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Nokia Academy

Coverage Enhancement
BSS Parameter Planning 1
RN2010-40A

RN20108EN40GLA0 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


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Module Objectives

• Describe Extended Cell Range for CS calls

• Explain parameters controlling handovers in a Extended Cell

• Explain the Long Reach Timeslot for Flexi BTS

• Explain the 105km Super Extended cell and related parameters

• Give a brief introduction to Smart Radio Concept (SRC) feature

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Extended Cell Range

• One BCCH, Two TRX solution to extend cell radius to 70km

• Normal and Extended area served with different TRX

• BTS Type supported


- Flexi Multiradio
- Ultra CX4.1 (with EDGE capable TRX)
- Flexi EDGE EP2.0
- Not supported by Metrosite

• Activation based on TRX license (Flexi, Ultra)

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Extended Cell (Implementation)

Normal region (frequency f1) Extended region (frequency f2 except timeslot 0)


Normal-TRX (Parameter eTrxInd (ETRX) = N) Extended-TRX (Parameter eTrxInd(ETRX) = E)

Extended cell size


Parameter radiusExtension (EXT)
Value = 1..67 radius of extended cell
Value = 0 ordinary cell

TRX parameter (BASIC)


f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 eTrxInd(ETRX) Y/N Defines if the TRX is extended or not

N-TRX BCCH/ Not TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH


SDCCH Used BTS parameter (ADV)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
radiusExtension (EXT) 0…67Km Defines the radius of an
f1 f2 f2 f2 f2 f2 f2 f2 extended cell

E-TRX ERACH SDCCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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Extended Cell Range for Flexi EDGE BTS
• BSS13 supports the Extended Cell radius for Flexi EDGE BTS (EP 2.0)
• Two coverage areas with different timing advance ranges are used
- An inner area has a regular coverage area
- An outer cell has an extended radius of the coverage area
• The handover and power control algorithm in the BSC triggers a handover when the mobile station (MS) is
approaching the inner area while still being served by the outer area
- The triggering is based on the timing advance
Outer area
Inner area

Normal
Extended
TRX
TRX

Distance 0 km 30 km 35 km 65 km
Inner area TA=0 TA=54 TA=63
Outer area TA=0 TA=9 TA=63
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Call Setup

• RACH received on N-TRX


• IMM ASS sent on N-TRX
• SDCCH on N-TRX

• RACH received on E-TRX


• IMM ASS sent on N-TRX
• SDCCH on E-TRX

Overlap area: RACH is received on N-TRX and E-TRX. BSC filters the later one out

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Extended Cell
Cell Selection, Handover
Cell Selection

MS can camp on BCCH (NTRX) independent of the distance to the BTS


RACH from MS detected on RACH or E-RACH depending on the distance to the BTS

Failure of RACH burst  Wrong cell selected


Reselection on the basis of the path loss criterion C1

Handover to due Distance (Normal area  Extended area)

maxMSDistanceHOThreshold (MAX) HOC ADV 0..63(Def=63) TA => MAX; handover triggered to extended cell

minMSDistanceHOThreshold (MIN) HOC ADV 0..63 (Def=2) TA => MIN; handover triggered to normal cell

Adjacent Cell Parameter

hoTargetArea (HOTA) ADCE ADV 0....3 indicates type of target cell (normal or extended) ;
indicates type of transceiver from which the BSC tries to allocate a
channel (normal or extended)

0 – Normal cell
1 – Allocate from N-TRX
2 – Allocate from E-TRX
3 – Allocate from TRX of the same type as source BTS

• Inter-BSC HO: Only values 0, 2 are allowed for HOTA.

9 • External HO are made only towards Extended area©ifNokia


RN20108EN40GLA0
LongSolutions
Reach andTSLNetworks
(for Flexi)
2015
is NOT in use
Extended Cell
Use of Double BA List

• The Double BCCH Allocation List (Double BA List) may be needed in the extended cell
range solution because otherwise some legacy MSs do not work properly
• The intra-cell handover between an N-TRX and an E-TRX is performed by using a
HANDOVER COMMAND message.
• Using the Handover Command requires that the BCCH frequency of the serving cell is
included in the BCCH allocation list.
• This can be achieved by using the Double BA List.

