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Heavy Oil Programs

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To use programs:
Input data in white cells, answers in green cells.

Program Description
0 Conversion Factors

1 API - Determines oil API, density and molecular weight at any temperature

2 Water Properties: Density and thermal properties of water

3 Thermal Properties: Heat capacity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity of


fluid saturated rocks/and liquids

4 Viscosity of Liquid Mixtures & Emulsions

5 PVT: Determine Bo, Bw,Bg, GOR, Pb,compressibility, dead/live oil viscosity at reservoir temperature

6 Steam Tables

7 Heat of Combustion

8 Heat Conduction: erfc function

9 Hot Water Injection: Temperature away from injector

10 Steam Zone Volume

11 Steam Conformance

12 Oil-Steam Ratio

13 Combustion Parameters

14 Single Phase Pressure Drop in Pipeline

15 Wellhead Steam Rates and Pressure Drops

16 Waterflood Voidage Replacement Ratio

17 Bottomhole Pressure Determination from Acoustic Shot

18 Recombination at Separator

19 Residual Oil Saturation After Steamflood

20 Reserves

21 SAGD

22 Horizontal Wells

23 Thermal Casings

24 Wellbore Heatlosses

25 Reservoir Properties

26 Optimum Working Interest

27 Optimum Number of Drilling Locations and PDV

28 Success-Fail Model

29 Original-Gas-In-Place

30 Refinery Calculations

30.1 Petroleum Fractions

31 Relative Permeability

32 Slurry Viscosity

33 DST

34 Volumetrics

35 Engineering Economics

36 Sask Royalties

37 Alta Royalties

38 Oil Prices

39 OPEC and World Production

40 Progressive Cavity Pumps and Pumps (IPR)

41 Steam Distribution Systems

42 Minimum Miscibility Pressure & VAPEX

43 EOR Parameters

44 EOR Royalties

45 Tracers - Radioactive

46 Heavy Fractions

47 Mining

48 Production Facilities

49 Catalyst

50 Canadian Dollar

51 References and Assignments


METRIC TO
A IMPERIAL CONVERSION
Input Here:

METRIC UNITS

Length 1 m
1 m
250 km
1 cm

Area 10000 m2
1 m2
1000 m2
1 km2
4143.9 ha
1 ha
1 ha

Volume 7 m3
Oil Volume 60 m3
Water Volume 1 m3
Butane Volume 1 m3
Propane Volume 13 m3
Ethane Volume 1 m3
Gas volume 1 m3
Gas Volume 1 e3 m3
Liquid Volume 14 litres
Liquid Volume 1 litres
Liquid Volume 1 litres

Mass 1 kg
1 Tonnes
1 Tonnes
454 gm
150 metic tonnes CO2

Pressure 8000 kPa


1 MPa
0.2 bar
Gauge+101.3kPa=Absolute P

Pressure Gradient 1 kPa/m

Force 1 Newtons

Dynamic Viscosity 1 mPa-s

Kinematic Viscosity 1 m2/s

Temperature 13 deg C
5 deg C
1 K
1 K

Density 1000 kg/m3


1 kg/m3

Specific Volume 1 m3/kg

Flow Rate 0.0008 m3/s


1 m3/s
1 kg/s
546 tonne/d

Permeability 1 m2
1 micro m2

Heat, Enthalpy 1 kJ
1 GJ
1 J

Specific Heat 5 kJ/kg-K

Volumetric heat Capacity 1 kJ/m3-K

Specific Enthalpy 1 kJ/kg

Heat Flow Rate 6 kW

Thermal Conductivity 1 kW/m-K


1 W/m-K
Thermal Diffusivity 1 m2/s

Heat Transfer Coefficient 1 kW/m2-K

Horsepower 1 kW

Electricity 1 gigawatt hour = 3600 GJ

GOR 10 m3/m3

Concentration 1 mg/kg

Geothermal Gradient 1 deg C/m

Gas Constant R 82.053 cm3-atm/(g-mole deg K)


8.3143 J/(g-mole deg K)

Radioactive Amount 1.48E+10 Becquerels (Bq)

Radioactive Dose 1 gray (gy)


1 rem

IMPERIAL
B TO METRIC CONVERSION
Input Here:

IMPERIAL UNITS

Length 2 ft
1 yd
1 mile
1 inches

Area 1 ft2
1 yard2
1 acres
1 sections
1 sections
1 acres
1 ft2

Volume 6.00E+07 ft3


Oil Volume 1 bbl
Water Volume 400 bbl
Butane Volume 1 bbl
Propane Volume 13 bbl
Ethane Volume 1 bbl
Gas volume 1 MCF
Gas Volume 1 MCF
Liquid Volume 14 gallons (Imperial)
Liquid Volume 1 gallons (US)
Liquid Volume 1 bbl
Liquid Volume 1 fluid ounces (U.S)

Mass 1 lb
1 Long tons
1 Short tons
16 oz
3000 mcf CO2

Pressure 1334 psi


145 psi
1 psi

Gauge+14.7psi=Absolute Pr

Pressure Gradient 1 psi/ft

Force 15000 pound force

Dynamic Viscosity 1 cp

Kinematic Viscosity 1 centistokes

Temperature 200 deg F


500 deg R
1 deg R
1 deg F

Density 62.4 lb/ft3


1 lb/gal(US)
Specific Volume 1 ft3/lb

Flow Rate 1 bbl/d


1 ft3/d
1 lb/hr
1 lb/hr

Permeability 1 Darcy
5 Darcy

Heat, Enthalpy 1 Btu


1 Million Btu
3 Btu

Specific Heat 1 Btu/lb-deg F

Volumetric heat Capacity 1 Btu/ft3-deg F

Specific Enthalpy 1 Btu/lb

Heat Flow Rate 3.06E+06 Btu/hr


1 million BTU/hr

Thermal Conductivity 1 Btu/hr-ft-deg F


1 Btu/hr-ft-deg F

Thermal Diffusivity 1 ft2/hr

Heat Transfer Coefficient 1 Btu/hr-ft2-deg F

Horsepower 1 hp (electric)

GOR 50 scf/bbl

Concentration 1 ppm

Geothermal Gradient 1 deg F/ft

Radioactive Amount 20 curies

Radioactive Dose 1 rad


1 sieverts (Sv)
Prefix Multiplier Symbol

yotta 10^24 Y
zetta 10^21 Z
exa 10^18 E
peca 10^15 P
tera 10^12 T
giga 10^9 G
mega 10^6 M
kilo 10^3 k
hecto 10^2 h
deka 10 da
deci 10^ -1 d
centi 10^ -2 c
milli 10^ -3 m
micro 10^ -6 Greek Letter mu
nano 10^ -9 n
pico 10^ -12 p
femto 10^ -15 f
atto 10^ -18 a
zepto 10^-21 z
yocto 10^-24 y

Energy Content Table

Natural gas

Methane 1 Mcf
Methane 1 Bcf
Methane 1 Tcf

Natural Gas Liquids

Ethane 1 m3
Propane 1 m3
Butane 1 m3

Crude Oil

Light Oil 1 m3
Heavy Oil 1 m3
Pentanes Plus 1 m3
Bitumen 1 m3
Synthetic Crude Oil 1 m3

Solids
Coals Bituminous 1 tonne
Coals Subbituminous 1 tonne
Asphalt 1 m3
Coke 1 m3

Gas Price Conversion

Btu Content per mscf 1100


Gas Price per MMBtu $6.00 Canadian Dollars

Gas Price per mscf $6.60 Canadian Dollars per mscf

Concentration

1 percent by volume = 10,000 ppm

Example 1:

Current AEUB upper H2S limits which can


be flared are 50 mole/k-mol.
Recall that 10 mole/k-mol is 1%,
thus the H2S limit is 5% or 50,000 ppm.

Example 2:

Convert 30 ppm SO2 to gm/m3.

Recall that 1 ppm is equal


to 1 part per million by volume,
or 1 ml of SO2 for every million
ml of air. So 30 ppm of
SO2 is actually 1 cm3 SO2/ 1 m3 air.
To convert 1 cm3 SO2 gas to
grams, we need the density of
SO2 which can be found using
the ideal gas law:
Density = Molecular weight*pressure/R/Temperature
The molecular weight of SO2 is 64 g/mol.
At 25 deg C (298 K) and 1 atmosphere,
the density of SO2 is =
64g/mol*1 atm/(82.06 atm cm3/mol K)/(298 K) = .00262 g cm3.
Thus 30 ppm = 30 * .00262 = .0786 g/m3
or 78,600 micrograms/m3

Rules of Thumb:
1 litre water weighs 1 kg

Lift 1 book (1 kg) 10 cm and


you've done 1 Joule of work

Density of air at STP


is 1.3 kg/m3

Effective reservoir compressibilty


is 60% of pore compresibility

Cloud point = pour point


plus 7 deg C

Molar Mass:

1 kmol = 1000 mol


= 1000 g mol
= 2.2046 lbm mol

Example Molar mass of methane = 16.04 kg/kmol


= 16.04 g/mol
= 16.04 g/ g mol
Molecular weight is measured in Daltons =Da 1Da=1.65 e-24 g

Convert Decimal Degrees to Degrees, Minutes, Seconds

Input degrees in decimal:


Answer: Degrees Minutes
121.135 121 8

Problem:

1. Convert:

12 MPa = ? Psi
200 hp=? kW
1000 GJ=?J
10 kPa/m=?psi/ft
20 e3 m3=?MMscf
1 bbl heavy oil has ? GJ energy content

2. Oil A has a viscosity of 10,000 cp at 15 deg C.


Oil B is 20 deg API and has a viscosity of 9500 cs at 15
deg C. Which oil is more viscous at 15 deg C?
Table of Contents

Output

Comment IMPERIAL UNITS

3.281 ft
1.094 yd
155.343 mile
0.394 inch

107639.000 ft2
1.196 yard2
0.247 acres
1 section = 640 acres 0.386 sections
15.995 sections
1 ha=10,000 m2 2.471 acres
107639.0 ft2

247.203 ft3
377.572 bbl
6.290 bbl
6.297 bbl
81.900 bbl
6.330 bbl
0.035 MCF
35.494 MCF
1 litre = 0.001 m3 3.080 gallons (Imperial)
or 1000 litre =1 m3 0.264 gallons (US)
1 litre=1000 cm3 0.006 bbl

1 ton of oil = 7.5 barrels 2.205 lb


1 metric tonne=1000 kg 0.984 Long tons
1 Megatonne=1e6 tonnes 1.102 Short tons
16.000 oz
2889.3 mscf CO2

1 Pa=1 kg/m-s2 1160.304 psi 1 Pa=1 Nt/m2


1 atm=101.325 kPa 145.038 psi 1 Pa=0.1 dynes/cm2
100 kPa=1 bar 2.90076 psi
101.325 kPa= 760 mm Hg
Gauge+101.3kPa=Absolute Pressure
1 torr = 0.1333 kPa

0.0442 psi/ft

1 deca newton=10 newtons 0.2248 pound force


1 newton=1 kg/m/sec2

1 Pa-s=1 kg/m-s 1 cp

centistoke=centipoise/density 1000000 centistokes

55.400 deg F
501.000 deg R
R=deg F + 460 1.800 deg R
K= deg C + 273 0.556 deg F

1 kg/m3=1000 g/cc 62.428 lb/ft3


0.0083 lb/gal(US)

16.0185 ft3/lb

434.752 bbl/d
3051190.0 ft3/d
7936.632 lb/hr
50155.107 lb/hr

1 Darcy=1000 md 1013253353869 Darcy


1.013253354 Darcy

1 GJ=10^9J 0.947777462 Btu


0.947777462 Million Btu
1 J = 10^7 erg 0.000948213 Btu

1.194 Btu/lb-deg F

0.014911308 Btu-ft3-deg F

0.429922614 Btu/lb

1 kW= 1 kJ/s 20472 Btu/hr

577.7875 Btu/hr-ft-deg F
0.57778 Btu/hr-ft-deg F
38750 ft2/hr

176.110287306 Btu/hr-ft2-degF

1 hp = 550 ft-lbf/s 1.341022 hp

1 terawatt hour= 3.6 PJ 1 GJ=0.28 megawatt hours


Power is watt, energy is kW-hr
1 megawatt=1,000 kW
56.40309 scf/bbl

1 ppm = 1 mg/L 1 ppm

0.5488474204 deg F/ft

1.986 Btu/(lb-mole deg R)

1 Becquerel=1 disintegration/s 0.4 curies (Ci)


1 curie= 37 G Bq

1 gray=dose of 1 joule/kg 100 rad


0.01 sieverts (Sv)

Output

Comment METRIC UNITS

0.6096 m
0.914 m
1.609 km
2.54 cm

0.093 m2
0.836 m2
4046.856 m2
2.590 km2
259.109 ha
1 acre=43560 ft2 0.405 ha
0.000009 ha

1699009.2 m3
0.15891 m3
63.592 m3
0.15881 m3
2.06349 m3
0.15798 m3
28.17399 m3
0.02817399 1e3m3
63.64526 litres
3.785412 litres
158.91 litres
2.957353E-05 m3

0.453592 kg
1 tonne=1000 kg 1.016047 tonnes
0.9071847 Tonnes
454 gm
155.75 metric tonnes CO2

1 Pa=1 kg/m-s2 9197.61 kPa


1.00 MPa
100 kPa=1 bar 0.07 bar
1 Pa-s=1 kg/m-s
Gauge+14.7psi=Absolute Pressure

22.6206 kPa/m

66723.3 Newton
6672.3 daN

1 mPa-s

0.000001 m2/s

93.33 deg C
4.444 deg C
K= deg C + 273 0.556 K
1.8 K

999.5544 kg/m3
119.839 kg/m3
0.062427818 m3/kg

0.00000184 m3/s
0.000000328 m3/s
0.000125998 kg/s
0.010886229 tonne/d

9.8692327E-13 m2
4.9346 micro m2

1 Btu=252.16 cal 1.055099998 kJ

3163.84609788 J

4.186799993 kJ/kg-K

67.063197944 kJ/m3-K

2.326 kJ/kg

1 kW= 1 kJ/s 896.83398 kW


0.2930711 MW

0.00173074 kW/m-K
1.730762574 W/m-K

0.000025806 m2/s

0.00567826 kW/m2-K

0.745699921 kW

8.86476255 m3/m3

1 mg/kg

1.822 deg C/m

1 pCi=37mBq 7.40E+11 Becquerels

0.01 gray
0.01 rem
1.05 GJ or 0.995 MMBtu
1.05 PJ
1.05 EJ

18.36 GJ
25.53 GJ
28.62 GJ

38.51 GJ
40.9 GJ
35.17 GJ
42.8 GJ
39.4 GJ

25 GJ
18.5 GJ
44.5 GJ
28.8 GJ
Seconds
6
1 Pa=1 Nt/m2
1 Pa=0.1 dynes/cm2
Density of Oil Table of Contents

Calculates oil density at standard conditions


specific heat and density at any temperature
and molecular weight using
Cragoe

Input:

Enter Specific Gravity of Oil at 15 deg C 0.95 dimensionless


Enter temperature of interest 65 deg C

Output:

API 17.4 no units (Note: API is reported at 15 deg C)


Density at 15 deg C 950 kg/m3 or 0.95 g/cc
or Density at 60 deg F 59.28 lb/ft3
Oil molecular Weight 527

Oil density at temperature of interest 910.9 kg/m3 at 65 deg C


Specific Heat oil at temp of interest 1.99 kJ/kg-K at 65 deg C

Temperature deg C Density, kg/m3 Heavy Oil Pool deg API


Oil Density vs Temperature
6.5 962.4 Battrum 18
Oil Density kg/m3

13 956.4 Burnt Lake 12


1000.0
19.5 950.5 Cactus Lake 13
26 944.6 Celtic 12
950.0 32.5 938.8 Cold Lake 10
39 933.1 Cymric 12
45.5 927.4 Duri 22
900.0 52 921.8 Foster Creek 10
58.5 916.3 Frog Lake 10-14
65 910.9 Gujarat 12-17
850.0 71.5 905.5 Pike's Peak 12
78 900.1 Suffield 12-16
84.5 894.9 Venezuelan Orinoco 8-10
800.0
91 889.7 Wainwright 20
97.5 884.5 West Sak Alaska 10-22
750.0 104 879.4
110.5 874.4
117 869.4
700.0 123.5 864.5
0 130 50 100 859.7 150 200 250
Temperature deg C
195 814.0

Density of Cold Lake Crude

Input:

Temperature 50 deg C

Output:

Density: 0.9772 g/cm3

Problem

Can the API of a heavy crude ever be negative?


