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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools
Watershed Analysis
Through FOSS Tools

Vishnu B

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools Vishnu B

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Author: Vishnu B

First Edition: 2013

© Author

All rights reserved

ISBN: 978-81-925176-0-5

Published by

Balaleela Publications, Pala - 686574

PREFACE

The dramatic increase in the computational power and developments

in Geographic Information System (GIS) has led to significant developments in

the way that hydrological analysis is conducted. This book provides details

and examples of the use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) GIS

tools for watershed analysis.

Watershed Analysis – Through FOSS Tools’ may be of particular

interest to undergraduates and postgraduate students in Geology,

Environmental Sciences, Earth Sciences, Agricultural Engineering, Water

Resources and Environmental Engineering as well as researchers in

Hydrology and Hydrogeomorphology.

This book is the outcome of several years of teaching the Remote Sensing

and GIS applications courses for both undergraduate and postgraduate students at

Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (KCAET),

Tavanur and my Ph. D. research programme at National Institute of Technology

(NIT), Kozhikode.

I express my deep sense of gratitude and sincere indebtedness to my

research guides Dr. P. Syamala, Professor, Civil Engineering Department, and

Dr. K. Sasikumar, Associate Dean, NIT, Kozhikode for the motivation, and

untiring support throughout the course of my research work there. I am thankful to

Mr. Sumit Kumar Jha and Mr. Rahul, B.T., B. Tech. (Ag. Engg.) students at

KCAET, Tavanur for helping in the preparation of the Meenachil watershed maps.

I concede my gratitude to Dr. E. K. Mathew, Registrar i/c, Kerala Agricultural

University for his encouragement in this endeavour. I take this opportunity to

thank Dr. M. Sivaswami, Dean (Ag. Engg.) for supporting this work. Above all, I

am utmost grateful to the Almighty for giving me the capability, courage and

support to surpass the hurdles during this task.

Tavanur, Kerala

January, 2013

Vishnu, B.

CONTENTS

 

LIST OF SYMBOLS

VI

ABBREVIATIONS

VII

1

INTRODUCTION

1

 

1

Watershed

1

2

Geographic Information System (GIS)

2

3

Remote Sensing

3

4

Geomorphology

3

5

Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

4

6

Watershed delineation

5

7

ILWIS

6

8

Mapwindow GIS

6

9

TauDEM

6

10

GRASS GIS

6

11

Watersheds used for analysis in this book

7

12

Aim

7

2

LITERATURE ON WATERSHED ANALYSIS

8

 

1

Geomorphometry

9

2

Digital hydrogeomorphology

9

3

Hydrogeomorphology of the watershed

11

4

Studies related to Bharathapuzha watershed

12

5

Watershed Characterization through GIS and Remote Sensing

13

6

GIS and Remote Sensing in Modelling Watershed Processes

15

7

Modelling Watershed Hydrological Responses

16

8

Derivation of flow characteristics

18

9

Watershed Characteristics

20

10

Geomorphological influence on hydrological response of the watershed

21

3

WATERSHEDS, DATA, TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES USED

23

 

1

Watersheds used for the analysis

23

 

1 The Bharathapuzha watershed

23

1

Rain gauge and river gauge stations in the Bharathapuzha watershed

26

2 Meenachil watershed

28

 

2

Maps and data used

29

 

1 Rainfall

29

2 River flow

31

ii

3

Other climatic data

31

4 Topographic maps

1

31

 

2

Making a digital version of the topographic map

31

3

Creating a seamless digital map of the area from the digitized toposheets

32

4

Digitizing the contours and drainage network

32

5 Soil map

33

6 Remote sensing imagery

33

7 Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

33

3 Tools and techniques used

36

1 ILWIS

 

36

2 MapWindow GIS

36

3 TauDEM (Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models)

37

4 GRASS GIS

38

4

WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS

41

1 Introduction

41

2 Methodology

41

1 Preparation of thematic maps using GIS

41

 

1

Creation of contour map

43

2

Creation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

43

3

Soil map

43

4

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

43

5

Land use map

44

6

Slope map

44

7

Aspect map

45

8

Geology map

45

9

Geomorphology

46

10

Drainage map

46

3 Results of the Analysis

46

1 Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

46

2 Soil map

48

3 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

50

4 Land use map

52

 

1

Garden land

54

2

Paddy

54

3

Forest area

54

4

River dry

54

iii

5

Water

54

 

5

Slope map

54

6

Aspect map

56

7

Geology map

58

8

Geomorphology

60

 

1 Valley fills

61

2 Structural Hills

62

3 Residual hills

62

4 Pediments

62

5 Moderately dissected pediment zones

63

6 Plateaus

63

7 Coastal terrains

63

 

9

Drainage

63

 

1 Drainage pattern

63

2 Drainage Map

64

3 Tributaries of Bharathapuzha River

65

4 Conclusion

5

66

HYDROGEOMORPHOMETRY

67

1 Introduction

67

2 Methodology

67

 

1

Data and maps required

68

2

Determination of hydrogeomorphological parameters

68

3 Results of the Analysis

69

 

1

Area

69

2

Stream order

70

3

Stream length (Lu)

73

4

Mean stream length

74

5

Stream length ratio

75

6

Bifurcation ratio

76

7

Basin length

77

8

Relief Ratio

77

9

Drainage texture

78

10

Stream frequency (Fs)

79

11

Form factor (Ff)

80

12

Circularity ratio (Rc)

80

13

Elongation ratio (Re)

81

iv

14

Drainage Density

82

 

15 Length of overland flow (Lg)

83

16 Sinuosity index (SI)

84

4 Conclusion

85

6

WATERSHED DELINEATION THROUGH DEM- HYDRO PROCESSING

86

1 Introduction

86

1 Watershed characteristics

86

2 DEM- Hydro processing

87

1 DEM Visualisation

88

2 Flow determination

90

1 Fill sinks

90

2 Flow direction

91

3 Flow accumulation

92

3 Flow Modification

93

1 DEM optimization

93

2 Topological optimization

94

4 Network and catchment extraction

96

1 Drainage Network Extraction

96

2 Drainage network ordering

97

3 Catchment extraction

102

4 Catchment merge

103

5 Compound Parameter Extraction

109

1 Overland Flow Length

109

2 Flow Length to Outlet

110

3 Stepwise procedure for determining watershed parameters using ILWIS

112

1 Catchment area calculation

113

2 Channel Length calculation

114

3 Average channel slope calculation

118

4 Average slope steepness calculation

119

5 Hypsometric curve calculation

124

6 Calculating an aspect map

126

4 Delineation of sub-watersheds using TauDEM plugin of MapWindow GIS

127

REFERENCES

135

v

LIST OF SYMBOLS

Symbol

A

BFI

CV

D

D

F

G

H

H

bg

L

u

d

d

s

g

b

L g

Li

Li

Gg

L

L sm

L

u

r

u

Description

Area Base Flow Index Coefficient of variation Drainage density Drainage density Stream frequency Granite gneiss Maximum basin elevation Hornblende-biotite gneiss Maximum Basin length Length of overland flow (km) Proportion of a watershed with granite and gneiss (lithology) Proportion of a watershed with laterite (lithology) Mean stream length Stream length Number of rainy days Stream number

N

N

P Perimeter

P

P a

Q

Q

R

R 2 , r 2 R R R R R R R

SD

Se

S n

T Drainage texture

u

X 0

β Parameter vector

Precipitation Mean annual rainfall Mean annual flow Quartzofeldspathic gneiss

Runoff Coefficient of determination Bifurcation ratio Mean bifurcation ratio Circularity ratio Elongation ratio Form factor Relief ratio Stream length ratio Standard Deviation Standard Error Slope value for which n % of the pixels are ≤ that value

a

fg

b

bm

c

e

f

h

L

Stream order Original time series data

vi

Unit

km 2

km

km

-1

-2

km

km

km

km

km

km

-1

ABBREVIATIONS

ASTER

Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection

BFI

Radiometer base flow index

CC

correlation coefficient

CWC

Central Water Commission, India

CWRDM

Centre for Water Resources Development and Management

DEM

digital elevation model

DLSM

digital land surface model

et al

and others

FOSS

Free and open-source software

GIS

Geographical Information Systems

GLCF

Global Land Cover Facility (http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu)

GRASS

Geographic Resources Analysis Support System

ILWIS

Integrated Land and Water Information System

IRS

Indian Remote Sensing Satellite

KCAET

Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology

KERI

Kerala Engineering Research Institute

LISS

Linear Imaging Self-scanning Sensor

RUSLE

Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation

NBSS & LUP

National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, India

NDVI

Normalised Difference Vegetation Index

NIR

near-infrared

NRSA

National Remote Sensing Agency

NSE

NashSutcliffe model efficiency

RMSE

Root-mean-squared error

SCS

Soil Conservation Service

SOI

Survey of India

SRTM

Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

TauDEM

Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models

TIC

Thiel's inequality coefficient

WEPP

Water Erosion Prediction Project

WRDK

Water Resources Department, Kerala

vii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Water, the essential resource for human life and all spheres of activity, is becoming more and scarcer due to the increasing demand and decline in the quality of water by various contaminations. A judicious use of this scarce resource requires scientific management by way of conservation and planning. Water resources conservation and management plans are made on a watershed basis as it is the basic unit for the water balance studies. Rivers play a major role in the hydrological response of a watershed. Hence the ever growing demand of water in domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors calls for better management of the water available in the rivers. This requires the study of precipitation, hydrological response of the watershed and its relation to the watershed characteristics.

1.1 WATERSHED

Watershed can be defined as an area from which runoff resulting from precipitation flows past a single point into a stream, river, lake, or an ocean. It is a topographically delineated area or basin like landform defined by high points and ridge lines that descend to lower elevations, valleys and is drained by stream system. It is a spatial unit within which hydrologic principles must hold and therefore all hydrologic analysis must be validated within this unit.

Watershed is a natural integrator of all hydrological phenomena pertaining to an area and is a logical unit for planning the optimal development of an area based on the availability of soil, water and biomass resources. Watershed based planning is an ideal multidisciplinary approach to the resources management for ensuring continuous benefits on a sustainable basis. Hence integrated watershed management is a prerequisite for land and water management for degraded areas and for soil and water conservation of priority areas.

Watershed models are very effective tools for planning watershed development activities to gain better understanding of the hydrologic phenomena operating within the watershed and how changes in the watershed affect these phenomena. The major scientific challenges for hydrologists are the quantification

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

of the effect of land use change on water balance and the prediction of streamflow in ungauged watersheds (Donald and David, 1993; Sivapalan, et. al., 2003; Zhang, et. al., 2005). Even though there have been advances in the understanding of the processes controlling the water balance, the development of models that can predict hydrological responses at watershed scale remains a difficult task, since it must meet the requirements of parsimony in terms of data inputs and model parameters to be of practical use. The model parameters in such a model must be estimable from known climate and watershed characteristics (Zhang, et. al., 2005).

Quantification of water quality and quantity for sustainable water resources planning and management requires data. Also, quantification of the effects of specific land use practices on quality and quantity of water resources require adequate hydrological data. Most of the developing countries are having constraints on finance, equipment and staff for developing and maintaining hydrological networks leading to shortage of adequate hydrological information for the sustainable planning and management of water resources. Even when resources are available, it is impossible to setup an ideal hydrological network in inaccessible places. Use of various hydrological models require the hydrological parameters as input which is obtained using hydrological analysis of the watershed using geospatial data handling tools viz. Geographic Information System (GIS).

1.2 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

A Geographic Information System (GIS) can be defined as a computerized data base system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of tabular and spatial data. GIS is gaining more importance these days because it plays an important role in resource management, environment monitoring and land use planning activities. GIS is one of the most important tools for watershed analysis.

The GIS tools have made the data handling and analysis much easier. It has the advantage of handling attribute data in conjunction with spatial features, which was totally impossible with manual cartographic analysis. It stores both spatial and non-spatial data, layer by layer either in raster or vector format. This tool makes the data handling job easier and meaningful. It is more versatile for

2

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

analysing a large data base and large areal extent. GIS facilitates repetitive model application with considerable ease and accuracy. The cartographic and data overlaying capability of GIS coupled with its dynamic linking ability with models plays a vital role in water management decision making process. The model output can be displayed effectively and the information stored in a particular region will be handy for use.

