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## PROFIT & LOSS

INTRODUCTION Real Profit/Loss percentage : If the profit or loss is calculated on
Cost Price : The amount paid to purchase an article or the price S.P., then it is not actual profit or loss.
at which an article is made, is known as its cost price. Real profit (loss)% is the profit (loss)% on C.P.
The cost price is abbreviated as C.P. % profit on S.P.
Selling Price : The price at which an article is sold, is known as Real Profit % = ´ 100
100 - % profit on S.P.
its selling price.
The selling price is abbreviated as S.P. Dishonest dealing
Profit : If the selling price (S.P.) of an article is greater than the Error
Gain % = ´ 100
cost price (C.P.), then the difference between the selling price and True value - Error
cost price is called profit.
Thus, If S.P. > C.P., then True Scale 100 + gain%
Profit = S.P. – C.P. =
False Scale 100 - loss%
Þ S.P. = C.P. + Profit Þ C.P. = S.P. – Profit. Example 1 :
Loss : If the selling price (S.P.) of an article is less than the cost A cloth merchant says that due to slump in the market, he
price (C.P.), then the difference between the cost price (C.P.) and sells the cloth at 10% loss, but he uses a false metre-scale
the selling price (S.P.) is called loss. and actually gain 15%. Find the actual length of the scale.
Thus, if S.P. < C.P., then (a) 78 cm (b) 78.25 cm
Loss = C.P. – S.P. (c) 78.5 cm (d) 78.75 cm
Solution :
Þ C.P. = S.P. + Loss Þ S.P. = C.P. – Loss
Profit and Loss percentage : The profit per cent is the profit that True scale 100 + gain%
(b) =
would be obtained for a C.P. of ` 100. False scale 100 - loss%
Similarly, the loss per cent is the loss that would be made for a 100 100 + 15
=
C.P. of ` 100. False scale 100 - 10
Profit 100 ´ 90
Profit per cent = ´100 Þ False scale = = 78.26 cm
C.P. 115
Loss Example 2 :
Loss per cent = ´100 A dishonest dealer professes to sell his goods at cost price,
C.P.
but he uses a weight of 960 g for the kg weight. Find his
Remember : gain per cent.
Solution :
C.P. × Profit % Error = 1 kg – 960 g
ê Profit =
100 = 1000 g – 960 g = 40 g.
C.P. × Loss % 40
ê Loss = ´ 100
100 \ Gain % =
1000 - 40
æ 100 + Profit% ö
ê S.P. = ç ÷ × C.P. 40 1
è 100 ø = ´ 100 = 4 %
960 6
æ 100 - Loss% ö
ê S.P. = ç ÷ × C.P. Goods passing through successive hands
è 100 ø When there are two successive profits of a% and b%, then
100 ´ S.P. the resultant profit per cent is given by
ê C.P. =
100 + Profit %
100 ´ S.P. æ ab ö
ê C.P. = ça + b + ÷%
100 - Loss % è 100 ø

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When there is a profit of a% and loss by b% in a transaction, Solution :
then the resultant profit or loss per cent is given by (c) Let C.P. = ` 100, then S.P. = Rs 120
Also, Let marked price be ` x. Then
æ ab ö
120 ´ 100
ça -b - ÷ % , according to the + ve or – ve sign 90% of x = 120 Þ x = = 133
1
è 100 ø 90 3
respectively. 1
\ M.P. should be ` 133
When cost price and selling price are reduced by the same 3
amount (A) and profit increases then cost price (C.P.) 1
or M.P. = 33 % above C.P..
[Initial profit % + Increase in profit %] ´ A 3
= Example 5 :
Increase in profit %
At a clearance sale, all goods are on sale at 45% discount. If
Example 3 : I buy a skirt marked ` 600, how much would I need to pay?
A table is sold at a profit of 20%. If the cost price and selling Solution :
price are ` 200 less, the profit would be 8% more. Find the M.P. = ` 600, Discount = 45%
cost price. M.P. ´ Discount% 600 ´ 45
Solution : Discount = = = ` 270.
100 100
By direct method, \ S.P. = M.P. – Discount
(20 + 8) ´ 200 = ` 600 – ` 270 = ` 330.
C.P. = ` = ` 28 × 25 = ` 700. Hence, the amount I need to pay is ` 330.
8
If cost price of x articles is equal to the selling price of • A man purchases a certain number of articles at x a rupee
and the same number at y a rupee. He mixes them together
x-y and sells them at z a rupee. Then his gain or loss %
y articles, then profit/loss percentage = ´ 100 %,
y
é 2xy ù
according to +ve or –ve sign respectively. =ê - 1ú ×100 according as the sign is +ve or –ve.
ë z(x + y) û
Remark :
• If two items are sold, each at ` x, one at a gain of p% and the
If on selling ‘x’ articles a man gains equal to the S.P. of y articles.