If so, what density range does this correspond to?
What is the API of water?
Table of Contents

A. Water Properties Water Density

Calculates water density and 1020.00

Density kg/m3
specific heat, thermal
conductivity at any temperature
1000.00
TDS corrections for standard conditions

980.00
Input:

Enter temperature of interest 31 deg C 960.00

940.00
Output:

Density of Water 998.11 kg/m3 920.00


Specific heat of Water 4.23 kJ/kg-K
Thermal Conductivity of Water 0.6166 W/m deg C
900.00
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Temperature deg C

T herm al Conduc tiv ity W //m deg C


Temperature Density kg/m3
Specific Heat
Thermal
kJ/kg-Kcond W/m deg C
Water Specific Heat
Specific heat kJ/kg-K

3.1 1006.43 4.31 0.5752


6.2 1005.74 4.30 0.5802
4.34
9.3 1004.99 4.29 0.5852
4.32 12.4 1004.18 4.28 0.5900
15.5 1003.31 4.27 0.5948
4.30 18.6 1002.38 4.26 0.5994
Water Thermal Conductivity

4.28 21.7 1001.40 4.26 0.6038 0.7000


24.8 1000.36 4.25 0.6082
0.6800
4.26 27.9 999.26 4.24 0.6125
31 998.11 4.23 0.6166 0.6600
4.24
46.5 991.52 4.21 0.6356 0.6400
4.22 62 983.59 4.19 0.6517
0.6200
93 964.00 4.19 0.6752
4.20 124 939.96 4.24 0.6872 0.6000

4.18 0.5800

0.5600
4.16
0.5400
4.14
0.5200
4.12 0.5000
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Temperature deg C Temperature deg C

Input:

Total Dissolved Solids % in water 20 percent (at 15 deg C and atmospheric Pressure)

Output:

Water Density 1148.7 kg/m3 (at 15 deg C and atmospheric pressure)

B. Solubility of Methane in
Interstitial Water
McCain (1990)

Input:

Formation Temperature 33 deg C 91.4


Reservoir Pressure 8000 kPa 1160
Solids in Brine 3 wt %

Output

Methane Solubility in Fresh Water 1.8044 m3/m3


Methane Solubility in Brine 1.5380 m3/m3

C. Water Hardness
Uses Langelier Saturation Index

Input:

Current pH 7.5 no units


TDS 320 mg/L
Calcium Concentration 150 mg/L (ppm) Hard water has calcium carbonate concentrations greater than 120 mg/L (ppm)
Carbonate Concentration 17 mg/L (ppm)
Bicarbonate Concentration 0 mg/L (ppm)
Alkalinity 34 mg/L (ppm) Enter alkalinity or carbonate and bicarbonate concentration (only one)
Temperature 80 deg C

Output:

Langelier Saturation Index 0.2339 has tendency


to scale

D. Estimating TDS from Conductivity Meter

Input:

Conductivity 812 micro-siemans/cm

Output:

TDS 340.34 mg/L as CaCO3

Problem:

For fixed water analysis, does the scaling tendency


increase or decrease as the temperature is raised?
A Thermal Properties of Saturated Rocks
Calculates heat capacity, diffusivity
and thermal conductivity of fluid
filled rocks

Input:

Oil API
Rock porosity
Oil Saturation
Water Saturation
Reservoir temperature
Fraction of matrix that is quartz

Output:

Rock Density assumed


Oil Density at 15 deg C
Oil Specific Gravity at Reservoir Temp
Oil density at Reservoir Temp
Water Density at Reservoir Temp
Specific Heat of Oil
Specific Heat of Water
Specific Heat of rock assumed

Heat Capacity of Saturated Rock


Thermal Conductivity of Saturated Rock (Tikhomirov Eqn)
Thermal Diffusivity of Saturated Rock
or

Thermal Conductivity using Somerton's Correlation


at 50 deg C
and at reservoir temperature

Problem 1

For fixed fluid properties, how does thermal


conductivity of a fluid saturated rock vary with temperature?
(Plot thermal conductivity on y-axis, and vary x-axis temperature
from 10 to 300 deg C).

Problem 2

A Lloydminster rock contains oil of API gravity 20 degrees with oil


saturation of 0.7 and water saturation of 0.3. The porosity is
33%. Oil viscosity is 15,000 cp. The reservoir will
undergo a steamflood at 225 deg C. What is the :
a) heat capacity
b) thermal conductivity
c) thermal diffusivity
of this rock at steamflood temperature?

Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity


of Common Materials at 25 deg C (298.2 K)

Material

Copper
Carbon Steel
Air
Water, saturated liquid
Water, saturated vapor
Iron
Cement

B Thermal Conductivity of Liquids

1 Hydrocarbons

Input

Temperature
Specific Gravity

Output

Thermal Conductivity
Table of Contents

Heat Capacity

20 dimensionless Athabasca Bitumen 0.35


0.25 fraction
0.5 fraction
0.5 fraction
100 deg C
0.99 fraction

2643 kg/m3
933.99 kg/m3
0.87 dimensionless
867.7 kg/m3
958.94 kg/m3
2.23 kJ/kg-K
4.20 kJ/kg-K
0.96296 kJ/kg-K

2653.70 kJ/m3-K
2.54 W/m-K
0.00096 1000 m2/s
0.95886 mm2/s

1.55 Btu/hr-ft-F
2.53 W/m-K
Thermal Thermal
Conductivity Diffusivity
W/m-K 10^ -4 m2/s

401 1.17
60.5 0.145
0.026 0.202
0.609 0.0014
0.0186 4.08
79.1 0.228
1.82 0.009

25 deg C
0.9 no units

0.128 W/m-deg C
cal/gm-deg C
Viscosity of Liquid Mixtures
A Calculates the viscosity of a liquid mixture
of 2 liquids of different viscosity and concentration
using Cragoe's Method

Input:

Viscosity of liquid 1 1000000 cp


Viscosity of liquid 2 0.25 cp
Weight fraction of liquid 1 in mixture 0.95 fraction

Output:

Liquidity 1 139.88
Liquidity 2 482.05
Liquidity of mixture 156.99

Mixture Viscosity 96914.83 cp

B Uses Miadonye et al CIM 99-121 Method for


more accurate results

Input:

Heavy oil/bitumen viscosity in centistokes 100000 cs


Diluent viscosity in centistokes 0.432 cs
Diluent mass fraction 0.153 fraction

Output:

Viscosity interaction factor 2.5916853


Viscosity reduction parameter 0.8226177
Mixture Viscosity 343.61 cs

Problem
Current pipeline specs on the Enbridge line is
a maximum viscosity limit of 350 centistokes.
What mass fraction of Strachen condensate
is needed to move Cold Lake crude at this viscosity
and at a pipeline temperature of 30 deg C?

C Shu's Method (SPE 11280) June 1984

Input

Heavy Oil Viscosity at 24-28 deg C 550 cp


Solvent Viscosity at 24-28 deg C 0.01 cp
Specific Gravity Heavy Oil 0.96 no units
Specific Gravity Solvent 0.8465 no units
Volume fraction heavy oil 0.5 fraction

Output

Gamma 3.6344126
alpha 0.3329714
xa 0.2497964
xb 0.75
Mixture Viscosity 0.1528007 cp
Table of Contents

Diluent Viscosities @ 30 deg C

Diesel 2.467 cs
Naptha 0.703 cs
Toluene 0.614 cs
Strachen Condensate 0.528 cs
Rimbey Condensate 0.432 cs

Heavy Oil Viscosities @ 30 deg C

Syncrude Coker feed 157279 cs


Suncor coker feed 26988 cs
Lloyd cold production 2967 cs

Units of Viscosity

1) Dynamic Viscosity (Greek letter mu)

The SI unit of dynamic viscosity is


Pa-s which is also kg /(m-s).

Remember multiply by 1 poise = 0.1 kg / (m-s) = 1 g /(cm-s)


density to get centipoise
1 cp = 0.001 Pa-s = 1 mPa -s

2) Kinematic Viscosity

The SI unit of kinematic viscosity


denoted by the Greek letter nu,
is defined as the dynamic viscosity
divided by the density. It's units are

Pa-s/(kg/m3) = m2/s

Also, stokes are introduced:


1 stoke= 1 cm2/s = 0.0001 m2/s

Then
1 centistoke = 0.01 stoke
or
1 centistoke = 1 e-6 m2/s
PVT for Heavy/Extra Heavy Oil

Bitumen is defined as being an oil with viscosity greater than 10,000 cp (U


Heavy Oil has an API of 20 deg or less (UNITAR).

Recall Heavy Oil: 10 < API < 22.3


Extra Heavy Oil API <10

Reservoir Classification

Bitumen
PVT Variables

API API less than 10


GOR m3/m3 negligible
Bo, m3/m3 1
Oil Viscosity, cp from 10,000 to several million
Stock Tank Liquid Color black
Heptanes+ Mole Percent >30

A. Bubble Point Pressure, Pb

Bubblepoint is that pressure where


gas first comes out of solution.

Uses Modified Standing's Correlation

Input:

Solution GOR
Gas Gravity
Reservoir Temperature
API of crude

Output:
Bubble Point Pressure

B. Solution Gas-Oil Ratio, Rs


Heavy Oils
Uses Modified Vasquez-Beggs Correlation
Extra Heavy Oil uses Standing

Input:

Bubble Point Pressure


Gas Gravity
API of crude
Reservoir Temperature
Separator Pressure
Separator Temperature

OutPut:

Corrected Gas Gravity


Solution GOR

C. Oil Formation Volume Factor, Bo


(at or below bubble-point)
Uses Standing's Correlation

Input:

Gas-oil ratio
Gas Gravity
API of crude
Reservoir Temperature

Output:
Oil Formation Volume Factor, Bo

D. Dead Oil Viscosity, mu o


Uses Modified Egbogah-Jack Correlation
(For Liaohe heavy oils, see M below)

Input:

API of crude
Reservoir Temperature

Output:

Dead Oil viscosity


or

E. Live Oil Viscosity, mu o


Uses Modified Kartoatmodjo Eqns
(Run Program D above first to get
dead oil viscosity)

Input:

API of crude
GOR
Gas Gravity
Separator Pressure
Separator Temperature
Dead oil viscosity (from Part D above)

Output:

Live oil viscosity


F. Water Viscosity, mu w
Water viscosity is a greater function of
temperature rather than pressure
and to a lesser degree on salinity

Input:

Reservoir Temperature

Output:

Water Viscosity at Reservoir Temperature

G. Water Formation Volume Factor, Bw

Input:

Reservoir Pressure
Reservoir Temperature

Output:

Water Formation Volume Factor, Bw

H. Gas Formation Volume Factor, Bg


Input:

Reservoir Pressure
Reservoir Temperature
Compressibility Factor, z

Output:
Gas Formation Volume Factor, Bg

I. Gas Viscosity, mu g
Input:

Temperature
Gas density

Gas Composition:
Nitrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Hydrogen Sulphide
Methane
Ethane
Propane
i-Butane
n-Butane
i-Pentane
n-Pentane
Hexane
Heptane plus
Total mole fraction

Output:

Molecular Mass
Gas Viscosity

J. Oil Compressiblity, Co
Uses the modified Vasquez-Beggs Correlation

Input:

Gas Gravity
Separator Pressure
Separator Temperature
Oil API
Solution GOR
Reservoir Temperature
Reservoir Pressure

Output:

Corrected Gas Gravity to Separator Conditions


Oil Compressibility

J. a Oil Compressibility, Co
Uses Al-Marhoun Correlation, SPE 81432, 2003

Input:

Oil Gravity at bubble Point


Bubble Point Pressure
Pressure of interest
Temperature of interest

Output:
Oil Compressibility

K Oil Specific Heat

Input:
Oil Specific Gravity
Temperature

Output:
Oil Specific Heat

L Water Specific Heat

Input:
Temperature

Output:
Water Specific Heat

M Liaohe Dead Oil Viscosity


JCPT vol 46 no 4 pg 10 2007 (Zhang et al)

Input
Dead oil viscosity at 50 deg C
Desired Temperature

Output

Liaohe Dead Oil viscosity at desired temperature

Problem 1

Plot Cold Lake (API =10 deg) dead oil viscosity (cp) vs
Temperature (from 13 to 300 deg C). What is
Cold Lake oil viscosity at reservoir temperature
(of 13 deg C)?

Problem 2

Calculate the bubble point of a heavy oil with:


API=15 deg
Gas Gravity=0.7
GOR=5 m3/m3
Reservoir Temperature=15 deg C.

Problem 3

Calculate the oil formation volume factor of oil with:


API=10 deg
Gas Gravity=0.65
GOR=7 m3/m3
Reservoir Temperature=25 deg C

Problem 4

For a fixed reservoir temperature of 15 deg C, how


does the live oil viscosity (on y-axis) vary with API
(on x-axis, with 10 deg < API < 25 deg)?

Problem 5

Calculate the solution-gas oil ratio of a


typical Lloydminster crude whose properties are:
API=14 deg
Gas Gravity=0.65
Reservoir Temp=20 deg C
Discovery Pressure=4000 kPa (saturation pressure)
Separator Pressure= 110 kPa
Separator Temperature= 25 deg C.

Problem 6

What is the specific heat of Cold Lake crude (API=10°)


and its connate water at reservoir temperature
of 13 deg C?
Table of Contents

viscosity greater than 10,000 cp (UNITAR).

(World Petroleum Congress)

of Hydrocarbons

Heavy Oil Low Shrinkage Oil High Shrinkage Oil

10 < API < 20 20 < API < low 30's low 30's < API < low 50's
negl < GOR < 20 20 < GOR < 90 90 < GOR < 350 to 1000
1.01 < Bo < 1.1 1.1 < Bo < 1.5 1.5 < Bo < 2.5 to 3.5
100 < mu < 10000 2 < mu < 100 .25 < mu < 2 to 3
black colored colored
>20 13-20 13-20

16.8 m3/m3
0.65 fraction
31.3 deg C
13.3 dimensionless
5332 kPa

3100 kPaa
0.7 fraction
20 dimensionless
20 deg C
115 kPaa
15 deg C

0.66 fraction
8.48 m3/m3

26 m3/m3
0.757 fraction
17 dimensionless
33 deg C
1.064 m3/m3

23 dimensionless
60 deg C

24 cp
25 centistokes

SPE 23556

23 dimensionless
25 m3/m3
0.65 dimensionless
150 kPa
25 deg C
24 cp

12 cp
20 deg C

1.35 cp

3000 kPa
20 deg C

0.998 m3/m3

3000 kPa
20 deg C
0.9 fraction
0.0309 m3/m3

30 deg C
0.173 g/cc

MW
0.017 mole fraction 28.013
0.0328 mole fraction 44.01
0.0066 mole fraction 34.08
0.8924 mole fraction 16.043
0.0396 mole fraction 30.07
0.0051 mole fraction 44.097
0.0012 mole fraction 58.124
0.0013 mole fraction 58.124
0.0006 mole fraction 72.151
0.0004 mole fraction 72.151
0.0006 mole fraction 86.178
0.0024 mole fraction 100.205
1

18.387
0.020 cp

0.7 fraction
150 kPa
25 deg C
12 dimensionless
10 m3/m3
15 deg C
3000 kPa

0.6724 fraction
-4.9732E-06 kPa -1

0.97 fraction
1300 psia
1300 psia
100 deg F

4.43667428518797E-06 psi-1

0.99 dimensionless
25 Deg C

1.7915 kJ/kg-deg K

25 deg C

4.3954 kJ/kg-deg K
1059
100

74.22 cp
Retrograde Condensate Gas Wet Gas

middle 50's < API < 70 > 60


350 to 1000 < GOR < 2600 2600 < GOR < 17700
not applicable not applicable
condensate liquid about 0.25 condensate liquid about 0.25
light red/green/orange colorless
<12.5 <4
Recall that centistokes
is cp/density
112.7188022105
5.4917152184
1.3016569563
Dry Gas

no liquids at surface or drop out in reservoir


not applicable
not applicable
not applicable
no liquid
<0.7
y 0.7687478692
Gamcor 12.1366057448
F1 11.524323261
F2 11.344132875
Steam Tables
Generates Steam Tables for Saturated
Steam

Input:

Saturation Pressure 10 MPa


Steam Quality 0.8 fraction

Output:

Saturation Temperature, Ts 310.8 deg C


Liquid Enthalpy, hw 1406.5 kJ/kg
Vapor Enthalpy, hv 2730.4 kJ/kg
Latent Heat of Vaporization, Lv 1323.9 kJ/kg
Specific Volume of liquid, vw 0.00132 m3/kg
Specific Volume of vapor, vv 0.02114 m3/kg
Specific Volume of Wet Steam, vs 0.017176874 m3/kg
Water Density, Rhow 758.32 kg/m3
Vapor Density, Rhov 47.30 kg/m3
Steam viscosity, Mus 0.020 cp

