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ASTM Standards on

Color and Appearance

Robert T. Marcus
Sun Chemical Corporation
May 9, 2007

SunChemical - Color Research Laboratory


ASTM International
 Founded in 1898
 One of the largest voluntary standards
development organizations in the world
 More than 12,000 standards published
each year
 More than 30,000 technical experts
from more than 100 countries
 139 technical committees

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Committee E12 on
Color and Appearance
To promote knowledge of color and
appearance properties and
characteristics, and to encourage the
improvement and development of
standards for describing and evaluating
color and appearance properties by:

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Committee E12 on
Color and Appearance

* Stimulating and sponsoring research into


color and appearance problems;

* Formulating terms, nomenclature, and


definitions generally applicable for describing
color and appearance;

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Committee E12 on
Color and Appearance
* Developing, or coordinating with other
technical committees to develop standards for
measuring fundamental and general
properties;

* Assisting other technical committees to


improve color and appearance standards and
specifications by advice, suggestions, and
dissemination of information;

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Committee E12 on
Color and Appearance
* Reviewing and recommending approval or
revision of ASTM standards, existing or
proposed, involving color and appearance
factors;

* Serving, with the approval of the ASTM


Board of Directors, as liaison agent between
the Society and other organizations in matters
concerned with factors of color and
appearance.

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E12 Technical Subcommittees
 E12.01 on Terminology
 E12.02 on Spectrophotometry and
Colorimetry
 E12.03 on Geometry
 E12.04 on Color and Appearance Analysis
 E12.05 on Fluorescence
 E12.06 on Image Based Color Measurement
 E12.07 on Color Order Systems

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E12 Technical Subcommittees
 E12.08 on High Visibility Materials for
Individual Safety
 E12.10 on Retroreflection
 E12.11 on Visual Methods
 E12.12 on Metallic and Pearlescent Colors
 E12.13 on Photoluminescent Safety Markings
 E12.14 on Multidimensional Characterization
of Appearance
 E12.93 on Precision and Bias

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Categories of E12 Standards
 Terminology Standard
 Definitions of terms; explanations of symbols;
abbreviations; acronyms
 E284 Standard Terminology of Appearance
(E12.01)
 Guides
 Informative; series of options that do not
recommend a specific course of action
 E2030 Standard Guide for Recommended Uses of
Photoluminescent (Phosphorescent) Safety
Markings (E12.13)

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Categories of E12 Standards
 Practices
 A definitive set of instructions for performing one
or more specific operations that do not produce a
test result.
 E2175 Standard Practice for Specifying the
Geometry of Multiangle Spectrophotometers
(E12.03)
 Test Methods
 A definitive procedure that produces a test result.
 E1331 Standard Test Method for Reflectance
Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry Using
Hemispherical Geometry (E12.02)

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Categories of E12 Standards
 Specifications
 An explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a
material, product, system, or service
 E1501 Standard Specification for Nighttime
Photometric Performance of Retroreflective
Pedestrian Markings for Visibility Enhancement
(E12.08)

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Classification and Balance
 Committees and subcommittees developing
standards dealing with materials, products,
systems, or services which are offered for
sale are required to be classified and
balanced. Classified subcommittees shall
consist of not less than three producers and
not less than three non-producers.
 E12 is a classified committee
 E12.08 and E12.13 are classified
subcommittees

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Classification and Balance
 Producers
 A member who represents and organization that
manufactures, fabricates, sells supplies or
promotes materials, products, assemblies or
services covered by the subcommittee scope.
 Companies or individuals manufacturing
instruments, light booths or producing software
used to do color and/or appearance testing.
 User
 A member who represents and organization that
purchases or uses materials products, assemblies
or services covered by the subcommittee scope.

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Classification and Balance
 General Interest
 A member that does not fit into any of the
preceding categories shall be classified as a
general interest member.