Then, p2
other at a loss of p%, there is an overall loss given by %.
y 100
% gain = ´100
x-y 2p2 x
The absolute value of the loss is given by .
Marked Price : The price on the lable is called the marked price 1002 - p2
or list price. • If CP of two items is the same and % Loss and % Gain on the
The marked price is abbreviated as M.P. two items are equal, then net loss or net profit is zero.
Discount : The reduction made on the ‘marked price’ of an
article is called the discount. Example 6 :
A shopkeeper sold two radio sets for ` 792 each, gaining
NOTE : 10% on one, and losing 10% on the other. Then he
When no discount is given, ‘selling price’ is the same as ‘marked (a) neither gains nor loses (b) gains 1%
price’. (c) loses 1% (d) gains 5%
• Discount = Marked price × Rate of discount. Solution :
• S.P. = M.P. – Discount. (c) When selling price of two articles is same and
% gain = % loss
Discount then there will be always loss.
• Discount % = ´ 100 .
M.P.
• Buy x get y free i.e., if x + y articles are sold at cost price of (10)2
and overall % loss = % = 1%
y 100
x articles, then the percentage discount = x + y × 100. Example 7 :
A man bought two housing apartments for ` 2 lakhs each.
He sold one at 20% loss and the other at 20% gain. Find his
Example 4 : gain or loss.
How much % must be added to the cost price of goods so (a) 4% loss (b) 4% gain
that a profit of 20% must be made after throwing off a (c) No loss, no gain (d) 10% loss
discount of 10% from the marked price? Solution :
(a) 20% (b) 30% (c) When C.P. of two articles is same and
1 % gain = % loss
(c) 33 % (d) 25% Then, on net, there is no loss, no gain
3
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Remark : When two different articles sold at same S.P. and x1 Example 10 :
and x2 are % gain (or loss) on them. Then, overall % gain or loss Find the single discount equivalent to successive discounts
of 15% and 20%.
é æ 2(100 ± x1 )(100 ± x 2 ) ö ù Solution :
= ê100 - ç ú%
ë è (100 ± x1 ) + (100 ± x 2 ) ÷ø û By direct formula,
(Taking + or – according to gain or loss) æ ab ö
Single discount = ç a + b - ÷%
è 100 ø
Example 8 :
After allowing a discount of 12% on the marked price of an æ 15 ´ 20 ö
= ç 15 + 20 - ÷ % = 32%
article, it is sold for ` 880. Find its marked price. è 100 ø
Solution :
S.P. = ` 880 and Discount % = 12 NOTE :
Let M.P. = x If the list price of an item is given and discounts d1and d2 are
M.P. ´ Discount % x ´ 12 3 given succesively on it then,
Discount = = = x
100 100 25 æ d öæ d ö
Now, M.P. = S.P. + Discount Final price = list price ç 1 - 1 ÷ ç 1 - 2 ÷
è 100 øè 100 ø
3
x = 880 + x Example 11 :
25
An article is listed at ` 65. A customer bought this article
3 22x for ` 56.16 and got two successive discounts of which the
Þ x- x = 880 Þ = 880 first one is 10%. The other rate of discount of this scheme
25 25
that was allowed by the shopkeeper was :
880 ´ 25 (a) 3% (b) 4%
Þ x= = 40 ´ 25 = ` 1000
22 (c) 6% (d) 2%
\ Marked price of the article is ` 1000. Solution :
Example 9 : (b) Price of the article after first discount
A shopkeeper offers his customers 10% discount and still 65 – 6.5 = ` 58.5
makes a profit of 26%. What is the actual cost to him of an Therefore, the second discount
article marked ` 280? 58.5 - 56.16
Solution : = ´ 100 = 4%
58.5
M.P. = ` 280 and Discount % = 10
Example 12 :
M.P. ´ Discount % 280 ´ 10 = ` 28 A shopkeeper offers 5% discount on all his goods to all his
Discount = =
100 100 customers. He offers a further discount of 2% on the reduced
S.P. = M.P. – Discount = ` 280 – ` 28 = ` 252 price to those customers who pay cash. What will you
Now, S.P. = ` 252 and profit = 26% actually have to pay for an article in cash if its M.P. is
` 4800?
100 Solution :
\ C.P. = ´ S.P.
100 + gain % M.P. = ` 4800
First discount = 5% of M.P.