If Saturation Pressure is required:

Input:

Saturation Temperature: 135 deg C

Output:

Saturation Pressure 330 kPa


Saturation Pressure Ts hw
MPa deg C kJ/kg

15.0 342.2 1530.0


14.0 336.6 1503.0
13.0 330.7 1474.6
12.0 324.5 1444.6
11.0 317.9 1412.6
10.0 310.8 1378.3
9.0 303.1 1341.5
8.0 294.7 1301.4
7.0 285.5 1257.4
6.0 275.2 1208.5
5.0 263.6 1153.1
4.0 250.0 1088.7
3.0 233.4 1011.0
2.0 212.0 910.8
1.0 179.8 762.0
S aturation Tem perature deg C

Saturated Steam

400.0

350.0
Vapor
300.0

250.0
Liquid
200.0

150.0

100.0

50.0

0.0
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0
Saturation Pressure MPa

Problem: How much heat (in Joules per gram of water) is required to
change the state of liquid water at
100 deg C to gas at 100 deg C without
a change in temperature?
Table of Contents

(valid up to 20 Mpa)
hv Lv vw vv vs Rhow Rhov
kJ/kg kJ/kg m3/kg m3/kg m3/kg kg/m3 kg/m3

2868.8 1023.8 0.00136 0.01433 0.011738 732.89 69.78


2866.3 1068.1 0.00136 0.01531 0.012521 737.34 65.31
2863.6 1115.9 0.00135 0.01644 0.013421 742.07 60.83
2860.7 1167.7 0.00134 0.01775 0.014468 747.10 56.34
2857.5 1223.8 0.00133 0.01930 0.015702 752.50 51.83
2854.1 1284.8 0.00132 0.02114 0.017177 758.32 47.30
2850.3 1351.1 0.00131 0.02339 0.018973 764.64 42.76
2846.0 1423.4 0.00130 0.02618 0.021207 771.56 38.19
2841.2 1501.9 0.00128 0.02976 0.024066 779.22 33.60
2835.6 1586.5 0.00127 0.03450 0.027855 787.81 28.98
2829.1 1676.3 0.00125 0.04109 0.033125 797.64 24.34
2821.1 1767.2 0.00124 0.05090 0.040964 809.18 19.65
2810.9 1847.7 0.00121 0.06706 0.053892 823.27 14.91
2796.5 1880.7 0.00119 0.09893 0.079378 841.71 10.11
2772.0 1715.6 0.00115 0.19228 0.154054 869.61 5.20

eam

quid

8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0


ssure MPa

s required to
Mus
cp

0.0209
0.0207
0.0205
0.0203
0.0200
0.0198
0.0195
0.0192
0.0189
0.0185
0.0181
0.0176
0.0171
0.0163
0.0152
Heats of Combustion
Use Maxwell's Correlation at 15 deg C

Input:

API of crude oil 10


Sulphur Content 2

Output:

Gross Heat of Combustion (without S correction) 42577


Net Heat of Combustion (without S correction) 40281
Maxwell wt % S fit 1.8063
Corrected Gross Heat of Combustion 42503

Maxwell's Tables work for: API

0
5
10
15
20
25
30

The corrected heat of combustion (net or gross) is obtained from


the above answer listed in output & subtracting off a quantity
(.01*above heat of combustion - 40.5)* difference in sulphur
wt % from above table.

Example:

An 20 API oil with 1.2% wt % sulphur would have a


corrected gross heat of combustion of:
43883-(.01*43883-40.5)*(1.2-1)=43803 kJ/kg

API vs Wt % S

3.5

3
f(x) = - 2.22222222222217E-05x^3 + 0.0024047619x^2 - 0.1371825397x + 2.9583333333
S
API vs Wt % S

3.5

3
f(x) = - 2.22222222222217E-05x^3 + 0.0024047619x^2 - 0.1371825397x + 2.9583333333
Wt % S
2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
API

Problem:

For Cold Lake Crude, does the heat of combustion increase or decrease with
increasing Sulphur content (use S from 0.5 to 2 wt %)?
Table of Contents

dimensionless
wt %

kJ/kg
kJ/kg

kJ/kg

Wt % Sulphur Calc'd Wt%

2.95 2.9583
2.35 2.3298
1.8 1.8063
1.35 1.3728
1 1.0143
0.7 0.7158
0.4 0.4623

+ 2.9583333333
+ 2.9583333333

30 35
Heat Conduction Complementary Error Function

Numerical Approximation to Erfc(x) which


often appears as a solution to heat conduction problems

Input:

Variable

Output:

Erfc(x)
Error Function

Complementary Error Function

0.9

0.8
Erfc(x)

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Variable
Table of Contents

1 dimensionless

0.157307 dimensionless
0.842693 dimensionless

Variable erfc(x)
0 1
0.1 0.887963
0.2 0.777245
0.3 0.670949
0.4 0.571194
0.5 0.479375
0.6 0.396362
0.7 0.322633
0.8 0.258344
0.9 0.203365
1 0.157307
1.1 0.119546
1.2 0.089267
1.3 0.065527
1.4 0.047323
1.5 0.033659
1.6 0.02361
1.7 0.016357
1.8 0.011211
1.9 0.007615
2 2.5 3 2 0.005134
2.1 0.003442
2.2 0.002297
2.3 0.001529
2.4 0.001017
2.5 0.000676
2.6 0.00045
2.7 0.0003
2.8 0.0002
2.9 0.000134
3 9.02E-05
Hot Fluid Injection

Calculates the temperature at any distance and


at any time for hot fluid (water or gas) injection for
linear or radial flow using Lauwrier's model

Use Program 3
to determine thermal properties of formation
and Program 2
for water properties

Input:

Reservoir Temperature 37
Water Injection Temperature 550
Thermal Conductivity of over/underburdens 2.07
Heat capacity of adjacent formations 2012
Heat capacity of formation 2010
Formation thickness 6
Injected water density 1000
Injected water specific heat 4.18
Water Injection Rate 100
Linear or radial distance from injection well 15
Injection Time 100

Output:

Dimensionless distance 0.2018217875


Dimensionless time 0.9896404544
Lauwrier Variable 0.1136906944
Complementary Error Function 0.8726453281

After injecting hot water for 100


Te m p e r a tu r e d e g C

the reservoir temperature at a distance of 15


from the injection well is 485

Distance Dimensionless Distance Laurwrier


m
1.5 0.0020182179 0.0010154128
R e s e r v o ir Te m p e r a tu r e d
3 0.0080728715 0.0040741587
4.5 0.0181639609 0.0092143438
6 0.032291486 0.01650148
7.5 0.0504554469 0.0260316973
9 0.0726558435 0.0379366982
10.5 0.0988926759 0.0523910085
12 0.129165944 0.0696224051
13.5 0.1634756478 0.0899269215
15 Reservoir Temperature
0.2018217875 with 0.1136906944
Hot Water Injectio
16.5 0.2442043628 0.1414224038
18 0.2906233739 0.1738027528
19.5 600 0.3410788208 0.2117625364
21 0.3955707034 0.2566110798
22.5 500 0.4540990218 0.3102587459
30 0.8072871498 0.9452381138
45 1.8163960871 0
60 400 3.2291485993 0
75 5.0455446864 0
90 300 7.2655843485 0
105 9.8892675854 0
150 20.1821787457 0
200

100

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Distance From Injector, m

Problem

Hot water at 200 deg C is injected at 100 m3/d in


a 5 m formation which is originally at 15 deg C.
The formation and overburden heat capacity
is 2012 kJ/m3-K. The overburden thermal
conductivity is 2.1 W/m-K.
After 1 year of injection, whar is the temperature
profile up to 30 m from the injector?
Table of Contents

deg C
deg C
W/m-K
kJ/m3-K
kJ/m3-K
m
kg/m3
kJ/kg-K
m3/d
m
days

days,
m
deg C

Compl Temp
Error Function deg C
0.9988691146 549
0.9954607559 548
0.9897273821 545
0.9815882745 541
0.9709271922 535
0.957588828 528
0.94137376 520
0.9220314358 510
0.8992504883 498
ot Water Injection
0.8726453281 485
0.8417374022 469
0.8059286332 450
0.7644631482 429
0.7163711869 404
0.6603857228 376
0.1814569011 130
1 37
1 37
1 37
1 37
1 37
1 37

80 100 120 140 160


m Injector, m
Steam Zone Volume

Calculates steam zone volume and


cumulative heat loss using the
Marx-Langenheim Equation
for a steam injection project

Use Program 3. To determine


thermal properties of the formation

Input:

Thermal Conductivity of overburden 2


Heat Capacity of overburden 2000
Heat capacity of formation 2010
Reservoir temperature 20
Injected steam quality 0.7
Steam injection rate 250
Steam pressure 12
Gross pay 10
Length of injection 400

Output:

Injected Latent heat 1167.7


Injected steam temperature 324.5
Sensible heat 1444.6
Dimensionless time 1.369
Square Root Dimensionless time 1.170
Marx-Langenheim Variable 0.7039

Heat Injection Rate 378


Cumulative Heat Loss as percent of heat injected 48.57%

Steam Zone Volume 10981


Cylindrical Steam Zone Radius 18.7

Marx-Langenheim Assumptions:

1) constant injection rate


2) no pressure drop in steam zone
3) no gravity effects
4) homogeneous sands and over/underburdens
5) temperature at steam front (inside) is steam temperature
6) temperature at reservoir side of steam front is reservoir temperature
7) no hot water flow ahead of steam front

Problem

Calculate the steamed zone radius


around a Cold Lake well that has just finished
steaming for the first cycle.
Typical injection rates are 250 m3/d of 66% quality
steam at 12 MPa for 1 month. Net pay is 45 m with
reservoir temperature of 13 deg C.
Table of Contents

W/m-K
kJ/m3-K
kJ/m3-K
deg C
fraction
m3/d
MPa
m
days

kJ/kg
deg C
kJ/kg

kW 1 kW=1 kJ/s

m3
m
Estimates Vertical Conformance of
a Steamflood using van Lookeren's Method

Input:

Steam Injection Pressure 8


Steam Injection Rate 200
Steam Quality 0.75
Effective Permeability to Steam 1
Net Pay 60
Oil API 12

Output:

Steam Injection Temperature 294.7


Steam Viscosity 0.019
Oil Density at Steam Conditions 781.1
Specific Volume water 0.00130
Specific Volume vapor 0.02618
Steam density 50.09
Steam mass flow rate 0.1160

Vertical Conformance Factor 0.6378


Average thickness swept by steam zone 19.13

Problem:

What is the average thickness swept by the steam zone at Pikes Peak
where the reservoir thickness is 30 m, the steam quality is 60%, the
injection rate is 175 m3/d at an injection pressure of 8 MPa
The oil API is 18 degrees. Assume an effective permeability to
steam of 800 md. Assume a single pattern.
Table of Contents

MPa
m3/d
fraction
Darcies
m
dimensionless

deg C
cp
kg/m3

kg/m3
kg/s

dimensionless
m
Predicts Oil-Steam Ratio (or Steam-Oil Ratio)
using Chu's correlation for Steamflood

Input:

Reservoir Depth 450


Permeability 3000
Reservoir Dip 4.5
Net pay 20
Initial Oil Saturation 0.7
Porosity 0.34
Oil Viscosity 5000

Output

Steam-Oil Ratio 1.57


Oil-Steam Ratio 0.64

within correlation limit

Problem:

What would be the predicted OSR for the pattern steam flood
described in the previous problem on worksheet 11?
Recall the reservoir dip is 4.5 degrees, reservoir depth is 500 m, oil saturation
is 80% with median porosity 34% and viscosity 5000 cp.
Table of Contents

m
mD
degrees
m
fraction
fraction
cp

m3/m3
m3/m3
In-Situ Combustion Parameters Table of Contents

Calculates the basic combustion parameters


required to design an
in-situ combustion project

Input:

Laboratory Data

Volume or mole fraction produced CO2 0.094 fraction


Volume or mole fraction produced CO 0.003 fraction
Volume or mole fraction produced O2 0.03 fraction
Volume of gas produced 4800 m3
Volume of sand burned 10 m3
Oil Saturation 0.5 fraction
Reservoir Porosity 0.25 fraction
Air injection Rate 56600 m3/d
Formation thickness 7 m
Length of air injection 2190 days

Output:

Carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio, m 31.33 dimensionless


Hydrogen to carbon ratio in fuel, n 4.41 dimensionless
R factor 2.09 dimensionless
Mole fraction produced Nitrogen 0.87 fraction
Oxygen utilization efficiency, Y 0.87 dimensionless
Excess Air 14.84 Percent
Fuel content, Mass of Coke deposited per unit rock volume 32.28 kg/m3
Air Requirement to burn thru 1 m3 rock 530.85 m3/m3
Air-Oil Ratio, (vol of air to displace 1 m3 of oil) 5807.62 m3/m3
Oil Saturation fraction consumed as fuel 0.13 fraction
Heat of Combustion of the fuel 11947.42 kJ/kg
Volume of water formed by combustion per m3 gas produced 0.00016 m3/m3
Radial distance of firefront from injection well 103.04 m
Velocity of combustion front 2.42 m3/d

"m" and "n" represent the stochiometric coefficients


that represent the coke or fuel being deposited
just ahead of the flame front. Excess air, related to Y,
is usually injected. (Y is a fraction).

Problem

A laboratory combustion tube run on a heavy


oil sand produced the following combustion gases:

CO2=14%
N2=83%
CO=1%
O2=2%

The field contains the same porosity (30%) and oil saturation
(70%) as the lab model. The lab model burned through
8500 m3 sand and produced about 1.7 e6 m3 gas.
The field average pay is 20 m and proposed air
injection rate is 0.3 e6 m3/d.

Calculate:

m,n,R,Y, excess air,fuel content,air requirement,


water formed by combustion, oil consumed as
fuel, air-oil ratio. What is the radial distance of the
combustion front 2 years after combustion is
initiated and what is the front velocity at that time?
Table of Contents

Single Phase Pressure Drop Current Pipeline

In a Smooth Pipeline Construction Costs

In 2001, Alberta
Calculates pressure drop for a single pipeline construction
phase fluid in laminar or turbulent flow costs are about
$45,000 - $50,000
per inch/mile.

Input:

Fluid Viscosity 1 cp
Fluid Density 1000 kg/m3
Pipe Inside Diameter 50.88 mm
Flow Rate 1000 m3/d
Pipe Length 66 m

Output:

Fluid Velocity 5.69 m/s


Reynold's Number 289634.07 dimensionless
Laminar Friction Factor 0.0002 dimensionless
Turbulent Friction Factor 0.0145 dimensionless

Flow in this section of the pipeline is turbulent


Pressure Drop over Pipe Length 305.52 kPa

Problem 1

What is the pressure drop from the wellhead of a


cold production producer of a 17 degree API oil
to the tank which is 50 m away? The line ID is 3 inches.
When the well was put on test for
12 hours,it produced 7.5 m3 oil with zero
watercut at a separator pressure of 140 kPa
and separator temperature of 33 degrees C. The
producing GOR was 126 scf/bbl. The gas gravity
was 0.70 and the reservoir temperature is 27 deg C.

Problem 2

Make an estimate of the cost of the Thicksilver Pipeline, which


transports heavy oil from Cold Lake to Hardisty, a distance of 250 km.
The blended bitumen line is 36 inches, while the parallel
diluent return line is 12 inches.
Wellhead Steam flow rate
Determines the steam flow rate thru a choke
using the Thornhill-Craver equation

Input:

Choke diameter 0.5 in


Upstream Pressure 5000 kPa
Length of choke 12 in
Steam quality 0.8 fraction

Output:

Saturation Temperature 263.6 deg C


specific volume of liquid 0.00125 m3/kg
specific volume of gas 0.04109 m3/kg
specific volume of wet steam 0.033124673 m3/kg
Mass flow rate of steam 1.664 kg/s
or daily steam flow rate (CWE) 144 m3/d

Frictional Pressure Drop


for Wet Steam

Input:

Steam Quality 0.8 fraction


Upstream Pressure 5000 kPa
Length of pipe 10000 m
Inside diameter of pipe 10 cm
Steam injection rate 300 m3/d

Output:

Saturation Temperature 263.6 deg C


specific volume of liquid 0.001 m3/kg
specific volume of steam vapor 0.041 m3/kg
specific volume of wet steam 0.033 m3/kg
Frictional Pressure drop 0.0039459 kPa

Problem:

What choke setting should be used to deliver


steam at 250 m3/d at Cold Lake wellhead where
the choke length is 1 foot, upstream pressure
10 MPa and steam quality is 75%?
Table of Contents
Waterflooding
Calculates Voidage Replacement Ratio
On a Pattern Basis - monthly and cumulative
The example is for an inverted nine-spot.