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The Process Of Creating A Standard
 The subcommittee determines the need for a
new standard.
 A task group drafts the standard.
 The draft is submitted for editorial review.
 The draft is placed on a subcommittee ballot.
 Subcommittee members vote on the draft.
 Affirmative
 Affirmative with comments
 Negative
 Abstain

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The Process Of Creating A Standard
 Negative votes
 Must be accompanied by an explanation of why
the voter cast the negative vote.
 Should contain alternative wording that would
satisfy the negative voter if incorporated into the
draft.
 All negative votes must be resolved.
 Accepted. Changes will be made to the draft
 Found non-persuasive and changes will not be made.
 All comments are considered by the
subcommittee but will not prevent the draft
from going to the next level.
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The Process Of Creating A Standard
 If persuasive negative votes were cast, the
draft is revised and put onto a subcommittee
ballot.
 Once the draft passes a subcommittee ballot
with no negative votes, it is placed onto a
committee ballot.
 Committee members vote on the draft.
 Negative votes must be resolved by the
originating subcommittee.
 Comments will be reviewed.

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The Process Of Creating A Standard
 If any persuasive negative votes were cast,
the draft will be revised and re-balloted.
 If no persuasive negative votes were cast but
negative votes cast were found to be non-
persuasive by the subcommittee, the non-
persuasive finding must be upheld by the
entire committee.
 The procedure for finding the negative vote
non-persuasive will also be reviewed by the
ASTM Committee on Standards.

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The Process Of Creating A Standard
 All members of ASTM International have the
opportunity to review the standard before
publication and comment or cast a negative
vote. Negative votes cast at the ASTM level
must be resolved before publication of the
standard.
 When the draft has been reviewed and
accepted at all levels, the draft becomes an
ASTM standard and is published.
 Standards may be revised at any time
following publication.
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Mandatory Review Of Standards
 A standard must be reviewed by the
responsible subcommittee and balloted for
reapproval, revision, or withdrawal within five
years of its last approval date.
 If no action has been taken by January 1st of
the sixth year, ASTM will automatically ballot
the standard for withdrawal.
 If the standard has not received a new
approval date by December 31st of the eighth
year since its last approval date, the standard
will be withdrawn by ASTM.
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Scope E12.01 on Terminology

Subcommittee E12.01 on Terminology is responsible for the


upkeep of E 284, Standard Terminology of Appearance. The
subcommittee is actively managing this standard to provide
reliable definitions for terms used in new and revised E12
standards and other documents relating to the description of
appearance. Terms relating to perception, gonioappearance,
instrument agreement, and fluorescence are of particular
interest at present. Special care is being taken to promote
agreement with the forthcoming revision of the CIE International
Lighting Vocabulary, and cooperation with the new CIE Division
8 on Imaging Technologies is expected to generate additional
opportunities for standardizing terminology relating to
appearance.

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E12.02 on Spectrophotometry and Colorimetry

ASTM Subcommittee E12.02 on Spectrophotometry and


Colorimetry actively maintains ASTM Practices and Test
Methods that reflect the current state of the art in instrumental
colorimetric measurement and assessment. The subcommittee
embraces absolute standards, instrumentation and
measurement methodologies.

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E12.03 on Geometry

ASTM Subcommittee E12.03 on Geometry is responsible for


geometric aspects of ASTM standards on color and
appearance. With respect to appearances, people often say, "It
all depends on how you look at it." In this committee, that is not
taken figuratively, but quite literally. Many materials have
different colors, gloss, luster, sheen, or glitter, depending on the
angular conditions of illumination and viewing. For this reason,
standard methods of viewing materials and standard methods of
measuring physical quantities that correlate with visual
observations must specify geometry precisely. The
subcommittee standardizes concepts, terminology, and notation
for specifying the geometry for viewing and measuring materials
and assists other subcommittees with the geometric aspects of
standardization.

