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NMT 06223

Community
Health Nursing II
NTA Level 6 Facilitator’s Guide for
Diploma in Nursing

September 2013

United Republic of Tanzania


Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
Department of Human Resources Development
Nursing Training Section

© Ministry of Health and Social Welfare 2013


Table of content
Acronyms…...............................................................................................................................ii
Goals and Objectives of the Training Manual ..........................................................................vi
Overall Goal for training manual ..........................................................................................vi
Objectives for training manual ..............................................................................................vi
Introduction vii
Module Overview.................................................................................................................vii
Who is the Module For?.......................................................................................................vii

Module Sessions
Session 1: Concepts of Information, Education and Communication ..................................1
Session 2: Materials & Sources of Information, Education and Communication (IEC) ......5
Session 3: Information, Education and Communication in Health Promotion. ..................12
Session 4: Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Promotion of Health. ........15
Session 5: Life Skills...........................................................................................................23

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II NTA Level 6, Semester 2


i
Acronyms
AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HSO Health Sciences Online
IEC Information Education and Communication
MOHSW Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
NACTE National Council for Technical Education
NTA National Technical Award
PHCDP Primary Health Care Development Program
STI Sexually Transmitted Infections
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
WHO World Health Organization

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II NTA Level 6, Semester 2


ii
Acknowledgement

The development of the training manuals for Certificate and Diploma in Nursing (NTA Level
4 to 6) has been possible and accomplished through involvement of different stakeholders.
The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW) through the Director of Human
Resources Development sends sincere gratitude to the stakeholders including the
coordinating team (Department of Nursing and Midwifery Training), TNI, through AIHA and
the WINONA state University for funding the activity.

The MOHSW would like to thank all those involved during the process for their valuable
contribution to the development of these training materials. The ministry of Health would like
to thank the Assistant Director for Nursing Training section Mr. Ndementria Vermand, and
Ms. Vumilia B.E Mmari (Coordinator for Nursing and Midwifery Training) who tirelessly led
this important process.

Sincere gratitude is expressed to main facilitator: Mr. Golden Masika, Tutorial Assistant
University of Dodoma for his tireless efforts and Mr. Nicolaus Ndenzako Programme
consultant of AMCA inter consultant in guiding participants through the process. Special
thanks go to the team of contributors representing the Health Training Institutions, hospitals
and Universities. Their participation in meetings and workshops and their inputs in the
development of the content for each module have been invaluable. It is the commitment of
these participants that has made this product possible.

These participants are listed with our gratitude below:

SN Name Title Institution


1. Mary S. Matembo Nurse Tutor Korogwe NTC
2. Elialilia M. Herman Nurse Tutor MT. Meru Hospital
3. Alice Chifunda Nurse Tutor Mbulu NTC
4. Lilian Wilfreda Nurse Tutor KCMC
5. Aselina Milinga Nurse Tutor KCMC
6. Veronica Mahela Nurse Tutor Kahama
7. Samwel Mwangoka Nurse Tutor Mbeya SOTM
8. Hamza S. Matagira Nurse Tutor Kahama NTC
9. Elikana Wallace Nurse Tutor Kolandoto S/Nursing
10. Anna Sangito Pallangyo Nurse Tutor Kahama NTC
11. David Abincha Nurse Tutor Bukumbi NTC
12. Leon S. Mgohamwende Nurse Tutor Tosamaganga NTC
13. Crescent D. Ombay Nurse Tutor Haydom S/Nursing
14. Kizito B. Tamba Nurse Tutor Ndanda S/N
15. Robert E. Moshi Nurse Tutor IMTU college of Nursing
16. Oresta Ngahi Nurse Tutor Muhimbili S/N
17. Aloyce Ambokile Nurse Tutor Kondoa District Hosp.
18. Helma A. Shimbo Nurse Tutor Mwambani NTC
19. Elizabeth G. Chezue PNO N Tutor MOHSW HIS & QAS
20. Hinju Januarius Obstetrian Dodoma Regional Hosp.
21. Manase Nsunza Principal HLT Singida HLTC
22. Ezekiel Amata IMC Facilitator Mpwapwa Hosp.

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II NTA Level 6, Semester 2


iii
23. Sostenes D. Ntambuto HLT Tutor SMLS MUHIMBILI
24. Anna Sangito Pallanyo N/Tutor Kahama SN
25. Naomi Kagya NT Muhimbili
26. Aloyce Amboikile Nurse Kondoa
27. Golden Masika Lecturer UDOM
28. Vumilia B.E. Mmari CD-NT MOHSW
29. Upendo kilume Nurse PHN
30. Fatuma Iddi Librarian MOHSW
31. Shango Nasania Nurse Newala
32. George Laisser C/Analyst MOHSW
33. Anande Mungure Nurse Tutor Mbulu NTC
34. Robert Masano Nurse Tutor Nkinga NTC
35. Ambokile Dodoma General Hospital
36. Nolasca Mtega Nurse Tutor Tukuyu School of Nursing
37. Asteria Ndomba Senior Lecturer CUHAS
38. Alfreda Ndunguru
39. Elizabeth Chezua MOHSW
40. Magwaza Charles
41. Ellen Mwandemele
42. Robert Mushi IMTU
43. Anna Mangula Nurse Tutor Mirembe NTC
44. Cesilia Mallya Nurse tutor Newala NTC
45. Helma Shimba
46. Kapaya Andrew TNMC
47. Ntambuto Sostenese
48. Joseph Nkungu
49. Anastazia Dinho
50. Eliaremisa Ayo Nurse Tutor MOHSW
51. Grace Mallya Paediatrician RCHS/GBV/VAC-MOHSW
52. Dr. Tecla Kohi Senior Lecturer MUHAS
53. Dr. Lilian Msele Lecturer MUHAS