Input:
Reservoir Pressure 3000
Oil Formation Volume Factor 1.02
Gas Formation Volume Factor 0.03
Water Formation Volume Factor 1.01
Solution Gas Ratio 13

Pattern 1
Pattern
Well UID Allocation factor
(Tract Factor)
Injector 07-01-45-21-W3M 1
Producer 01-01-45-21-W3M 0.25
Producer 02-01-45-21-W3M 0.5
Producer 03-01-45-21-W3M 0.25
Producer 06-01-45-21-W3M 0.5
Producer 08-01-45-21-W3M 0.5
Producer 09-01-45-21-W3M 0.25
Producer 10-01-45-21-W3M 0.5
Producer 11-01-45-21-W3M 0.25

Water needed to get VRR = 1 (monthly basis)


Water needed to get VRR = 1 (cumulative basis)

Waterflooding

The best time to start waterflooding is at


bubblepoint pressure. The gas is at a maximum
in the residual oil and the oil viscosity is
very favorable. If the bubblepoint pressure
is low, it is wise to start earlier while there
is still a drive in the reservoir.
Higher recoveries will be obtained in
water wet rocks. Use the permeability trends
for effective flooding: if there is good permeability
in the east-west direction, go to a line flood
in the east-west row. Patterns such as an
inverted nine spot or staggered line drive give
high sweep efficiencies. Keep injection pressure
below 16.9 kPa/m (.75 psi/ft) depth to avoid fracturing
out of the formation. Check for Stiles type of
continuity between injectors and producers and
open up all pay. Determine heterogenity of
reservoir using modelling or Dykstra-Parsons
and Lorenz Coefficients analysis of core.
It is best to keep the produced water and
formation water injection lines separate.

Problem

A waterflood is being carried out in a reservoir


with the following properties:

API = 20 deg
Reservoir Temperature=20 deg C
Gas Gravity=0.65
Reservoir Pressure=5000 kPa
z=0.9
GOR=10 m3/m3

The reservoir consists of 21 producing wells


and 4 injectors. Calculate the tract factors, draw
out a sketch of the wells and finally calculate the
required monthly water injection rates
to obtain a monthly VRR=1.
The monthly production volumes are:

Well UID

Producer 01-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 02-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 03-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 04-01--54-22-W3M
Injector 05-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 06-01--54-22-W3M
Injector 07-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 08-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 09-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 10-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 11-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 12-01--54-22-W3M
Injector 13-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 14-01--54-22-W3M
Injector 15-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 16-01--54-22-W3M
Producer 01-02--54-22-W3M
Producer 08-02--54-22-W3M
Producer 09-02--54-22-W3M
Producer 16-02--54-22-W3M
Producer 01-11--54-22-W3M
Producer 01-12--54-22-W3M
Producer 02-12--54-22-W3M
Producer 03-12--54-22-W3M
Producer 04-12--54-22-W3M
Table of Contents

kPa
m3/m3
m3/m3
m3/m3
m3/m3

Mon. Water Cum Water Mon. Oil Cum Oil Mon. Gas Cum Gas
Inj m3 Inj m3 Prod m3 Prod m3 Prod e3 m3 Prod e3 m3

2050 13000
50 59 14 400
25 1250 10 500
10 450 5 30
3 560 0 0
4 789 0 1
75 250 0 3
60 200 0 0
100 894 0 0

2034 m3 or 16 m3/mon excess


14170 m3 or -1170 m3 under
Pattern Mon. Water Cum Water Mon. Oil Cum Oil Mon. Gas
Allocation factor Inj m3 Inj m3 Prod m3 Prod m3 Prod e3 m3
(Tract Factor)

? 90 1
? 30 0
? 50 3
? 10 0
? ?
? 30 0
? ?
? 35 2
? 70 1
? 50 1
? 40 1
? 32 1
? ?
? 20 0
? ?
? 10 0
? 15 0
? 13 1
? 9 0
? 16 0
? 17 0
? 15 1
? 12 0
? 5 0
? 14 1
Mon Water Cum Water Monthly Cum VRR
Prod m3 Prod m3 VRR

800 1000
1030 1300
456 890
130 460
450 489
890 980
230 592
890 983

1.0079 0.9174
Cum Gas Mon Water Cum Water Monthly
Prod e3 m3 Prod m3 Prod m3 VRR

40
40
10
23

30

45
100
50
50
40
30

10
20
25
20
20
20
40
25
5
22
Bottom Hole Pressure Calculation
Acoustical Well Sounder
Input:
Well Name: Heavy Oil Well 08-07

KB Elevation 566.42 m
CF Elevation: 563.00 m
MPP Depth from CF: 472.00 mCF
Tubing Depth from CF: 470.00 mCF
No. Jts. In well: 48
Avg. Jt. Length: 9.79 m
Pool Datum mSS: -38.50 mSS
Well Datum: 524.50 mCF
PBTD 506.00 mCF

Output:
PRODUCING BOTTOM HOLE
PRESSURES

Joints to fluid 20
Gas col.length,m 196
Casing pressure,kPag 0
Press.at fl.level,kPag 0
Fluid col. pressure to Bot. Tubing,kPag 2626
Press. at tbg bottom,kPag 2626
MPP pressure, kPag 2646
Datum pressure, kPag 3148

Pool Datum is usually defined as


the midpoint of the perforations (MPP) of the
first well drilled in the pool.

Remember that foam formed in the casing


annulus can give misleading bottomhole pressures.

To Determine Gas Gradient:

Input:
Gas Specific Gravity 0.566
Reservoir Pressure 4275
Compressibility value, z 0.9229
Reservoir Temperature 23
Output:
Gas Gradient 0.0142
or 0.3217

Problem 1. An well produces a 18 deg API oil.


The measured KB is 779 m, with the casing
flange 3 m below that. The perf top is 970 mKB
with the perf bottom at 972 mKB. The pool datum is
minus 179.5 mss. There are 98 joints of tubing downhole.
The reservoir temperature is 33 deg C. The gas gravity
is 0.69. The Plugback tubing depth is 963.5 mCF.
The tubing depth is 963 mCF.
In Jan, the casing pressure was 100 kPa with 14 joints
to fluid. The well was producing a 50% watercut.
Next Jan, the casing pressure was 50 kPa with 20
joints to fluid and a 75% watercut.
How much had the pressure dropped in 1 year?
(You'll need Prog 1 & 2).
on
Table of Contents

Shot Jan 19/99 Shut-in since Nov 1985 25-May-18

Gas Density 0.772


Oil Density: 0.978
Oil Gradient: 9.578 kPa/m
Water Density: 1.061
Water Gradient: 10.392 kPa/m
Current W/C % 55.00%
Emulsion Grad: 10.026 kPa/m
Joints to Fluid 20
Casing Pressure 0.0 kPa

SHUT-IN BOTTOM HOLE


PRESSURES

20
196
0
0
2626
2626
2645
3179

no units
kPa
no units
deg C
psi/ft
kPa/m
Separator Recombination Analysis
Taken from EUB Gas Well Testing Manual

Input:
Sample taken Oct 3/98 MOLAL RECOMBINA
SEPARATOR CONDITIONS HP SEP, Pga 1448 kPa, T
SEPARATOR PRODUCTS HP GAS 51.44 10^3m^3/d(st)
LIQUID: STOCK TANK m^3/d
LIQUID FLOW RATE CALCULATIONS* (STOCK TANK
MOLAR MASS OF LIQUID, ML = 96.1
LIQUID FLOW RATE (mol/d) = FLOW RATE(m^3/d) x (pL / ML) x 100
GAS EQUIVALENT OF LIQUID = LIQUID FLOW RATE (mol/d) x 23.645
(10^3m^3/d(st))

COMP Mi Tci Pci LIQUID


i g/mol K kPa MOLE GAS RATE
FRACTION 10^3m^3/d(st)
N2 28.013 126.27 3 399.1 0.000 1 0.000 0
CO2 44.01 304.22 7 384.3 0.003 4 0.000 9
H2S 34.076 373.55 9 004.6 0.000 0 0.000 0
C1 16.042 190.59 4 604.3 0.071 0 0.019 1
C2 30.07 305.43 4 880.1 0.040 2 0.010 8
C3 44.097 369.83 4 249.2 0.052 4 0.014 1
iC4 58.124 408.15 3 648.0 0.020 6 0.005 5
nC4 58.124 425.19 3 796.9 0.044 5 0.012 0
iC5 72.151 460.44 3 381.2 0.034 8 0.009 4
nC5 72.151 469.66 3 368.8 0.040 3 0.010 8
C6 86.178 507.44 3 012.3 0.090 2 0.024 3
**C7+ 123 568.84 2 486.2 0.602 5 0.162 2
TOTAL 1.000 0 0.269 2

RECOMBINED GAS PROPERTIES: FLOW RATE =


Tc =
* THE LIQUID FLOW RATE (m^3/d) AND LIQUID DENSITY ARE TO BE MEASURED AT THE SAME CONDITIONS
** PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OCTANES ARE USED FOR THE C7+ FRACTION
Plant Yield Analysis
Sample taken Oct 3/98
Volume of Raw Gas Production (103m3) 51.71
Surface Loss for Gathering (%) 3.0%
Gathering Surface Loss (103m3) 1.55
Gathered Volume (103m3) 50.16
Non-Hydrocarbon Losses (103m3) 1.13
Non-Hydrocarbon Losses (%) 2.2%
Plant Yield Losses (103m3) 0.79
Plant Yield Losses (%) 1.5%
Plant Fuel (%) 3.0%
Plant Fuel and Other Losses (103m3) 1.55
Total Losses (103m3) 5.02
Total Losses (%) 9.7%

Product C7+
Molar Mass of Component (g/mol) 123.00
Density of Component (kg/m3) 799.60
Volume of Production (m3/d) 3.13
Yield (m3/103m3) 0.06
Yield (bbl/mmcf) 11.07
Plant Efficiency (%) 100.0%
Net Production (m3/d) 3.13
Net Yield (m3/103m3) 0.06
Net Yield (bbl/mmcf) 11.07
Cumulative Net Ci+ Production (m3/d) 3.13
Cumulative Net Ci+ Yield (m3/103m3) 0.06
Cumulative Net Ci+ Yield (bbl/mmcf) 11.07
Volume of Ci Sales as Gas (103m3/d) 0.00
Heating Value, Ideal Gas Ci (MJ/m3) 225.00
Heating Value, Liquid Ci (MJ/m3) 33500
Sales Gas Heating Value (MJ) 0
Cum. Sales Gas Ci+ Heating Value (MJ) 0
Liquid Sold Heating Value (MJ) 104972
Cum. Sales Liquid Ci+ Heating Value (MJ) 104972
Table of Contents

MOLAL RECOMBINATION CALCULATIONS ###


24 C LP SEP, Pga kPa, T C
LP GAS 10^3m^3/d(st)
HP 1.5 m^3/d LP m^3/d
, HP x , or LP LIQUID)
g/mol, DENSITY OF LIQUID, pL = 729.4 kg/m^3
OW RATE(m^3/d) x (pL / ML) x 1000 = 11385.01560874 mol/d
QUID FLOW RATE (mol/d) x 23.645 e-6 = 0.269 2 10^3m^3/d(st)

HP GAS LP GAS TOTAL RECOMBINED GAS PROPERTIES


MOLE GAS RATE MOLE GAS RATE GAS RATE xi ximi xiTci xiPci
FRACTION 10^3m^3/d(st) FRACTION 10^3m^3/d(st) 10^3m^3/d(st)
0.002 0 0.10 0.00 0.10 0.002 0 0.056 0.251 6.765
0.020 6 1.06 0.00 1.06 0.020 5 0.903 6.240 151.455
0.000 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.819 4 42.15 0.00 42.17 0.815 5 13.082 155.427 3754.824
0.093 3 4.80 0.00 4.81 0.093 0 2.797 28.412 453.964
0.036 3 1.87 0.00 1.88 0.036 4 1.604 13.456 154.602
0.005 8 0.30 0.00 0.30 0.005 9 0.342 2.399 21.439
0.008 5 0.44 0.00 0.45 0.008 7 0.505 3.694 32.985
0.002 7 0.14 0.00 0.15 0.002 9 0.207 1.320 9.694
0.002 4 0.12 0.00 0.13 0.002 6 0.187 1.220 8.750
0.002 5 0.13 0.00 0.15 0.003 0 0.255 1.500 8.906
0.006 5 0.33 0.00 0.50 0.009 6 1.181 5.462 23.874
1.000 0 51.44 0.000 0 0.00 51.71 1.000 0 21.119 219.381 4627.260

51.709 x 10^3m^3/d(st), G= 21.119 / 28.964 = 0.729


219.381 K, Pc = 4627.260 kPa

BASE CONDITIONS = 101.325 kPa AND 15 DEG. C


Plant Yield Analysis
Sample taken Oct 3/98
Heat Value of Gas Sales w/o Non H-C (MJ/m3) 44.30
Heat Value of Gas Sales w/ Non H-C (MJ/m3) 43.26
Sales Gas Volume w/o Non H-C (103m3/d) 46.79
Sales Gas Volume w/ Non H-C (103m3/d) 47.92
C6 nC5 iC5 nC4 iC4 C3 C2 C1
86.18 72.15 72.15 58.12 58.12 44.10 30.07 16.04
663.80 631.00 624.40 584.20 563.20 507.80 357.80 300.00
0.81 0.63 0.70 1.83 1.29 6.70 16.58 92.50
0.02 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.13 0.33 1.84
2.88 2.23 2.48 6.48 4.55 23.68 58.59 326.82
50.5% 46.9% 43.5% 17.5% 10.2% 0.4% 0.0% 0.0%
0.41 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.13 0.03 0.00 0.00
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.45 1.04 1.08 1.13 0.46 0.09 0.00 0.00
3.54 3.84 4.15 4.47 4.60 4.62 4.62 4.62
0.07 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
12.52 13.57 14.64 15.78 16.24 16.34 16.34 16.34
0.07 0.07 0.08 0.35 0.26 1.76 4.53 39.68
177.56 149.65 149.32 121.78 121.43 93.97 66.03 37.69
32091 30709 30333 28718 27621 25394 18458 0
12643 10051 11779 42465 31179 165683 298854 1495579
12643 22694 34473 76938 108116 273799 572653 2068232
13195 9064 9263 9215 3625 681 0 0
118168 127231 136494 145709 149333 150014 150014 150014
Residual Oil Saturation
Calculates Residual Oil Saturation
After Steamflood Using
Bursell's Laboratory Data

Input:

Oil Visocosity at Reservoir Conditions 18000 cp


Steamflood Temperature 204 deg C

Output:

Residual Oil Saturation 0.082 fraction


after steamflood

Residual Oil Saturation


Sor Deg C
0.300

0.247 40.8
0.250
0.227 61.2
0.206 81.6
0.200 0.185 102
0.165 122.4
Sor

0.144 142.8
0.150 0.124 163.2
0.103 183.6
0.082 204
0.100 0.062 224.4
0.041 244.8
0.020 265.2
0.050

0.000
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Steamflood Temp deg C

Problem
What will be the anticipated residual oil
saturation of the steamflood described in
Problem 2 of Program 3?
Table of Contents

250 300
A. Reserves Table of Contents

Calculates Exponential, Hyberbolic and Harmonic Declines

Input:

Initial Rate 20 m3/d Comment 1


Economic Limit 2 m3/d
Hyberbolic Exponent 0.6 dimensionless (Between 0 and 1) The economic limit is defined
as the cost per day/revenue per unit.
Example: Suppose the operating
Enter Part A or Part B cost per month (September) is $1200
and the oil price is $20 per bbl.
Part A Net Pay m Then the economic limit would be
Porosity fraction equal to:
Area Ha ($1200/30days)/($20 per bbl)
Oil Formation Volume Factor m3/m3 or 2.00 barrels per day.
Water Saturation fraction
Recovery Factor fraction

Part B Reserves 10000 m3

Output:

Reserves 10000 m3
Well Life (Exponential) 4 years
Well Life (Hyperbolic) 5 years
Well Life (Harmonic) 5 years