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E12.04 on Color and Appearance Analysis
Subcommittee E12.04 on Color and Appearance Analysis is
responsible for developing and maintaining standard practices
that involve the numerical or mathematical manipulation of color
measurement data. These standards include the derivation of
tristimulus values, color space coordinates, scales of
yellowness, whiteness, and color differences. Much of the
research in colorimetry involves the comparison and modeling of
the objective measurement of light stimuli with the subjective
visual response to those stimuli. As that research is introduced
into the public domain, this subcommittee attempts to document
and standardize the practical aspects that will improve the
communication of color across the design, production and
marketing applications. Our standards include E 308 on
computing the colors of objects by using the CIE System, E1345
on reducing the variability of color measurement by use of
multiple measurements and E 1708 on electronic interchange of
color and appearance data.

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E12.05 on Fluorescence
ASTM subcommittee E12.05 on Fluorescence is actively
working to update the existing standard practices and test
methods to reflect the current state of the art for the colorimetry
of fluorescent materials. There is a major revision of ASTM E
1247 on identifying fluorescence in object-color specimens in
progress. The subcommittee is also working on the
development of new standards including: a proposed guide to
fluorescence and the colorimetry of fluorescent materials that
can be used as reference by industry to understand what
fluorescence really is and the issues involved in the accurate
and reproducible color measurement of these materials, and a
proposed method for the measurement of fluorescent materials
using the two-monochromator method. The objective of this
method is to describe these different procedures now in use
which will then serve as a staring point for evaluating the relative
accuracy of each method.

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E12.06 on Appearance of Displays

Subcommittee E12.06 on Appearance of Displays is responsible


for standards that ensure accurate and consistent measurement
of information displays. These interests range from standard test
methods for obtaining spectroradiometric data to guides to the
modeling of display properties and performance. CRTs, flat
panel displays, and photographic imaging systems each have
special characteristics that challenge users of measurement
equipment. The subcommittee finds consensus as to how
proper measurements should be made and interpreted.

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E12.07 on Color Order Systems

Subcommittee E12.07 develops and maintains test methods,


practices and guides relating to the use of color order systems
and determining the notations of colors in respect to various
color order systems. Current practices describe the Munsell
Color Order System, the Color Curve System and the Optical
Society of America Uniform Color Scales System.

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E12.11 on Visual Methods

E12.11 on Visual Methods is concerned with looking at things,


judging what we see, and then describing it analytically. This is
psychophysics, the systematic, quantitative study of human
perceptual response. A major variable is the multiplicity of light
sources. Their light is usually modulated by the reflectance or
transmittance characteristics of object before it impacts upon our
visual system. We are well along toward agreement upon what
is best for judging a test (new) source mimics. The color
rendering of an existing (old) reference source, a Color
Rendering Index.

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E12.13 Photoluminescent Safety Markings

Subcommittee E12.13 develops standards relating to


photoluminescence. These documents help manufacturers,
users, architects, designers, code officials and other interested
parties test, specify and use true photoluminescent safety
markings for life-safety related applications.

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E12.14 on Multidimensional Characterization of Appearance

Modern coating and polymer chemistry and application


techniques result in surface and sub-surface appearance
phenomena which, individually and in combination, defy
adequate specification (or characterization) visually and
instrumentally. This limits (hinders) our ability to define and
consistently reproduce products of desirable quality, or to
analyze and exclude unwanted appearance effects. This
committee desires to expand our knowledge of this complex
subject and develop visual and instrumental standards based on
well founded data.

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E12 Standards

E12.01 Terminology

E284-06b Standard Terminology of Appearance

E12.02 Spectrophotometry and Colorimetry

E259-06 Standard Practice for Preparation of Pressed Powder White Reflectance Factor
Transfer Standards for Hemispherical and Bi-Directional Geometries

E1164-02 Standard Practice for Obtaining Spectrophotometric Data for Object-Color


Evaluation

E1331-04 Standard Test Method for Reflectance Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry
Using Hemispherical Geometry

E1347-03 Standard Test Method for Color and Color-Difference Measurement by


Tristimulus (Filter) Colorimetry

E1348-02 Standard Test Method for Transmittance and Color by Spectrophotometry Using
Hemispherical Geometry

E1349-06 Standard Test Method for Reflectance Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry
Using Bidirectional (45:0 or 0:45) Geometry

E1477-98a(2003) Standard Test Method for Luminous Reflectance Factor of Acoustical