Supporting staff:
Daniel Muslim Driver, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
Fatuma Mohamed Health Librarian, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
Mbaruku A. Luga Driver, Morogoro School of Public Health Nursing
Roselinda RugemaliraAdm. Secretary, Tanzania Nursing & Midwifery Council
Veronica Semhando Secretary Ministry of Health & Social Welfare
George Laizer System Analyst Ministry of Health & Social Welfare
Silvanus Ilomo System Analyst Ministry of Health & Social Welfare
Violet Mrema Adm. Secretary, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
Walter Ndesanjo System Analyst, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare

Dr. Gozbert Mutahyabarwa


Ag: Director of Human Resource and Development,

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II NTA Level 6, Semester 2


iv
Background

In 2007 the Ministry of Health and Social welfare (MOHSW) started the process of
reviewing the nursing curricula at Certificate and diploma level. In 2008 refined and
developed NTA Level 4 to 6 Nursing Curricula and in the same year 2008 started the
implementation. The intention was to comply with the National Council for Technical award
(NACTE) Qualification framework which offers a climbing ladder for higher skills
opportunity. Advanced Diploma awards are not among the awards of the council and do not
conform to NACTE framework. Therefore, institutions offering Advanced Diploma in
nursing are required to either offer Ordinary Diploma (NTA Level 6) or develop its capacity
to offer Bachelor’s Degree (NTA Level 7&8).

These programs have been developed in line with the above consideration aiming at
providing a room for Nurses to continue to a higher learning and achieve advanced skills
which will enable them to perform duties competently. In addition, WHO advocates for
skilled and motivated health workers in producing good health services and increase
performance of health systems (WHO World Health Report, 2006). Moreover, Primary
Health Care Development Program (PHCDP) (2007-15) needs the nation to strengthen and
expand health services at ALL levels. This can only be achieved when the Nation has
adequate, appropriately trained and competent work force who can be deployed in the health
facilities to facilitate the provisions of quality health care services.

In line with these new curricula, the MOHSW supported tutors by developing quality
standardized training materials to accompany the implementation of the developed curricula.
These training materials will address the foreseen discrepancies in the implementation of the
new curricula. NTA level 8 training materials have been developed after Curricula validation
and verification.

This training material has been developed through writers’ workshop (WW) model. The
model included a series of workshops in which tutors and content experts developed training
materials, guided by facilitators with expertise in instructional design and curriculum
development. The goals of Writer’s Workshop were to develop high-quality, standardized
teaching materials and to build the capacity of tutors to develop these materials. This product
is a result of a lengthy collaborative process, with significant input from key stakeholders
(NACTE, MOHSW, AIHA and WINONA University) and experts of different organizations
and institutions. The new training package for NTA Level 4-6 includes a Facilitator Guide
and Student Manual. There are 28 modules with approximately 520 content sessions

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II NTA Level 6, Semester 2


v
Rationale

The vision and mission of the National Health Policy in Tanzania focuses on establishing a
health system that is responsive to the needs of the people, and leads to improved health
status for all. Skilled and motivated health workers are crucially important for producing
good health through increasing the performance of health systems (WHO, 2006). With
limited resources (human and non-human resources), the MOHSW supported tutors by
developing standardized training materials to accompany the implementation of the
developed CBET curricula. These training manuals address the foreseen discrepancies in the
implementation of the new curricula.

Therefore, this training manual for Certificate and Diploma program in Nursing (NTA Levels
4-6) aims at providing a room for Nurses to continue achieving skills which will enable them
to perform competently. These manuals will establish conducive and sustainable training
environment that will allow students and graduates to perform efficiently at their relevant
levels. Moreover, this will enable them to aspire for attainment of higher knowledge, skills
and attitudes in promoting excellence in nursing practice.

Goals and Objectives of the Training Manual

Overall Goal for training manual


The overall goal of these training manual is to provide high quality, standardized and
competence-based training materials for Diploma in nursing (NTA level 4 to 6) program.

Objectives for training manual


 To provide high quality, standardized and competence-based training materials.
 To provide a guide for tutors to deliver high quality training materials.
 Enable students to learn more effectively.

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II NTA Level 6, Semester 2


vi
Introduction
Module Overview
This module content has been prepared as a guide for tutors of NTA Level 6 for training
students. The session contents are based on the sub-enabling outcomes of the curriculum of
NTA Level 6 Diploma in Nursing.
The module sub-enabling outcome as follows:
3.1.1 Explain concepts of IEC
3.1.2 Determine different types of IEC materials
3.1.3 Apply appropriate IEC materials for different audiences to disseminate health
information
3.3.1 Identify sources of health Information including searching the web using search engines
3.3.2 Utilize different sources of health Information
3.3.3 Utilize presentation software to package information for presentation
3.3.4 Describe the concept of comprehensive life skills

Who is the Module For?


This module is intended for use primarily by tutors of NTA Level 4 to 6 in nursing schools.
The module’ sessions give guidance on the time and activities of the session and provide
information on how to teach the session to students. The sessions include different activities
which focus on increasing students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes.