Decline Curves

25.00
Oil Rate m3/d

20.00

15.00 Exponenti
al
Hyperboli
c
10.00

5.00

0.00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Time in Years

Exponential Decline Parameters


Comment 1:
Nominal Decline Fraction 0.00180 per day
Nominal Decline Fraction 0.65700 per year For all 3 types of decline, the
Percent Decline Per Year 48.16% per year nominal decline rate Dn is
Life of Well 3.50 years related to the effective decline
rate, De, by: (De, Dn in fractions)
Time Years Oil Rate m3/d Cumulative oil m3 Annual Oil m3 Dn = -ln (1-De).
Thus a 20% decline per year (=De)
0.00 20 0 0 becomes
1.00 10.37 5351 5351 Dn = 22.3% or .223 nominal rate.
2.00 5.37 8125 2774
3.00 2.79 9563 1438
3.50 2.00 10000 437 Comment 2:
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0 To calculate gas volumes, use the
3.50 2.00 10000 0 predicted oil rates and multiply
3.50 2.00 10000 0 them by the current producing GOR.
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0
3.50 2.00 10000 0

Natural Log Oil Rate m3/d


Exponential Decline Oil Rate Rate vs Cum (Exponential decline)
Exponential Decline-Cumulative Oil
Exponential Decline Oil Rate
25
Cumulative Oil m3

12000
25 100
Oil Rate m3/d

10000 20

Oil Rate m3/d


20

8000
15 15

6000 10

10 10
4000

5 5
2000

0 0 1
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 0
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00
Time In years Time in Years Time in Years 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000
Cum Oil m3

Hyberbolic Decline

Nominal Decline 0.00301 per day


Nominal Decline 1.09845 per year
Life of Well 4.52 years

Time in Years Oil Rate m3/d Cumulative oil m3 Annual Oil m3

0 20.00 0 0
1.00 8.60 4759 4759
2.00 4.93 7129 2370
3.00 3.25 8586 1457
4.00 2.33 9588 1002
4.52 2.00 10000 412
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0
4.52 2.00 10000 0

Hyberbolic Decline Oil Rate Hyperbolic Decline Cumulative Oil


Cumulative Oil m3

12000
25.00
Oil Rate m3/d

10000
20.00

8000
15.00
6000

10.00
4000

5.00
2000

0.00 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Time in Years Time in Years

Harmonic decline
Nominal Decline 0.00461 per day
Nominal Decline 1.68089 per year
Life of Well 5.35 years

Time in Years Oil Rate m3/d Cumulative Oil m3 Annual Oil m3

0 20.00 0 0
1.00 7.46 4283 4283
2.00 4.59 6397 2114
3.00 3.31 7812 1416
4.00 2.59 8878 1066
5.00 2.13 9733 855
5.35 2.00 10000 267
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0
5.35 2.00 10000 0

Harmonic Decline Oil Rate Harmonic Decline Cumulative Oil


Cumulative Oil m3

25.00 12000
Oil Rate m3/d

20.00 10000

8000
15.00

6000

10.00
4000

5.00
2000

0.00 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Time in Years
Time in Years

Problem:

A vertical well is drilled on 40 acre spacing with 8 m net pay.


Measured gas gravity is 0.65 with separator GOR of 9 m3/m3. The
crude API is 18 degrees. Reservoir temperature and porosity is
25 deg C and 33%. Water saturation is 35%. The well
comes on at 10 m3/d and the economic limit is 3 bbl/d. Assuming
a primary production recovery factor of 10%, what is the well life if the
decline is:
a) exponential
b) hyperbolic (assume constant = 0.6)
c) harmonic?

What are the reserves? Produce a graph of cumulative


oil versus producing years assuming the decline is exponential.

B Probabilistic Reserve Estimation


Warren 1961 Method

Input Variance
Minimum Most Likely Maximum Mean, m1(x) m2(x)
Netpay, m 4.2 12 17 11.051 137.6
Porosity, fraction 0.12 0.15 0.17 0.147 0.0217
Oil Saturation, fraction 0.78 0.8 0.82 0.800 0.6402
Area, Hectares 50 520 1000 523.390 359400.9
Oil Formation Volume Factor 1.02 1.022 1.023 1.022 1.0

Output:

Mean OOIP 6.640E+07 m3


Variance OOIP 6.59275006E+15
Del Squared 0.402
Standard Deviation 0.634
Fiftieth Percentile of OOIP, R50 5.430E+07 m3
Eightyfourth Percentile of OOIP, R84.1 1.024E+08 m3
SAGD
Calculates oil production
from SAGD well pair
using Butler's theory

Input:

Net Pay
Porosity
Initial Oil Saturation
Reservoir Temperature
Steam Injection Pressure
Oil Gravity
Reservoir Permeability
Horizontal Producer Length

Output:

Steam Temperature
Oil Density at steam temperature
Oil Viscosity at reservoir conditions
Oil Viscosity at steam temperature
or
Rock Density assumed
Oil Density at 15 deg C
Oil Specific Gravity at Reservoir Temp
Oil density at Reservoir Temp
Water Density at Reservoir Temp
Specific Heat of Oil
Specific Heat of Water
Specific Heat of rock assumed

Heat Capacity of Saturated Rock


Thermal Conductivity of Saturated Rock (Tikhomirov Eqn)
Thermal Diffusivity of Saturated Rock
Formation Thermal Diffusivity
Residual Oil Saturation

Oil Production Rate from SAGD well


Problem 1:
Calculate the predicted SAGD oil production rates
from Foster Creek.
Table of Contents

10 m
0.2 fraction
0.7 fraction
15 deg C
1.7 MPa
15 deg API
1 darcies
500 m

204.0 deg C
821.5 kg/m3
3725 cp
7.6 cp
9.2 centistokes
2643 kg/m3
965.87 kg/m3
0.97 dimensionless
1.0 kg/m3
1003.45 kg/m3
1.77 kJ/kg-K
4.27 kJ/kg-K
0.96296 kJ/kg-K

2293.68 kJ/m3-K
3.18 W/m-K
0.00138 1000 m2/s
0.1196352 m2/d
0.056 fraction

46.26 m3/d
Horizontal Well Calculations

A Horizontal Well Production Rates


Uses Joshi theory
Drainage Area Calculated Using
Vertical Well Drainage Area

Input:

Vertical well Spacing 20


Horizontal well Length 500
Net Pay 8
Hole diameter 127
Reservoir Pressure 7.5
Wellbore Pressure 6
Reservoir Vertical Permeabilty (can leave blank) 300
Reservoir Horizontal Permeability 1000
Oil viscosity 150
Oil Formation Volume Factor 1.05
Skin Factor 0

Output:

Horizontal Well Drainage Area 34.9


Drainage radius 211.9
Geometric "a" factor 961.9
Assumed Vertical Permeability 300.0
Beta factor 1.8
Den1 0.6
Den2 0.1
Steady State Oil Production Rate 56.7

Horizontal Well Length m Oil Rate m3/d

100 16.9
250 31.7
400 46.4
500 56.7
600 67.4
1000 112.8
1500 172.2

Horizontal Well Production

200.0

180.0
Oil Rate m3/d

160.0

140.0

120.0

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0
120.0

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Horizontal Well Length m

B Pressure Drop In Horizontal Wells

1 Laminar Pressure Drop Toe-to Heel

Input:

Oil Viscosity 10000


Oil Formation Volume factor 1.05
Oil Rate 50
Horizontal length 1200
Well Diameter 228

Output:

Pressure Drop from Toe-to-Heel 55.04


Pressure Drop kPa

Pressure Drop Toe-to-Heel 5.50

70.00

60.00
Pressure Drop kPa
Pressure Drop Toe-to-Heel
11.01
16.51
70.00
22.01
27.52
60.00
33.02
50.00 38.53
44.03
40.00 49.53
55.04
30.00 60.54
66.04
20.00

10.00

0.00
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Oil Rate m3/d

2 Uses Islam CIM 99-117 Correlations

Input:

Oil Viscosity 1000


Horizontal Length 500
Gas Liquid Ratio 200
Water Cut 0.2

Output:

A. Horizontal Well Open Hole Completion

Void Fraction Pressure Drop kPa/m


0.05 31
0.1 37
0.2 50
0.3 62
0.4 74
0.5 86
0.6 97
0.7 107
0.8 117

B. Horizontal Well With Perforations

Void Fraction Pressure Drop kPa/m

0.05 27
0.1 37
0.2 57
0.3 76
0.4 93
0.5 110
0.6 125
0.7 139
0.8 152

C. Horizontal Well with Perforations also Producing Water

Void Fraction Pressure Drop kPa/m

0.05 16
0.1 22
0.2 32
0.3 41
0.4 49
0.5 56
0.6 61
0.7 66
0.8 69
Pressure Drop kPa/m

Horizonal Well Open Hole Pressure Drop

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Void Fraction
Pressure Drop kPa/m
Horizontal Well With Perfs Pressure Drop

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Void Fraction
Pressure Drop kPa/m

Horizontal Perf'd Well Producing Water Pressure Drop

80

70

60
Pressure Drop kPa/m
Horizontal Perf'd Well Producing Water Pressure Drop

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Void Fraction

Problem:

A horizontal well with 7" casing is being drilled in Lloydminster


where the 21 deg API oil is at a reservoir temperature
of 27 deg C. Net pay is 20 m. Initial reservoir pressure
is 3900 kPa. The well can be drawn down to 200 kPa.
The horizontal permeability is 1500 md. Vertical wells
here are drilled on 20 acre spacing. What length of
horizontal well must be drilled if the desired steady-
state production rate is 60 m3/d? Use Bo of 1.05 m3/m3,
and live oil viscosity of 5000 cp.

C. Horizontal Well Placement


Calculates breakthru time & optimum placement of horizontal
well if gas and water cresting can occur using
the correlelations developed by Wagenhofer and Hatzignatiou
SPE 35714, 1996

Input:

Horizontal length 900


Horzontal drainage area 40
Oil flow rate 30
Oil Reservoir Thickness 10
Reservoir porosity 0.3
Gas cap thickness 12
Aquifer thickness 30
Reservoir horizontal permeability 1500
Reservoir vertical permeability 1500
Oil viscosity 500
Oil formation volume factor 1.05
Oil-water end point mobility ratio 54.99
Gas-oil end point mobility ratio 400
Oil hydrostatic gradient 10.3
Water hydrostatic gradient 9.5
Gas hydrostatic gradient 0.667
Residual Oil Saturation 0.27
Connate Water Saturation 0.475

Output:
Dimensionless horizontal length 0.0555702479
Dimensionless flow rate 0.137050263
Dimensionless gas cap size 0.36
Dimensionless aquifer size 0.9
Dimensionless breakthrough time 0.0041031069
Dimensionless vertical distance from WOC

Breakthrough time 16
Optimum placement above WOC contact 4.2
Table of Contents

acres
m
m
mm
MPa
MPa
md
md
cp
m3/m3
no units

acres
m
ft
md
dimensionless
m3/d

Drainage Area acres Drainage radius m "a" factor den1 den2

15.0 138.9 470.6 1.7 0.7


22.4 170.0 637.4 1.0 0.3
29.9 196.2 826.0 0.7 0.2
34.9 211.9 961.9 0.6 0.1
39.8 226.5 1104.0 0.5 0.1
59.7 277.3 1710.3 0.3 0.1
84.6 330.0 2504.8 0.2 0.0
200 1400 1600

cp
m3/m3
m3/d
m
mm

kPa

5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60

60 70

cp
m
scf/bbl
fraction
0.8 0.9
7 0.8 0.9
.7 0.8 0.9
m
acres
m3/d
m
fraction
m
m
md
md
cp
m3/m3
no units Mow=(muoil/kro at Swc)/(muwater/krw at 1-Sor)
no units Mgo=(muoil/kro at Swc)/(mu gas/krg at 1-Sor)
kPa/m
kPa/m
kPa/m
fraction
fraction
days
m
Thermal Casings
Calculates Yield Strength of Casing J55,N80 (L80), P105, P110

Input:

Casing Type n80


Casing Temperature 200
Reservoir Temperature 13
Length of casing 500

Output:

Casing Temperature 392


Casing Yield Strength 83602
or 576.6
Thermal Stress in Casing 471.24
Thermal Stretch in Casing 1.178

Temperature deg C Yield Strength psi

20 82507
40 81942
60 81614
80 81496
100 81558
120 81773
140 82113
160 82549
180 83055
200 83602
240 84706
300 85970
400 85163
500 77682

Yield Strength psi

88000
Yield Strength psi

86000

84000

82000
Yield Strength psi

88000

Yield Strength psi


86000

84000

82000

80000

78000

76000

74000

72000
0 100 200 300
Temp deg C
Table of Contents

deg C
deg C
m

deg F
psi
MPa
MPa
m

ength psi
ength psi

300 400 500 600


emp deg C
Wellbore heat Losses Table of Contents

Calculates wellbore heat losses


using Ramey's equation

Input:

Tubing size 50.8 mm


Ground Thermal conductivity 2.4 W/m-deg K
Steam injection Pressure 6.89 MPa
Formation depth 609.75 m
Casing size 178 mm
Reservoir Temperature 21 deg C
Geothermal Gradient 0.038 deg C/m
Injection Time 200 days

Output:

Steam Injection Temperature 544.4806 deg F


Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 165.5533 Btu/ft2-deg F
or kW/m2-K
Thermal Conductivity 33.28013 Btu/ft-d-deg F
F factor 4.297996 dimensionless
Geothermal Gradient 0.020856 deg F/ft

Heat Loss Rate 5.66E+07 Btu/d


or 5.97E+07 kJ/d

Problem: What are the heat losses after steaming at Cold Lake for 30 days after 1 cycle?
fter 1 cycle?
RESERVOIR PROPERTIES

A. Porosity Calculation

Uses modified Gluyas-Cade


Correlation
for Uncemented Sandstones

Input:

Reservoir Depth

Output:

Porosity

B. Absolute and

1 Saturating fluid is

Input:
Liquid flow rate 5
Thickness 3
Viscosity 1
Inlet Pressure 1.5
Outlet Pressure 1
Cross-sectional area 10
Re 22
Rw 8
Core Length 100

Output:

Absolute Permeability 100.0


Absolute Permeability 0.5

2 Saturating fluid is

Input:
Gas Viscosity 0.0183
Cross-sectional Area 1.36
Length of Core 1.3
Outlet Pressure 1

Flowrate cc/sec Pressure, atm

4.05 1.13
17.9 1.5
34.56 1.86
61.79 2.33

Output:

Corrected Permeability 0.4431


to gas

Klinkenberg Effect

0.6000

0.5000 f(x) = 0.0723813601x + 0.4431035307

0.4000

0.3000

0.2000

0.1000

0.0000
0.5500 0.6000 0.6500 0.7000 0.7500 0.8000 0.850
Inverse Average Pressure, atm-1
0.0000
0.5500 0.6000 0.6500 0.7000 0.7500 0.8000 0.850
Inverse Average Pressure, atm-1

C. Mean Grain Size for Cold Lake Sand

Input:

Bitumen Saturation 7.6

Output:

Mean Grain size 0.1250


or 3.000

D. Weight and Volume Percent

Input:

Oil API 10
Weight oil in sample 15
Weight water in sample 2
Weight mineral matter 83

Output:

Oil Density 1
Oil Saturation 15.00%
Water Saturation 2.00%
Oil Saturation 31.04%
Water Saturation 4.14%
Oil Saturation 88.24%
Water Saturation 11.76%

E. Rock Compressiblity for Unconsolidated Sandstones

Hall's correlation is not


recommended for these type
of reservoirs as the actual pore volume
compressibilities may be higher
by an order of magnitude.

Using Newman's Sandstone Correlation


Input:
Average Porosity 0.24

Output

Formation Compressibility 6.75E-06


or 9.80E-07

Using Yales (SPE 26647) Sandstone Correl.