A proper watershed planning can be done by using GIS based technologies for sustainable management of land and water resources. While remote sensing can provide a variety of latest and updated information on natural resources, GIS has the capability for captures, storage, manipulation, analysis, retrieval of multiple layer resource information occurring both in spatial and aspatial forms.

1.3 REMOTE SENSING

Remote Sensing imply the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon on earth surface by devices called sensors without being in any physical contact between the object and sensing device. This is done by sensing and recording reflected/emitted electromagnetic energy from objects on the earth’s surface, distinguishing them using the characteristic ensemble of electromagnetic radiation emitted/reflected by them -called spectral signature- and processing, analysing and applying that information. There are tremendous improvements in remote sensing technology involving increase in spatial resolutions to sub-meter accuracies and also increase in radiometric resolution by introduction of hyper-spectral scanners which contain hundreds of bands. Availability of many of these remote sensing imageries freely like LANDSAT imagery through earth explorer and IRS imageries through Bhuvan has made its use in watershed analysis easy. Remote sensing technology has an important role in effective and timely mapping of geo-resources.

1.4 GEOMORPHOLOGY

River morphology is a field of science which deals with the change of river plan, form and cross sections due to sedimentation and erosion and the dynamics of flow and sediment transport in the river are the principal elements

3

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

considered. An understanding of the morphology and behaviour of the river is a pre-requisite for a scientific and rational approach to different river problems and proper planning and design of water resources projects. The river morphological studies, therefore, play an important role in planning, designing and maintaining river engineering structures. There has been a growing awareness about the need for taking up morphological studies of rivers in India in recent years.

Geomorphometry is the science of quantitative land surface analysis. It gathers various mathematical, statistical and image processing techniques that can be used to quantify morphological, hydrological, ecological and other aspects of a land surface. Common synonyms for geomorphometry are geomorphological analysis, terrain morphometry or terrain analysis and land surface analysis. In simple terms, geomorphometry aims at extracting land surface parameters (morphometric, hydrological, climatic etc.) and objects (watersheds, stream networks, landforms etc.) using input digital land surface model (DEM) and parameterization software. Extracted surface parameters and objects can then be used, for example, to improve mapping and modelling of soils, vegetation, land use, geomorphological and geological features and similar. Using GIS, spatially varying parameters or characteristics can easily be computed, stored, retrieved and analysed and much derivative information can be generated.

1.5 DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM)

DEM (Digital Elevation Model) is a digital model or 3-D representation of a terrain's surface created from terrain elevation data. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) represent the terrain elevation in discrete form in three-dimensional space. Digital elevation models (DEMs) are increasingly used for visual and mathematical analysis of topography, landscapes and landforms, as well as modelling of surface processes. A DEM offers the most common method for extracting vital topographic information and even enables the modelling of flow across topography, a controlling factor in distributed models of landform processes. DEM can be computed from a contour map or DEMs can be generated from stereo satellite data derived from electro-optic scanners such as ASTER

4

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

(Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) or SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission).

DEMs are used in water resources projects to identify drainage features such as ridges, valley bottoms, channel networks, surface drainage patterns, and to quantify sub catchment and channel properties such as size, length, and slope. The accuracy of this topographic information is a function both of the quality and resolution of the DEM, and of the DEM processing algorithms used to extract this information.

1.6 WATERSHED DELINEATION

Watershed delineation is process of identifying the drainage area of a point or set of points by finding the water divide. Watershed delineation is one of the most commonly performed activities in hydrologic analyses. This can be done manually or automatically. Watershed delineation by manual method involves drawing lines on a topographic map connecting the slope or ridge tops to indicate the water divide. A water divide indicates a line joining points such that the water will drain away from those points. The water divide line forms an enclosing polygon delineating the watershed.

The automated delineation process involves the use of GIS tools on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), obtaining a stream network, and identifying stream outlets.

Watershed delineation is an important tool for land and water resource management by considering different variables eg. Morphometric characteristics, Landuse / land cover, hydrogeomorphology, elevation and slope of watershed by integration of remote sensing and GIS. There is an urgent need to adopt modern technology of remote sensing and GIS, offering possibilities of generating various options, thereby optimizing the whole planning process. If watersheds are not managed in an integrated sustainable manner, then not only the water resources but also other resources such as vegetation, fertile soil, fauna and flora get depleted.

5

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

1.7 ILWIS

ILWIS is an acronym for the Integrated Land and Water Information System. It is a Geographic Information System (GIS) with Image Processing capabilities. ILWIS has been developed by the International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences, Enscheda, the Netherlands. As an Integrated GIS and Remote Sensing package, ILWIS allows generating information on the spatial and temporal patterns and processes on the earth surface and this information can be analysed on GIS platform

1.8 MAPWINDOW GIS

Mapwindow GIS is an open source GIS. It is an extensible geographic information system. Mapwindow GIS includes standard GIS data visualization features as well as DBF attribute table editing, shape file editing, and data converters. Dozens of standard GIS formats are supported, including Shape files, GeoTIFF, ESRI Arc Info ASCII and binary grids. Mapwindow GIS is an open source “Programmable Geographic Information System” that supports manipulation, analysis, and viewing of geospatial data and associated attribute data in several standard GIS data formats. Mapwindow GIS is a mapping tool, a GIS modelling system and a GIS application programming interface (API) all in one convenient redistributable open source solution.

1.9 TAUDEM

TauDEM (Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models) is a set of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) tools for the extraction and analysis of hydrologic information from topography as represented by a DEM. This is software developed at Utah State University (USU) for hydrologic digital elevation model analysis and watershed delineation.

1.10 GRASS GIS

GRASS is acronym of “Geographic Resource Analysis and Support System”. This is free Geographic Information System (GIS) software used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, graphics/maps production, spatial modelling, and visualization. GRASS is currently used in

6

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

academic and commercial settings around the world, as well as by many governmental agencies and environmental consulting companies

1.11 WATERSHEDS USED FOR ANALYSIS IN THIS BOOK

Two watersheds in Kerala, India viz. Meenachil and Bharathapuzha are used for presenting the watershed analysis techniques in this book.

The Meenachil watershed lies between 9°25’to 9°55’ N latitudes and 76°20’ to 76°55’E longitudes and it is located in the Alappuzha and Kottayam districts and along the western boundary of Idukki district of Kerala state. Meenachil River is formed by several streams originating from Western Ghats and its basin cover a total area of 1208.11 km² covering 52 villages spread over 59 Panchayats, 18 blocks and three districts.

The Bharathapuzha river basin lies between 10°26’30.16” to 11°12’32.78” North latitudes and 75°54’40.74” to 76°54’29.09” East longitudes and it covers Malappuram, Thrissur and Palakkad districts of Kerala, India. The study area has a total drainage area of 3844.320 km 2 .

1.12 AIM

The objective of this book is to present the hydrogeomorphological analysis of watersheds using various FOSS tools in a simple way for the use of students and researchers in the field of hydrology and water resources.

7

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE ON WATERSHED ANALYSIS

A review of previous research works related to the hydrological response

of watersheds, hydrogeomorphometry, hydrological response characteristics and

watershed characteristics are presented in this chapter.

A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains

off of it goes into the same place. According to John Wesley Powell a watershed is that area of land, a bounded hydrologic system, within which all living things are

inextricably linked by their common water course and where, as humans settled, simple logic demanded that they become part of a community. Hence watershed is

adopted as a basic developmental planning or management unit especially for natural resources. The hydrology as well as the developmental strategy depends on the size of the watershed. The sizes of the watersheds vary from a few hectares to thousands of hectares. Watersheds can be classified on the basis of area as: micro watershed (0 to

10 ha), small watershed (10 to 40 ha), mini watershed (40 to 200 ha), sub

watershed (200 to 400 ha), macro watershed (400 to 1000 ha), and river basin

(above 1000 ha).

Indian River basins are classified as major, medium and minor river basins respectively based on the size of the watershed area being more than 20,000 km 2 , between 20,000 km 2 and 2,000 km 2 , and less than 2,000 km 2 . (Jain et al., 2007)

Watersheds have distinct characteristics and those characteristics influencing the runoff production are important in hydrologic analyses. Geomorphological characteristics like stream order, drainage density, watershed length and width, channel length, channel slope and relief aspects of watershed are important in understanding the hydrology of the watershed (Huggett and Cheesman, 2002; Huggett, 2007). A detailed analysis of the drainage network in a watershed can provide valuable information about watershed behaviour which will be useful for further hydrological analysis.

8

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

2.1 GEOMORPHOMETRY

Geomorphometry or morphometry is a branch of geomorphology (Thornbury, 1969) which is also known as quantitative geomorphology, and terrain analysis. Geomorphometry is the science of quantitative land-surface analysis or topographic quantification. It is an important component of terrain analysis and surface modelling and is a combination of engineering, earth science, mathematics, and computer science (Pike et al., 2008). It has applications to diverse fields including hydrology, geohazards mapping, tectonics, sea-floor and planetary exploration. Assessing soil erosion, mapping eco-regions, characterizing glacial troughs, mapping sea-floor terrain types, analysing wildfire propagation, measuring the morphometry of continental ice surfaces, and guiding missiles are some of its specific applications (Pike 1995, 2000, 2002).

Pike (1999) traced the beginning of modern Geomorphometry to the work of Alexander von Humboldt and Carl Ritter. The advent of remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software revived the interest in geomorphometry. The incorporation of geomorphological mapping into geographical information systems (GIS) has required greater precision with definitions, and the separation of thematic layers, so that it is converging with specific geomorphometry and becoming more flexible and more applicable, with a broader range of visualisation techniques. (Evans, 2012)

2.2 DIGITAL HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGY

The operational focus of geomorphometry is the extraction of land-surface parameters and objects from digital elevation models (Pike et al., 2008). There have been rapid developments in geomorphometry in the field of modelling of fluvial systems from digital elevation data (Blöschl and Sivapalan, 1995; Burlando et al., 1996; Rodríguez-Iturbe and Rinaldo, 1997; Pelletier, 1999). Studies are reported in adaptation of stream-branching topology to networks of valley glaciers (Bahr and Peckham, 1996) and development of the DEM-based TOPMODEL algorithm for simulating watershed hydrographs (Beven and Kirkby, 1997). Attempts to automatically extract stream networks and drainage

9

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

basins from DEMs using fully automated (Peckham, 1995) and interactive (Pilotti et al., 1996) approaches have been reported.

There have been continuous improvements in the techniques to transform the DEM-to-watershed (Brändli, 1996; Tarboton, 1997; Rieger, 1998). The problems due to low-relief topography (Martz and Garbrecht, 1998) and the inclusion of lakes (Mackay and Band, 1998) received attention. The accuracy of the results in network mapping with regard to both the numbers of extracted drainage cells (Lee and Chu, 1996) and uncertainty of the delimited watershed boundaries (Miller and Morrice, 1996) were assessed. The fidelity of the resulting drainage nets, basins and parameters primarily depend upon the accuracy and spacing of the input DEM and the DEM-to-watershed algorithms (Lagacherie et al., 1996).

The operational goal of geomorphometry is the extraction of land-surface parameters and spatial features like drainage topology, slope-frequency distribution, and land-surface classification from digital topography and deals with the processing of elevation data, description and visualisation of topography, and a number of numerical analyses. Geomorphometric analysis usually has five steps: sampling a surface, generating and correcting a surface model, calculating land-surface parameters, and applying the results (Pike et al., 2008). A square-grid representation of the land surface in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM) or digital land surface model (DLSM) is the usual input to geomorphometric analysis. The neighbourhood operation is the procedure that extracts most land- surface parameters and objects from a DEM (Hengl and Reuter, 2009).

Biswas et al. (1999) used Morphometric analysis for Prioritization of Micro-watersheds. Soil erosion studies using Morphometric analysis indicated relationships between cumulative stream length and stream order and also bifurcation ratio, drainage density, texture ratio and relief ratio (Nautiyal, 1994, Chaudhary and Sharma, 1998). A study in the upper Damodar valley of the effect of topographic elements on sediment production rate of the sub-watersheds indicated that the sediment production rate decreases with the increase of form factor. A detailed analysis of the drainage network in a watershed can provide

10

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

valuable information about watershed behaviour which will be useful for further hydrological analysis. The order, pattern, and density of drainage have considerable effect on the runoff, infiltration, land management etc. of the watershed and determine its flow characteristics and erosional behaviour (Murthy, 2000; Murthi, 2004).