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II NTA Level 6, Semester 2


vii
Session 1: Concepts of Information, Education and
Communication
Total Session Time: 60 Minutes
Prerequisite
 None

Learning Tasks
By the end of this session students are expected to be able to:
 Define the terms information, education and communication (IEC)
 Explain the importance of IEC
 Explain principles of IEC to influence health behavior

Resources Needed
 Flip charts, marker pens, and masking tape
 Black/white board and chalk/whiteboard markers
 Computer and LCD
 Overhead projector and transparency

SESSION OVERVIEW
Step Time Activity/Method Content

1 05Minutes Presentation Session Title and Learning Tasks

Discussion/ Definition of Information, Education and


2 15Minutes Communication
Presentation

3 05Minutes Presentation Importance of IEC

4 25Minutes Presentation Principles of IEC to Influence Health Behavior

5 05Minutes Presentation Key Points

6 05Minutes Presentation Evaluation

SESSION CONTENT

Step 1: Session Title and Learning Tasks (5 minutes)


READ or ASK student to read the related tasks and clarify
CLARIFY and ask students if they have any question before proceeding

Step 2: Definition of Information, Education and Communication


(15minutes)

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 1 Session 1: Concepts of Information, Education
and Communication
Activity: Buzzing (5 minutes)

ASK students to define the terms information, education and communication

ALLOW few students to respond and write their responses on the flipchart

CLARIFY and summarize by using the notes below

Information:-
 Information is the knowledge gained through study, communication, research, instruction,
etc.; factual data. OR
 Data that have been verified to be accurate and timely.

Education
 Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the
mind, character or physical ability of an individual.
 In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its
accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another.

Communication
 Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to
another; it involves a sender transmitting an idea, information, or feeling to a receiver.
 Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or
idea that the sender intended to transmit, people are actively involved.
o This helps them to experience a new way of thinking or doing about things and its
sometimes called participatory learning.

IEC
 Information, education and communication (IEC) means sharing information and ideas in
a way that is culturally sensitive and acceptable to the community, using appropriate
channels, message and methods.

Step3: Importance of IEC (5minutes)

 Information, education and communication (IEC) combines strategies, approaches and


methods that enable individuals, families, groups, organizations and communities to play
active roles in achieving, protecting and sustaining their own health.
 Embodied in IEC is the process of learning that empowers people to make decisions,
modify behaviors and change social conditions.

Step 4: Principles of IEC to Influence Health Behavior (25minutes)

 Activities are developed based upon needs assessments, sound educational principles, and
periodic evaluation using a clear set of goals and objectives.

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 2 Session 1: Concepts of Information, Education
and Communication
 IEC activities not only need to have an appropriate context in which they are shaped, but
it is crucial that health services providers be prepared to respond to any demand that may
be created as a result of effective IEC activities.
 The influence of underlying social, cultural, economic and environmental conditions on
health are also taken into consideration in the IEC processes.
 Identifying and promoting specific behaviors that are desirable are usually the objectives
of IEC efforts.
 Behaviors are usually affected by many factors including the most urgent needs of the
target population and the risks people perceive in continuing their current behaviors or in
changing to different behaviors.
 Health information can be communicated through many channels to increase awareness
and assess the knowledge of different populations about various issues, products and
behaviors.
o Channels might include interpersonal communication such as:
 individual discussions
 counseling sessions or group discussions
 community meetings and events
 mass media communication (such as radio, television and other forms of one-way
communication, such as brochures, leaflets and posters, visual and audio visual
presentations and some forms of electronic communication).
 Good communication between users and providers of any service is essential IEC
approaches must be carefully and appropriately designed and selected.
o Although good "one-to-one" communication at the point of service provision is
essential for transmitting information and building trust with the client,
communication with other individuals and groups within the community is also vital.
o It is through such communication networks that service providers can obtain
information about users' needs, priorities and concerns.
o Such informal information gathering is the first step in assessing needs which can be
supplemented by other more formal means.
o It also helps providers better understand the specific setting and context in which they
are working, which will be useful in the later development of IEC approaches,
messages and materials.
o These types of conversations, or passing on information by "word-of-mouth", has
been shown to be one of the most effective communication channels for acquiring
knowledge and promoting desired changes in behavior.
o Evidence of this is the speed with which rumors spread and the force of their impact.
Field staff should not ignore these informal opportunities to educate the public
through casual conversation with people in the community.

Step 5: Key Points (5minutes)

 Information, education and communication (IEC) combines strategies, approaches and


methods that enable individuals, families, groups, organizations and communities to play
active roles in achieving, protecting and sustaining their own health
 Communication helps to experience a new way of thinking or doing about things and its
sometimes called participatory learning
 IEC aims to Increase awareness, change attitudes and bring about change in specific
behavior,

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 3 Session 1: Concepts of Information, Education
and Communication
Step 6: Evaluation (5minutes)

 What is information, education and communication?


 What is the importance of IEC?
 What are the principles of IEC to influence health behavior?

ASK students if they have any comments or need clarification on any points.

References
Davis, N. & LanCour, M. (2002). Health Information Technology. Philadelphia. Harcourt Health
science Company.

Dictionary.com ( 2012). Information. [Retrieved on 24/10/2012 at 9:30am at


http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/information] Random House Dictionary, © Random House,
Inc.

WebFinance, Inc. (2013) Infromation .[Retrieved on 24/10/2012 at 10 am


http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/information.html#ixzz2ACBT6nTx]

Zimbabwe National Family planning Council (1998) IEC Reference Manual for Health
Programme Managers. Zimbabwe National Family planning Council Southerton Harare
Zimbabwe

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 4 Session 1: Concepts of Information, Education
and Communication
Session 2: Materials & Sources of Information,
Education and Communication (IEC)

Total Session Time: 120 Minutes


Prerequisite
 None

Learning Tasks
By the end of this session students are expected to be able to:
 Outline different types of IEC materials
 Identify different sources of IEC materials
 Identify potential audiences likely to interact with
 Explain IEC materials appropriate for each audience

Resources needed:
 Flip charts, marker pens, and masking tape
 Black/white board and chalk/whiteboard markers
 Computer and LCD
 Overhead projector
 Different types of audio-visual materials