100
= ´ 252 = ` 200 5
100 + 26 = ´ 4800 = ` 240
Hence, the actual cost of the article is ` 200. 100
Successive Discounts Net price after discount = ` 4800 – ` 240 = ` 4560
Second discount = 2% of ` 4560
Remember :
2
In successive discounts, first discount is subtracted from the = ´ 4560 = ` 91.20
100
marked price to get net price after the first discount. Taking this
price as the new marked price, the second discount is calculated Net price after discount = ` 4560 – ` 91.20 = ` 4468.80
and it is subtracted from it to get net price after the second By Direct Method :
discount. Continuing in this manner, we finally obtain the net
æ 5 öæ 2 ö
selling price. S.P. = 4800 ç1 - 1- = Rs. 4468.80
In case of successive discounts a% and b%, the effective discount è 100 ÷ø çè 100 ÷ø
Sales Tax : To meet government’s expenditures like construction
æ ab ö
is ç a + b - ÷% of roads, railway, hospitals, schools etc. the government imposes
è 100 ø different types of taxes. Sales tax (S.T.) is one of these tax.
Sales tax is calculated on selling price (S.P.)
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Example 14 :
NOTE : The sale price of an article including the sales tax is ` 616.
If discount is given, selling price is calculated first and then The rate of sales tax is 10%. If the shopkeeper has made a
sales tax is calculated on the selling price of the article. profit of 12%, then the cost price of the article is :
(a) ` 500 (b) ` 515
(c) ` 550 (d) ` 600
Example 13 :
Solution :
Sonika bought a V.C.R. at the list price of ` 18,500. If the rate of (a) Let the CP of the article be ` x
sales tax was 8%, find the amount she had to pay for
Then, SP = x ´1.12 ´ 1.1
Solution : Now, x ´ 1.12 ´1.1 = 616
List price of V.C.R. = ` 18,500 616
Rate of sales tax = 8% Þ x= = Rs 500
1.232
\ Sales tax = 8% of ` 18,500
8
= ´ 18500 = ` 1480
100
So, total amount which Sonika had to pay for purchasing
the V.C.R. = ` 18,500 + ` 1480 = ` 19,980.

1. If the cost price is 96% of the selling price, then what is the 9. If 11 lichchus are bought for 10 paise and 10 lichchus are
profit percent? sold for 11 paise, the gain % is
(a) 4.5% (b) 4.2% (c) 4% (d) 3.8% (a) 10% (b) 11% (c) 20% (d) 21%
2. If the manufacturer gains 10%, the wholesale dealer 15% 10. A man sold 10 eggs for 5 rupees and gained 20%.How many
and the retailer 25%, then find the cost of production of a eggs did he buy for 5 rupees?
table, the retail price of which is ` 1265? (a) 10 eggs (b) 12 eggs
(a) ` 800 (b) ` 1000 (c) ` 900 (d) ` 600 (c) 14 eggs (d) 16 eggs
3. The price of a jewel, passing through three hands, rises on 11. A person sells 36 oranges per rupee and suffers a loss of
the whole by 65%. If the first and the second sellers earned 4%. Find how many oranges per rupee to be sold to have a
20% and 25% profit respectively, find the percentage profit gain of 8%?
earned by the third seller. (a) 30 (b) 31 (c) 32 (d) 33
(a) 20% (b) 10% 12. A shopkeeper’s price is 50% above the cost price. If he
(c) 25% (d) No gain or loss allows his customer a discount of 30% what profit does he
make?
1
4. A man sold his book for Rs 891, thereby gaining of its (a) 5% (b) 10% (c) 15% (d) 20%
10 13. A shopkeeper purchases 10 kg of rice at ` 600 and sells at a
cost price. Find his cost price. loss as much the selling price of 2 kg of rice . Find the sale
(a) ` 850 (b) ` 810 (c) ` 851 (d) ` 840 rate of rice/ kg.
5. A man buys 50 pencils for Rs 100 and sells 45 pencils for (a) ` 60 per kg (b) ` 50 per kg
` 90. Find his gain or loss %. (c) ` 80 per kg (d) ` 70 per kg
(a) 20% (b) 35% 14 If 15 oranges are bought for a rupee, how many must be
(c) 25% (d) No gain or loss sold for a rupee to gain 25%?
(a) 12 (b) 10 (c) 20 (d) 18
6. A dealer sold a mixer for ` 420 at a loss of 12.5%. At what
15. A man buys milk at Rs 6 per litre and adds one third of water
price should he have sold it to gain 12.5%.
to it and sells mixture at Rs 7.20 per litre. The gain is
(a) ` 620 (b) ` 540 (c) ` 650 (d) ` 750 (a) 40% (b) 80% (c) 60% (d) 25%
7. Kaberi buys a radio three-fourths of its value and sells it for 16. A milk man makes a profit of 20% on the sale of milk. If he
20% more than its value. What will be its profit percentage? were to add 10% water to the milk, by what %would his
(a) 50% (b) 40% (c) 60% (d) 70%
profit increase?
8. By selling an article for ` 45, a shopkeeper loses 20%. For
how much should he sell it to gain 20% on it? 40
(a) 30 (b) (c) 22 (d) 10
(a) ` 150 (b) ` 67.50 (c) ` 60.50 (d) ` 65 3

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17. A grocer purchased 80 kg of sugar at ` 13.50 per kg and 27. A man sells an article at a gain 15%. If he had bought it at
mixed it with 120 kg sugar at ` 16 per kg. At what rate should 10% less and sold it for ` 4 less, he would have gained
he sell the mixture to gain 16%? 25%. Find the cost price of the article.