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Long Reach Timeslot
• Currently BSC allocates external handovers only towards extended area of an extended cell  higher HO failures
• Used to determine if the MS is located in normal or extended area (of the targeted cell) in case of incoming external HO
• Transmission on first LRTCH
only
• Reception on both LRTCH

Use of LRTCH
• BTS measures TA by scanning both LRTCH for the handover access burst
• BTS sends the ACCESS DELAY information to BSC
- ACCESS DELAY < maxMSDistanceHOThreshold MAX: Normal cell area
- ACCESS DELAY >= maxMSDistanceHOThreshold MAX : Extended cell area

• Intra-cell HO from LRTCH to TCH of N-TRX or TCH of E-TRX to free up LRTCH

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Long Reach Timeslot
TA value sent by BTS to MS cannot be greater than 63  BTS must send an adjusted value for TA if the
MS is in extended area.

If TA > 1.8 *
EXT

TA (adj) = TA (meas) – 1.8*EXT TA (adj) = TA (meas)

UL is synchronized to E-TRX UL is synchronized to N-TRX

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105km Super Extended Cell
Introduction

• Radius extension up to 105km for Flexi BTS (EP2.0


CD1) N-TRX RX
f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1
• BCCH serves all three cell areas TRX
BCCH/ Not TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH
RACH/ i n use
• DL of E-RACH tsl not used Normal SDCCH

E-TRX RX

• E-RACH of STRX overlaps with tsl 0 and 1 of BCCH E-TRX


f1 f2 f2 f2 f2 f2 f2 f2

(just like E-RACH of ETRX) 40%


E-RACH SDCCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

Delayed
• SDCCH defined on S-TRX receiver
S-TRX RX

• Normal and Super Extended areas do not overlap S-TRX


f1 f3 f3 f3 f3 f3 f3 f3

E-RACH SDCCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

• TA of each area measured separately from 0…63 80%


Delayed
receiver

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105km Super Extended Cell
Handover between Areas
MAX SEXT SMIN SMAX
EXT MIN
TRX Level
1. E-TRX Type = S
2.
BTS Level
Super Radius Extension (SEXT)
Location of inner edge of super
extended area from the BTS
Range: 0, 36-70
BTS
Handover Control
MS distance HO
4. threshold super ext cell min (SMIN)
3.
Range: 0…63

MS distance HO
threshold super ext cell max (SMAX)
N-area: 35 km
Range: 0…63
E-area: 35 km
S-area: 35 km

External handovers
Overlap area (N/E) Overlap area (E/S)

1. Mobile is moving in Normal area (away from BTS), TA ≥ MAX => handover to Extended area triggers • Performed thru LRTCH if it is in use
2. Mobile is moving in Extended area (away from BTS), TA ≥ SMAX => handover to Super extended area triggers • If not in use, HO to super extended
3. Mobile is moving in Super extended area (towards BTS), TA ≤ SMIN => handover to Extended area triggers area
4. Mobile is moving in Extended area (towards BTS), TA ≤ MIN => handover to Normal area triggers

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SRC Concept
SRC consists of :
• Downlink link enhancing feature
- Intelligent Downlink Diversity (IDD)
• Uplink enhancing features
- 4-way UL Diversity (4UD)
- Interference Rejection Combining (IRC)
- High gain MHA
• Up and downlink features can also be implemented separately
(except for 4UD, which is used with IDD)

BTS Support: Ultrasite , Flexi EDGE, Flexi Multiradio, Flexi Multiradio 10,
Flexi compact

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IDD Concept
Delay Diversity (DD) with Phase Hopping
• Improves the mobile’s receiver performance by modifying the radio channel
• BTS downlink performance is boosted up to 3-5 dB
• All timeslots are transmitted through 2 transceivers and 2 antennas
− 2nd TRX transmission is delayed and phase turned
• Also BCCH carrier is sent through 2 transmitters
• Phase hopping is used to change phasing between adjacent bursts (to decrease
correlation between a main and auxiliary transmitter)
• To the BSC, the main and auxiliary TRX appear as one logical TRX
• Mobile receives both signals as standard multipath

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4-Way UL Diversity
Very efficient Interference Rejection
Combining is processed for received
signals giving ultimate gain for
diversity reception. IRC minimizes the
effect of interfering signals in the BTS
receiver.