SESSION OVERVIEW
Step Time Activity/Method Content

1 05 minutes Presentation Session Title and Related Tasks


Discussion Types of IEC materials
2 35 minutes
Presentation
3 10 minutes Presentation Sources of IEC materials

4 05 minutes Presentation Potential Audiences likely to interact with

Discussion/Present
5 55 minutes IEC materials appropriate for each audience
ation
6 05 minutes Presentation Key Points

7 05 minutes Presentation Evaluation

Step 1: Session Title and Related Tasks (5minutes)


READ or ASK students to read the related tasks
CLARIFY and ask students if they have any question before proceeding

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 5 Session 2: Materials & Sources of Information,
Education and Communication (IEC)
Step 2: Types of IEC Materials (35minutes)
Activity: Group discussion (15 minutes)
ASK students to form groups of 4-6, to discuss different types of IEC materials
ALLOW three groups to present and others to add on what is missing
CLARIFY and summarize by using the notes below

Types of IEC Materials


 There are two types of IEC materials:
o Graphics and Audio-visual
o Mass media

Graphics and Audio-visuals


 include brochures, posters, display boards
 Videotapes, slides, flip charts.

Strength of graphics and audio-visual Weakness of graphics and audio-visual


materials materials
 Attracts the attention of the client  Training is essential for proper use of
 May be distributed / used in a variety of materials by health workers
settings  If not presented by health worker, does
 Provides basic information on health not generally influence behavior change.
service and benefits
 Demonstrates steps of behavior (i.e.,
preparation and use of medication,
methods for preventing mosquito
breeding, basic hygiene for food handling
safety,
 Can provide complex information
 Is reusable
 Supports interpersonal health education
sessions
 May be produced locally
 Provides instant feedback when used by
health workers

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 6 Session 2: Materials & Sources of Information,
Education and Communication (IEC)
Mass Media
 Includes radio, television, movies, newspapers, and magazine.

Strengths of Mass media Weaknesses of Mass media


 Reaches many people  May have limited rural distribution
 Creates a demand for health services by the  For television and radio requires access to
target audience electricity
 Reinforces important messages delivered  Requires substantial financial support
 through interpersonal communication by  Difficult to coordinate with service delivery
health workers  Difficult to tailor messages to specific
 Provides status to the health service audiences
program
 Uses influential opinion leaders to
influence target population

Step 3: Sources of IEC Materials (10minutes)

 The following are the possible sources of IEC


o The government under the ministry of health
o Pharmaceutical industries, and medical equipment companies often provide disease
or condition related to their products or their drugs
o Professional organization can be source of balanced educational materials
o Nurses desk can be source of materials
o Information from the internet like any other source complement rather than replacing
other information provided by the clinician , when evaluating information from the
internet look for credibility web credentials of authors and contributors , relevant
information, relevant copyright information ownership disclosure and the date of the
posting.

Step:4 Potential Audiences Likely to Interact (5minutes)


The potential audiences likely to interact with are:
 Patients/clients
 Patient relatives
 Community
 Rehabilitation canters
 Co- workers ( Nurses, Doctors, Pharmacists, Medical attendants , Nursing students,
Medical students )
 School pupils

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 7 Session 2: Materials & Sources of Information,
Education and Communication (IEC)
Step 5: IEC Materials Appropriate for each Audience (55minutes)
Activity: Group Discussion (15 Minutes)

DIVIDE students into small groups


ASSIGN the groups to discuss on IEC materials under the following headings
i. Features of IEC materials
ii. Guidelines for selecting IEC materials
ALLOW students to present their assignment in groups
CLARIFY and summarize using the notes below

Features of IEC Materials


The IEC materials should follow the following five features:
 Comprehension.
 Attractiveness.
 Acceptance.
 Involvement.
 Inducement to action.
Comprehension
 Understanding IEC materials and messages is essential as a prior condition to acceptance
and behavior change.
 Comprehension measures not only the clarity of the content, but also the way in which it
is presented.
 Complicated or technical vocabulary may be responsible for the target audience's failure
to understand the message. Or, perhaps the target audience fails to understand the
message because the typeface is too small, making it difficult for the target audience to
read the message.

Attractiveness
 IEC materials should be attractive. If an IEC material is not attractive individuals may not
pay much attention to it.
 Attractiveness can be achieved through the use of sounds, music, tone, in the case of
radio; visuals, color and illustrations, in the case of graphics; movement, action,
illumination, and animation in the case of video.

Acceptance
 The messages must be acceptable to the target population.
 If communication material contains something offensive, is not believable, or generates
discord among the target audience, the audience will reject the message conveyed.

Involvement
 The target audience should be able to identify with the IEC materials.

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 8 Session 2: Materials & Sources of Information,
Education and Communication (IEC)
 They should recognize that the message is directed toward them.
 People will not pay attention to messages that they consider do not involve them.
Illustrations, symbols and language should reflect the characteristics of the target
audience.

Inducement to action
 The materials should indicate clearly what the health promotion intervention wants the
target audience to do.
 Most IEC materials promote a message that asks, motivates, or induces members of the
target audience to carry out or cease a particular action .
 Successful IEC materials transmit a message that can be done by the target audience.

Guidelines for Selecting IEC Materials


The following should be carefully considered when selecting IEC materials for production.