(a) ` 17 per kg (b) ` 17.40 per kg (a) ` 150 (b) ` 160 (c) ` 170 (d) ` 180
(c) ` 16.5 per kg (d) ` 16 per kg 28. A man sells an article at 5% profit. If he had bought it at 5%
less and sold it for Re 1 less, he would have gained 10%.
18. A dishonest fruit seller professes to sell his goods at the
The cost price of the article is :
cost price but weighs 800 grams for a kg weight. Find his
(a) ` 200 (b) ` 150 (c) ` 240 (d) ` 280
gain percent.
29. Five kg of butter was bought by a shopkeeper for ` 300.
(a) 100% (b) 150% (c) 50% (d) 200% One kg becomes unsaleable. He sells the remaining in such
19. A shopkeeper purchased 150 identical pieces of calculators a way that on the whole he incurs a loss of 10%. At what
at the rate of ` 250 each. He spent an amount of ` 2500 on price per kg was the butter sold?
transport and packing. He fixed the labelled price of each (a) ` 67.50 (b) ` 52.50
calculator at ` 320. However, he decided to give a discount (c) ` 60 (d) ` 72.50
of 5% on the labelled price. What is the percentage profit 30 A fruitseller sells 8 oranges at a cost price of 9. The profit
earned by him ? per cent is
(a) 14 % (b) 15 % (c) 16 % (d) 20 % 1 1 15 2
20. A dishonest dealer sells his goods at the cost price but still (a) 12 (b) 11 (c) 5 (d) 8
2 9 17 3
earns a profit of 25% by underweighing. What weight does 31. The cost price of 20 articles is equal to the selling price of
he use for a kg? 25 articles. The loss percent in the transaction is
(a) 750 g (b) 800 g (c) 825 g (d) 850 g (a) 5 (b) 20 (c) 25 (d) 30
21. A shopkeeper marks up his goods to gain 35%. But he 32. By selling 66 metres of cloth a person gains the cost price
allows 10% discount for cash payment. His profit on the of 22 metres. Find the gain per cent.
cash transaction therefore, in percentage, is
1 1
(a) 22% (b) 22 % (c) 33% (d) 33 %
1 1 2 3
(a) 13 1 (b) 25 (c) 21 (d) 31
2 2 2 33. By selling 66 metres of cloth a man loses the selling price of
22. A man sold two steel chairs for ` 500 each. On one he gains 22 metres. Find the loss per cent.
20% and on other, he loses 12%. How much does he gain or (a) 20% (b) 25% (c) 30% (d) 35%
lose in the whole transaction? 34. The list price of a watch is ` 160. A retailer bought the same
watch ` 122.40. He got two successive discounts one at
(a) 1.5% gain (b) 2% gain
10% and the other at a rate which was not legible. What is
(c) 1.5% loss (d) 2% loss
the second discount rate?
23. A firm of readymade garments makes both men’s and (a) 12% (b) 14% (c) 15% (d) 18%
women’s shirts. Its average profit is 6% of the sales. Its 35. A tradesman is marketing his goods 20% above the cost
profit in men’s shirts average 8% of the sales and women’s price of the goods. He gives 10% discount on cash payment,
shirts comprise 60% of the output. The average profit per find his gain percent.
sale rupee in women shirts is (a) 12% (b) 8% (c) 15% (d) 18%
(a) 0.0466 (b) 0.0666 36. For a certain article, if discount is 25%, the profit is 25%. If
(c) 0.0166 (d) None of these the discount is 10%, then the profit is
24. A man purchases two watches at ` 560. He sells one at 15% (a) 10% (b) 20% (c) 35% (d) 50%
profit and other at 10% loss. Then he neither gains nor loss. 37. A trader marks his goods at such a price that he can deduct
Find the cost price of each watch. 15% for cash and yet make 20% profit. Find the marked
(a) ` 224, ` 300 (b) ` 200, ` 300 price of an item which costs him ` 90 :
(c) ` 224, ` 336 (d) ` 200, ` 336 11 3
(a) ` 135 (b) ` 105
25. A man bought a horse and a carriage for ` 3000. He sold the 13 21
horse at a gain of 20% and the carriage at a loss 10%, thereby 1 1
(c) ` 127 (d) ` 95
gaining 2% on the whole. Find the cost of the horse. 17 21
(a) `1000 (b) ` 1200 38. A trader wants 10% profit on the selling price of a product
(c) `1500 (d) ` 1700 whereas his expenses amount to 15% on sales. What should
be his rate of mark up on an article costing ` 9?