MHA MHA

DDU Baseband
RX + TX Units Downlink
Masthead Amplifier compensates
EDGE
feeder loss and matches front end RX div. Transceiver
signal
of the BTS receiver optimizing
sensitivity RX div.
EDGE
RX div.+ TX aux
Transceiver Combined
Uplink
signal

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2-Way/4-Way UL Receiver Diversity
(IRC/MRC)
• The noise between two branches are somewhat correlated, so the best
way of combining is Interference Rejection Combining (IRC). This takes
into account the correlation between interference branches and removes
ultimately the interference from the received signal.

• Uplink receiver diversity can be either 2- or 4-way diversity.


• In 2-way diversity the receiver combines signals from two antennas by
using Interference Rejection Combining (IRC).

• 4-way diversity is based on MRC combination of two 2-way IRC diversity


branches. 4-way uplink diversity using
IRC followed by MRC.
• The signals from four antennas are fed into two separate TRX. Two pair-
wise signals are combined by IRC in respective TRX and then the signal
from the auxiliary TRX is fed into the main TRX where signals are
combined using Maximum Ratio Combining

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SRC with Mast Head Amplifier
(MHA)
Balanced link defines the cell range, not only BTS TX power

SRC+MHA
SRC+MHA DL UL

SRC,SRC,
no MHA
no MHA UL DL

DL
combiner
combiner by-pass
by-pass + MHA UL

combinercombiner
by-pass, by-pass
no MHA UL DL

Bypass,
Effective cell range: Bypass
No MHA
+MHA
SRC
+ MHA
SRC,
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no MHA
Configuring IDD in the BSC

• Main and auxiliary TRXs connected to different antenna

• TRX is created/added to IDD configuration during TRX commissioning


- Usage of IDD and mode of IDD TRX (main/auxiliary)

• 4UD is defined in the BSC with the diversityUsed (RDIV) parameter: RDIV=Y (4-way RX diversity is
used).

• If IDD is used only for boosting the BCCH carrier, the IDD TRX has to be defined in the BSC as
preferred BCCH TRX

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Space Time Interference Rejection
Combining (STIRC)

• STIRC is an enhancement to Interference Rejection Combining (IRC) that is


implemented in NSN Flexi EDGE, EDGE UltraSite, and EDGE MetroSite BTSs

• STIRC is compatible with Smart Radio Concept for EDGE (SRC). All antenna
configurations are supported. However, 4-way uplink diversity configurations provide the
best performance.

• Link level simulations show interference rejection performance of GMSK channel under
typical urban (TU) conditions improving on average 4 - 10 dB gain compared to IRC (for
2-way uplink diversity (2UD)) - The actual gain is network and configuration dependent

• STIRC can be enabled per sector (BTS object)

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STIRC & IRC

• In a multiple-antenna receiver, there is a strong correlation in the interference between different


branches (normal and diversity) and samples for each symbol period. Usually, the interference
correlation is different from the correlation of the desired signal.

• IRC is a set of diversity combining, digital signal processing methods that removes interference by
taking these cross correlations into account.

• These methods can be considered as whitening the interference (there is no correlation) between the
individual branches and samples of each symbol which, if done perfectly, optimizes the performance
of the receiver, in particular the bit (0/1) detection process.

• STIRC works best when there is a single dominant interferer and it is best suited for urban areas
Whitening,
Whitening
jointly
estimated
Whitening

Interference Rejection Space Time Interference


Combining (IRC) Combining STIRC

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STIRC Feature Control
• License based feature: Capacity license based on number of STIRC enabled TRXs in
the BSC

• STIRC activation on BTS level

MO Abbreviated Range And Description Default BSC - Category


Class Name Step value MML
Name

BTS stircEnabled STIRC is Defines whether the STIRC feature is STIRC is STIRC BASIC
disabled (N) (0), used in the BTS. disabled
STIRC is Valid only for Nokia UltraSite, Nokia (N) (0)
enabled (Y) (1) MetroSite and Nokia Flexi EDGE Site
types.