Determining the Needs for the Target Audience,


 Information collected from investigation, will help to indicate the following:
o Which channels the target audience prefers and has access to — electronic, print, or
interpersonal channels.
o Which channels are most effective for communicating messages to the target
audience?
o Where the target audience is in the stages of behavior adoption (i.e., have accepted the
idea of family planning, but are not sure as to what method to use) and what channels
might be most effective in moving them along. IEC Material Production Guidelines 7

Matching the IEC Material with the Design


 The design of the IEC material to be developed should match specific message content
by applying the following guidelines:
o Does the IEC material lend itself to the content of the message? For example, radio
can be effective for some content, but less so for messages that require supporting
visuals
o Is the image or message to be conveyed more visual or more audio based? Or is it a
combination of both? Does it rely primarily on written words?
o Can the chosen material provide the message frequency or reach that is needed?

Determining Production Difficulties and Costs


 Some materials are more costly than others in production. They either require more
professional expertise, more costly production equipment, or more personnel. Radio
production costs are considerably less than television. Even if there is financial support
for the production phase, is there money to continue to air the messages?
 Some channels will take much longer than others to get operational. Production time
constraints may be important.

Analyzing Frequency and Access of the IEC Materials:


 Different materials have different audience reach and coverage.
 Television and radio can reach thousands of people at the same time; individual focused
print materials can only reach a limited number of individuals at the most. Select the
material, or combination of materials, that best meets program needs.

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 9 Session 2: Materials & Sources of Information,
Education and Communication (IEC)
Identifying the Logistic Efforts Needed:
 Different materials have different logistical demands. Some materials require much more
effort to distribute or deliver than others.
 Distributing thousands of posters to hundreds of health centers is more demanding than
sending out audio–cassettes or video tapes to radio and television stations.
 IEC materials should be displayed in community/most crowded public places (markets,
mosques, clinics, hospitals, schools, governmental institutions).
o For ensuring easy readability and visibility they should not posted too high or too low.
 In health facilities:
o The posters should be displayed for the clients in the waiting rooms, corridors, and the
way in which they are easily visible and readable for them.
o Make sure that poster is strongly posted on the wall.
o Make sure that posters are not pasted at sites exposed to rain and snow Make sure
that the flipcharts are used by health educator during the health education sessions and
by CHWs in the community gatherings such as community etc
 All the materials should be used properly to prevent them from misuse and damage
 The materials should always be available and v isible at the facilities. If the distributed
materials are damaged or out of use, another copy should be distributed from the stock of
the health facility.

Step 4: Key Points (5minutes)


 There are two types of IEC materials:
o Graphics and audio-visuals
o Mass media
 Information from the internet are not replacement rather should be evaluated on basis of
credibility web credentials of authors and contributors , relevant information, relevant
copyright information ownership disclosure and the date of the posting.
 The IEC materials should follow the following five features:
o Comprehension.
o Attractiveness
o Acceptance
o Involvement
o Inducement to action

Step 5: Evaluation (5minutes)


 What are the sources of information, education and communication materials?
 What are the strengths and weakness of mass media as a type of IEC materials?
 How can you utilize the chosen IEC materials for specific audience
ASK students if they have any comments or need clarification on any points.

References
Davis, N. Lan, Cour,M. (2002).Health information Technology. Philadephia. Harcourt
Health science Company.
Lyons B.A (2011) Selecting and Evaluating Sources of Patient Education Materials [on
line] (Retrieved on 20/03/2011 at 2:30pm from
http://samples.jbpub.com/9781449630188/77104_ch02_Muma.pdf

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 10 Session 2: Materials & Sources of Information,
Education and Communication (IEC)
Zimbabwe National Family planning Council (1998) IEC Reference Manual for Health
Programme Managers. Zimbabwe National Family planning Council Southerton Harare
Zimbabwe
Ken Swann. IEC Material Production Guidelines [online] Retrieved on 23/10/2012.at
2:30pm from http://www.kswann.com/IEC%20Production%20Guidelines.pdf

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 11 Session 2: Materials & Sources of Information,
Education and Communication (IEC)
Session 3: Information, Education and
Communication in Health Promotion.

Total Session Time: 60 Minutes


Prerequisite
 None

Learning Tasks
At the end of this session students are expected to be able to:
 Identify sources of health information
 Identify Tools used in Searching Health Information

Resources needed
 Flip charts, marker pens, and masking tape
 Black/white board and chalk/whiteboard markers
 Computers and LCD
 Overhead projector/transparent

SESSION OVERVIEW
Step Time Activity/Method Content

1 05Minutes Presentation Session Title and Related Tasks

2 05Minutes Presentation Sources used to obtaining Health Information

Discussion/Present Tools used in Searching Health Information


3 40Minutes
ation
5 05Minutes Presentation Key Points
6 05Minutes Presentation Evaluation

Step 1: Session Title and Learning Tasks (5minutes)


 READ or ASK students to read the Learning Tasks

 CLARIFY and ask students if they have any question before proceeding

Step2: Sources of Health Information (05minutes)

Health information can be obtained through:-


 Websites
 Governmental agencies
 Inter-governmental agencies
 Library where you can access books

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 12 Session 3: Information, Education and
Communication in Health Promotion
 Non-governmental agencies
Step 3: Tools Used in Searching Health Information (40 minutes)
Activity: Group Discussion (15 minutes)
DIVIDE :Students into small group
ASSIGN :Students to discuss on different tools used in searching health information
ALLOW: Few students to give the responses
CLARIFY: By using the information below

Tools needed in searching health information


 Gateway
o Examples:
 Yahoo www.yahoo.com
 WHO A-Z health topics list
 www.who.int/topics/en/
 Databases
o Examples:
 Pub Med - a free search tool to over 19 million citations
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed
 Search Engine
o Examples:
 Google www.google.com
 Yahoo www.yahoo.com
 Health Directories
o Yahoo http://dir.yahoo.com/Health/Medicine
 Search Engines or Searchable Gateways/Portals
o Institutes :
 http://www.institute.ac.uk/healthandlifesciences/omnilost.html
 Karolinska Institutet’s Diseases, Disorder and Related Topics
 http://www.mic.ki.se/Diseases/index.htm
 Essential Health Links
o http://www.healthnet.org/essential-health-links
 Health Sciences Online (HSO)
o http://hso.info
 Health Databases
o Pub Med
 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/

 Source Bibliographic Database: International Health and Disability


o http://www.asksource.info/index.html
 Global Index Medicus
o http://www.who.int/ghl/medicus/en

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 13 Session 3: Information, Education and
Communication in Health Promotion
Step 4: Key Points (5minutes)
Health information can be found from:-
 Websites
 Government,
 Non-government web addresses,
 Library
 Research institutes.