Input:

Depth 700
Initial Reservoir Pressure 10000
Current reservoir Pressure 8000

Output:

Formation Compressibility 1.88E-06


Formation Compressibility 1.30E-05

F. Average Permeabilty for Layered Beds

Layered Bed:

Input:
Thickness, m
Bed 1 1
Bed 2 5
Bed 3 2
Bed 4 5
Bed 5 2
Bed 6 2.4
Bed 7 3
Bed 8 1
Bed 9 1
Bed 10 1

Output:

Average Thickness Weighted Perm 663.46

G Reservoir Temperature for Alberta and Venezuela

Enter Reservoir Depth in m 450

Calculated Bottomhole Temperature 18.2


Calculated Bottomhole Temperature 50

Average Geothermal Gradient Alberta 0.0366 deg C/m

H Pore Throat Radius

Uses Winland Correlation


SPE 69457
(Corresponds to 35% mercury saturation)

Input:

Porosity 25
Permeability to air (Uncorrected) 2000

Output

Pore Throat Radius 29.19

I Initial Reservoir Pressure

Input:

Reservoir Depth 450


Reservoir Depth (Saskachewan only) -75
Output:

Alberta Cretaceous 2747


Venezuela 5266
Western Siberia 4699
Offshore Nigeria 5860
Saskatchewan 5253

J Edgewater Drive Recovery


for Viscous Oils (less than 500 cp)
from Van Meurs-van der Poel (1958)

Input:

Connate Water Saturation 0.38


Residual Oil Saturation to Water 0.33
Live Oil Viscosity 350
Water Viscosity 1.5
Economic Watercut Limit 0.99
Output:

Moveable Oil Saturation 0.29


Oil Recovery 50.2%

Problem 1

Calculate the oil recovery for the


Suffield heavy oil edgwater waterflood where
connate water saturation is 32%, the
residual oil saturation is 32%, the live oil
viscosity is 470 cp, the injected water is
at 33 deg C and the economic watercut
cutoff is 95%. (Need program 5)
Table of Contents

High grade Athabasca Tar Sands have


porosity in the range of 30-35%, which
is higher than sandstone reservoirs
472 m (which is 5-25%) due to lack of cement
in the pore space.
Thus, the name sands instead of sandst

35.11 %

Effective Permeability
Elemental Analysis
liquid.

cc/sec
cm Carbon, mean wt %
cp Hydrogen, mean wt%
atm Sulphur, mean wt%
atm Nitrogen, mean wt %
cm2 Oxygen, mean wt %
cm Vanadium, ppm
cm Nickel, ppm
cm Iron, ppm

darcies Linear flow


darcies Radial flow

gas.
cp
cm2
cm
atm

Inverse Avg. Pressure, atm-1 Permeability, darcy

0.9390 0.5117
0.8000 0.5010
0.6993 0.4916
0.6006 0.4881

darcies

berg Effect

0.8000 0.8500 0.9000 0.9500 1.0000


ge Pressure, atm-1
0.8000 0.8500 0.9000 0.9500 1.0000
ge Pressure, atm-1

Mineralology

Quartz
Feldspar
wt % Mica and Clays

mm
Krumbein phi scale

The highest grade oil sands in Athabasc


have oil saturations of 18 wt % or 36 vol
Typical feed to Suncor is about 12 wt %.
g There is also always irreducible water
g present of about 2 wt %.
g Any feed over 10 wt % is
rich, while less than 6 wt % is
considered lean.

g/cm3
weight percent
weight percent
volume percent Bulk Density
volume percent
percent Cold Lake Tar Sands
percent

For Alberta medium grade


oil sands, use
3.5 - 14.0 e-6 kPa-1 for
rock compressibility
fraction

psi -1
kPa -1

m
kPa
kPa

kPa -1 for Unconsolidated rock


kPa -1 for Consolidated rock

Permeability, md
100
200
300
400
1000
750
1200
1700
1275
1450

md

deg C in Alberta
deg C in Venezuela

or 0.0201 deg F/ft

percent
md

microns

m
m subsea

kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa

fraction
fraction
cp
cp
fraction
fraction
percent
habasca Tar Sands have
e range of 30-35%, which
sandstone reservoirs
%) due to lack of cement

me sands instead of sandstones.

Cold Lake Athabasca


Produced Oil

83.09 82.71
10.64 10.29
4.41 4.68
0.35 0.43
0.35 1.35
166 248
60 77
10 181
Athabasca Oil Sands
95%
2 to 3%
2 to 3%

rade oil sands in Athabasca


ations of 18 wt % or 36 vol %.
o Suncor is about 12 wt %.
always irreducible water

considered
s than 6 wt % is

2.633 g/cm3
Optimum Working Interest
Uses Cozzolino's Risk
Aversion Formula to
Calculate Optimum
Working Interest
(SPE 6359, 1978)

Variable Risk Tolerance


is calculated below (Pt B)

A. Optiumum Working Interest

Chance 20.00%
NPV (Millions) 90
Cost (Millions) 10
Expected Val (Millions) @ 100% 10
Risk Tolerance (Millions) 20
Working Interest rav-coz
100% $ (5.571)
90% $ (4.593)
80% $ (3.628)
70% $ (2.688)
60% $ (1.785)
50% $ (0.943)
40% $ (0.203)
30% $ 0.377
20% $ 0.703
10% $ 0.639
0% $ -
Selected WI 50.00%
EV at Selected WI 5
RAV at Selected WI $ (0.94340)
Apparent Risk Tolerance $61.6576

Optimum Working Interest 16.22%


EV at optimum WI $ 1.62186
RAV at optimum WI $ 0.73380

Working Interest
Risk Adjusted Value

$2.000

$1.000

$-
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
$(1.000)
Working Interest

Risk Adjusted Value


$2.000

$1.000

$-
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
$(1.000)

$(2.000)

$(3.000)

$(4.000)

$(5.000)

$(6.000)
% Working Interest

B. Variable Risk Tolerance

Chance 20.00%
NPV (Millions) 90
Cost (Millions) 10
Expected Val (mm) @ 100% 10

Risk Tolerance (MM) rav-coz


$10 $ (7.769)
$20 $ (5.571)
$30 $ (3.572)
$40 $ (1.887)
$50 $ (0.507)
$60 $ 0.620
$70 $ 1.547
$80 $ 2.317
$90 $ 2.965
$100 $ 3.516
$110 $ 3.989

Variable Risk Tolerance


Risk Adjusted Value

$8.000

$6.000

$4.000

$2.000
Variable Risk Tolerance

Risk Adjusted Value


$8.000

$6.000

$4.000

$2.000

$- rav-coz
$0 $20 $40 $60 $80 $100 $120 rav-
tanh
$(2.000)

$(4.000)

$(6.000)

$(8.000)

$(10.000)
Risk Tolerance MM $
Table of Contents

rav-tanh
$ (3.136)
$ (2.579)
$ (1.983)
$ (1.350)
$ (0.685)
$ (0.007)
$ 0.639
$ 1.146
$ 1.313
$ 0.909
$ -

70% 80% 90% 100%


70% 80% 90% 100%

rav-coz
rav-
tanh

rav-tanh
$ (3.431)
$ (3.136)
$ (1.697)
$ (0.013)
$ 1.598
$ 3.009
$ 4.189
$ 5.153
$ 5.933
$ 6.563
$ 7.074
rav-coz
$100 $120 rav-
tanh
Optimum Number
of Drilling Locations and
Present Day Value
Uses Nind's Formula (1981)

Input:

Average Initial Production per well 77


Development Costs per well $0.72
Lifting Costs per well $0.09
Oil Value $10.50
Discount Rate 10.00%
Specific Volume oil recoverability 400
Net sand thickness 20

Output:

Recoverable Oil 8000


Optimum Number of Wells 2.8
Present Day Value (Less other dev. Costs) $225.55
Table of Contents

bbl/d
Millions
Millions
$/bbl
per year
bbls/acrefoot
feet

bbls/acre

Millions
Success/Fail Model

SEISMIC EXAMPLE

OIL DISCOVERY

90.00%

10.00% SUCCESS
10.00%

20.00%

90.00% FAIL
80.00%

BRIGHT SPOT

33.33%

27.00% SUCCESS
66.67%

1.37%

73.00% FAIL
98.63%
BAYESIAN UPDATING Table of Contents

BRIGHT SPOT BRIGHT


GIVEN SPOT
OIL DISCOVERY

9.00%
SUCCESS

1.00% 27.00%
FAIL

18.00% 73.00%
SUCCESS

72.00%
FAIL

OIL DISCOVERY OIL


GIVEN DISCOVERY
BRIGHT SPOT

9.00%
SUCCESS

18.00% 10.00%
FAIL

1.00% 90.00%
SUCCESS

72.00%
FAIL
SUCCESS

FAIL

SUCCESS

FAIL
A. ORIGINAL-GAS-IN-PLACE
Calculates OGIP using
Material Balance and
Standing Correlation for z

Input:

Gas Gravity
Initial Reservoir Pressure
Reservoir Temperature
Abandonment Pressure
Depth

Output:
Estimated Abandonment Pressure

Input Date,Pressure History, Cum Gas Produced:

Date Bottomhole Pressure, kPa


(input)
5-Mar-90 2800
1-Apr-91 2750
11-Nov-91 2666
3-May-92 2500
9-Jun-93 2430
13-Dec-93 2300
5-Apr-94 2220
21-Dec-94 2105
15-Jul-95 2100
23-Dec-95 2000
6-Jun-96 1900
31-Dec-96 1800
27-Feb-97 1755
30-Nov-97 1700
6-Jun-98 1688
15-Dec-98 1550
14-Mar-99 1478
25-Jun-99 1450
19-Dec-99 1350
4-Mar-00 1307
Pseudocritical Pressure
Pseudcritical Temperature
Reservoir Pressure
Reservoir Temperature
Pseudoreduced Pressure
Pseudoreduced Temperature
P/Z at abandonment

OGIP=
Reserves=
Remaining Reserves=

OGIP

3500.00

3000.00
f(x) = - 74.8366099292x + 3343.74742466
P/Z kPa

2500.00

2000.00

1500.00

1000.00

500.00

0.00
0 5 10 15
Cum Gas Produced e3 m
500.00

0.00
0 5 10 15
Cum Gas Produced e3 m

P/Z vs Cumulative Gas Plots

A. If P/Z Curve Bends Upwards:

1 subsidence or compaction occurring


2 water influx
3 oil zone beneath
4 leakage into fault or behind casing channelling
5 bad data

B. If P/Z Curve Bends Downwards:

1 bad data
2 competitive drainage
3 retrograde condensation
4 overpressured reservoir
5 leakage out of reservoir

B. Z Factor Calculation
Input

Component Mole Fraction


CO2 0.02
N2 0.01
H2S 0
C1 0.85
C2 0.04
C3 0.03
iC4 0.03
nC4 0.02
iC5 0
C5 0
C6 0
C7+ 0
Total 1

Res. Pressure 20689


Res Temp 82

Output:
Pseudocritical Pressure
Pseudocritical Temperature
Pseudoreduced Pressure
Pseudoreduced Temperature
Apparent Molecular Weight
Z Factor
Gas Density
Table of Contents

0.7 no units
3000 kPa
70 deg C
150 kPa
500 m

680 kPa

P/Z kPa Cum Gas Produc


(input)
2930.40 5
2875.56 7
2783.63 8
2602.78 9
2526.84 11
2386.29 13
2300.13 14
2176.69 15
2171.33 16
2064.42 17
1957.87 18
1851.70 20
1804.04 21
1745.90 22
1733.23 22.5
1587.87 23
1512.31 24
1482.98 25
1378.43 26 3343.747
1333.59 26.5 -74.83661
669.125 psi
389.375 deg R
435.114 psi
618 deg R
0.6503
1.5872
187.2499 kPa

44.681 e3 m3 or 1.586 BCF


42.179 e3 m3 1.497 BCF
15.679 e3 m3 0.556 BCF

OGIP

4.8366099292x + 3343.7474246661

10 15 20 25 30
Cum Gas Produced e3 m3
10 15 20 25 30
Cum Gas Produced e3 m3

0.4978588477 A
1.9643712372 B
0.0614278471 C
1.0000274569 D

kPa
deg C
672.16
384.92
4.46
1.66
20.18
0.8424
167.73 kg/m3
Refining

A Cetane Number and Smoke Point


for Athabasca Oilsands

Uses Yui (Oil and Gas Journal Nov 20,2000)


correlation

Input:

Aniline Point 67.8 deg C


Density at 15 deg C 0.8329 g/ml
Density at 20 deg C 0.8292 g/ml
Monoaromatics determined by SFC 15.2 wt %
Total aromatics determined by SFC 22.4 wt %
Simulated Distillation at 10% 196 deg C
Simulated Distillation at 30% 229.1 deg C
Simulated Distillation at 50% 261.2 deg C
Simulated Distillation at 70% 295.6 deg C
Simulated Distillation at 90% 328 deg C
Boiling Range t90-t10 132 deg C
Boiling Range t70-t30 66.5 deg C

Output:

Cetane Number (Correlation 1) 49.84


Cetane Number (Correlation 2) 50.32
Smoke Point 14.57 mm

B Normal Boiling Point

Normal
Carbon Number BP deg K

Methane 1 111.67
Ethane 2 184.53
Propane 3 231.09
n-Butane 4 272.66
i-Butane 4 261.43
n-Pentane 5 309.23
i-Pentane 5 300.9
neo-Pentane 5 282.5
Hexane 6 341.9
Heptane 7 371.59
n-Octane 8 398.7
i-octane 8 372.24
n-Nonane 9 423.8
Decane 10 447
n-Undecane 11 468.9
n-dodecane 12 489.27
n-Tridecane 13 508.444
n-Tetradecane 14 526.5
n-Pentadecane 15 543.6
n-Hexadecane 16 559.77
n-Heptadecane 17 575.16
n-Octadecane 18 589.72
Eicosane 20 617
Docosane 22 642
Tetracosane 24 664
Hexacosane 26 685
Octacosane 28 704
Triacontane 30 722
Dotriacontane 32 739
Tetratriacontane 34 754
Hexatriacontane 36 769
Octatriacontane 38 782
Tetracontane 40 795
Dotetracontane 42 807
tetratetracontane 44 818

Normal Boiling Point


Boiling Point deg K

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Carbon Number
400

300

200

100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Carbon Number

B. Vacuum Distillation Corrections

Converts Distillation Boiling


Points to Normal Boiling Points
Uses Maxwell-Bonnett Eqn

Input:

Measured Boiling Point 600 deg K


Specific Gravity at 15 deg C 0.942
Measured Pressure in Distillation Apparatus 50 kPa

Output:

Watson Characterization Factor 10.89


Type of fraction paraffinic
A Factor 0.0017
Measured BP 621.00 deg F
Normal Boiling Point at Kw=12 859.47 deg F
F Value 1.00

Normal Boiling Point 732.0 deg K

A. Ethane

Temp deg K Te ln Pn

273 265.0464610067 3.2846829947


283 273.9581381308 3.7780893125
293 282.8322435256 4.2324697648
303 291.6690142955 4.6519052431
313 300.4686855541 5.0399963433
323 309.2314904449 5.3999288576
333 317.9576601621 5.7345290328
343 326.6474239705 6.0463103968
353 335.3010092261 6.3375136016
363 343.9186413958 6.6101404576
373 352.5005440767 6.8659831117
383 361.0469390156 7.1066491515
393 369.5580461283 7.333583275
403 378.0340835181 7.5480860569
413 386.4752674949 7.7513302481
423 394.8818125931 7.9443749747
433 403.2539315899 8.128178141

Vapour Pressure kPa Vapor Pressure of Ethane

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
250 300 350
Temperature deg K

B. Propane

Temp deg K Te ln Pn

273 400.2127871088 8.0623378804


283 414.0393419332 8.3537607275
293 427.83252917 8.6260426519
303 441.5924694625 8.882056192
313 455.319282873 9.1242902734
323 469.0130888866 9.3549068288
333 482.6740064143 9.5757879922
343 496.3021537967 9.7885756243
353 509.8976488073 9.9947045601
363 523.4606086558 10.1954306925
373 536.9911499918 10.3918547892
383 550.4893889078 10.584942764
393 563.9554409426 10.7755429943
403 577.3894210847 10.964401162
413 590.7914437757 11.1521730145
423 604.161622913 11.3394353689
433 617.5000718538 11.5266956302

Athabasca Bachaquero
S wt % 5.14 3.39
N wt % 0.56
O wt % 1.17
Ni ppm*100 1.5 1
V ppm*100 2.9 8.8