Materials by Use of Integrating-Sphere Reflectometers

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E12 Standards

E12.03 Geometry

D523-89(1999) Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss

E179-96(2003) Standard Guide for Selection of Geometric Conditions for Measurement of


Reflection and Transmission Properties of Materials

E312-06 Standard Practice for Description and Selection of Conditions for Photographing
Specimens Using Analog (Film) Cameras and Digital Still Cameras (DSC)

E430-05 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Gloss of High-Gloss Surfaces by


Abridged Goniophotometry

E1767-04 Practice for Specifying the Geometries of Observation and Measurement to


Characterize the Appearance of Materials

E2175-01 Standard Practice for Specifying the Geometry of Multiangle Spectrophotometers

E2387-05 Standard Practice for Goniometric Optical Scatter Measurements

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E12 Standards

E12.04 Color and Appearance Analysis

D2244-05 Standard Practice for Calculation of Color Tolerances and Color Differences from
Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates

E308-01 Standard Practice for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE System

E313-05 Standard Practice for Calculating Yellowness and Whiteness Indices from
Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates

E805-06 Standard Practice for Identification of Instrumental Methods of Color or Color-


Difference Measurement of Materials

E1345-98(2003) Standard Practice for Reducing the Effect of Variability of Color


Measurement by Use of Multiple Measurements

E1708-95(2001) Standard Practice for Electronic Interchange of Color and Appearance


Data

E2022-06 Standard Practice for Calculation of Weighting Factors for Tristimulus Integration

E2214-02 Standard Practice for Specifying and Verifying the Performance of Color-
Measuring Instruments

E2222-02 Standard Practice for Host Computer Communication with Spectrometers for
Color Measurements

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E12 Standards

E12.05 Fluorescence

E991-06 Standard Practice for Color Measurement of Fluorescent Specimens Using the
One-Monochromator Method

E1247-03 Standard Practice for Detecting Fluorescence in Object-Color Specimens by


Spectrophotometry

E2152-01(2006) Standard Practice for Computing the Colors of Fluorescent Objects from
Bispectral Photometric Data

E2153-01(2006) Standard Practice for Obtaining Bispectral Photometric Data for Evaluation
of Fluorescent Color

E2301-03 Standard Test Method for Daytime Colorimetric Properties of Fluorescent


Retroreflective Sheeting and Marking Materials for High Visibility Traffic Control and
Personal Safety Applications Using 45°:Normal Geometry

E2501-06 Standard Specification for Light Source Products for Inspection of Fluorescent
Coatings

WK9414 Standard Specification for Light Source Products for Inspection of Fluorescent
Coatings (In Progress)

WK10687 Standard Practice for the Determination of Luminance under Monochromatic LED
Illumination (In Progress)

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E12 Standards

E12.06 Image Based Color Measurement

E1336-96(2003) Standard Test Method for Obtaining Colorimetric Data From a Visual Display
Unit by Spectroradiometry

E1341-06 Standard Practice for Obtaining Spectroradiometric Data from Radiant Sources for
Colorimetry

E1455-03 Standard Practice for Obtaining Colorimetric Data from a Visual Display Unit Using
Tristimulus Colorimeters

E1682-05 Standard Guide for Modeling the Colorimetric Properties of a Visual Display Unit

E2466-06 Standard Test Method for Colorimetry of Teeth Using Digital Still Camera
Technology

WK7943 Standard Test Method for Colorimetry of Teeth Using Digital Still Camera
Technology (In Progress)

WK11946 Objective Quantification of Dental Plaque Using Digital Still Cameras (In Progress)

WK11947 Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of Gingival Color Using Digital
Still Cameras (In Progress)

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E12 Standards

E12.07 Color Order Systems

D1535-06 Standard Practice for Specifying Color by the Munsell System

E1360-05 Standard Practice for Specifying Color by Using the Optical Society of America
Uniform Color Scales System

E1541-98(2003) Standard Practice for Specifying and Matching Color Using the Colorcurve
System