Step 5: Evaluation (5minutes)


 What are the common tools that are used in searching health information

ASK students if they have any comments or need clarification on any points.

Reference
Haruna, H. (2010). Electronic Library Resource and Internet Searching Techniques. (2010)
Orientation to Tutors Presentation. Dodoma (VETA)

Ken Swann. IEC Material Production Guidelines [online] Retrieved on 23/10/2012.at


2:30pm from http://www.kswann.com/IEC%20Production%20Guidelines.pdf

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 14 Session 3: Information, Education and
Communication in Health Promotion
Session 4: Information Communication Technology
(ICT) in Promotion of Health.

Total Session Time: 60 Minutes


Prerequisite
 None

Learning Tasks
By the end of this session students are expected to be able to:
 Define the following terms Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint
 Explain ways packaging information/health education in promotion of health

Resources needed
 Flip charts, marker pens, and masking tape
 Black/white board and chalk/whiteboard markers
 Computers and LCD
 Overhead projector/transparency

SESSION OVERVIEW
Step Time Activity/Method Content

1 05 Minutes Presentation Session Title and Related Tasks


Definition of Microsoft Word and Microsoft
2 05 Minutes Presentation PowerPoint

Discussion/ Ways Packaging Information/Health Education


3 40 Minutes
Presentation in Promotion of Health
4 05Minutes Presentation Key Points

5 05 Minutes Presentation Evaluation

Step 1: Session Title and Related Tasks (5minutes)

 READ or ASK students to read the related tasks

 CLARIFY and ask students if they have any question before proceeding

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 15 Session 4: Information Communication
Technology (ICT) in Promotion of Health
Step 2: Definitions Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint(5Minutes)

Activity; Buzzing (5 minutes)

ASK students to define Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint

ALLOW few students to respond and write their responses on the flipchart
CLARIFY and summarize by using the notes below

 Microsoft Word
o Is a commercial computer program that allows you to perform word processing
o You can use Microsoft word to write letters, assignments, reports, notes etc.

 Microsoft PowerPoint
o Is a software product used to perform computer-based presentations.
o There are various circumstances in which a presentation is made: teaching a class,
introducing a new treatment plan, explaining an organizational structure, conducting
health education to patients in a clinic etc.

Step 3: Ways Packaging Information/Health Education in Promotion of


Health (40minutes).

 Computer skills are important in data processing analysis, and presentation to facilitate
learning and improves health of the community.
 Health information can be presented through:-
 Microsoft Word
 Microsoft PowerPoint
 Microsoft Publisher

Activity: Group Discussion

DIVIDE students in small groups

ASSIGN them to discuss/write ways of packing information in deferent software’s (micro


soft word and power point.

ALLOW each group to Present their work

SUMMARIZE by using the information below.

Basic Feature of Microsoft PowerPoint/Publisher/Word for Packaging Information

The Microsoft Office Button

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 16 Session 4: Information Communication
Technology (ICT) in Promotion of Health
 In the upper-left corner is the Microsoft Office button.
 When you click the button, a menu appears.
 You can use the menu to create a new file, open an existing file, save a file, and perform
many other tasks.

The Quick Access Toolbar

 Next to the Microsoft Office button is the Quick Access toolbar.


 The Quick Access toolbar provides you with access to commands you frequently use.
 By default, Save, Undo, and Redo appear on the Quick Access toolbar.
 You use Save to save your file, Undo to rollback an action you have taken, and Redo to
reapply an action you have rolled back.

Microsoft PowerPoint
 There are two main kinds of presentations you can deliver: before an audience or not.
 The preparation and the actual delivery of each are quite different.
 Before getting into the details of each, we will first take a look at the software and
analyze what it has to offer.

The Title Bar

 The Title bar is located at the top in the center of the PowerPoint window.
 The Title bar displays the name of the presentation on which you are currently working.
 By default.
o PowerPoint names presentations sequentially, starting with Presentation1.
o When you save your file, you can change the name of your presentation.

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 17 Session 4: Information Communication
Technology (ICT) in Promotion of Health
The Ribbon

Key:

1 Tabs

2 Command Group

3 Command Buttons

4 Launcher

 Use commands to tell PowerPoint what to do.


 PowerPoint 2007, use the Ribbon to issue commands.
 The Ribbon is located near the top of the PowerPoint window, below the Quick Access
toolbar.
 At the top of the Ribbon are several tabs; clicking a tab displays several related command
groups. Within each group are related command buttons.
 Click buttons to issue commands or to access menus and dialog boxes.
 Find a dialog box launcher in the bottom-right corner of a group. Click the dialog box
launcher, a dialog box makes additional commands available.

Rulers

 Rulers are vertical and horizontal guides.


 You use them to determine where you want to place an object.
 If the rulers do not display in your PowerPoint window:
o Click the View tab.
o Click Ruler in the Show/Hide group. The rulers appear.