Composition of Residue Fe

12
Wt % or ppm

10

0
Athabasca Bachaquero Cerro Negro Cold Lake Gach Saran Heavy Arabian Hondo
Table of Contents

SFC=Supercritical
Fluid Chromatography

Normal SGn C B SG
BP R

130.2041 201.006 -0.010842 2.8279402 -0.000563139 0.30000


177.533 332.154 0.391253 6.2423763 -0.000224993 0.35600
221.2759 415.962 0.512688 6.3345676 -0.000125186 0.50800
261.6734 490.788 0.584694 5.0399612 -6.58954E-05 0.58400
261.6734 470.574 0.567625 5.5177507 -0.000079986 0.58400
298.9565 556.614 0.631172 2.8270735 -0.000027313 0.63100
298.9565 541.62 0.621647 3.4195427 -3.52521E-05 0.63100
298.9565 508.5 0.598467 4.5433877 -5.45001E-05 0.63100
333.3466 615.42 0.66372 0 0 0.66400
365.0555 668.862 0.687945 -3.265059 2.057423E-05 0.68800
394.2854 717.66 0.706637 -6.8251289 0.000036647 0.70700
394.2854 670.032 0.688428 -3.3439525 2.098735E-05 0.70700
421.2289 762.84 0.721607 -10.613775 4.968062E-05 0.72200
446.069 804.6 0.733796 -14.536784 6.04243E-05 0.73400
468.9791 844.02 0.744079 -18.611183 6.959606E-05 0.74400
490.123 880.686 0.752727 -22.724547 7.739958E-05 0.75300
509.6549 915.1992 0.760165 -26.881368 8.418535E-05 0.76000
527.7194 947.7 0.766619 -31.048462 9.013638E-05 0.76700
544.4515 978.48 0.772294 -35.220867 9.542105E-05 0.77200
559.9766 1007.586 0.777308 -39.368545 0.0001001345 0.77700
574.4105 1035.288 0.781792 -43.498699 0.0001043874 0.78200
587.8594 1061.496 0.785797 -47.570002 0.0001082191 0.78600
612.179 1110.6 0.792748 -55.627087 0.000114946 0.78600
633.593 1155.6 0.79856 -63.502003 0.0001206511 0.78600
652.6054 1195.2 0.803291 -70.820548 0.0001253523 0.78600
669.5666 1233 0.807511 -78.145817 0.0001295914 0.78600
684.6734 1267.2 0.811107 -85.05908 0.0001332382 0.78600
697.969 1299.6 0.814339 -91.858797 0.0001365427 0.78600
709.343 1330.2 0.817249 -98.504377 0.0001395405 0.78600
718.5314 1357.2 0.819712 -104.54853 0.0001420937 0.78600
725.1166 1384.2 0.822085 -110.76181 0.0001445671 0.78600
728.5274 1407.6 0.824074 -116.28346 0.0001466501 0.78600
728.039 1431 0.826005 -121.93214 0.0001486804 0.78600
722.773 1452.6 0.827739 -127.25906 0.0001505104 0.78600
711.6974 1472.4 0.82929 -132.23716 0.0001521527 0.78600

ormal Boiling Point

25 30 35 40 45 50
Carbon Number
25 30 35 40 45 50
Carbon Number

ln P kPa Vap P kPa

2.975166 19.592871
3.454424 31.640047
3.896522 49.230907
4.305243 74.087205
4.683945 108.19611
5.035616 153.79434
5.362917 213.34647
5.668226 289.52057
5.95367 385.16424
6.221154 503.28382
6.472391 647.02907
6.70892 819.68496
6.932127 1024.6716
7.143264 1265.5527
7.343461 1546.053
7.533739 1870.0843
7.715025 2241.7794

Vapor Pressure of Ethane

350 400 450 500


Temperature deg K

Ln P kPa Vap P kPa

8.053272 3144.0667
8.343266 4201.7885
8.614306 5509.9253
8.869237 7109.8557
9.110523 9050.0233
9.340304 11387.873
9.560448 14192.202
9.772582 17546.005
9.978128 21549.943
10.17833 26326.596
10.37429 32025.69
10.56696 38830.589
10.75719 46966.376
10.94571 56709.967
11.13317 68402.807
11.32015 82466.872
11.50716 99424.903

Cerro Negro Cold Lake Gach Sara Heavy Arabi Hondo Lloydminster
4.5 5.1 2.6 4.23 4.42 4.69
0.45 0.41 0.26 0.7 0.53
0.97 0 0 0 0.99
2 2 0.4 0.3 0.9 1.4
10.4 4.9 1.1 0.9 2.8 1.9

Composition of Residue Feedstock

S wt %
N wt %
O wt %
Ni ppm*100
V ppm*100

aran Heavy Arabian Hondo Lloydminster Maya Peace River Tia Juana Zuata
(SG/SGn)^.5

Err:502
0.953885777
0.995417086
0.999406154
1.014321178
0.999864081
1.007494372
1.026820913
1.000211184
1.000039844
1.000256962
1.013398634
1.000272609
1.000138992
0.999947193
1.000181437
0.999891642
1.00024818
0.999809408
0.999801782
1.000133265
1.000129131
0.995734682
0.992104479
0.989178818
0.986590676
0.984401197
0.982446001
0.980695258
0.979220746
0.977806487
0.976625735
0.975483618
0.974461288
0.973549324
Maya Peace RiveTia Juana Zuata
4.42 7.02 3.17 4.17
0.52 0.63
1.09
0.8 1.3 1 1.6
4.1 4.1 7.6 8.2

S wt %
N wt %
O wt %
Ni ppm*100
V ppm*100

na Zuata
Petroleum Fractions

A Watson Characterization Factor

Input

Normal Boiling Point 550 deg C


Specific Gravity 0.809 no units

Output

Watson K Factor 14.09 no units

B Molecular Weight of Fraction


(Uses Riazi(1986) and Lee-Kesler Correlations

Input:

Normal Boiling Point 550 deg C


Specific Gravity 0.899 no units

Output:

Normal Boiling point 823 deg K


Molecular Weight 552.05 kg/kmol

C Pseudo-Critical Temperature,
Pseudo-Critical Pressure,
Acentric Factor

Input:

Normal Boiling Point 550 deg C


Specific Gravity 0.802 no units

Output

Reduced Boiling Point Temperature 0.943 no units


Watson Characterization Factor 14.211
Pseudo Critical temperature 582.99 deg K
Pseudo-Critical Pressure 15.4006 bars
or Pseudo-Critical Pressure 1540.06 kPa
Acentric Factor 1.728117 no units
Table of Contents

Group Watson K Factor

Paraffins 13
Naphthenes 12
Aromatics 10
Relative Permeability
and Capillary Pressure

Creates Relative Permeability Data and Capillary Pressure from initial water and residual oil saturation
Uses Corey's Correlation

Input:

Initial Water Saturation 0.3


Residual Oil Saturation 0.25

Output:

Sw Kro Krw Pc
kPa
0.3 1 0
0.36 0.6992 0.0037 7.67
0.42 0.4605 0.0149 5.43
0.48 0.2789 0.0334 4.43
0.54 0.1488 0.0594 3.84
0.6 0.0642 0.0929 3.43
0.66 0.0179 0.1338 3.13
0.72 0.0011 0.1821 2.90
0.78 0.0000 0.2378 2.71
0.84 0.0000 0.3010 2.56
0.9 0.0000 0.3716 2.43
0.96 0.0000 0.4496 2.31
1.02 0.0000 0.5350 2.22
1.08 0.0000 0.6279 2.13
1.14 0.0000 0.7282 2.05
1.2 0.0000 0.8360 1.98

Relative Permeabilty Curve

0.9

0.8
Kro, Krw

0.7

0.6

0.5
1

0.9

0.8
Kro, Krw 0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
Water Saturation

Kro Krw

B. Numerical Simulator Correlations (Corey-type)

Input:

Exponent for water flow 2 Recommend default 2


Residual Oil to waterflood saturation Sorw 0.37 Recommend default 0.37
Rel Perm of water at residual oil saturation 0.3 Recommend default 0.3

Exponent for oil flow rel perm 1.5 Recommend default 2


Connate water saturation Swc 0.2 Recommend default 0.2
Rel Perm of oil at connate water saturation 0.4 Recommend default 0.4
Capillary Pressure at connate water 150 kPa
Exponent of cap pressure for oil-water 0.71

Exponent for gas flow rel perm 0.6 Recommend default 2


Residual gas saturation to oilflood 0.05 Recommend default 0.37
Rel Perm of gas at connate water saturation 0.95 Recommend default 0.4
Capillary Pressure at critical liquid saturation 250 kPa
Exponent of cap pressure for gas-oil 0.51

Exponent for oil-gas equation 1.2 Recommend default 2


Residual oil saturation to gas flood 0.23 Recommend default 0.37

Output:
Total critical liquid saturation 0.43

Sw krw kro Pc, kPa


0.2 0.0000 0.4000 96.52948
0.24 0.0026 0.3455 90.06442
0.28 0.0104 0.2937 83.40377
0.32 0.0234 0.2448 76.5181
0.36 0.0415 0.1990 69.36903
0.4 0.0649 0.1565 61.90477
0.44 0.0935 0.1175 54.05208
0.48 0.1272 0.0824 45.70063
0.52 0.1661 0.0518 36.66791
0.56 0.2103 0.0263 26.60216
0.6 0.2596 0.0074 14.57651
0.64 0.3141 #VALUE! #VALUE!
0.68 0.3738 #VALUE! #VALUE!
0.72 0.4387 #VALUE! #VALUE!
0.76 0.5088 #VALUE! #VALUE!
0.8 0.5841 #VALUE! #VALUE!
0.84 0.6646 #VALUE! #VALUE!
0.88 0.7502 #VALUE! #VALUE!
0.92 0.8411 #VALUE! #VALUE!
0.96 0.9372 #VALUE! #VALUE!
Relative Permeability

Relative Perm Oil/Water

1.0000
0.9000
0.8000
0.7000
0.6000
0.5000
0.4000
0.3000
0.2000
0.1000
0.0000
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1
Water Saturation

krw kro

Capillary Pressure-oil-water

120
Pc, kPa

100

80
Capillary Pressure-oil-water

120

Pc, kPa 100

80

60

40

20

0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1
Sw

Pc, kPa
Table Of Contents

ial water and residual oil saturation

bilty Curve
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
aturation

Krw

Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.37
Recommend default 0.3

Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.2
Recommend default 0.4

Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.37
Recommend default 0.4

Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.37
Sg krg krog Pc, kPa
0.05 0 0.268705 0
0.075 0.123439 0.253278 39.10663
0.1 0.187098 0.238007 #VALUE!
0.125 0.238629 0.222897 68.48291
0.15 0.283587 0.207956 79.41582
0.175 0.324215 0.193191 89.36334
0.2 0.361694 0.178613 98.7695
0.225 0.396743 0.164231 107.9326
0.25 0.429838 0.150055 117.0844
0.275 0.461314 0.1361 126.4302
0.3 0.491418 0.122379 136.1728
0.325 0.520339 0.108911 146.5342
0.35 0.548226 0.095715 157.7779
0.375 0.575197 0.082816 170.239
0.4 0.60135 0.070244 184.3707
0.425 0.626766 0.058038 200.8227
0.45 0.651513 0.046248 220.5851
0.475 0.675648 0.034941 245.28
0.5 0.699221 0.024221 277.8198
0.525 0.722276 0.014254 324.1553
0.55 0.74485 0.005387 399.1711
0.575 0.766977 #VALUE! 557.6269
Relative Permeability

Relative Permeability Oil/Gas

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2
0.1

0
0.9 1 1.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Gas Saturation

krg krog
0.9 1 1.1
0.7
Cold Production
Based On J. Yuan, J. Weaver, B. Barr

Porosity Oil Viscosity cp Slurry Viscosity cp


0.749 1.18E+04 3.70E+04
0.602 1.15E+04 1.31E+05
0.548 7.00E+03 2.42E+05
0.503 1.14E+04 1.72E+06
0.478 1.11E+04 4.06E+06
0.47 1.12E+04 1.41E+06
0.47 1.12E+04 6.92E+06
0.46 1.07E+04 6.71E+06
0.478 1.11E+04 3.47E+06
0.47 1.12E+04 5.60E+06
0.47 1.12E+04 2.58E+06
0.684 1.13E+04 7.80E+04
0.637 1.12E+04 9.30E+04
0.596 1.10E+04 1.72E+05
0.558 1.09E+04 3.31E+05
0.526 1.08E+04 6.25E+05
0.496 1.08E+04 2.27E+06
0.476 1.07E+04 3.25E+06
0.466 1.08E+04 3.67E+06
0.456 1.09E+04 8.99E+06
0.451 1.08E+04 2.08E+07
0.446 1.11E+04 1.94E+07
0.441 1.11E+04 4.00E+07
0.451 1.12E+04 9.75E+06
0.446 1.12E+04 1.48E+07
0.441 1.12E+04 2.36E+07

Relative Slurry Viscosity to

10000
Relative Viscosity

1000

100
Relativ
1000

100

10

1
0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55
Porosity
Sand/Oil Slurries Table Of Contents

JCPT Vol 38 No 13, 1999 Paper 97-121

Relative Slurry Viscosity to Oil


3.1355932203
11.3913043478
34.5714285714
150.8771929825
365.7657657658
125.8928571429
617.8571428571
627.1028037383
312.6126126126
500
230.3571428571
6.9026548673
8.3035714286
15.6363636364
30.3669724771
57.8703703704
210.1851851852
303.738317757
339.8148148148
824.7706422018
1925.9259259259
1747.7477477478
3603.6036036036
870.5357142857
1321.4285714286
2107.1428571429

Relative Slurry Viscosity to Oil


0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8
Porosity
GAS WELL DST Table of Contents

Analyzes Gas Well DST

INPUT:
Well Name 10-03-19-08-w1
Test Number DST #1
Zone Name Bow Island
Interval , m 768.3-777.4m
Date Done Jan 24-1977
Tester Lynes
Type of Test Inflatable Straddle

First Shutin extrap kpag Press 6691.3


Sec shutin extrap press kPag 6711
Last shutin slope kpa^2xe6 1603613
Gas Flow rate prior to 2nd shutin m3/d 21947
End of 2nd flow pressure, kpag 6687.8
Gas Saturation 0.7
Compressibility kpa-1 0.00010
Net pay, m 1
Z factor 0.955
Total flow time min 90
Hole radius mm 200.025
Bottomhole Temp ,deg C 29.7
Porosity, fraction 0.25
Drainage area, sec 1
Gas viscosity cp 0.0115

OUTPUT:
Initial Reservoir Pressure kpag 6691.3
Reservoir Press end-of test kpag 6711.0
Transmissibility md m/mPa/s 5898.9
Capacity md x m 67.8
Permeability md 67.8
Apparent skin -5.5
Pressure Drop due to skin kpag -603.6
Damage Ratio 0.01
AOF e3 m3/d ( Mscf/d) 21769.30
AOF with damage removed e3 m3/d (Mscf/d) 131.47 4666 Mscf/d
Stabilized AOF with Damage e3 m3/d (Mscf/d) 329.75 11704 Mscf/d
Drainage Radius, m 908.4
Stabilized AOF No Damage e3 m3/d (Mscf/d) 91.98 3265 Mscf/d
Radius of Investigation , m 69.81
Percent Depletion -0.29%
Volumetrics Table of Contents

Calculates OOIP or OGIP From Planimetering


Net Pay Maps Using Trapezoidal Rule

Input:

OOIP: OGIP:

Average Water Saturation fraction 0.3 Average Gas Saturation 1 fraction


Average Porosity fraction 0.28 Gas Formation Volume Factor 1 m3/m3
Oil Formation Volume Factor m3/m3 1.13 Average Porosity, fraction 1

Contour Interval 2 m
Peak Reading Above Highest Contour, m 0

Contours Planimeter Reading Planimeter Reading Planimeter Reading Average Planimeter Reading
0 130 130 130 130
2 110 110 110 110
4 83 83 83 83
6 70 70 70 70
8 44 44 44 44
10 37 37 37 37
12 16 16 16 16
14 11 11 11 11
16 0
18 0
20 0
22 0
24 0

Planimeter Reading Planimeter Reading Planimeter Reading Average Planimeter Reading


Reference Section 656 656 656 656

Output:

Rock Volume 2755.91 acre-feet


OOIP 589.57 e3 m3 (SI) OGIP, e6 m3 3
or 3.71 MMbbl (Imperial)
Engineering Economics

A. Present Value
Input:

Annual Interest Rate 12.00


Future Sum $5,000.00
Time Period 5

Output:

Present Value $2,837.13


Present Value $2,791.97

B. Net Present Value, PIR, DPI

Input:

Capital Outlay $100,000


Capital Overhead $5,000
Annual Revenue $50,000
Annual Operating Expense $10,000
Desired Rate of Return 15
Time Period 5

Output:

Net Present Value, NPV $34,086


Profit to Investment Ratio (PIR) 0.341
Discounted Profitability Index (DPI) 1.341
Discounted Return on Investment (DROI) 0.325

C. Rate of Return

Input:

Capital Outlay $270,000.00


Annual Revenue $400,000.00
Annual Operating Expense $157,000.00
Desired Rate of Return 15
Time Period 2
Output:

Net Present Value, NPV $181,837


Net Present Value, NPV $125,047
Net Present Value, NPV $101,250
Net Present Value, NPV $79,920
Net Present Value, NPV $60,710
Net Present Value, NPV $43,333
Net Present Value, NPV -$33,471

Rate of Return, ROR 50

ROR

$200,000

$150,000
NPV

$100,000

$50,000

$0
0 10 20 30 40 5

-$50,000
Percent

D. Percent Escalation
Input:

Initial Price $15.00


Annual Escalation Percent 5
Time in Years 4
or Time in months

Output:

Forecast Price $18.23

E. Working Interest

Definitions

Intangible Capital

Tangible Capital

Simple Example

What is the revenue from a 60% working


interest well with ORRI of 12.5% & crown
royalties of 25% for the following
production and price forecast?