E12.08 High Visibility Materials for Individual Safety

E1501-99(2004) Standard Specification for Nighttime Photometric Performance of


Retroreflective Pedestrian Markings for Visibility Enhancement

E12.10 Retroreflection

D4061-94(2006) Standard Test Method for Retroreflectance of Horizontal Coatings

E808-01 Standard Practice for Describing Retroreflection

E809-02 Standard Practice for Measuring Photometric Characteristics of Retroreflectors

E810-03 Standard Test Method for Coefficient of Retroreflection of Retroreflective Sheeting


Utilizing the Coplanar Geometry

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E12 Standards

E12.10 Retroreflection Continued

E811-95(2001) Standard Practice for Measuring Colorimetric Characteristics of


Retroreflectors Under Nighttime Conditions

E1696-04 Standard Test Method for Field Measurement of Raised Retroreflective Pavement
Markers Using a Portable Retroreflectometer

E1709-00e1 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Retroreflective Signs Using a


Portable Retroreflectometer

E1710-05 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Retroreflective Pavement Marking


Materials with CEN-Prescribed Geometry Using a Portable Retroreflectometer

E1809-01 Test Method for Measurement of High-Visibility Retroreflective-Clothing Marking


Material Using a Portable Retroreflectometer

E2176-01 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Coefficient of Retroreflected Luminance
(RL) of Pavement Markings in a Standard Condition of Continuous Wetting

E2177-01 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Coefficient of Retroreflected Luminance
(RL) of Pavement Markings in a Standard Condition of Wetness

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E12 Standards

E12.10 Retroreflection Continued

E2302-03a Standard Test Method for Measurement of the Luminance Coefficient Under
Diffuse Illumination of Pavement Marking Materials Using a Portable Reflectometer

E2366-05 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Daytime Chromaticity of Pavement


Marking Materials Using a Portable Reflection Colorimeter

E2367-05 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Nighttime Chromaticity of Pavement


Marking Materials Using a Portable Retroreflection Colorimeter

WK360 Test Method for Coefficient of Retroreflection of Retroreflective Sheeting for Flat
Vertical Application (In Progress)

WK3833 Test Method for determination of the coefficient of retroreflection of pavement


markings using a 30 meter geometry mobile retroreflectometer. (In Progress)

WK7508 Test Method for Retroreflectance of Pavement Marking Materials Utilizing the
Beam Method (In Progress)

WK9050 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Retroreflective Signs Using a Portable
Retroreflectometer at a 0.5 degree observation angle (In Progress)

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E12 Standards

E12.11 Visual Methods

D1729-96(2003) Standard Practice for Visual Appraisal of Colors and Color Differences of
Diffusely-Illuminated Opaque Materials

D2616-96(2003) Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Visual Color Difference With a
Gray Scale

D3134-97(2003) Standard Practice for Establishing Color and Gloss Tolerances

D4086-92a(2003) Standard Practice for Visual Evaluation of Metamerism

E1478-97(2003) Standard Practice for Visual Color Evaluation of Transparent Sheet


Materials

E1499-97(2003) Standard Guide for Selection, Evaluation, and Training of Observers

E1808-96(2003) Standard Guide for Designing and Conducting Visual Experiments

WK4911 Standard Practice for Estimating the Colorimetric Effects of Light-on-Object Colors
(In Progress)

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E12 Standards

E12.12 Metallic and Pearlescent Colors

E2194-03 Standard Practice for Multiangle Color Measurement of Metal Flake Pigmented
Materials

WK1164 Standard Practice for Multiangle Color Measurement of Interference Pigmented


Materials (In Progress)

E12.13 Photoluminescent Safety Markings

E2030-06 Standard Guide for Recommended Uses of Photoluminescent (Phosphorescent)


Safety Markings

E2072-04 Standard Specification for Photoluminescent (Phosphorescent) Safety Markings

E2073-02 Standard Test Method for Photopic Luminance of Photoluminescent


(Phosphorescent) Markings

E12.14 Multidimensional Characterization of Appearance

E12.93 Precision and Bias

WK4106 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the


Precision of a Test Method with Multi-Valued Measurands

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