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 18 Session 4: Information Communication
Technology (ICT) in Promotion of Health
Slides, Placeholders, and Notes

Key:

1 Slide

2 Placeholders

3 Notes

 Slides appear in the center of the window. You create your presentation on slides.
 Placeholders hold the objects in your slide. You can use placeholders to hold text, clip art,
charts, and more.
 You can use the notes area to create notes to yourself.
 You can refer to these notes as you give your presentation.

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 19 Session 4: Information Communication
Technology (ICT) in Promotion of Health
Status Bar, Tabs, View Buttons, and More

Key:
1 Status Bar 6 Vertical & Horizontal
Splitter Bars

2 Outline Tab 7 Minimize Button

3 Slides Tab 8 Maximize/Restore


Button

4 View Buttons 9 Close Button

5 Zoom

 The Status bar generally appears at the bottom of the window.


 The Status bar displays the number of the slide that is currently displayed, the total
number of slides, and the name of the design template in use or the name of the
background.
 The Outline tab displays the text contained in your presentation.
o The Slides tab displays a thumbnail of all your slides.
o You click the thumbnail to view the slide in the Slide pane.
 The View buttons appear near the bottom of the screen.
o You use the View buttons to change between Normal view, Slider Sorter view, and
the Slide Show view.
NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II
NTA Level 6, Semester 1 20 Session 4: Information Communication
Technology (ICT) in Promotion of Health
 Normal View
 Normal view splits your screen into three major sections:
o The Outline and Slides tabs,
o The Slide pane, and
o The Notes area.

 The Outline and Slides tabs are on the left side of your window.
 They enable you to shift between two different ways of viewing your slides.
 The Slides tab shows thumbnails of your slides. The Outline tab shows the text on your
slides. The Slide pane is located in the center of your window.
 The Slide pane shows a large view of the slide on which you are currently working. The
Notes area appears below the Slide pane.
 You can type notes to yourself on the Notes area.

Slide Sorter View

 Slide Sorter view shows thumbnails of all your slides. In Slide Sorter view, you can easily
add, delete, or change their order of your slides.

Slide Show

 Use the Slide Show view when you want to view your slides, as they will look in your
final presentation. When in Slide Show view:

o Esc Returns you to the view you were using


previously.

o Left- Moves you to the next slide or animation effect.


clicking When you reach the last slide, you automatically
return to your previous view.

o Right- Opens a pop-up menu. You can use this menu to


clicking navigate the slides, add speaker notes, select a
pointer, and mark your presentation.

 Zoom allows you to zoom in and zoom out on the window.


o Zooming in makes the window larger so you focus in on an object.
o Zooming out makes the window smaller so you can see the entire window.

 You can click and drag the vertical and horizontal splitter bars to change the size of your
panes.
 You use the Minimize button to remove a window from view. While a window is
minimized, its title appears on the taskbar.

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 21 Session 4: Information Communication
Technology (ICT) in Promotion of Health
 You click the Maximize button to cause a window to fill the screen.
 After you maximize a window, clicking the Restore button returns the window to
its former smaller size. You click the Close button to exit the window and close the
program

Step 4: Key Points (5minutes)


 Microsoft PowerPoint is a software product used to perform computer-based
presentations
 Microsoft Word, or Word as it is commonly known, is a software application that allows
you (the user) to perform word processing.
 Software skills are important to learn and use in processing, analysing and presantation
of data for easy assimilation of information for behavioral change.

Step 5: Evaluation (5minutes)


 What are the commands found on the Quick Access Toolbar?
 What are the steps you will follow when developing a PowerPoint presentation.?

ASK students if they have any comments or need clarification on any points.

References
ACPL (2006) What is Microsoft Word? [on line] accessed on 13 sept 2012
http://www.acpl.lib.in.us/ssh/Basic%20Word.pdf
Baycon Group, Inc (2011) PowerPoint Presentation: Lesson 1: The PowerPoint Window.
[on line] accessed on 13 sept 2012 at
http://www.baycongroup.com/powerpoint2007/01_powerpoint.htm#button
Baycon Group, Inc (2011) Microsoft PowerPoint Tutorial: Free and Online [on line]
accessed on 13 sept 2012 at http://www.baycongroup.com/powerpoint2007/index.htm

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 22 Session 4: Information Communication
Technology (ICT) in Promotion of Health
Session 5: Life Skills

Total Session Time: 60 Minutes


Prerequisite
 None

Learning Tasks
At the end of this session students are expected to be able to:
 Identify the components of comprehensive life skills
 Explain the importance of comprehensive life skills in health care settings
 Describe Broad areas of Comprehensive Life Skills

Resources needed
 Flip charts, marker pens, and masking tape
 Black/white board and chalk/whiteboard markers
 Computer and LCD
 Overhead projector/ transparency

SESSION OVERVIEW
Step Time Activity/Method Content

1 05Minutes Presentation Session Title and Related Tasks


Discussion/Present
2 10Minutes Definition of Life Skills
ation
Importance of Comprehensive Life Skills in
3 05Minutes Presentation Health Care Settings

4 30Minutes Presentation Life Skills

5 05Minutes Presentation Key Points

6 05Minutes Presentation Evaluation

Step 1: Session Title and Related Tasks (5minutes)


 READ or ASK students to read the related tasks

 CLARIFY and ask students if they have any question before proceeding

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 23
Session 5: Life Skills
Step 2: Definition of Life Skills (10minutes)

Activity: Brainstorm
ASK students to define the term “Life skills” and to mention components of life skills
ALLOW few students to respond and write their responses on the flip chart
CLARIFY and summarize by using the notes below.