The Geographic Information System (GIS) has unique features to relate to the point, linear and area features in terms of the topology as well as connectivity. Walsh et al. (1998) described the applications of remote sensing and GIS for geomorphic research. Increased interest is being directed to the mapping of hydrogeomorophological characteristics using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques (Epstein et al., 2002).

Hack's Law

John Hack in 1957 deduced from terrain analysis and interpretation of field observations that the drainage-basin area increases exponentially with channel length (Hack and Goodlett, 1960; Hack, 1965) and formulated the Hack's Law, an empirical relation with moderate scatter, L = 1.4 A0.6, where A is drainage-basin area and L is channel length. There were several studies on the variation of the value of the exponent, with an observed range of 0.470.65, with region and basin size (Miller, 1953; Mueller, 1972, 1973; Moseley and Parker, 1973; Shreve, 1967). Hack's Law was interpreted as related to the spacing of streams draining mountain belts (Hovius, 1996), and as an outgrowth of fractal properties (Rodríguez-Iturbe and Rinaldo, 1997). Later Dodds and Rothman (2000, 2001a), Willemin (2000), Birnir and others (2001), and Sivapalan and others (2002) also interpreted Hack’s Law.

2.3 HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGY OF THE WATERSHED

The study of the hydrogeomorphology of the watershed is essential for understanding the influence of lithology and geomorphology on the runoff processes. Philip and Singhal (1991) points out the importance of geomorphology for hydrological study in hard rock terrain of Bihar Plateau. According to Noe (2013), hydrogeomorphology is the integrated study of hydrology and

11

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

geomorphology. Hydrogeomorphology has been defined as “an interdisciplinary science that focuses on the interaction and linkage of hydrologic processes with landforms or earth materials and the interaction of geomorphic processes with surface and subsurface water in temporal and spatial dimensions” (Sidle and Onda, 2004).

Worcester (1948) defines geomorphology as the science of landforms; i.e. it is the interpretive description of the relief features of the earth. Fluvial morphology, the science of landforms as produced by river action, is a branch of geomorphology dealing with form of the streams and adjoining areas as brought about by erosion, transportation and deposition of sediment by the running water. The primary objective of fluvial hydraulics is to understand the basic mechanisms of erosion, transportation and deposition of sediment by flow in the river and develop qualitative and quantitative methods for prediction of river behaviour (Garde, 2006).

Assessment of the characteristics of the drainage basin using quantitative morphometric analysis can provide information about the hydrological nature of the rocks exposed within the drainage basin and gives an indication of the yield of the basin (Singh et al., 2013).

Drainage basin morphometry is a means of mathematically quantifying various aspects of drainage channels and characteristics that can be measured for comparison. Drainage characteristics of basins have been morphometrically analysed using conventional methods (Horton, 1945; Strahler, 1964) and remote sensing and GIS techniques by a number of researchers (Srivastava and Maitra 1995; Nag, 1998; Agarwal, 1998; Sreedevi et al., 2001; Narendra and Rao, 2006 ; Rao et al., 2010; Magesh et al., 2013) and observed that remote sensing and Geographical Information System are powerful tools for the morphometrical analysis of basins.

2.4 STUDIES RELATED TO BHARATHAPUZHA WATERSHED

CESS (1997, 2004) reported that even though many studies are available on the geomorphology of Indian rivers, studies are limited in the case of Kerala

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Rivers like Bharathapuzha River. Thirugnanasambandam (1980) conducted Geomorphological studies at Kuttippuram and Pattambi in the Bharathapuzha watershed, Anirudhan et al. (1994) studied textural and mineralogical variations of sediments of Bharathapuzha river system. Rajendran et al. (1996) reported heavy mineral and geochemical studies of lower Bharathapuzha sediments. Raj and Azeez. (2009) studied the spatiotemporal variation in water quality and quantity of Bharathapuzha watershed. Raj and Azeez (2012) carried out morphometric analysis in the Bharathapuzha watershed. Magesh et al. (2013) computed the morphometric parameters of Bharathapuzha watershed by geoprocessing DEM from SRTM alone. The results of the morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha watershed reported by Raj and Azeez (2012) vary considerably from the results obtained using geoprocessing of remote sensing data (SRTMDEM) alone by Magesh et al. (2013).

2.5

REMOTE SENSING

WATERSHED

CHARACTERIZATION

THROUGH

GIS

AND

The most laborious, tedious and time consuming part of the watershed based studies is the digitisation of topographic maps for preparation Digital Elevation Maps (DEM) etc. However, due to the advent of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the management and manipulation of spatial data has become easy. Geographic Information System (GIS) is defined as an information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyse and output geographically referenced data or geospatial data, in order to support decision making for planning and management of landuse, natural resources, environment, transportation, urban facilities, and other administrative records. The efficiency of GIS is in the integration of data set from various sources to analyse it as a whole and implement it for critical decision making in planning and management options. Garbrecht et al. (2001) describes GIS and distributed watershed models which addresses selected spatial data issue, data structures and projections, data sources, and information on data solution and uncertainties. Spatial data that are covered include digital elevation data, steam and drainage data, soil data, remotely sensed data and radar precipitation data.

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Honda et al. (1994) conducted a study on denudation in a Siwalik watershed of Nepal using 20 years Landsat data for analysing the change of forest cover in the watershed and topographical parameters were used in a model to estimate the probable annual soil loss. Sharma et al. (2001) conducted a study on micro- watershed development plans using Remote Sensing and GIS for a part of Shetrunji river basin, Bhavnagar district, Gujarat to identify the natural resources problems and to generate local specific micro-watershed development plans for a part of Shetrunji river basin. Chattopadhyay and Choudhury (2005) conducted a study on application of GIS and Remote Sensing for watershed development projects to plan the infra-structure development needed such as connecting market with local place.

Kaur et al. (2002) made a study on GIS based digital delineation of watershed and its advantage over conventional manual method in Hazaribagh and Bankura district of Jharkhand and West Bengal. The study indicated that automatic digital delineation of watershed boundaries avoids the subjectivity in locating the ridge lines in the manual method and thus gives more accurate shape and size of the delineated watershed.

Upadhye et al. (2005) used remote sensing and GIS technique for prioritization of watershed for development and management. Selvi et al. (2006) studied about the utilities and limitations of remote sensing and GIS applications in micro-watershed planning of Kuruthukuli watershed in Kundah basin of the Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu. Dhar and Mazumdar (2009) implemented a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool over the Kangsabati river watershed in Bankura district of West Bengal, India, for a year including monsoon and non- monsoon period in order to evaluate projected parameters for agricultural activities. Gupta and Mathur (2005) studied the effect of river configuration in flood management using Geographical Information System.

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

The principle behind NDVI is that chlorophyll causes considerable absorption of incoming sunlight in the red region (0.58-0.68 microns) of the electromagnetic spectrum and the spongy mesophyll leaf structure of the plants

14

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

creates considerable reflectance in the near-infrared region (0.72-1.10 microns) of the spectrum (Tucker, 1979, Tucker et al., 1991). Thus vigorously growing healthy vegetation gives high NDVI values due to the low red-light reflectance and high near-infrared reflectance (Cihlar et al., 1991).

Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) was observed to increase from water, ice, snow, opaque clouds, bare soil, to green vegetation (Holben, 1986). Wiegand et al., (1991) attributed the correlation between evapotranspiration and vegetation index as due to the correspondence between NDVI and the plant tissue absorbing the active photo synthetic radiation. The potential application of the NDVI for studying the expansion of the Sahara Desert has been demonstrated by Tucker et al. (1991).

2.6 GIS AND REMOTE SENSING IN MODELLING WATERSHED PROCESSES

Ravat (1994) conducted a study on water resource assessment and management in Himalayan watersheds through remote sensing and GIS technology to compare the runoff calculated by SCS method, observed runoff and that computed by water balance method. Sharma and Kumar (2002) studied the application of SCS model to a watershed in upper Jojri of Rajasthan. Sarangi et al. (2000) studied the use of GIS in assessing the erosion statistics of two watersheds, Banha watershed at upper Damodar valley, Jharkhand and IARI watershed at Delhi. Teeter et al. (2000) have focused their studies on the use of remote sensing and GIS in watershed level analyses of basin characteristics such as land use/land cover, slope, and soil attributes which affect water quality by regulating sediment and chemical concentration.

Pandey et al. (2004) extracted topographical parameters and stream properties from the DEM developed for Bankduth agricultural watershed for use in the simulation of runoff and sediment yield from the watershed. Deshmukh et al. (2007) had integrated GIS with the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) for identification of sediment source areas and the prediction of storm sediment yield from the Banha watershed of upper Damodar river valley in Jharkhand state using the Integrated Land and Information System (ILWIS)

15

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

package. Misra and Babu (2008) delineated the watershed of a proposed drop structure in an agricultural micro-watershed in Kashipur block of Purulia district using hydrology modelling extension tools.

Ames et al. (2009) had estimated stream channel geometry in Idaho using GIS and derived the watershed characteristics and described the estimation of stream channel geometry with multiple regression analysis of GIS-derived watershed characteristics including drainage area, watershed -averaged precipitation, mean watershed slope, elevation, forest cover, per cent area with slopes greater than 30 per cent, and per cent area with north-facing slopes greater than 30 per cent. Results from this multivariate predictor method were compared to results from the traditional single-variable (drainage area) relationship for a sample of 98 unregulated and undiverted streams in Idaho. Root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was calculated for both multiple- and single-variable predictions for 100 independent, random sub samples of the dataset at each of four different sub sample levels. The multiple-variable technique produced significantly lower RMSE for prediction of both stream width and depth when compared to the drainage area-only technique. In the best predictive equation, stream width depended positively on drainage area and mean watershed precipitation, and negatively on fraction of watershed consisting of north-facing slopes greater than 30. They concluded that within a given physiographic province, multivariate analysis of readily available GIS-derived watershed variables can significantly improve estimates of stream width and depth for use in flow-routing software models.

2.7 MODELLING WATERSHED HYDROLOGICAL RESPONSES

The need for estimation of runoff in engineering problems like urban sewer design, land reclamation through drainage and design of bridges and spillways necessitated modelling of runoff as a hydrological response of a watershed to the rainfall input. Now there are innumerable numbers of models for the study of hydrological problems. Beven (1989) presents a review of the hydrologic modelling.

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

The hydrologic models available could broadly be grouped as empirical and physically based models (Singh, 1988; Arnold et al. 1998; Merrit et al. 2003; Gassman et al. 2007). Empirical models are black box models and they try to fit a relationship between input and output variables without looking into the governing physical laws (Singh, 1988; McCuen, 1989). On the other hand, physically based models try to incorporate the physics based processes governing the input output relationship.

Warren and Gary (2003) present a detailed classification of hydrologic models as 1. Lumped Vs. distributed parameter model, 2. Stochastic Vs. deterministic model, 3. Event based vs. continuous model and 4. Prediction Vs. water budget model.

Refsgaard et al. (1999) illustrate the applicability of a comprehensive hydrological modelling system (MIKE SHE) for the management of water resources for agricultural purposes in a watershed. De Carlo et al. (2006) used a single-valued hydraulic conductivity for the saturated zone as the representative of the entire watershed for the physically distributed modelling system, MIKE SHE, which is applied to the ManoaPalolo stream system on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, to study the watershed response to storm events.

Kumar and Kumar (2006) estimated direct runoff from a hilly sub watershed of Ramganga river watershed in Uttaranchal, India using a geomorphologic instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) based on two parameters gamma type conceptual model.

Pandey et al. (2008) calibrated and validated WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) watershed model for a small hilly watershed Karso, upper Damodar Valley, India. Gronsten and Lundekvam (2006) estimated yearly and daily surface runoff and soil loss simulated by the WEPP Hill slope model and were compared with measurements from two different soil erosion plot sites in south- eastern Norway. Pieri et al. (2007) tested the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model using data from a detailed study conducted on experimental plots in the Apennines Mountain Range, northern Italy. Gong et al. (2009) made a comparison of WEPP and SWAT for modelling soil erosion of the Zhangjiachong

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and suggested that the model efficiency indicate that the results of both models were acceptable.