26. Two electronic musical instruments were purchased for
` 8000. The first was sold at a profit of 40% and the second 2 100
(a) 20% (b) 66 % (c) 30% (d) %
at loss of 40%. If the sale price was the same in both the 3 3
cases, what was the cost price of two electronic musical 39. A wholesaler sells 30 pens at the price of 27 pens to a retailer.
instruments? The retailer sells the pens at their market price. The profit
(a) ` 2000, ` 5000 (b) ` 2200, ` 5500 for the retailer is
(c) ` 2400, ` 5000 (d) ` 2400, ` 5600 1 1
(a) 11% (b) 10% (c) 11 % (d) 9 %
9 11
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40. A discount of 16% on the marked price of a book enables a 47 A manufacturer sells goods to an agent at a profit of 20%.
man to buy a pen which costs Rs 80. How much did he pay The agent’s wholesale price to a shopkeeper is at a profit of
for the book? 10% and the shopkeeper retails his goods at a profit of
(a) ` 420 (b) ` 450 (c) ` 480 (d) ` 495 12%. Find the retailer’s price of an article which had cost
41. A shopkeeper fixes the marked price of an item 20% above the manufacturer ` 25.
the cost price. He allows his customers a discount and makes (a) ` 37 (b) ` 40 (c) ` 44 (d) ` 46
a profit of 8%. Find the rate of discount.
1
(a) 8% (b) 9% (c) 10% (d) 11% 48. A business man sells lot of shirts at a profit of 12 % and
42. A chair originally costs ` 50. It was offered for sale at 108% 2
of its cost. After a week, the price was 10% discounted and invests the proceeds to buy lot of pants, which he sells at a
was sold. Find the sale price. profit of 20%. If he makes a net profit of ` 2700, the cost of
(a) ` 46.80 (b) ` 48.60 the shirts was
(c) ` 50 (d) ` 52. 40 (a) ` 2450 (b) ` 2225
43. By selling an umbrella for Rs 30, a merchant gains 20%. (c) ` 2000 (d) ` 1880
During a clearance sale, the merchant allows a discount of 49. A sells a tube to B at a profit of 20% and B sells it to C at
10% off the marked price (the price at which he used to sell). profit of 25 %. If C pays ` 225 for it, what did A pay for it?
Find his gain per cent. (a) ` 100 (b) ` 125 (c) ` 150 (d) ` 175
(a) 6% (b) 7% (c) 8% (d) 9% 50. A sells an article which costs him ` 400 to B at a profit of
44. By what % must the cost of goods be marked up so that 20%. B then sells it to C, making a profit of 10% on the price
even after a discount of 20% the same amount is realised as he paid to A. How much does C pay to B?
before the discount? (a) ` 472 (b) ` 476 (c) ` 528 (d) ` 532
(a) 20 (b) 25 (c) 40 (d) 10 51. A shopkeeper buys 50 dozen eggs at Rs 4 per dozen. Out of
45. Goods are sold so that when a discount of 4 percent is them, 40 eggs were found broken. At what rate should he
given on the sale price, a profit of 20 percent is made. How sell the remaining eggs per dozen so as to gain 5% on the
much percent, is the sale price higher than the cost price? whole?
(a) 20% (b) 24% (c) 25% (d) 27% (a) ` 4 (b) ` 4.25
46. A man sells his car for ` 5000 and loses something. Had he (c) ` 4.50 (d) ` 5.25
sold it for ` 5600, his gain would have been double the 52. The difference between the selling price of a clock at a
former loss. Find the cost price. profit of 8% and 10% is Rs 6. Find the cost price of the
(a) ` 5500 (b) ` 5100 clock.
(c) ` 5400 (d) ` 5200 (a) ` 1200 (b) ` 600
(c) ` 400 (d) ` 300

1 (b) 6 (b) 11 (c) 16 (b) 21 (c) 26 (d) 31 (c) 36 (d) 41 (c) 46 (d) 51 (c)
2 (a) 7 (c) 12 (a) 17 (b) 22 (a) 27 (b) 32 (d) 37 (c) 42 (b) 47 (a) 52 (d)
3 (b) 8 (b) 13 (b) 18 (a) 23 (a) 28 (a) 33 (b) 38 (d) 43 (c) 48 (c)
4 (b) 9 (d) 14 (a) 19 (a) 24 (c) 29 (a) 34 (c) 39 (c) 44 (b) 49 (c)
5 (d) 10 (b) 15 (b) 20 (b) 25 (b) 30 (a) 35 (b) 40 (a) 45 (c) 50 (c)
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7

## HINTS & SOLUTIONS

1. (b) Let S.P. = ` 100. Then, C.P. = ` 96; Profit = ` 4.