Definition
 The World Health Organization has defined life skills as, “the abilities for adaptive
behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of
everyday life.
 UNICEF defines life skills as a behavior change or behavior development approach
designed to address a balance of three areas: knowledge, attitude and skills
o UNICEF definition is based on research evidence that suggests that shifts in risk
behavior is unlikely if knowledge, attitudinal and skills based competency are not
addressed.

Step 3: The Importance of Comprehensive Life Skills in Health Care


Settings (5minutes)

 Help to clarify ones needs and rights.


 Help to express one self effectively.
 Enable a person to decide on a course of action.

Step 4:Life Skills (30minutes)


 Every nurse should enable individuals, client’s, families and communities at all levels to
learn critical health and life skills.
o Such education includes comprehensive, integrated life skills education that can
enable people(young people) to make healthy choices and adopt healthy behavior
throughout their lives.
 The themes addressed by this approach cover a broad range .they include core skills and
additional areas that can be addressed in a culturally sensitive manner.

According to WHO life skills include the following:-


 Core skills
o Self a wareness
o Interpersonal relationship
o Effective communication
o Problem solving
o Creative thinking
o Critical thinking
o Decision making
o Coping with stress

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 24
Session 5: Life Skills
o Empathy
o Self esteem
o Coping with emotions
 Additional Areas
o Assertiveness
o Goal setting
o Negotiation

UNICEF promotes the understanding that the life skills approach can be
Successful, if the following are undertaken together
 The Skills
o This involves a group of psychosocial and interpersonal skills, which are interlinked
with each other. For example, decision-making is likely to involve creative and
critical thinking components and values analysis.
 Content
o To effectively influence behavior, skills must be utilized in a particular content area.
“What are we making decisions about?”
o Learning about decision making will be more meaningful if the content is relevant
and remains constant.
o Such content areas as described could be drug use, HIV/AIDS/STI prevention or
sexual abuse.
o Whatever the content area, a balance of three elements needs to be considered:
knowledge, attitudes and skills.

 Methods
o Skills based education cannot occur when there is no interaction among
students/participants.
o It relies on groups of people to be effective. Interpersonal and psychosocial skills
cannot be learned from sitting alone and reading a book. If this approach is to be
successful, all three components, life skills, content and method should be in place.
o This effectively means that life skills can be learned through the use of certain
methods and tools.

Life skills are explained in three broad areas (comprehensive life skills):-
 Critical thinking skills/Decision making skills
o This includes decision making/problem solving skills and information gathering
skills.
o The individual must also be skilled at evaluating the future consequences of their
present actions and the actions of others.
o They need to be able to determine alternative solutions and to analyze the influence of
their own values and the values of those around them.
 Interpersonal/Communication skills
o This includes verbal and non-verbal communication, active listening, and the ability
to express feelings and give feedback. Also in this category, are negotiation/refusal
skills and assertiveness skills that directly affect ones’ ability to manage conflict.
o Empathy, which is the ability to listen and understand others’ needs, is also a key
interpersonal skill. Teamwork and the ability to cooperate include expressing respect
for those around us.
o Development of this skill set enables an individual to be accepted in society. These

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 25
Session 5: Life Skills
o Skills result in the acceptance of social norms that provide the foundation for adult
o Social behavior.
 Coping and self-management skills –
o This refers r to skills to increase the internal locus of control, so that the individual
believes that they can make a difference in the world and affect change.
o Self-esteem, self-awareness, self-evaluation skills and the ability to set goals are also
part of the more general category of self-management skills.
o Anger, grief and anxiety must all be dealt with, and the individual learns to cope with
loss or trauma.
o Stress and time management are key, as are positive thinking and relaxation
techniques.

Life Skills in each Broad Area

Interpersonal/ Critical Thinking/ Coping and


Communication Decision Making Self-Management
Skills Skills Skills
 Empathy building  Critical & creative  Self-awareness and self-
 Active listening thinking skills control skills
 Giving feedback  Problem solving skills  Identifying personal
 Non/Verbal  Analytical skills for strengths & weaknesses
communication assessing (personal &  Coping with (peer) pressure
 Assertion, resistance & other) risks  Time management skills
refusal skills  Skills for generating  Dealing with emotions:
 Negotiation & conflict alternatives grief, anxiety
management  Info gathering skills  Positive thinking skills
 Cooperation & teamwork  skills for evaluating  Dealing with difficult
 Advocacy skills information, e.g., the situations (conflict, also
 Relationship & media loss, abuse, trauma)
community building skills  Skills for assessing  Goal setting skills
consequences  Help seeking skills

Step 5: Key Points (5minutes)


 Life skills are techniques that help a person to master his/her environment and remain
healthy, physically, morally, spiritually and psychologically.
 Life Skills are used in day to day life.
 Life skills application is in three broad areas:
o Critical thinking skills/Decision making skills
o Interpersonal/Communication skills
o Coping and self-management skills

Step 6: Evaluation (5minutes)


 What are the core life skills?
 What are the broad areas (comprehensive) of life skills?

ASK students if they have any comments or need clarification on any points.

NMT 06223 Community Health Nursing II


NTA Level 6, Semester 1 26
Session 5: Life Skills
References
 Ken Swann. IEC Material Production Guidelines [online] Retrieved on 23/10/2012.at
2:30pm from http://www.kswann.com/IEC%20Production%20Guidelines.pdf
 Kohi, T.& Portillo, C. (2009). Tanzania HIV and AIDS Nursing Education (THANE)
Module XII: Life Skills Tanzania.
 UNICEF (2003) Life skills [On line] accessed on 12th Sept 2013 at
http://www.unicef.org/lifeskills/index_whichskills.html
 http://www.dorluk.de/hp/iec_manual.pdf

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NTA Level 6, Semester 1 27
Session 5: Life Skills