Dass et al. (2007) has conducted a hydrological study and water resource assessment in Kokriguda watershed of Orissa for sustainable water management. They made an assessment of water resource potential, availability and demand in Kokriguda watershed, a representative of Eastern Ghats of Orissa, by considering all the sources of water, land uses for sustainable water management. Therefore different interventions like installation of underground pipeline irrigation system, proper use of water, in-situ moisture conservation measures, crop diversification etc. were executed and found to be effective for sustainable water management.

Raj and Azeez (2009) have made studies on spatial and temporal variation in surface water chemistry of Bharathapuzha watershed. It was found that in basins that are more disturbed, monsoonal discharge was much higher than the discharges in other seasons, while the slightly disturbed basin had consistent level of discharge throughout the season.

2.8 DERIVATION OF FLOW CHARACTERISTICS

The flow characteristics indicating meso-scale hydrological response like mean annual flow, mean monthly flows, coefficient of variation of flows, flow duration curves, base flow statistics and average number of days without flow in a year are generally referred to as low flow measures (IH, 1980; Gustard, 1983; Gustard, et al., 1989; Smakhatin and Toulouse, 1998). Generally the waste disposal by dilution depends on the amount of water available in a stream for dilution and critically important at the time of low flows. Hence low flow measures are used for environmental studies and Smakhatin et al. (1995) found that these measures were used by 65% of the water resources practitioners in South Africa for environmental impact assessment. IH (1980) and Gustard et al. (1989) details methods for estimating the flow duration curve from daily flows.

Most of the dry weather flow consist of the contribution from groundwater flow and delayed interflow, termed as base flow (Kirkby, 1978, 1985; Linsley et al., 1982). The proportion of the volume of base flows to the volume of total

18

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

flows within a specified period is called the base flow index (BFI) and is the most common measure of base flows (IH, 1980; Gustard et al., 1989). BFI is used as a measure to quantify the variation of base flow between watersheds in regionalization. Techniques have been developed for the automatic estimation of BFI from the flow time series and mostly the smoothed minima technique (IH, 1980; Tallaksen, 1995), and the recursive digital filter (Lyne and Hollick, 1979; Chapman, 1999) are used. These two techniques have been interchangeably used in various studies as there is no reported dissimilarity between the BFIs estimated by them. Nathan and McMahon (1990b) compared these two techniques and found a significant correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.94) between the BFI's estimated using these methods. The BFI's estimated using the smoothed minima and recursive digital filter techniques were found to be comparable to the manually obtained BFI's (Arnold et al., 1995).

The basin descriptors used for different regionalization studies include area (Tasker, 1982; NERC,1975; Gustard et al. ,1989; Gan et al. ,1990; Nathan and McMahon, 1990a; Riggs, 1990; Burn and Boorman, 1993; Sefton and Howarth, 1998), elevation (Nathan and McMahon, 1990a; Gustard et al., 1989; Tasker, 1982), main stream length (Nathan and McMahon, 1990a; Gustard et al., 1989; Burn and Boorman, 1993), Slope (Nathan and McMahon, 1990a; Gustard et al., 1989; Sefton and Howarth, 1998; Burn and Boorman,1993; Lacey and Grayson, 1998; Berger and Entekhabi, 2001), stream frequency (Sefton and Howarth,1998; Nathan and McMahon, 1990a; Gustard et al,1989; Burn and Boorman,1993), drainage density (Nathan and McMahon, 1990a; Lacey and Grayson, 1998; Berger and Entekhabi, 2001), proportion of watershed under different soil types (Sefton and Howarth, 1998; Burn and Boorman, 1993; Gustard et al., 1989; Tasker, 1982), land cover (Sefton and Howarth, 1998; Lacey and Grayson, 1998; Nathan and McMahon, 1990a, Hundecha and Bardossy, 2004; Hundecha et al., 2008), proportion of watershed under different geologies (Sefton and Howarth, 1998; Nathan and McMahon, 1990a; Gustard et al., 1989; Yokoo et al., 2001), location ( latitude and longitude) (Sefton and Howarth,1998; Nathan and McMahon,1990a).

Mean annual precipitation and number of rainy days

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

The quantification of the hydrological response of a watershed is primarily depended on the quantity of the received rainfall. The number of rainy days determines the amount of monthly precipitation received (De Groen, 2002).

2.9 WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS

The estimation of elevation of the watershed from topographic maps is a tedious and time consuming exercise (Meijerink, et al., 1994). The elevations in a watershed are usually represented by a digital elevation model (DEM).

The kinetic energy available to the water flow for its movement and for causing sediment transportation is determined by the slope of the topography and it is related to the base flows and runoff (Vogel and Kroll, 1996). When the slope variation with in a watershed is high, one slope index may not be able to represent the effect of topography on hydrological response of the watershed. There have been reports of different slope indices used to represent the effect of slope on the runoff process (Drayton et al., 1980; IH, 1980; Seyhan and Keet, 1981; Gustard et al., 1989; Nathan and McMahon 1990a). When a DEM is used for the estimation of slopes, the cumulative percentage distribution of the pixels of different slope is used to represent the slope. The use of the cumulative percentage distribution of the pixels at 50%, the median slope, has been found to be a representative measure of the slope (Berger and Entekhabi, 2001).

The ratio of the total stream length within a watershed to the watershed area, called drainage density, is an important measure (Gregory and Walling, 1973; Seyhan, 1977) that affects the hydrological response of a watershed and its dissection (Seyhan and Keet, 1981; Pitlick, 1994; Tucci et al, 1995; Berger and Entekhabi, 2001). The difficulties involved in using this index are the inconsistency among mapping agencies in defining a stream (Gregory and Walling, 1973; Seyhan and Keet, 1981) and the tedious and time consuming process involved in its estimation from aerial photographs or topographical maps.

The representation of geological effects on the hydrological response of a watershed by a suitable index faces the major challenge of sparse data in developing countries as the data on the hydrogeological characteristics

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

which widely varies with space is usually non-existent. Several studies have used the proportions of different lithologies for regionalization (Gustard et al., 1989; Nathan and McMahon, 1990a; Sefton and Howarth, 1998; Yokoo et al. 2001).

Land Use / Land Cover Classification

Land use land cover classification presents the level of utilisation of the land. Even though the terms land use and land cover are related and often used interchangeably, there is a finer distinction between them. Land uses refer to man’s activity and the various uses which are carried on land (Clawson and Stewart, 1965) and describe how parcels of land are used for agriculture, settlements or industry (Anderson et al.1976). Land cover refers to materials such as vegetation, water bodies, rocks, which are present on the surface (Anderson et

al.1976).

Land use/ land cover affects many hydrological processes like evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff etc. (Hendriks, 1990). As surface cover provides roughness to the surface, it reduces runoff and thereby increases the infiltration. Infiltration will be more and runoff will be less in the forested areas whereas the rate of infiltration may decrease in urban areas (Sarkar et al. 2001). Since remote sensing provides excellent information with regard to spatial distribution of vegetation type and land use in less time and at low cost in comparison to conventional data (Roy et al. 1973), land cover mapping is one of its important applications.

Land cover has been shown in several studies to affect flow characteristics (Edwards and Blackie, 1981; Bosch, 1979; Mumeka, 1986; Bosch and Hewlett, 1982; Andrews and Bullock, 1994).

2.10 GEOMORPHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON THE HYDROLOGICAL RESPONSE OF THE WATERSHED

Geomorphology of watershed has a very strong relationship with the transformation process of rainfall into runoff (Bhattacharjya and Chaurasia, 2013). The generation of direct runoff from rainfall events is controlled by the nature of the channel network (Zhang and Govindaraju, 2000, 2003). The transformation of

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

a watershed’s rainfall into runoff is a highly nonlinear, dynamic and distributed process (Jain et al., 2004, Jain and Srinivasulu, 2004). The geomorphological characteristics of the watershed have a significant impact on the process of nonlinear transformation of rainfall to runoff. Bhattacharjya and Chaurasia, (2013) observed that several other processes like evapotranspiration and infiltration, involved in the transformation of rainfall into runoff are also highly influenced by the watershed geomorphology and heterogeneity.

A lumped model of rainfall runoff transformation does not consider the spatial variability of the rainfall input as well as the geomorphological characteristics. Chen and Adams, (2006) observed that the use of lump model may not be adequate for the prediction of the runoff in a watershed having significant spatial variability of rainfall and geomorphological characteristics.

The geomorphological characteristics of the watershed vary spatially and the hydrological input in the form of rainfall also has spatial variability. Therefore, the spatial variation of the geomorphological parameters and spatial variation of rainfall should be considered in developing the rainfall runoff model of a basin (Bhattacharjya and Chaurasia, 2013).

Bhattacharjya and Chaurasia (2013) found that a methodology based on the geomorphological parameters obtained from SRTM digital elevation data for the prediction of runoff from a watershed has the potential for field application and observed that the geomorphological parameters viz. area, drainage density, relief ratio, elongation ratio and shape factor yields better model performance.

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

CHAPTER 3 WATERSHEDS, DATA, TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES USED

3.1 WATERSHEDS USED FOR THE ANALYSIS Two watersheds in Kerala, India are used as examples in this book for demonstrating the watershed analysis procedures. 3.1.1 The Bharathapuzha watershed

Bharathapuzha ("River of Bhārata") River, also known as the River Nila, Perar or Ponnanipuzha is in the central part of Kerala state, India.

or Ponnanipuzha is in the central part of Kerala state, India. Figure 3.1 Location map of

Figure 3.1 Location map of the Bharathapuzha watershed

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Watershed Analysis – Through FOSS Tools Figure 3.2 Bharathapuzha watershed Kerala state, situated on the south-west

Figure 3.2 Bharathapuzha watershed

Kerala state, situated on the south-west corner of India, receives 3085 mm of average rainfall and is blessed with 40 minor rivers and 4 medium rivers. Bharathapuzha River is the second longest among the west-flowing perennial rivers in Kerala and it fulfils the water requirement of several millions of people in central Kerala. Bharathapuzha is about 209 km long and lies approximately between 10° 26' and 11° 13' north latitudes and 75° 53' and 77° 13' east longitudes. Out of the total watershed area of 6,186 km², 4,400 km 2 falls within Kerala, occupying about one-ninth of its total geographical area and the remaining area (1,786 km²) is in Tamil Nadu (CWC, 2006). Out of the total basin area in Kerala, about 87% falls within Palakkad district, 12% in Malappuram district and the remaining 1% in Thrissur district (CWRDM, 1991, 2004). Bharathapuzha originates at Kovittola Betta of Kundra reserve forest in the Western Ghats, located in Tamil Nadu, at an elevation of 2336 m above MSL, and flows westward to join the Arabian Sea at Ponnani (10° 47' 13" N, 75° 54' 40" E) Kerala, India. The average discharge of the river at its mouth is 161 m 3 /s.

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The river follows northwards till Pollachi from the head waters at Anamalai hills and then takes a westward course. The confluence of Chitturpuzha and Kalpathipuzha in Parali creates Bharathappuzha which flow westwards. Bharathapuzha’s conflux with Gayathripuzha, originating from the Anaimalai hills, is at Mayannur. The Thuthapuzha joins Bharathapuzha at Pallipuram in its westward flow towards the Arabian Sea.

The four major tributaries of the river are Chitturpuzha (Kannadipuzha, Sokanasinipuzha), Kalpathipuzha, Gayatripuzha, and Toothapuzha. The major and minor tributaries of Bharathapuzha are listed in Table 3.1.

. Table 3.1 Tributaries of Bharathapuzha sorted in order from the upstream.

Major Tributaries

Minor Tributaries

1. Chitturpuzha

a. Palar

b. Aliyar

c. Uppar

a. Korayar

2. Kalpathipuzha

b. Varattar

c. Walayar

d. Malampuzha

3. Gayathripuzha

a. Mangalam River

b. Ayalurpuzha

c. Vandazhippuzha

d. Meenkarappuzha

e. Chulliyar

4. Thuthapuzha

a. Kunthippuzha

b. Kanjirappuzha

c. Ambankadavu

d. Thuppanadupuzha

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

The Chitturpuzha or Kannadipuzha or Sokanasinipuzha, originates from Anamalai hills in Western Ghats and flows in a NW-SE direction through Chittur and joins the Kalpathipuzha River near Parali. It has three tributaries. The Kalpathipuzha originates from south of Coimbatore and flows roughly in an E-W direction until it joins with Chitturpuzha. It has four tributaries. The Gayathripuzha with five tributaries flows along the NW-SE from Anamalai before it finally join the main river at Mayannur. The Thuthapuzha originates from the Silent Valley hills and flows in a roughly E-W direction and joins the main river at Pallippuram. Thuthapuzha has four tributaries.