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Flexible MCPA TX Power Pooling (RG20)
Introduction
More efficient MCPA usage can be achieved if dynamic power allocation is used
• BCCH carrier has power allocated statically
• MaxBCCH o/p ≥ 60 W / No of carriers defined in the MCPA
• Remaining MCPA power is dynamically allocated to TCH carriers
• MaxTCH o/p = MaxBCCH o/p
Static power allocation Dynamic power allocation
4 carriers / MCPA 4 carriers / MCPA
6 carriers / MCPA Max o/p per 6 carriers / MCPA Max o/p per carrier
carrier decreases does not need to
with increasing be reduced with
no. of defined increasing no. of
carriers  Cell defined carriers 
coverage is Cell coverage is
Cell reduced unchanged
rang Cell
e range
1 2

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Flexible MCPA TX Power Pooling
Introduction

Dynamically shared MCPA power among different TCH carriers


• Compared to the static allocation lower power is allocated to TCH carriers (no need to transmit with
max power on all TCH carriers simultaneously)

Example of DL power levels on TS basis in carriers


Permanently
Allocated BCCH
Power
BCC SD/ 20W 20W 20W 20W 20W 20W Power level 0 ( P0)
BCCH@20W H
8

TRX1: Pmax=20W 2W 20W 8W 12W 20W

TRX2: Pmax=20W 1.3 8W 12W 20W 08W 5W active


W
TRX3: Pmax=20W 5W 0.8 20W 8W 12W 20W 2W Idle
W

Three TRXs with


pooled 40W power Instantaneously aggregated power not
exceeding 40W due to use of DTX, PC, Idle &
e.g. Energy optimized TCH Allocation feature
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Energy Efficient Coverage with Multiradio Feature
(RG30)

• Feature gives possibility to enable IDD (Intelligent Downlink Diversity) or AH (Antenna Hopping)
functionality on RFM/RRH working in the concurrent GSM-LTE mode with 2x2 DL MIMO configured
for LTE
- Concurrent GSM-LTE mode means that both the technologies share the nominal power of the
same MCPA (Multi Carrier Power Amplifier)
- The implementation of IDD/AH requires the same HW configuration as it is for LTE 2x2 MIMO
(2TX & 2RX)
• As a result of IDD/AH activation certain gain in 2G coverage can be achieved
• In case coverage improvement does not need to be provided to the network the IDD/AH gain can be
utilized to reduce DL TX power on GSM TRXs without coverage deterioration
- That saved TX power can be used by LTE, which is sharing the same RF resources with GSM or
- In case TX output power assigned to LTE is not changed and lower TX output power is used for
GSM a certain gain in the total BTS energy consumption can be achieved

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Energy Efficient Coverage with Multiradio Feature

• Radio Modules and antenna(s) configuration for IDD/AH are similar like for 2x2 DL MIMO
• Supported configurations below:
In case of one antenna usage
cross-polar antenna must be used

X X
TX
RFM TX
RFM

Duplexer
Duplexer
MCPA MCPA
RX main
LNA RX main
LNA
RXMC RXMC

RX
LNA
RX

RX div
LNA RX div

RRH X

Duplexer
TX MCPA
X RX main LNA
TX
RFM TX
RFM

Duplexer
Duplexer

MCPA MCPA

Duplexer
TX MCPA
RX main
LNA RX main
LNA
RXMC RXMC
RX main LNA

RX
LNA
RX

RX div
LNA RX div

2G utilizes efficiently two pipes needed for LTE DL MIMO by transmitting DL diversity IDD/AH

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Energy Efficient Coverage with Multiradio Feature
TX power reduction on GSM TRXs gives extra possibilities on supported carrier configurations with shared RFM/RRH 
depends on carrier configuration and allowed power levels for GSM and LTE carriers (according to GSM-LTE RF sharing
feature)
Example of IDD gain utilization:
Assumption:
• RFM 60W with:
− 1 LTE 10MHz @ 20W
− 4 TRXs @ 10W
• Assumed IDD gain 3.5 dB  TX max power reduced by 3 dB (1 dB step possible with RG301704)

Case 1 – LTE uses higher output power:


• 5 W per TRX used (3dB reduced according to assumed IDD gain)  4 x 5 = 20W (20W savings)
• 20W can be given to LTE  1 LTE 10MHz @ 40W
• Result: 1 LTE 10MHz @ 40W

Case 2 – BTS energy consumption is decreased:


• 5 W per TRX used (3dB reduced according to assumed IDD gain)  4 x 5 = 20W (20W savings)
• Result: 20W/60W  33% lower MCPA utilization

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