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Types of Contract

As an employer, the tax and employment responsibilities you have for your staff will depend on the
type of contract you give them and their employment status.
Contract types include:

 full-time and part-time contracts

 fixed-term contracts
 agency staff
 freelancers, consultants, contractors
 zero hour contracts

A contract may relate to virtually any type of transaction. Contracts may relate to performance of a
service, sale, or transfer of ownership of property, or a combination of these types of transactions.
Parties to a contract may be individuals, partnerships, corporations, or even governments. There
may be more than two persons to a contract. With some exceptions, only the parties making a
contract have rights or duties under the contract. It is possible for other persons to have rights and
duties with respect to a contract other than the original parties to the contract. For example, rights
under a contract may be assigned to a third person. Also, a contract may be made for the benefit of
a third person as in a life insurance contract. A life insurance contract involves the insurance
company, the insured, and the beneficiary.

Non-disclosure agreements

A non-disclosure agreement, also known as a confidentiality agreement, confidential disclosure

agreement, proprietary information agreement or secrecy agreement, is a legal contract between at
least two parties that outlines confidential material, knowledge, or information that the parties wish
to share with one another for certain purposes, but wish to restrict access to or by third parties. The
most common forms of these are in doctor–patient confidentiality, attorney–client privilege, priest–
penitent privilege, and bank–client confidentiality agreements.

It is a contract through which the parties agree not to disclose information covered by the
agreement. An NDA creates a confidential relationship between the parties to protect any type of
confidential and proprietary information or trade secrets. As such, an NDA protects non-public
business information. Like all contracts, they cannot be enforced if the contracted activities are
felonies. NDAs are commonly signed when two companies, individuals, or other entities are
considering doing business and need to understand the processes used in each other's business for
evaluating the potential business relationship. NDAs can be "mutual", meaning both parties are
restricted in their use of the materials provided, or they can restrict the use of material by a single
party. It is also possible for an employee to sign an NDA or NDA-like agreement with an employer. In
fact, some employment agreements will include a clause restricting employees' use and
dissemination of company-owned confidential information. In legal disputes resolved by settlement,
the parties often sign a confidentiality agreement relating to the terms of the settlement.

Commissioning processes

Project commissioning is the process of assuring that all systems and components of a building or
industrial plant are designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained according to the
operational requirements of the owner or final client. A commissioning process may be applied not
only to new projects but also to existing units and systems subject to expansion, renovation or
revamping. In practice, the commissioning process comprises the integrated application of a set of
engineering techniques and procedures to check, inspect and test every operational component of
the project, from individual functions, such as instruments and equipment, up to complex
amalgamations such as modules, subsystems and systems.

Risk management

Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated
and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact
of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risk management’s objective
is to assure uncertainty does not deflect the endeavor from the business goals.

Risks can come from various sources including uncertainty in financial markets, threats from project
failures (at any phase in design, development, production, or sustainment life-cycles), legal liabilities,
credit risk, accidents, natural causes and disasters, deliberate attack from an adversary, or events of
uncertain or unpredictable root-cause. There are two types of events i.e. negative events can be
classified as risks while positive events are classified as opportunities. Several risk management
standards have been developed including the Project Management Institute, the National Institute
of Standards and Technology, actuarial societies, and ISO standards. Methods, definitions and goals
vary widely according to whether the risk management method is in the context of project
management, security, engineering, industrial processes, financial portfolios, actuarial assessments,
or public health and safety.

Freedom of information

The Freedom of Information Act 2000 provides public access to information held by public
It does this in two ways:

 public authorities are obliged to publish certain information about their activities; and
 members of the public are entitled to request information from public authorities.

The Act covers any recorded information that is held by a public authority in England, Wales and
Northern Ireland, and by UK-wide public authorities based in Scotland. Information held by Scottish
public authorities is covered by Scotland’s own Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002.

Public authorities include government departments, local authorities, the NHS, state schools and
police forces. However, the Act does not necessarily cover every organization that receives public
money. For example, it does not cover some charities that receive grants and certain private sector
organizations that perform public functions.