Bharathapuzha watershed has lowlands (less than 8 m), midlands (8 m to 76 m) and highland (greater than 76 m) areas. The land use in the basin includes cultivated area (60%), of which paddy occupies the major portion followed by coconut and rubber, forest (26%), and barren and cultivable land (5%).

This river forms the major water source for the people of Malappuram, Thrissur and Palakkad districts in Kerala, and Coimbatore District in Tamil Nadu. Recently, because of in stream sand mining, clay mining for brick kilns, and over exploitation of water due to anthropogenic pressures, the watershed is experiencing scarcity of water.

3.1.1.2 Rain gauge and river gauge stations in the Bharathapuzha watershed

The Water Resources Department (WRD), Kerala maintains seven river gauging stations and the Central Water Commission (CWC) maintains five gauging stations in the Bharathapuzha basin.

Bharathapuzha watershed map with the locations of river gauging stations and rain gauge stations are shown in Figure 3.3. Table 3.2 lists the different river gauging stations in Bharathapuzha basin.

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Figure 3.3 Bharathapuzha watershed map showing the locations of rain and river gauges
Figure 3.3
Bharathapuzha watershed map showing the locations of rain and river gauges

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Table 3.2 River gauging stations in Bharathapuzha basin

Gauging

Name

Latitude

Longitude

River/Tributary

Agency

Station

GS01

Amparampalayam

10° 36' 00” N

76° 59' 00” E

Chitturpuzha

CWC

GS02

Pudur

10° 46' 20” N

76° 34' 30” E

Chitturpuzha

CWC

GS03

Mankara

10° 45' 40” N

76° 29' 20” E

Bharathapuzha

CWC

GS04

Kumbidi

10° 51' 00” N

76° 02' 00” E

Bharathapuzha

CWC

GS05

Pulamanthole

10° 53' 50” N

76° 11' 50” E

Toothapuzha

CWC

GS06

Kuttippuram

10° 50' 25" N

76° 01' 18" E

Bharathapuzha

WRDK

GS07

Thiruvegapura

10° 52' 19" N

76° 06' 51" E

Toothapuzha

WRDK

GS08

Thrithala

10° 48' 24" N

76° 07' 56" E

Bharathapuzha

WRDK

GS09

Cheruthuruthy

10° 45' 10" N

76° 16' 30" E

Bharathapuzha

WRDK

GS10

Pambadi

10° 45' 01" N

76° 26' 09" E

Kalpathipuzha

WRDK

GS11

Cheerakuzhy

10° 42' 13" N

76° 25' 38" E

Gayathripuzha

WRDK

GS12

Manakkadavu

12° 13' 15" N

75° 30' 31" E

Chitturpuzha

WRDK

3.1.2 Meenachil watershed

Meenachil River is formed by several streams originating from Western Ghats. Meenachil watershed lies between 9°25’to 9°55’ N latitudes and 76°20’ to 76°55’E longitudes and it is located in the Alappuzha and Kottayam district and along the western boundary of Idukki district of Kerala state has been taken for study. It is bounded by Vaikom and Meenachil taluks of Kottayam district and Thodupuzha taluk of Idukki district in the north, Changanassery and Kanjirapally taluks of Kottayam district and Kuttanad taluk of Alappuzha district in the south, Peerumedu and Thodupuzha taluks of Idukki district in the east and shertallai taluk of Alappuzha district in the west .Total area of 1208.11 km² covering 52 villages spread over 59 panchayats, 18 blocks and three district.

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Watershed Analysis – Through FOSS Tools Figure 3.4 Meenachil watershed 3.2 MAPS AND DATA USED 3.2.1

Figure 3.4 Meenachil watershed

3.2 MAPS AND DATA USED

3.2.1 Rainfall

The rainfall time series data is an important essential input required for watershed analysis and is required for all watershed models.

Daily rainfall data for the study area are available from various sources like the Water Resources Department (WRD) Kerala, Kerala Engineering Research Institute (KERI) and Kerala Agricultural University.

The name of rain gauge stations (Table 3.3) and their geographical locations are shown in the Fig 3.3.

Important rain gauge stations are Pattambi, Shoranur, Ottapalam, Olavakode, Palghat, Chittur and Ponnani. Other identified rain gauge stations with their locations are given in table 3.3.

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Table 3.3 Rain gauge stations in Bharathapuzha basin

No.

Name

Latitude

Longitude

1.

Alathur

10° 38’ N

76° 33' E

2.

Cheerakuzhi

10° 41’ N

76° 29' E

3.

Cherplacheri

10° 52' N

76° 19’ E

4.

Chuliyar dam

10° 36' N

76° 44' E

5.

Elanadu

10° 37' N

76° 23’ E

6.

Silent Valley

11" 05' N

76° 26' E

7.

Eruthampathy

10° 45' N

76° 52' E

8.

Erimayur

10° 39’ N

76° 35’ E

9.

Koduvayur

10° 43' N

76° 38' E

10.

K.K. Pathy

10° 42’ N

76° 50’ E

11.

Maiampuzha

10° 52' N

76° 41' E

12.

Mallisserikavu

10° 40' N

76° 21' E

13.

Manakadavu

10° 29' N

76° 51' E

14.

Manalooru E.

10° 31' N

76° 43' E

15.

Mangalam Dam

10° 31' N

76° 32' E

16.

Mannarghat

10° 59' N

76° 28' E

17.

Mathur

10° 45’ N

76° 33' E

18.

Meenkara Dam

10° 38' N

76° 48' E

19.

Meeraflors E

10° 32' N

76° 42’ E

20.

Moolathara

10° 40’ N

76° 53' E

21.

Nelliampathy

10° 30’ N

76° 40’E

22.

Nurnee

10° 40’ N

76° 47' E

23.

Parli

10° 48’ N

76° 33' E

24.

Pazhayannur S.F.

10° 40' N

76° 25’ E

25.

Pokkunni

10° 38' N

76° 41’ E

26.

Pothundy

10° 33’ N

76° 33' E

27.

Pulikkal

11° 02' N

76° 31’ E

28.

Sungam

10° 33’ N

76° 49'E

29.

Thembaramadaku

10° 41' N

76° 48' E

30.

Thrithala

10° 48' N

76° 08'E

31.

Vadakkanchery

10° 34’ N

76° 29' E

32.

Walayar

10° 49' N

76° 51'E

33.

Kanjirapuzha

10° 53'N

76° 30' E

34.

Palghat OBS

10° 46' N

76° 39' E

30

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

3.2.2 River flow

River flow data are available from Central Water Commission and the Water Resources Department (WRD), Kerala.

3.2.3 Other climatic data

Climatic parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiations are available from Kerala Agricultural University.

3.2.4 Topographic maps

Survey of India (SOI) toposheets (1:50,000 scale) bearing numbers 49N/13, 49N/14, 58A/4, 58A/8, 58A/12, 58A/16, 58B/1, 58B/2, 58B/5, 58B/6, 58B/7, 58B/9, 58B/10, 58B/11, 58B/13 58B/14, 58B/15, 58E/4, 58F/2, and 58F/3 were digitized and digital contour and drainage maps were prepared from them.

3.2.4.1 Making a digital version of the topographic map (Rossiter & Hengl, 2004)

1. The topographic maps were scanned at resolution of 300 DPI (≈ 0.1mm per pixel), which is 15 % finer than the highest-possible plotting accuracy of a paper map (0.1 mm) produced by computer methods.

2. Scanned maps were saved in the uncompressed TIF (Tagged Imaged Format) format.

3. The scanned maps were imported into ILWIS, from TIF to raster.

4. The scanned maps were georeferenced using “Tiepoints” method, using “affine” transformation with at least six tiepoints. If the scanned map has barrel distortions introduced by the scanner, then the georeferencing is done with full second order transformation with at least ten tiepoints.

5. The tiepoints used are grid intersections near the edges of the map which are digitized and their real-world coordinates, known from the grid lines, are entered.

6. The accuracy of the geo-referencing is visually and numerically evaluated. Visual evaluation is done by checking whether the grid lines, added as an annotation to the displayed map, are all exactly in the centre of the grid

31

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

lines as drawn on the map. Numerical evaluation is done by examining the DRow and DCol fields for each point. They should be quite small and less than or equivalent to the maximum location accuracy (i.e. 0.1 mm for fully-automatically produced map or 0.25 mm for map produced by analogue means).

3.2.4.2 Creating a seamless digital map of the area from the digitized toposheets.

A seamless digital map of the area was created from the Survey of India topographic sheets using the procedure explained by Rossiter, 1998.

1. A separate coordinate system is created for each N-S strip of map sheets in a single map series using its own central meridian with the same projection parameters.

2. Corner tics corresponding to the Lat/Long graticule for each strip are projected into that strip’s grid coordinates;

3. Maps from each strip are registered using the corner tics from that strip’s grid coordinates;

4. Coverages from each strip are separately digitized in that strip’s grid coordinates;

5. Coverages from each strip are separately projected back to geographic coordinates;

6. Coverages from adjacent strips are merged in geographic coordinates to create a seamless, single coverage.

3.2.4.3 Digitizing the contours and drainage network.

1. Create a new segment file using the project’s coordinate system and open the segment editor; display any one of the scanned overlay as the background image.

2. Set the snap tolerance to match the precision of the overlay. The tolerance is entered in ground coordinates, usually meters. Since the drawing accuracy when making the overlay could not be higher than 0.25 mm, convert this to meters (say, 12.5 m, at 1:50000).

32

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

3. The segments from the overlay are traced using on-screen digitizing.

Contour lines at 20 m interval of the topographic maps were digitized

using the ILWIS software as detailed above to prepare the contour map.

3.2.5 Soil map

Soil map from National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning

(NBSS & LUP) was used for obtaining soil attribute information. This soil maps

from National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP)

containing the different soil classes and their aerial coverage was scanned,

imported and the soil groups boundaries digitized to create the segment soil map.

Attribute data of individual soil types were entered and the polygon map of the

soil was prepared.

3.2.6 Remote sensing imagery

IRS-P6 LISS III imagery having spatial resolution of 23.5 x 23.5 m from

National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad. LANDSAT TM imageries at 30

meter resolution for the entire watershed were obtained from the Global Land

Cover Facility’s (GLCF) Landsat Imagery database

(http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/landsat/) (2005).

3.2.7 Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

1.

SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEM.

 

2.

ASTER

(Advanced

Space

borne

Thermal

Emission

and

Reflection

Radiometer) DEM.

Table 3.4 Comparison between SRTM and ASTER DEM

 

ASTER DEM

SRTM DEM

Data source

ASTER

Space shuttle radar

Generation and distribution

METI/NASA

NASA/USGS

Data acquisition period

2000 ~ ongoing

11 days (in 2000)

Posting interval

30m

90m

DEM accuracy (St. dev.)

7~14m

10m

DEM coverage

83N ~ 83S

60N ~ 56S

Area of missing data

No data due to cloud cover

Topographically steep area - radar characteristics

33

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

SRTM digital data model is generated by using a high resolution imaging radar system i.e. whereas ASTER digital data model is captured by an advanced multispectral imager i.e. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer. The spatial resolution is 90 m and 30 m for SRTM and ASTER DEM respectively. SRTM DEM is available for 80 % of earth’s land area. Since the SRTM elevation data are unedited, they contain occasional voids, or gaps, where the terrain lay in the radar beam’s shadow or in areas of extremely low radar backscatter, such as sea, dams, lakes and virtually any water-covered surface whereas ASTER consists of three separate instruments subsystems, each operating in a different spectral region, using separate optical system. The visiblenear infrared system, which is used in DEM production, consists of two telescopesone nadir looking with a three-band detector and the other backward looking (27.7u off-nadir) with a single band detector.

Stereoscopic Image
Stereoscopic Image

Pre Processing

Initial Setting

Sensor Model Data information
Sensor Model
Data information

GCP Collection

Tie Point Making and Checking

GCP (x,y,z)
GCP (x,y,z)
Error Information Triangulation Process DEM Generation DEM
Error Information
Triangulation Process
DEM Generation
DEM

Figure 3.5 Flow chart of ASTER and SRTM DEM generation process

34

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Watershed Analysis – Through FOSS Tools (a) SRTM DEM of Meenachil Watershed (b) ASTER DEM of

(a) SRTM DEM of Meenachil Watershed

– Through FOSS Tools (a) SRTM DEM of Meenachil Watershed (b) ASTER DEM of Meenachil Watershed

(b) ASTER DEM of Meenachil Watershed

Figure 3.6 DEMs generated from SRTM and ASTER data sets.