10
9. (d) C.P. for 1 lichchu = paise
æ 4 ö 25 11
\ Profit % = ç ´100 ÷ % = % = 4.17%. » 4.2%
è 96 ø 6
11
2. (a) Let the cost of production of the table be ` x. S. P. for 1 lichchu = paise
10
Then, 125% of 115% of 110% of x = 1265
125 115 110 11 10
Þ ´ ´ ´ x = 1265 -
100 100 100 10 11 ´100 = 21%
\ gain % =
10
253 æ 1265 ´ 160 ö
Þ x = 1265 Þ x = ç ÷ = ` 800 11
160 è 253 ø
3. (b) Let the original price of the jewel be ` P and let the 5 1
profit earned by the third seller be x%. 10. (b) S.P. for 1 egg = ` = Rs
10 2
Then, (100 + x)% of 125% of 120% of P = 165% of P
100 1 5
é (100 + x) 125 120 ù æ 165 ö \ C. P. for 1 egg = ´ =`
Þê ´ ´ ´ Pú = ç ´P÷ (100 + 20) 2 12
ë 100 100 100 û è 100 ø
Þ He bought 12 eggs for 5 rupees.
æ 165 ´ 100 ´ 100 ö 11. (c) Let he sells x oranges per rupee.
Þ (100 + x) = ç ÷ = 110 Þ x = 10%.
è 125 ´120 ø
1
4. (b) Let C. P. = ` x then profit = S.P. – C. P. : (100 - 4) :: x : (100 + 8)
36
1 11x
Þ ´ x = 891 – x Þ = 891 108 1
10 10 Þ x= =
96 ´ 36 32
891´10
Þx= =` 810 He sells 32 oranges per rupee.
11
12. (a) Let C.P. = Rs 100, then M. P. = ` 150
5. (d) C. P. for 50 pencils = ` 100
S.P. = 70% of 150 = ` 105
100
\ C. P. for 45 pencils = ´ 45 = ` 90 105 - 100
50 \ % profit = ´ 100 = 5%
= S.P. of 45 pencils 100
\ No gain , no loss 13. (b) Let S. P. = ` x per kg
6. (b) (100 – loss) : S1 : : (100 + gain) : S2 \ S.P. of 2 kg of rice = ` 2x = Loss
\ (100 – 12.5) : 420 : : (100 + 12.5) : S2 Now, Loss = C.P. – S.P.
87.5 : 420 : : 112.5 : S2 2x = 600 – 10 x
Þ 87.5 × S2 = 420 × 112.5 Þ x = ` 50 per kg
420 ´1125
Þ S2 = = 540
14. (a) C.P. for one orange = `
1
875
15
7. (c) Let the value of radio be Rs x.
(100 + 25) 1 125 1
3 æ 20 ö 6 Then S.P. = ´ = =
Then C. P. = ` x, S. P. = x ç1 + ÷= x 100 15 100 ´ 15 12
4 è 100 ø 5
1
6 3 Hence S.P. for one orange = `
x- x 12
\ % profit = 5 4 ´ 100 = 60%
\ 12 oranges must be sold for a rupee to gain 25%.
3x
4 15. (b) C.P. of one litre = ` 6
After adding water to it
8. (b) (100 – 20) : 45 : : (100 + 20) S2
2
Þ S2 = 45 ´120 = ` 67.50 One has to pay Rs 7.20 for litre of milk.
80 3

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8

## 2 True weight 100 + gain%

So S.P. of litre of milk = Rs 7.20 20. (b) =
3 False weight 100 + x
7.20 ´ 3 Here S.P. = C. P. \ x = 0
Þ S.P. of 1 litre of milk = Rs =` 10.80
2 1000×100
Þ False weight= = 800 gm
Q S.P. > C.P. 125
10.80 - 6 4.80 21. (c) Let cost Price = ` 100
Hence gain = ´ 100 = ´ 100 \ Marked price = ` 135
6 6
= 0.80 × 100 = 80% After discount, selling price = 135 – 13.5 = 121.5
16. (b) Let profit per litre = ` 20 \ Profit% = 121.5 – 100 = 21.5%
So, C.P. / litre = ` 100 22. (a) S.P. of the 1st chair = ` 500
S.P. / litre = ` 120 Gain = 20%
On adding 10% water to the milk 500 ´ 100 500 ´ 100
\ C.P. of the 1st chair = =
9 100 + 20 120
C.P. per litre = ` 100
10 1250
=
9 3
S.P. per litre = ` 120
10 S.P. of the 2nd chair = ` 500
120 ´ 10 400 Loss = 12%
S.P. per litre = ` =`
9 3 500 ´ 100 500 ´ 100
\ C.P. of the 2nd chair = =
400 100 - 12 88
Þ Profit / litre = - 100 = 33.33
3 500 ´ 25 250 ´ 25
= =
% by which profit increases = 33.33 – 20 = 13.3 22 11
17. (b) C.P. of 200 kg of mixture = ` (80 × 13.50 + 120 × 16)
6250
= ` 3000. =
11
æ 116 ö Now S.P. of both the chairs = ` 1000
S.P. = 116% of Rs 3000 = ` ç ´ 3000 ÷ = ` 3480.
