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Assignment 5: Essay

Olivia Perkov

APA Style Sample _________________________________________________________________________________ 2

Introduction ________________________________________________________________________________________ 2

Discussion __________________________________________________________________________________________ 2

Examples ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2

Format _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3

Summary ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3

APA Style Sample


The American Psychological Association (APA) style is primarily used in the social

science disciplines. It is formatted like Modern Language Association (MLA), and shows

many similarities, but is unique in several key points. This paper discusses the APA in



APA uses parenthetical (or in-text) citations within sentences, but rather than

indicating the author's name and page number, APA includes author's name and date of

publication. The page number, represented with a p. or a pp., is only added to the citation

when using a direct quote (not a summary or paraphrase). If the author's name is mentioned

in the sentence, then place the date of publication in parentheses directly after the name. If

the name is not mentioned include the author's name and date in parentheses at the end of

the source material. And, if you use a direct quote, place the page number after the

publication date within the parentheses.


Note the difference between the following three examples:

Terrence (1999) has presented poignant examples from 150 interviews. However, it has

been pointed out that the research was conducted in a selective, highly biased, way (Strong

& Porter, 1998). All of the interviewees have been called “exceptions to the norm” (Strong

& Porter, 1998, p. 5).

APA Style Sample 2

Note the first example paraphrases an author that is named in the sentence, the second

example paraphrases authors that are not named in the sentence, and the third example

provides a direct quote (thus the inclusion of the page numbers) but also does not identify

the authors within the sentence. If the authors were identified within the sentence in the third

example, the authors' names would be followed by the year of publication and only the page

numbers would be in the parentheses at the end of the quote.


Finally, the bibliographic page in APA style differs from MLA, what APA calls the

Reference page. You will notice a few immediate differences from the MLA Works Cited

format. With APA you include the initial of the author's first name rather than the complete

name, the publication date immediately follows the author's name in parentheses, and titles

of articles are not surrounded with quotation marks. The lists are still alphabetized by

author's last name (or title in the absence of an author) and the first line is flush left while

subsequent lines in the same entry are indented in (approximately 5 spaces or one tab). A

good resource to help you with referencing is Notre Dame’s referencing guide at

http://library.nd.edu.au/referencing/apa#s-lg-box-3040351. There is also a summary

downloadable help document available at:

http://library.nd.edu.au/ld.php?content_id=8053459. In APA Style, you include a reference

list rather than a bibliography with your paper (APA, 2017). A reference list consists of all

sources cited in the text of a paper whereas a bibliography may include resources that were

consulted but not cited in the text as well as an annotated description of each one.


The School of Education, University of Notre Dame Australia, uses the APA 6th

referencing style for all written documents. In addition to in text referencing and the

APA Style Sample 3

reference list there are a number of formatting requirements to ensure your essay complies

with APA standards. Get to know the APA 6th.

APA Style Sample 4


APA. Bibliography versus reference list. Retrieved

from http://www.apastyle.org/learn/quick-guide-on-references.aspx#Bibliography

Bretag, T. (2013). Challenges in addressing plagiarism in education. PLoS Medicine, 10(12),


Hosny, M., & Fatima, S. (2014). Attitude of students towards cheating and plagiarism:

University case study.Journal of Applied Sciences, 14(8), 748-757.


Strong, R. L., & Porter, M. (1998). Grammatical combinations. In Parker, S, & Gibson, K.

(Ed.), Language and literacy (pp. 540-578). Cambridge: Cambridge University


Terrence, H. S. (1999, November 1,). Students success in community colleges. Oregonian,

pp. A7.

APA Style Sample 5