35

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

3.3 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES USED

3.3.1 ILWIS

ILWIS (Integrated Land and Water Information System) is an integrated Remote Sensing software and raster and vector GIS software. It has raster processing capabilities to work on remotely sensed satellite images and vector processing capabilities for making vector maps and spatial modelling abilities. Its fully integrated raster and vector approach and user-friendliness make it particularly suitable for natural resources managers, field scientists, and educators.

ILWIS development was initiated in 1984 by Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Netherlands (http://www.itc.nl/ilwis/) and they continued development up to release 3.31 in 2005. From July 2007, ILWIS software is freely available as open source software under the 52°North initiative (GPL license) and is called ILWIS Open (http://52north.org/communities/ilwis). ILWIS Open is a Free and open-source software (FOSS) remote sensing and GIS desktop package which integrates image, vector and thematic data in one and delivers a wide range of features including import/export, digitizing, editing, analysis and display of data, as well as production of quality maps. The current version of ILWIS Open is 3.8.3 and is having several improvements and additional features compared to the version 3.31 released by ITC.

The free version of ILWIS Academic 3.31 and ILWIS Open are used for the GIS and remote sensing digital image processing applications used in the present study.

3.3.2 MapWindow GIS

MapWindow GIS Desktop (http://www.mapwindow.org) is a Free and open-source software (FOSS) geographic information system (GIS). MapWindow is an open source “Programmable Geographic Information System” that supports manipulation, analysis, and viewing of geospatial data and associated attribute data in several standard GIS data formats including ESRI’s shape files. MapWindow has standard GIS data visualization features as well as DBF attribute

36

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

table editing, shapefile editing, and data converters. MapWindow supports various standard GIS formats including Shapefiles, GeoTIFF, ESRI ArcInfo ASCII and binary grids. It is a mapping tool and a GIS modelling application programming interface (API). MapWindow 4 Desktop GIS (v4.8.6) was also used for the GIS analysis in this study.

3.3.3 TauDEM (Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models)

TauDEM (Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models) is a suite of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) tools for the extraction and analysis of hydrologic information from topography as represented by a DEM. TauDEM is a free software developed by David G. Tarboton of Utah State University (http://hydrology.usu.edu/taudem/taudem5.0/index.html) and is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

TauDEM v5.0 is the main component of the MapWindow version 4.8 Watershed Delineation plugin.

TauDEM has the following capability:

Development

of

flooding approach

hydrologically

correct

(pit

removed)

DEMs

using

the

Calculates flow paths (directions) and slopes

Calculates contributing area using single and multiple flow direction methods

Multiple methods for the delineation of stream networks including topographic form-based methods sensitive to spatially variable drainage density

Objective methods for determination of the channel network delineation threshold based on stream drops

Delineation of watersheds and subwatersheds draining to each stream segment and association between watershed and segment attributes for setting up hydrologic models

37

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Specialized functions for terrain analysis, including:

o

Calculates the slope/area ratio that is the basis for the topographic wetness index

o

Calculates both the distance up to ridges and down to streams in horizontal, vertical, along slope and direct variants

o

Maps locations upslope where activities have an effect on a downslope location

o

Evaluates upslope contribution subject to decay or attenuation

o

Calculates accumulation where the uptake is subject to concentration limitations

o

Calculates accumulation where the uptake is subject to transport limitations

o

Evaluates reverse accumulation

o

Evaluates potential avalanche runout areas

TauDEM v5.0 plugin of the MapWindow version 4.8 is used for the Watershed Delineation and computation of watershed characteristics.

3.3.4 GRASS GIS

Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS GIS) is a geographic information system (GIS) software suite used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing and visualizing, producing graphics and maps, and spatial and temporal modelling.

The development of GRASS was started in 1982 by the USA-CERL (U.S. Army - Construction Engineering Research Laboratory), a branch of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, for land management and environmental planning of the United States military. Since USA-CERL officially ceased its involvement in GRASS after release 4.1 (1995), a group at Baylor University took over the software, releasing GRASS 4.2. Later, Markus Neteler, the current project leader,

38

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

released GRASS 4.2.1(1998), with major improvements including a new graphical user interface. The license of the public-domain GRASS software was changed to the GNU GPL in October 1999. Now, GRASS is a powerful software suite with a wide range of applications in vast multi-disciplinary areas of scientific research and engineering. GRASS GIS is now licensed and released as free and open-source software (FOSS) under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and runs on multiple operating systems, including OS X, Windows and Linux.

GRASS GIS contains over 350 modules to render maps and images; process multispectral image data; manipulate raster and vector data; and create, manage, and store spatial data. It can handle raster, topological vector, image processing, and graphic data.

The following modules in GRASS GIS are related to watershed analysis:

Module

Function

r.basins.fill

Generates watershed subbasins raster map.

r.carve

Generates stream channels.

r.fill.dir

Filters and generates a depressionless elevation map and a flow direction map from a given elevation raster map.

r.flow

Constructs flowlines.

r.stream.extract

Performs stream network extraction

r.water.outlet

Creates watershed basins from a drainage direction map.

r.watershed

Calculates hydrological parameters and RUSLE factors.

t e r s h e d Calculates hydrological parameters and RUSLE factors. Figure 3.7 Start-up

Figure 3.7 Start-up window of GRASS GIS

39

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

r.watershed module

Watershed basin analysis program, r.watershed calculates hydrological parameters and RUSLE factors. r.watershed generates a set of maps indicating: 1) flow accumulation, drainage direction, the location of streams and watershed basins, and 2) the LS and S factors of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE).

LS and S factors of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Figure 3.8 r.watershed module

Figure 3.8 r.watershed module window of GRASS GIS

40

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

CHAPTER 4 WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

The response of a watershed to the hydrological input depends on various watershed characteristics. This chapter discusses the basic watershed characteristics which are important with respect to the hydrological studies.

4.2 METHODOLOGY

4.2.1. Preparation of thematic maps using GIS

Survey of India Toposheets Remote Sensing Data Contour Map Drainage Network Watershed Boundary NDVI FCC
Survey of India Toposheets
Remote Sensing Data
Contour Map
Drainage Network
Watershed Boundary
NDVI
FCC
DEM
Overlay
Overlay
Slope Map
Aspect Map
Size, Shape etc.
Drainage Map
Landuse Map

Figure 4.1

Flowchart for the derivation of watershed characteristics.

The details of the data, maps and tools used are discussed in section 3.2. The digitisation technique used for getting vector thematic layers from paper maps

41

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

like Survey of India (SOI) toposheets, soil map, geology map etc. is described in section 3.2. The flow chart for deriving the watershed characteristics from toposheets and remote sensing imagery is shown in Figure 4.1 and the general flow chart for the preparation of thematic maps is given in Figure 4.2.

for the preparation of thematic maps is given in Figure 4.2. Figure 4.2 Flow Chart for

Figure 4.2

Flow Chart for the preparation of thematic maps

42

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

4.2.1.1 Creation of contour map

The detailed methodology adopted for the digitization and joining of various SOI toposheets is given in section 3.2. The contour lines at 20 m interval of the topographic maps were digitized using ILWIS. These contours were checked and corrected for overlaps, dead ends and intersections to produce a segment map.

4.2.1.2 Creation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

The segment map of contour lines prepared as explained in 4.2.1.1 is rasterized and the Digital Elevation Model is prepared in ILWIS using the k neighbourhood method of contour interpolation. A grid resolution of 30 x 30 m and an elevation resolution of 0.1m were adopted for the DEM.

4.2.1.3 Soil map

Soil map was prepared by digitizing the national bureau of soil survey and land use planning (NBSS and LUP) map using GIS software and attribute data was added.

4.2.1.4 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is one of the vegetation indices commonly used to give a measure of the vegetative cover on the land surface over wide areas. NDVI values range from -1 to 1.The NDVI ratio is calculated by dividing the difference in the near-infrared (NIR) and red colour bands by the sum of the NIR and red colours bands for each pixel in the image as follows:

= (−) (+)

(4.1)

The NDVI is derived using ILWIS MapCalc function NDVI(a, b), where, a is the satellite band containing visible or red reflectance values and b is the satellite band containing near-infrared reflectance values. The function performs the calculation: (b - a) / (b + a)

43

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

For example, NDVI= NDVI(TmBand3,TmBand4), gives an output map NDVI with NDVI values, with the inputs TmBand3, the band with red values and TmBand4, the band with near-infra red values.

4.2.1.5 Land use map

Land use map has been prepared from the standard FCC (False Colour Composite) remote sensing imageries with the help of NDVI map, topographic map, online mapping services and ground truth information. The classification was done by supervised classification method using Classify functionality of the ILWIS software. The Classify operation performs a multi-spectral image classification according to training pixels in a sample set. Before classification, a sample set thus has to be prepared by assigning class names to groups of pixels that are supposed to represent a known feature on the ground and that have similar spectral values in the maps in the map list. Creation of the sample set is the training phase, where classes of pixels with similar spectral values are defined and then during classification operation each output pixel is assigned a class name if the spectral values of that pixel are similar enough to a training class; if this is not the case, an output pixel may be assigned the undefined value. The accuracy of the classification depends on the spectral values of the pixels selected to serve as training pixels in the sampling phase,

During the sampling for supervised classification, the accuracy of the training pixels selected were checked by ground truthing with the help of Global Positioning System (GPS), NDVI map and attribute information from topographic maps and online mapping sites like Google Maps satellite images.

4.2.1.6 Slope map

The slope map is derived from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using ILWIS, as follows:

1. Calculate height differences in X-direction from the Digital Elevation Model using linear filter dfdx to get an output map for example DX.

2. Calculate height differences in Y-direction from the Digital Elevation Model using linear filter dfdy to get an output map for example DY.

44

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

3. Use the map calculation formula

SLOPEPCT = 100 * HYP(DX,DY)/ PIXSIZE(DEM)

to get the slope map in percentages.

(4.2)

4. To get the slope map in degrees use the map calculation formula

SLOPEDEG = RADDEG(ATAN(SLOPEPCT/100))

4.2.1.7 Aspect map

(4.3)

The aspect map is derived from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using ILWIS, as follows:

1. Derive height differences map in X-direction and Y-direction respectively as DX and DY as mentioned in section 4.2.1.6

2. Use the map calculation formula

ASPECTR = ATAN2(DX,DY) + PI

to get the aspect map in radians.

3. Use the map calculation formula

ASPECTD = RADDEG(ATAN2(DX,DY) + PI)

to get the aspect map in degrees.

(4.4)

(4.5)

Where, ATAN2 and RADDEG are internal MapCalc/TabCalc functions of ILWIS, and ASPECTR and ASPECTD are the output map names of the aspect maps in radians and degrees respectively.

4.2.1.8 Geology map

The geology map was digitised from the Geological Survey of India (GSI, 1995) maps by techniques as explained in section 3.2. The feature boundaries were digitized and clipped with the watershed boundary to prepare the geology map.

45

Number of pixels

400-2400

160-200

120-160

320-360

360-400

200-240

280-320

240-280

80-120

40-80

<40

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

4.2.1.9 Geomorphology

Geomorphology map was obtained using remote sensing imagery by identifying the geomorphologic features from the imagery and digitising it.

4.2.1.10 Drainage map

The drainage channels in the topographic map were digitized and stream orders were included in the drainage network as attribute data.

4.3 RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS

4.3.1 Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

Digital Elevation Model of Bharathapuzha basin classified for different elevation ranges is shown in Figure 4.4. DEM shows elevation ranges from 1.5 m to 2504 m. It can be seen that most of the area comes under 40-120 m elevation class as shown in Figure 4.3

500000

450000

400000

350000

300000

250000

200000

150000

100000

50000

0

Figure 4.3

350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels
350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.3 Elevation range (m) Frequency of pixels

Elevation range (m)

Frequency of pixels in different elevation classes of DEM

46

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Figure 4.4 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from toposheet contours of Bharathapuzha watershed
Figure 4.4
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from toposheet contours of Bharathapuzha watershed

47

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

4.3.2 Soil map

The soil map available from NBSS&LUP is digitized using ILWIS and segment of various soil types were digitized and ploygonized. The soil map of the river Bharathapuzha with the soil series classes is shown in the Figure 4.6. About 55.6 % of the total area of the watershed is having Anayadi soil series as can be seen from Figure 4.5. The other soil series of the watershed include Chelikkuzhi, Cheruvalli, Kanchirappuzha, Kongad, Manimala, Manjallor, Pallippadi and Vijayapuram. Physical properties of different soil series used in the study are shown in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Physical properties of the soil series in the watershed

No.