Copyright law

Copyright is a legal right that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and
distribution. This is usually only for a limited time. The exclusive rights are not absolute but limited
by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright is
that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the underlying ideas

Copyright is a form of intellectual property, applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but
not all jurisdictions require "fixing" copyrighted works in a tangible form. It is often shared among
multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are
commonly referred to as rights holders. These rights frequently include reproduction, control over
derivative works, distribution, public performance, and moral rights such as attribution.


Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis
that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, politically incorrect or
"inconvenient" as determined by government authorities or by community consensus. Governments
and private organizations may engage in censorship. Other groups or institutions may propose and
petition for censorship. When an individual such as an author or other creator engages in censorship
of their own works or speech, it is referred to as self-censorship.

Censorship could be direct or indirect, in which case it is referred to as soft censorship. It occurs in a
variety of different media, including speech, books, music, films, and other arts, the press, radio,
television, and the Internet for a variety of claimed reasons including national security, to control
obscenity, child pornography, and hate speech, to protect children or other vulnerable groups, to
promote or restrict political or religious views, and to prevent slander and libel.

Health and safety policy

Health Policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve
specific healthcare goals within a society. According to the World Health Organization, an explicit
health policy can achieve several things: it defines a vision for the future; it outlines priorities and
the expected roles of different groups; and it builds consensus and informs people.

There are many categories of health policies, including global health policy, public health policy,
mental health policy, health care services policy, insurance policy, personal healthcare policy,
pharmaceutical policy, and policies related to public health such as vaccination policy, tobacco
control policy or breastfeeding promotion policy. They may cover topics of financing and delivery of
healthcare, access to care, quality of care, and health equity.


A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies
products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to
identify services are usually called service marks. The trademark owner can be an individual,
business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, a
voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are often displayed
on company buildings. The first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed by the Parliament
of England in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the
bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France, the
first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857. The Trade Marks
Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-
use”, creating an examination based process, and creating an application publication system. The
1938 Act, which served as a model for similar legislation elsewhere, contained other novel concepts
such as "associated trademarks", a consent to use system, a defensive mark system, and non-
claiming right system.

Intellectual property
Intellectual property is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human
intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks. It also includes other
types of rights, such as trade secrets, publicity rights, moral rights, and rights against unfair
competition. Artistic works like music and literature, as well as some discoveries, inventions, words,
phrases, symbols, and designs, can all be protected as intellectual property. It was not until the 19th
century that the term "intellectual property" began to be used, and not until the late 20th century
that it became commonplace in the majority of the world.

The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a large variety of
intellectual goods. To achieve this, the law gives people and businesses property rights to the
information and intellectual goods they create, usually for a limited period. Because they can earn
profit from them, this gives economic incentive for their creation. These economic incentives are
expected to stimulate innovation and contribute to the technological progress of countries, which
depends on the extent of protection granted to innovators.

British interactive multimedia association

The British Interactive Media Association is an association that helps individuals or organisations
produce high quality, creative media solutions.

Professional body codes practice

Ethical requirements

This module is about the legal and ethical issues to keep in mind when using social media and thus
ensure your research profile is raised for all the right reasons, not the wrong ones. The key is to
remember that all the laws, policies and social rules that apply in real life also apply on the internet.


Gender equality is a prerequisite for human rights, democracy and social justice. It benefits society
as a whole. Media and editorial freedom, media pluralism and gender equality can advance one
another. The European Convention on Human Rights bans all types of discrimination, including on
grounds of gender. Not only women, but also men can suffer from the standards imposed by gender
stereotypes and sexist advertising in the media. For these reasons, there is a need to create equal
access to media work and management posts for both sexes and the presentation of men and
women in the media must not undermine gender equality.

religious belfies

cultural issues and language

policies and procedures

A set of policies are principles, rules, and guidelines formulated or adopted by an organization to
reach its long-term goals and typically published in a booklet or other form that is widely accessible.
Policies and procedures are designed to influence and determine all major decisions and actions,
and all activities take place within the boundaries set by them. Procedures are the specific methods
employed to express policies in action in day-to-day operations of the organization. Together,
policies and procedures ensure that a point of view held by the governing body of an organization is
translated into steps that result in an outcome compatible with that view.