎𝑝 𝐼𝑤
Where
hap = height of the bottom edge of the apron above the plate
= hw – (5 to 10) mm
Take
ℎ𝑎𝑝 = ℎ𝑤 − 10
ℎ𝑎𝑝 = 45 − 10 = 35 𝑚𝑚
Area under apron
𝐴𝑎𝑝 = 35 × 103 × 1.85 = 0.0647 𝑚𝑚2
Since Aap is smaller than Ad the value of Aap = 0.0647 m2 is used to calculate hdc
2
1.4277
ℎ𝑑𝑐 = 166 ( ) = 93.9757 𝑚𝑚
927.425 × 0.0647
Backup in downcomer
ℎ𝑏 = (50.2310) + 240.09 + 0.0939 = 0.290 𝑚
Check residence time
0.0647 × 3.7307 × 927.425
𝑡𝑟 = = 380 𝑠
0.5890
Since it falls under recommended value which is more than 3 seconds, the residence time of
380 s sufficient for the entrained vapor to disengage from the liquid in order to prevent
heavily aerated liquid being carried under the downcomer.
Check Entrainment

Actual velocity
12.6487 𝑚
𝑢𝑛 = = 2.9282
4.3196 𝑠

The percentage flooding


𝑢𝑛 2.9282
𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 = × 100 = × 100 = 86.41%
𝑢𝑓 3.3889

From Appendix, at percent flooding 86.41% and FLV = 0.043 the fractional flooding, Ψ =
0.089 which is well below 0.1. It must be below 0.1 because below this figure the effect
on efficiency will be small.

Perforated Area

From Appendix, at Iw/DC = 0.74


𝜃𝑐 = 94𝑜

Angle subtended at plate edge by unperforated strip = 180 − 94 = 86𝑜

86
Mean length, unperforated edge strips = (2.5 − 50 × 10−3 )𝜋 × 180 = 3.5919 𝑚

Area of unperforated edge strips = 50 × 10−3 × 3.5919 = 0.1795 𝑚2

94
Mean length of calming zone = (2.5 − 50 × 10−3 ) × sin 2
= 1.7918 𝑚

Area of calming zone = 2(1.7918 × 50 × 10−3 ) = 0.1792 𝑚2

Total area for perforations, Ap = 3.7307 − 0.1795 − 0.1792 = 3.3720 𝑚2


𝐴ℎ 0.3730
= = 0.1106
𝐴𝑝 3.3720
From Appendix
𝐼𝑝
= 2.84
𝑑ℎ
Within the satisfactory range which is 2.5 to 4.0
Conclusion

Generally, T-101 is a 10 stages tray column with valve trays as plate contactor and employs
stainless steel as a material of construction. T-101 is determined to be 2.5 in diameter and 6
m in height. Others calculated design values can be summarized into Table

Parameters Value Unit


Column Diameter 2.5 m
Column Height 6 m
Number of Stages 10 -
Column Efficiency 81 %
Column Area 4.9087 m2
Downcomer Area 0.5890 m2
Net Area 4.3196 m2
Hole Area 0.3730 m2
Weir Length 1.85 m
Weir Height 4.5 m
Hole Diameter 5 mm
Plate Thickness 5 mm
Trays Spacing 0.6 m
Total Pressure Drop 240.09 mm liquid
The design shall include parameters mentioned below:

Parameters Value Unit


Mechanical Design
Design Pressure kPa
o
Design Temperature C
Materials of Construction -
Insulation -
Design Stress N/mm2
Corrosion Allowance Mm
Wall Thickness Mm
Ellipsoidal Head Thickness Mm
Vessel Weight Kn
Plates Weight Kn
Weight Of Insulation Kn
Total Weight Kn
Wind Loading N/m
Bolt Area mm2
Bolt Thickness mm

1) All calculations should be made in spreadsheet form.


2) The thickness and load design should be in manipulated variable.
3) Write the spreadsheet to make it as interesting and understandable as you can.
4) Kindly email report to reeedha3@gmail.com by latest 22/5/2018 by 12.59 pm