è 100 ø C.P. of both the chairs
1250 6250 13750 + 18750 32500
æ 3480 ö = + = =
\ Rate of S.P. of the mixture = Rs. ç ÷ per kg 3 11 33 33
è 200 ø
= ` 17.40 per kg. \ Net gain = 1000 – 32500 = 500
18. (a) He gives 800 grams but charges the price of 1000 grams 33 33
(1 kg) 500 33 500
Þ on every 800 grams, he gains (1000 – 800) grams i.e. Þ Gain % = ´ 100 = ´ 100
32500 33 32500
200 grams.
100 20
200 = = = 1.5% (To one place of decimal)
\ His gain % = ´100% = 25% 65 13
800 23. (a) Women's shirt comprise 60% of the output.
error \ Men's shirts comprise (100 – 60) = 40% of the
Short cut : Gain % = out put.
true weight–error
\ Average profit from men's shirt = 8% of 40
200 = 3.2 out of 40
= ´ 100
1000 - 200 Overall average profit = 6 out of 100
19. (a) C.P. of 150 calculators \ Average profit from women's shirts = 2.8 out of 60
= 150 × 250 + 2500 = 37500 + 2500 = ` 40000 i.e. 0.0466 out of each shirt.
24. (c) Here, in whole transaction, there is neither gains nor
Labelled price of 150 calculators
loss, therefore,
= 150 × 320 = ` 48000 Amount of gain in one watch
Discount allowed = 5% = Amount of loss in other watch
\ S.P. of 150 calculators
Þ 0.15 ´ CP1 = 0.10 ´ CP2
= 48000 – 5% of 48000 = ` 45600
CP1 0.10 2
\
5600 Þ = =
Profit % = ´ 100 = 14 CP2 0.15 3
40000
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9
Also CP1 + CP2 = 560 31. (c) Let C.P. of 1 article = Re 1
2 then C.P. of 25 articles = ` 25
\ CP1 = (2 + 3) ´ 560 = ` 224 and S.P. of 25 articles = ` 20
and CP2 = 560 – 224 = ` 336 \ loss % = 25 - 20 ´ 100 = 25%
25. (b) Let the C.P. of horse = ` x 20
Then the C.P. of carriage = Rs (3000 – x) 32. (d) Let C.P. of one metre of cloth = ` 1
20% of x – 10% of (3000 – x) = 2% of 3000 then C.P. of 66 metres of cloth = ` 66
Gain = C.P. of 22 metres = ` 22
x (3000 – x)
Þ - = 60
5 10 22 1
% gain = ´ 100 = 33 %
Þ 2x - 3000 + x = 600 66 3
Shortcut method :
Þ 3x = 3600 Þ x = 1200
If on selling ‘x’ articles, a man gains equal to the C.P. of
26. (d) Here, SP1 = SP2
CP1 y
6 3 ‘y’ articles, then % gain = ´100
Þ 140 CP1 = 60CP2 Þ = = x
CP2 14 7
3 22 1
\ CP1 = ´ 8000 = ` 2400 \ % gain = ´ 100 = 33 %
(3 + 7) 66 3
33. (b) Loss = C.P. of 66 metres – S.P. of 66 metres
and CP2 = 8000 – 2400 = ` 5600
= S.P. of 22 metres
27. (b) Let the C.P. be Rs 100 Þ C.P. of 66 metres = S.P. of 88 metres
First S.P. = ` 115
loss
Second C.P. = ` 90 % loss = ´ 100
C.P. of 66 metres
Second S.P = 125% of ` 90 = ` 112.50
Difference of two selling prices is ` 115 – ` 112.50 S.P of 22 metres
= ´ 100
= ` 2.50 and C.P. of the article is ` 100 C.P of 66 metres
But actual difference is ` 4. S.P. of 22 metres
= ´ 100
100 S.P.of 88 metres
\ C.P. = ´ ` 4 = ` 160.
2.50 22
= ´ 100 = 25%
28. (a) Let the CP of the article be ` x. 88
105x * Try to solve by shortcut method
Then, SP = `
100 æ d1 ö æ d ö
34. (c) Retailer price = list price ç 1 - ÷ ç 1- 2 ÷
95x 105x è 100 ø è 100 ø
Now, new CP = ` and new SP = -1
100 100
æ 10 ö æ d2 ö
According to the question Þ 122.40 = 160 ç1 - ÷ ç1 - ÷
è 100 ø è 100 ø
105x 95 10 ´ 95x
-1- = d 2 122.40 ´100
100 100 100 ´100 Þ 1- = = 0.85
100 160 ´ 90
\ x = ` 200
29. (a) Let S.P. = ` x per kg Þ d 2 = (1 - 0.85) ´100 = 15%
\ S.P. of 4 kg = ` 4x 35. (b) Let the C.P. of the goods be ` 100
Þ Marked price of the goods = ` 120
100 –10
\ 4x = ´ 300 Discount = 10% Þ S.P. is 90% of Rs 120 = ` 108
100
\ Gain% = (108 – 100) = 8%.