Code

Soil Series

Clay

Silt

Sand

Organic carbon

Bulk density

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

(g/cm 3 )

1

ANAYA

Anayadi

27.8

8.5

63.7

0.89

1.18

2

CHELI

Chelikkuzhi

33.7

8.0

58.3

2.18

1.20

3

CHERU

Cheruvalli

34.5

6.1

59.4

2.54

1.10

4

KANCHI

Kanchirapuzha

33.0

8.6

58.4

2.24

1.20

5

KONGA

Kongad

27.7

15.7

56.4

1.24

1.14

6

MANIM

Manimala

27.0

9.0

64.0

0.99

1.19

7

MANJA

Manjallor

45.0

7.9

47.1

1.83

1.17

8

PALLI

Pallippadi

27.0

9.0

64.0

0.99

1.36

9

VIJAY

Vijayapuram

24.7

9.5

65.8

1.01

1.17

1.2 5.6 11.7 1.4 1 13 55.6 7.1 3.4
1.2
5.6
11.7
1.4 1
13
55.6
7.1
3.4

ANAYA1.2 5.6 11.7 1.4 1 13 55.6 7.1 3.4 CHELI CHERU KANCHI KONGA MANIM MANJA PALLI

CHELI1.2 5.6 11.7 1.4 1 13 55.6 7.1 3.4 ANAYA CHERU KANCHI KONGA MANIM MANJA PALLI

CHERU1.2 5.6 11.7 1.4 1 13 55.6 7.1 3.4 ANAYA CHELI KANCHI KONGA MANIM MANJA PALLI

KANCHI1.2 5.6 11.7 1.4 1 13 55.6 7.1 3.4 ANAYA CHELI CHERU KONGA MANIM MANJA PALLI

KONGA1.2 5.6 11.7 1.4 1 13 55.6 7.1 3.4 ANAYA CHELI CHERU KANCHI MANIM MANJA PALLI

MANIM1.2 5.6 11.7 1.4 1 13 55.6 7.1 3.4 ANAYA CHELI CHERU KANCHI KONGA MANJA PALLI

MANJA1.2 5.6 11.7 1.4 1 13 55.6 7.1 3.4 ANAYA CHELI CHERU KANCHI KONGA MANIM PALLI

PALLI1.2 5.6 11.7 1.4 1 13 55.6 7.1 3.4 ANAYA CHELI CHERU KANCHI KONGA MANIM MANJA

VIJAY1.2 5.6 11.7 1.4 1 13 55.6 7.1 3.4 ANAYA CHELI CHERU KANCHI KONGA MANIM MANJA

Figure 4.5

Areal Distribution Soil series in Bharathapuzha watershed

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Figure 4.6 Soil map of Bharathapuzha watershe
Figure 4.6
Soil map of Bharathapuzha watershe

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

4.3.3 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is the most well- known and used index for many years to monitor vegetation health and changes in vegetation cover over time from multispectral remote sensing data. The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) gives a measure of the vegetative cover, water and ice on the land surface over wide areas. It is expressed

as = + , where NIR and VIS are the spectral reflectance value

corresponding to red (visible) and near infrared bands.

The principle behind NDVI is that chlorophyll causes considerable absorption of incoming sunlight in the red region (0.58-0.68 microns) of the electromagnetic spectrum and the spongy mesophyll leaf structure of the plants creates considerable reflectance in the near-infrared region (0.72-1.10 microns) of the spectrum (Tucker 1979, Jackson et al.1983, Tucker et al. 1991). Thus vigorously growing healthy vegetation gives high NDVI values due to the low red-light reflectance and high near-infrared reflectance.

The spectral reflectance of green leaves in the green to red region of radiation is less than 20% and it is about 60% in the near-infrared region. The spectral reflectance is the ratio between the reflected over the incoming radiation and takes values between 0.0 and 1.0, resulting in NDVI values between -1.0 and +1.0. Vegetated areas have high near-infrared region reflectance and low red region reflectance, yielding high NDVI values near to 1. NDVI values above 0.5 indicate dense vegetation and thus temperate and tropical rainforests have values approaching one. Shrub and grassland areas have low, positive values (approximately 0.2 to 0.4), while vegetation indices close to zero (-0.1 to 0.1) indicates no vegetation i.e. barren rock, bare soil, sand, or snow areas which have similar reflectance in the two bands.

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Figure 4.7 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) map of Bharathapuzha
Figure 4.7
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) map of Bharathapuzha

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Table 4.2 Typical NDVI values for various cover types [Holben, 1986]

COVER TYPE

RED

NIR

NDVI

Dense vegetation

0.1

0.5

0.7

Dry Bare soil

0.269

0.283

0.025

Clouds

0.227

0.228

0.002

Snow and ice

0.375

0.342

-0.046

Water

0.022

0.013

-0.257

NDVI values for Bharathapuzha watershed varied from -0.71 to 0.54 and is shown in Figure 4.7

4.3.4 Land use map

Land use land cover is the level of utilisation of the land and it affects many hydrological processes like evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff etc. Land use/ land cover classification of the Bharathapuzha watershed was carried out using supervised classification of remote sensing False Colour Composite (FCC) images through visual image interpretation based on the National Remote Sensing Agency’s (NRSA) classification scheme. The classified map is shown in Figure 4.8 and the distribution of various land use / land cover in the watershed is shown in Figure 4.9. Major Landuse types in the watershed are garden land and paddy.

Dense forest Garden land Medium forest Moderate dense forest Paddy Plantation River dry Water

Dense forestGarden land Medium forest Moderate dense forest Paddy Plantation River dry Water

Garden landDense forest Medium forest Moderate dense forest Paddy Plantation River dry Water

Medium forestDense forest Garden land Moderate dense forest Paddy Plantation River dry Water

Moderate dense forestDense forest Garden land Medium forest Paddy Plantation River dry Water

PaddyDense forest Garden land Medium forest Moderate dense forest Plantation River dry Water

PlantationDense forest Garden land Medium forest Moderate dense forest Paddy River dry Water

River dryDense forest Garden land Medium forest Moderate dense forest Paddy Plantation Water

WaterDense forest Garden land Medium forest Moderate dense forest Paddy Plantation River dry

Figure 4.8

Distribution of landuse in Bharathapuzha watershed

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Figure 4.9 Landuse map of Bharathapuzha watershed
Figure 4.9
Landuse map of Bharathapuzha watershed

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

4.3.4.1 Garden land

Garden land area contain mixed land uses, like residential and commercial and agricultural and residential, which are not clearly demarkable and no single land use among these is predominant. Garden land landuse occupies the major portion of the watershed and is observed in the valley fill area of the watershed.

4.3.4.2 Paddy

Paddy fields are distributed in the valley region of the watershed and are the second largest land use in the watershed.

4.3.4.3 Forest area

The forest areas are further classified into dense and moderate dense. The forest is classified as open or degraded if the canopy cover is between 10-40% and dense or closed if the canopy cover is more than 40%. Bharathapuzha watershed has forest areas in the northern, north eastern and southern region.

4.3.4.4 River dry

Sand deposits appear as sheets in the flood plain and are formed due to river flooding. Sand deposits are found in the Bharathapuzha river course westwards from the central part near Ottapalam to the river mouth near Ponnani.

4.3.4.5 Water

Surface waters like rivers, streams, reservoirs, lakes, ponds, canals etc. comprise the water land use class.

4.3.5 Slope map

Slope is normally described by the ratio of the "rise" divided by the "run" between two points on a line and indicates the loss or gain in altitude per unit horizontal distance in a direction. Slope is one of the most important factors influencing the runoff production; steep slopes accelerate runoff while gentle slopes decrease runoff by increasing the infiltration opportunity time (Chow,

1964).

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Figure 4.10 Slope map of Bharathapuzha watershed
Figure 4.10
Slope map of Bharathapuzha watershed

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

The

following

classification

of

the

slope

ranges

preparation of the slope map in Figure 4.10:

are

used

for

the

Table 4.3 Classification of the slope ranges for slope map

Classification

Slope range (degree)

Very gentle

Less than 3

Gentle

3-5

Moderate

5-10

Moderate-steep

10-15

Steep

15-35

Very steep

Greater than 35

Slope of the watershed varies from 0to 84and most of the area falls in

the 0-5slope range. The north, northeast, south and southeast regions of the watershed have steep slopes, eastern region has very gentle slope and the central region has moderate slope. Bharathapuzha River originates in the Western Ghats at a higher altitude and flows westwards to reach the Arabian Sea. The terrain near Western Ghats is having steep slopes and the steepness of the slope gradually decreases towards the sea coast in the west.

4.3.6 Aspect map

Aspect generally refers to the horizontal direction to which a slope faces. Aspect affects the angle of the sun rays when they come in contact with the ground and can have a strong influence on temperature. Thus it can have significant influence on the local climate.

An aspect-slope map simultaneously shows the aspect (direction) and degree (steepness) of slope for a terrain. Aspect categories are symbolized using hues (e.g., red, orange, yellow, etc.) and degree of slope classes are mapped with saturation (or brilliance of colour) so that the steeper slopes are brighter.

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Figure 4.11 Aspect map of Bharathapuzha watershed
Figure 4.11
Aspect map of Bharathapuzha watershed

57

Number of pixels

North-West

South-East

South-West

North-East

North

South

North

East

West

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

250000

200000

150000

100000

50000

0

– Through FOSS Tools 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.12 Distribution of Aspect in
– Through FOSS Tools 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.12 Distribution of Aspect in
– Through FOSS Tools 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.12 Distribution of Aspect in
– Through FOSS Tools 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.12 Distribution of Aspect in

– Through FOSS Tools 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.12 Distribution of Aspect in
– Through FOSS Tools 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.12 Distribution of Aspect in
– Through FOSS Tools 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 4.12 Distribution of Aspect in

Figure 4.12

Distribution of Aspect in the Bharathapuzha watershed

South facing slopes are predominant in the study area, as can be observed from Figure 4.12. In the northern hemisphere a south-facing slope (more open to sunlight and warm winds) will generally be warmer and dryer due to higher levels of evapotranspiration than a north-facing slope (Bennie et al., 2006).

4.3.7 Geology map

The geology of the watershed consists of charnockite, Granite, hornblende gneiss, laterites and coastal sand and alluvium. Bharathapuzha river is a westward flowing river and it encounters different geological sequences corresponding to the High land (extending from 75 m MSL and above) consisting of the hills and mountains of the Western Ghats on the eastern part, the Midland (extending from 7.5 m to 75 m above MSL) having an undulating topography and the low land (extending up to an altitude of 7.5 m above MSL) adjacent to the coast on the western part.

Precambrian metamorphic rocks underlie the major part of Bharathapuzha watershed. These rocks consist mostly of hornblende-biotite gneiss and charnockite and in certain regions quarto-feldspathic gneiss, biotite-hornblende gneiss with schist, quartz syenite and pink granite. Pyroxene granulites, Charnockites and migmatites also cover a major part of Bharathapuzha watershed.

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

The western side of the watershed consist chiefly by hornblendebiotite gneiss. Intrusion of basic rocks (gabbro, dolerite) and acidic rocks (granulite pyroxene, norite) could be seen at many places. Sedimentary deposits like alluvium and coastal sands overlie crystallines in the coastal planes on the western side of the watershed. Precambrian crystallines and the sedimentary sequences are overlaid by a thick capping of Laterites. The thickness of the laterite is 20 to 50 m in the western parts of Ottapalam and is less elsewhere. Archean crystallines are seen throughout the basin mostly overlain by laterites. The northern part of the Western Ghats near Palghat gap consist of crystalline lime stone and Calc-granulites with a grooved appearance along the foliations and characterised by intense fracturing and solution cavities in the limestone. South west part of the watershed has a prominent dolerite dyke. Kankar produced by the chemical weathering of rocks is seen on the eastern side of the watershed (CESS, 2004).

is seen on the eastern side of the watershed (CESS, 2004). Figure 4.13 Geology of the

Figure 4.13

Geology of the watershed

The watershed has three types of alluvial formations, coastal alluvium, river alluvium and valley fills. The valley fills are distributed in the midland area along the valleys, the river alluvium along the river banks and the coastal alluvium along the coast in the Western side. The river mouth depositions consist

59

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

of coastal sand and alluvium. At the mouth of the river at Ponnani along the river course near Kuttippuram, Thiruvegapura and Chamaravattom 2-8 m thick river alluvium is seen. In the midland and lowland planes weathered rocks are overlain by a thick layer of alluvial soil. The valleys in the watershed contain valley fill deposits consisting of erode sediments from uplands and flood plain deposits. These valley filled areas form the paddy fields in the watershed.