270
Þ x= = ` 67.50 100 - d1 100 + g1
4 36. (d) For same article, =
100 - d 2 100 + g 2
30. (a) Let C.P. of one orange = Re 1
Then C.P. of 8 oranges = ` 8 100 - 25 100 + 25 75 125
Þ = Þ =
S.P of 8 oranges = ` 9 100 - 10 100 + g 2 90 100 + g 2
9-8 100 1 90 ´ 125
\ Gain % = ´ 100 = = 12 % Þ 100 + g 2 = = 150 Þ g2 = 50%
8 8 2 75
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37. (c) SP = 90 × 1.2 = Rs 108 45. (c) Let the C.P. be Rs 100
S.P. = Rs 120
108
Marked price = = 127.05 Discount being 4%, S.P. is 96% of sale price.
0.85 `
\ 96% of sale price = ` 120
38. (d) Let the SP of the article be ` x
100
Expenses = 15% of x = ` 0.15x Þ sale price = ` 120 × = ` 125
96
Profit = 10% of x = Rs 0.10x
\ Sale price is 25% higher than the C.P.
CP = ` 9 (given) 46. (d) Let his loss = ` x. Then,
Therefore, 9 + 0.15x + 0.1x = x Þ x = 12 C.P. = 5000 + x = 5600 – 2x
12 - 9 100 Þ 3x = 600 Þ x = 200
\ % increase for marked price = ´ 100 = % \ C.P. =5000 + 200 = Rs 5200
9 3
47. (a) Retailer’s price = 112 % of 110% of (120 % of 25)
39. (c) Retailer’s S.P. = M.P.
Retailer’s C.P. for 30 Pens = M.P. of 27 pens 112 110 120
= ´ ´ ´ 25 = ` 36.96 » ` 37
\ Retailer’s S.P. for 30 pens = M.P of 30 pens 100 100 100
30 - 27 100 1 48. (c) Let C.P. = ` x
\ % gain = ´ 100 = = 11 %
27 9 9 æ 225 ö
120% of ç % of x ÷ = 2700
40. (a) Let M.P. = ` 100 è 2 ø
then discount = ` 16 120 225
Þ ´ ´ x = 2700 Þ x = 2000
\ when discount = ` 80, then M.P = ` x 100 2 ´ 100
100 x 49. (c) Let A paid = ` x
Now, it’s direct proportion 125 % of 120% of x = 225
16 80
\ 100 : x : : 16 : 80 125 120
Þ ´ ´ x = 225
Þ 16x = 100 × 80 Þ x = ` 500 100 100
Now, since M. P. = ` 500, therefore, after 16% discount 225 ´100 ´100
Þ x= = ` 150
125 ´120
man paid = 500 æç1 -
16 ö
÷ = ` 420
è 100 ø æ 120 ö
50. (c) C.P. for B = 120% of ` 400 = ` ç ´ 400 ÷ = ` 480
41. (c) Let C.P. = ` 100. Then M.P. = ` 120 and S.P. = ` 108 è 100 ø
æ 12 ö æ 110 ö
% discount = ç ´100 ÷ % = 10% C.P. for C = 110% of ` 480 = ` ç ´ 480 ÷ = ` 528.
è 120 ø è 100 ø
50 ´ 108 51. (c) C.P. = 50 × 4 = ` 200
42. (b) Offering price = = ` 54
100 Remaining eggs = 600 – 40 = 560
After 10% discount, S.P. = 90% of 54 Let S.P. of eggs = ` x per dozen
90 ´ 54
= = ` 48.60 560
100 \ Total S.P. = ` x
43. (c) (100 + g1) : S1 : : (100 + g2) : S2 12

## æ 10 ö \ 560 x = (100 + 5)% ´ 200

(100 + 20) : 30 : : (100 + g2) : 30 ç1 - ÷ 12 100
è 100 ø
[ Q 10% discount is allowed on S.P.] 105 2400
Þ x= ´ = ` 4.5per dozen
120 : 30 : : (100 + g2) : 27 100 560
52. (d) Let C. P. = ` x. Then
120 ´ 27
100 + g 2 = = 108 Þ g = 8% S.P1 – S.P2 = ` 6
30 2

44. (b) Let C.P. = Rs 100, Also, let M.P. = ` x (100 + 10)x (100 + 8)x
- =6
Given, C.P. after 20% discount on M.P. = C.P. 100 100
Þ 80 % of x = 100 Þ 110 x – 108 x = 600 Þ 2x = 600 Þ x = ` 300
100 ´100
Þ x= = ` 125
80
\ M.P. = 25 % above C.P.