4.3.8 Geomorphology

form the paddy fields in the watershed. 4.3.8 Geomorphology Figure 4.14 Geomorphology of the watershed Geomorphology

Figure 4.14

Geomorphology of the watershed

Geomorphology is the science of landforms and describes the surface of the lithosphere. Geomorphology is the interpretive description of the relief features of the earth and to understand that, the composition and structure of the rocks of the earth and the processes which act on it should be known. Geomorphological characteristics thus depend upon the physiochemical nature of lithological units in that area. Many of the geomorphological features affect the runoff, infiltration, surface flow and the occurrence of groundwater. The geomorphological units of Bharathapuzha watershed are shown in Figure 4.14.

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

The study of the geomorphology is important in surface and groundwater hydrology. The evolution of the present landscape is the result of the action of various endogenic and exogenic forces due to the weathering and denudation on the earth crust. The hydrological conditions of the watershed are directly or indirectly affected by these elements and their characteristics. For groundwater investigations in a watershed, the geomorphological mapping and characterisation of pediments, buried pediments, valley fills etc. is very useful. The geomorphological classification of Bharathapuzha based on the National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) scheme, the distribution of which is shown in Fig 4.15.

Moderately dissected Plateau Valley fills Structural hills Pediment zones Less dissected plateau Moderately dissected

Moderately dissected PlateauValley fills Structural hills Pediment zones Less dissected plateau Moderately dissected pediment Plateau Residual hills

Valley fillsModerately dissected Plateau Structural hills Pediment zones Less dissected plateau Moderately dissected pediment Plateau

Structural hillsModerately dissected Plateau Valley fills Pediment zones Less dissected plateau Moderately dissected pediment Plateau

Pediment zonesModerately dissected Plateau Valley fills Structural hills Less dissected plateau Moderately dissected pediment Plateau

Less dissected plateauPlateau Valley fills Structural hills Pediment zones Moderately dissected pediment Plateau Residual hills Water

Moderately dissected pedimentfills Structural hills Pediment zones Less dissected plateau Plateau Residual hills Water body Channel bars Coastal

PlateauPediment zones Less dissected plateau Moderately dissected pediment Residual hills Water body Channel bars Coastal plain

Residual hillshills Pediment zones Less dissected plateau Moderately dissected pediment Plateau Water body Channel bars Coastal plain

Water bodyPediment zones Less dissected plateau Moderately dissected pediment Plateau Residual hills Channel bars Coastal plain

Channel barshills Pediment zones Less dissected plateau Moderately dissected pediment Plateau Residual hills Water body Coastal plain

Coastal plainhills Pediment zones Less dissected plateau Moderately dissected pediment Plateau Residual hills Water body Channel bars

 

Figure 4.15

Distribution of Geomorphological units in the watershed

4.3.8.1.

Valley fills

The deposition of unconsolidated fluvial sediments consisting of pebbles, sand, silt and clay in narrow valleys forms Valley fills. Valley fills are found well distributed in the watershed as small to wide patches. These areas are suitable for locating the water harvesting structures and have good groundwater prospects.

4.3.8.2. Structural Hills

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

The structural hills cover about 18% area of the watershed along the northern, north-eastern and southern regions of the watershed. The major rock types are biotite hornblende gneisses, hornblende-biotite gneisses, charnokite, pink granite, quartzo-feldspathic gneisses, hornblende-biotite gneisses with schist, calc granulite with limestone, and Charnockite. Structural hills having hard rock don’t permit water infiltration and its transmission unless they are fractured and contain fissures and cavities. However, structural hills in the study area have several lineament intersections and hence may yield groundwater through deep wells.

4.3.8.3. Residual hills

Residual hills occur as isolated hills with small aerial extent and are the end products of the process of pediplanation, which reduce the original mountain masses into series of scattered knolls on the Pedi plains (Thronbury, 1969). They are seen at lower altitudes in pediment zone and plateau and are mostly circular in shape and devoid of any vegetation. Residual hills usually have steep side slopes and increases runoff and decreases infiltration, resulting in poor groundwater potential in these areas.

4.3.8.4. Pediments

Pediments are gently sloping (1° to 8°) smooth surface of erosional bedrock with or without thin cover of detrital materials and are the transition zone between the hills and adjoining plains. Pediments are found in the northern part of the watershed. Sankar (2002) observed that the groundwater prospects in pediments can be considered as normal to poor. As presence of fissures and fractures increase the transmissibility, areas with lineaments can be potential zones for groundwater exploration.

4.3.8.5. Moderately dissected pediment zones

Areas with a nearly flat terrain with gentle slope are considered as moderately dissected pediment zones and are found in the north-western and

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

south-western

groundwater potential.

parts

of

4.3.8.6. Plateaus

the watershed.

These

areas

have moderate

to

good

Flat topped residual mountains in plains are categorised as plateaus which are sub-classified into moderately dissected and less dissected plateaus. Plateau’s dissected nature accelerates runoff. Major portion of the watershed in the central western part and is occupied by the moderately dissected Plateau and less dissected Plateau occupies the South eastern and south central regions.

4.3.8.7. Coastal terrains

The river mouth is at the western side of the watershed and these areas near the coast line show sluggish drainage, marshy lands, bars, and spits etc. which are categorised as coastal terrains.

4.3.9 Drainage 4.3.9.1 Drainage pattern

Drainage patterns are the general arrangement of channels in a watershed and are influenced by many factors like slope, rock hardness variations, structural controls, crust deforming processes and recent geomorphic history of the watershed. Drainage patterns reflect the characteristics of surface and subsurface formations and help in geomorphic feature interpretations.

The drainage pattern found in the Bharathapuzha watershed is dendritic or branch-like pattern which is one of the most common drainage patterns.

pattern which is one of the most common drainage patterns. Dendritic pattern, shown above, is characterised

Dendritic pattern, shown above, is characterised by irregular branching of tributary streams in many directions and at almost any angle usually less than 90. Dendritic patterns develop on rocks of uniform resistance and indicate a complete

63

Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

lack of structural control. This pattern usually develops in nearly horizontal sedimentary rocks and massive igneous rocks and sometimes also in complex metamorphosed rocks (Garde, 2006). Bharathapuzha watershed has these types of rocks especially granites, resulting in a dendritic drainage pattern.

4.3.9.2 Drainage Map

in a dendritic drainage pattern. 4.3.9.2 Drainage Map Figure 4.16 Drainage map The Bharathapuzha River originates

Figure 4.16

Drainage map

The Bharathapuzha River originates from Anamalai hills in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu and flows westward through Palghat Gap to join the tributaries Chitturpuzha, Kalpathipuzha, Gayathripuzha, and Tuthapuzha respectively and finally empties into the Arabian Sea at Ponnani (Figure 4.16).

From the origin at Anamalai hills, the river follows northwards for about 40 km till Pollachi. At Parali both Chitturpuzha and Kalpathipuzha merge as

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

Bharathappuzha and flow westwards. Gayathripuzha originating from the Anaimalai hills joins Bharathapuzha at Mayannur. The Thuthapuzha merge at Pallipuram and thickens the flow of Bharathapuzha which then follows a westerly course into the Arabian Sea at Ponnani.

Tributaries of Bharathapuzha River

Arabian Sea at Ponnani. Tributaries of Bharathapuzha River Figure 4.17 Sub-basins of the tributaries of Bharathapuzha

Figure 4.17

Sub-basins of the tributaries of Bharathapuzha River

The four main tributaries to Bharathapuzha River sorted in order from the origin heading downstream are:

1. Chitturpuzha (Kannadipuzha, Sokanasinipuzha)

2. Kalpathipuzha

3. Gayathripuzha

4. Thuthapuzha

The Chitturpuzha or Kannadipuzha or Sokanasinipuzha, originates from Anamalai hills in Western Ghats and flows in a NW-SE direction through Chittur

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

and joins the Kalpathipuzha River near Parali. The tributaries of Kannadipuzha are, (i) Palar (ii) Aliyar, and (iii) Uppar.

The Kalpathipuzha originates from south of Coimbatore and flows roughly in an E-W direction until it joins with Chitturpuzha. It has four tributaries: (i) Korayar (ii) Varattar (iii) Walayar and (iv) Malampuzha.

The Gayathripuzha flows along the NW-SE from Anamalai before it finally join the main river at Mayannur. Gayathripuzha has five tributaries: (i) Mangalam, (ii) Ailurpuzha (iii) Vandazhipuzha (iv) Meenkara and (v) the Chulliar.

The Thuthapuzha originates from the Silent Valley hills and flows in a roughly E-W direction and joins the main river at Pallippuram. Thuthapuzha has four tributaries: (i) Kunthipuzha (ii) Kanjirappuzha, (iii) Ambankadavu, and (iv) Thuppanadupuzha.

4.4 CONCLUSION

The various characteristics of the watershed - the slope, aspect, geology, geomorphology, NDVI, landuse/land cover and drainage maps - were mapped.

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

CHAPTER 5 HYDROGEOMORPHOMETRY

5.1 INTRODUCTION

Geomorphometry or quantitative geomorphology is the science of quantitative land-surface analysis. Hydro-geomorphometry is an important component of terrain analysis and surface modelling for hydrological applications. The simple fact that flow paths follow the topographic gradient results in an intimate connection between geomorphometry and hydrology (Peckham, 2009). Hydrogeomorphology is the integrated study of hydrology and geomorphology (Noe, 2013), Sidle and Onda (2004) defines hydrogeomorphology as an interdisciplinary science that focuses on the interaction and linkage of hydrologic processes with landforms or earth materials and the interaction of geomorphic processes with surface and subsurface water in temporal and spatial dimensions. According to Singh et al. (2013), morphometric analysis of the drainage basin can provide information about the hydrological nature of the rocks exposed within the drainage basin and gives an indication of the yield of the basin. The study of the hydrogeomorphology of the watershed is essential for understanding the influence of lithology and geomorphology on the runoff processes.

The hydrological response of a watershed depends upon various hydrological and geomorphological characteristics. The hydrological response of watersheds can be related to its geomorphological characteristics for which detailed geomorphological and hydrological analysis are required. Watershed characterization involves measurement of parameters that influence the characteristic behaviour of a watershed whereas analysis aims at the critical study of these parameters to arrive at conclusions on the hydrological response of the watershed.

The hydrogeomorphological analysis of the Bharathapuzha watershed is discussed in this chapter.

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Watershed Analysis Through FOSS Tools

5.2 METHODOLOGY

5.2.1 Data and maps required

The hydrogeomorphological analysis of the watershed using GIS utilises the boundary map, drainage network map and digital elevation model (DEM) prepared from the contour map for the computation of the geomorphological characteristics of the watershed. GIS along with conventional data provides the watershed area, size and shape, topography and drainage pattern for watershed characterization and analysis. Hydrogeomorphological parameters in this study were obtained using topographic maps and remote sensing data. The details of the maps, data and the tools used and the techniques adopted are described in Chapter 3. The preparation of boundary map, drainage network map and digital elevation model (DEM) are discussed in Chapter 4.

5.2.2 Determination of hydrogeomorphological parameters

Hydrogeomorphometrical parameters determined and the formulae or method used for getting it are given in Table 5.1.

Table 5.1 Hydrogeomorphometric parameters

No.

Parameter

Symbol

Unit

Definition/Formula

1.

Stream order

u

 

Hierarchical rank

2.

Area

A

u

km 2

Area of the watershed

3.

Perimeter

P

km

Perimeter of the watershed

4.

Maximum Basin length

L

b

km

Maximum Basin length

5.

Stream length

L