Year Annual Oil Production m3 Product Price


$/m3
1 500 120
2 450 125
3 400 125
4 370 130
5 300 130
6 260 135
7 250 140
8 245 140
9 230 140
10 220 140
Table of Contents

percent

years

compounded annually
compounded semi-annually

per year
percent
years

also called Return on Investment (ROI)

per year
percent
years
at 5 percent interest
at 15 percent interest
at 20 percent interest
at 25 percent interest
at 30 percent interest
at 35 percent interest
at 65 percent interest

percent

ROR

20 30 40 50 60 70

Percent
Percent
years
months

Capital that cannot be re-


moved from lease. Eg.
Exploration expenses,
workovers, perforating etc
No salvage value.

Capital that can be removed


from lease: tanks, separators,
compressors etc. This capital
depreciates over time.

Gross
Working Interest Percent Revenue ORRI Crown

60 $60,000 $7,500 $15,000


60 $56,250 $7,031 $14,063
60 $50,000 $6,250 $12,500
60 $48,100 $6,013 $12,025
60 $39,000 $4,875 $9,750
60 $35,100 $4,388 $8,775
60 $35,000 $4,375 $8,750
60 $34,300 $4,288 $8,575
60 $32,200 $4,025 $8,050
60 $30,800 $3,850 $7,700
WI Revenue

$22,500
$21,094
$18,750
$18,038
$14,625
$13,163
$13,125
$12,863
$12,075
$11,550
Saskatchewan Royalties

Calculates Heavy Oil Royalty


Payments on Crown
and Freehold Land

The minimum heavy oil base price


is $100 /m3 for third tier oil and
$50 /m3 for new oil. When the monthly
heavy oil price is less or equal to
the base price, then the base royalty
rate of 10 % applies to all heavy oil.

For vertical non-deep heavy oil wells


drilled on or after Feb 9,1998, 4000 m3
of oil qualifies for incentive volume
and is subject to a crown royalty of
the lesser of:
a) 2.5% or
b) third tier crown royalty rate

Input:
SEM Calculated
SEM Heavy Oil
Date Heavy Oil Price Third Tier
$/m3 K

Jan-00 166 20.75


Feb-00 194 22.45
Mar-00 195 22.50
Apr-00 154 19.84
May-00 189 22.18
Jun-00 209 23.17
Jul-00 192 22.34
Aug-00 205 22.99
Sep-00 211 23.26
Oct-00 140 18.57
Nov-00 124 16.77
Dec-00 67 3.40
Jan-01 94 11.76
Feb-01 99 12.80
Mar-01 93 11.53
Apr-01 101 13.19
May-01 112 15.09
Jun-01 111 14.93
Jul-01 136 18.16
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01

Example Problem Producing Month

Input Input Input


Well UWI Date Drilled On Production Date

01-13-44-22W3M 1-Feb-95 15-Feb-95


02-13-44-22W3M 30-Aug-86 17-Sep-87
03-13-44-22W3M 15-Jul-00 25-Jul-00
04-13-44-22W3M 22-Oct-99 27-Oct-99
05-13-44-22W3M 2-Feb-79 7-Feb-79
06-13-44-22W3M 2-Feb-80 7-Feb-80
07-13-44-22W3M 23-Jul-99 28-Jul-99
08-13-44-22W3M 6-Oct-99 11-Oct-99
09-13-44-22W3M 15-Mar-90 20-Mar-90
10-13-44-22W3M 15-Mar-90 20-Mar-90
11-13-44-22W3M 30-Apr-90 5-May-90
12-13-44-22W3M 30-Apr-90 5-May-90
13-13-44-22W3M 31-May-90 5-Jun-90
14-13-44-22W3M 31-May-90 5-Jun-90
15-13-44-22W3M 7-Jun-95 12-Jun-95
16-13-44-22W3M 25-Feb-98 2-Mar-98

Problem 1

For the same monthly oil production


rate of 750 m3/mo for a third tier well,
what is the royalty rate (Jul-00) if
a) the well was on crown land
b) the well was on freehold?

Problem 2
Plot monthly oil production rate on the
x-axis versus the crown royalty rate
on the y axis for a new heavy oil well
on production in July-2000.
Table of Contents

Heavy oil is produced from below


the Viking formation. Southwest
oil is oil produced after Feb 8/98
from the SW part of Saskatchewan.

Recall that royalties are payments


made on production from oil
and gas at the wellhead. Royalty
owners do not share in the capital
or operating costs.

Sasketchewan's heavy
oil is classified as either:
a) third tier (drilled after 01-Jan-94)
b) new (drilled before 01-Jan-94)
There is no "old" category.

SEM Calculated SEM Calculated SEM Calculated


Heavy Oil Heavy Oil Heavy Oil
Third Tier New New
X K X

479 26.63 615


518 27.47 634
519 27.50 635
458 26.17 604
512 27.34 631
535 27.83 642
516 27.42 633
531 27.74 640
537 27.88 643
429 25.54 589
387 24.64 569
78 17.95 414
271 22.13 511
295 22.65 523
266 22.02 508
304 22.85 527
348 23.79 549
345 23.72 547
419 25.33 585

Jul-00 Base Price= 192.00

Input Input Input


Oil Production Cum Oil Produced, m3 Land
m3/month Prior to:
Jul-00

500 5000 Crown


500 4000 Crown
1000 623 Crown
145 3900 Crown
30 23850 Crown
523 24850 Crown
456 5610 Crown
308 1009 Crown
695 23000 Freehold
860 15987 Freehold
489 25089 Freehold
350 33000 Freehold
800 32000 Freehold
825 14008 Freehold
500 26895 Freehold
183 2300 Freehold
(From Above Table)

Saskatchewan Production Crown Freehold


Classification Resource Credit Tax Factor Royalty Rate Royalty Rate
Percent Percent

Third Tier 1.0 12.5 20.31


New 1.0 12.5 25.16
Third Tier 2.5 0 19.33
Third Tier 2.5 0 16.29
New 1.0 12.5 5.33
New 1.0 12.5 25.21
Third Tier 2.5 0 18.71
Third Tier 2.5 0 18.17
New 10.0 10 6.51
New 10.0 10 6.69
New 10.0 10 6.13
New 10.0 10 5.61
New 10.0 10 6.63
New 10.0 10 6.65
Third Tier 10.0 10 1.31
Third Tier 10.0 10 -0.47
Crown
Does Well Allowed Royalty
Qualify for Incentive Incentive
Incentive Volume Volume
Volume? m3 on m3
Jul-00

No 20.31
No 25.16
Yes 1000
Yes 100
No 5.33
No 25.21
No 18.71
Yes 308
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Table Of Contents

Alberta Royalties

In Alberta there are 3 types of oil:

a) new oil (discovered on or after April 1, 1974)

b) third tier oil (discovered on or after Oct 1, 1992)

c) old oil (discovered before April 1974)

Heavy Oil in Alberta is classified as having a

density less than 25.7 API.

Month PAR SELECT PRICE


PRICE OLD NEW THIRD TIER
Jan-00 165.97 26.58 57.12 121.56
Feb-00 177.56 26.93 57.87 123.15
Mar-00 188.85 26.93 57.87 123.15
Apr-00 210.58 26.93 57.87 123.15
May-00 233.43 26.93 57.87 123.15
Jun-00 184.72 26.93 57.87 123.15
Jul-00 202.35 26.93 57.87 123.15
Aug-00 236.96 26.93 57.87 123.15
Sep-00 232.54 26.93 57.87 123.15
Oct-00 218.02 26.93 57.87 123.15
Nov-00 254.13 26.93 57.87 123.15
Dec-00 206.4 26.93 57.87 123.15
Jan-01 180.92 27.77 59.68 127.01
Feb-01 159.94 27.84 59.83 127.32
Mar-01 130.68 27.84 59.83 127.32
Apr-01 160.7 27.84 59.83 127.32
May-01 149.54 27.84 59.83 127.32
Jun-01 151.01 27.84 59.83 127.32
Jul-01 152.75 27.84 59.83 127.32
Aug-01 154.58 27.84 59.83 127.32
Sep-01 168.91 27.84 59.83 127.32
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02
Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Jun-02
Heavy Oil

ROYALTY FACTORS R MULTIPLIERS


OLD NEW THIRD TIER OLD NEW THIRD TIER
2.976720 2.670426 3.000000 3.500000 2.751376 1.802735
2.946956 2.768697 3.000000 3.500000 2.866329 1.919295
2.915792 2.695224 3.000000 3.500000 2.869317 2.043685
2.866594 2.691301 3.000000 3.500000 2.951698 2.245560
2.826029 2.659262 3.000000 3.500000 3.000000 2.417299
2.926675 2.701611 3.000000 3.500000 2.855237 1.999946
2.883793 2.713000 3.000000 3.500000 2.937110 2.174203
2.820549 2.646267 3.000000 3.500000 3.000000 2.440876
2.827440 2.662621 3.000000 3.500000 3.000000 2.411241
2.852321 2.722697 3.000000 3.500000 3.000000 2.305431
2.796325 2.589728 2.910330 3.500000 3.000000 2.500000
2.875132 2.779237 3.000000 3.500000 3.000000 2.210029
2.953314 2.984494 3.000000 3.500000 3.000000 1.893931
3.000000 3.000000 3.000000 3.477804 2.877767 1.611854
3.000000 3.000000 3.000000 3.360882 2.626492 1.077135
3.000000 3.000000 3.000000 3.480274 2.883074 1.623149
3.000000 3.000000 3.000000 3.441487 2.799719 1.445767
3.000000 3.000000 3.000000 3.446924 2.811403 1.470631
3.000000 3.000000 3.000000 3.453224 2.824943 1.499444
3.000000 3.000000 3.000000 3.459697 2.838854 1.529046
2.993372 3.000000 3.000000 3.500000 2.892634 1.738677
Oil and Gas Prices Table of Contents

Bow River
LLB@Hardisty Heavy/Light Differential Koch Posting at Hardisty Edmonton Light NYMEX Natural AECO Spot Gas
Date WTI (US$/bbl) Exchange Rate vs WTI (US$/bbl) (Cdn $/bbl) LLB @ Hardisty (Cdn$/bbl) (Cdn$/bbl) at Edmonton(Cdn$/bbl) Gas (US$/MMBtu) (Cdn$/GJ)
Dec-99 26.09 1.4733 -6.18 8.30 29.24 30 38.30 2.17 3.15
Jan-00 27.01 1.4489 -5.67 6.83 30.92 32.04 38.87 2.34 2.98
Feb-00 29.30 1.4511 -5.04 5.51 35.11 36.34 41.85 2.58 2.89
Mar-00 29.89 1.4606 -5.64 6.27 35.41 37.09 43.36 2.56 3.13
Apr-00 25.54 1.4684 -5.74 5.58 29.04 30.74 36.32 2.93 3.59
May-00 28.81 1.4955 -5.66 5.64 34.58 36.59 42.23 3.11 3.84
Jun-00 31.53 1.4768 -6.05 6.00 37.55 39.76 45.76 4.24 4.61
Jul-00 29.72 1.4779 -6.45 6.81 34.30 36.33 43.14 4.54 5.24
Aug-00 31.14 1.4825 -6.50 6.86 36.40 38.76 45.62 3.75 4.65
Sep-00 33.87 1.4862 -8.02 9.18 38.42 41.34 50.52 4.51
Oct-00 32.93 1.5124 -32.93 18.40 31.93 50.33 6.46
Nov-00 34.26 1.5422 -34.26 21.77 31.12 52.89 7.20
Dec-00 28.40 1.5224 -28.40 21.43 21.82 43.25 11.81
Jan-01 29.26 1.5032 -29.26 18.45 25.58 44.03 10.48
Feb-01 29.64 1.5218 -29.64 17.79 26.72 44.51 7.84
Mar-01 27.27 1.5585 -27.27 15.07 26.20 41.27 7.33
Apr-01 27.62 1.5574 -27.62 15.53 26.51 42.04 7.33
May-01 28.68 1.5415 -28.68 16.12 26.91 43.03 5.58
Jun-01 27.58 1.5300 -27.58 16.00 26.20 42.20 4.44
Jul-01 26.47 1.5300 -26.47 11.19 29.28 40.47 3.35
Aug-01 27.55 1.5400 -27.55 5.71
Sep-01 29.65 1.5710 -29.65 16.50 26.53 43.03
Oct-01 22.21 0.00
Nov-01 19.67 0.00
Dec-01 19.33
Jan-02 19.67
Feb-02 20.74
Mar-02 24.42
Apr-02 26.27
May-02 27.02
Jun-02 25.52
Jul-02 26.95
Aug-02 28.38
Sep-02 29.67
Oct-02 28.85
Nov-02 26.27
Dec-02 29.42
Jan-03 32.94
Feb-03 35.87
Mar-03 33.55
Apr-03 28.25
May-03 28.14
Jun-03 30.72
Jul-03 30.76
Aug-03 31.59
Sep-03 28.29
Oct-03 30.33
Nov-03 31.1
Dec-03 32.11
Jan-04 34.24
Feb-04 34.74
Mar-04 36.51
Apr-04
May-04
Jun-04
Jul-04
Aug-04
Sep-04
Oct-04
Nov-04
Dec-04
Jan-05
Feb-05
Mar-05
Apr-05
May-05
Jun-05
Jul-05
Aug-05
Sep-05
Oct-05
Nov-05
Dec-05
Jan-06
Feb-06
Mar-06
Apr-06 69.44
May-06 70.84
Jun-06 70.95
Jul-06 74.41
Aug-06 73.04
Sep-06 63.8
Oct-06 58.89
Nov-06 59.08
Dec-06 61.96
Jan-07 54.51
Feb-07 59.28
Mar-07 60.44
Apr-07 63.98
May-07 63.45
Jun-07
Oil Price (Cdn$/bbl)

Edmonton Light vs Bow River @ Hardisty


60

50

40

30

20

10

0
Jan-00
Feb-00
Mar-00

Jun-00

Jan-01
Feb-01

Apr-01

Jun-01
Jul-01
Dec-99

Apr-00
May-00

Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00

Mar-01

May-01

Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01

Date
Bow River at Hardisty
Oil Price (US$/bbl)

WTI (US$/bbl)
40

35

30

25

20

15

10

Date
Gas Price (Us$/MMBtu)

AECO Daily Price


14.00

12.00

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

Date
OPEC & World Oil Production

World oil production 2005 is


83 million b/d

OPEC was formed in 1960 when


"7 Sisters"- Exxon, Mobil, BP, Shell etc
cut royalties to producing countries.
OPEC headquarters are in Vienna.
C rude Oil P roduction million bbl/d

OPEC

Saudi Arabia 8
Iran 4
Venezuela 3
Iraq 2.5
UAR 2.5
Nigeria 2.5
OPEC Crude Oil Produc
Kuwait 2
9
Indonesia 1.6
Libya 1.5
Algeria 8 1

OPEC Total 28.6


7 Total
Non-OPEC 37.3

6
Non-OPEC

Former Soviet Union 7


North Sea5 (UK & Norway) 6.9
US 6.8
China 4 3.5
Mexico 3
Canada 2
Oman 3 1
Egypt 1
Brazil 2 1
Columbia 0.75
Argentina 0.75
Angola 1 0.75
Malaysia 0.75
Syria 0 0.6
Australia Saudi Iran Venezuela
0.5 Iraq UAR Nig
India Arabia 0.5
Yemen 0.5
Country
0
Saudi Iran Venezuela Iraq UAR Nig
Arabia
Country
Total 37.3

World Crude Oil Production

57%

Non-OPEC 37 million bbl/d


C r u d e O il P r o d u c t io n M illio n s b b l/ d

Non-OPEC Crude Oil Prod

8
C r u d e O il P r o Non-OPEC Crude Oil Prod

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Country

Kuwait 29%
Venezuela 24% Heavy Oil / Bitumen Reser
Iraq 7%
Former Soviet Union 6%
US 5%
Mexico 5%
China 4%
Saudi Arabia 4%
Brazil 2%
Indonesia 2%
Neutral Zone 1%
Iran 1%
Canada 1%
Others 9% Canada
Iran Others

China Neutral Zone


Indonesia
FormerBrazil
Soviet Union
Canada
Iran Others

China Neutral Zone


Indonesia
FormerBrazil
Mexico Soviet Union
Saudi Arabia Iraq
Venez
US
Table of Contents

OPEC Crude Oil Production

Iraq UAR Nigeria Kuwait Indonesia Libya Algeria

Country
Iraq UAR Nigeria Kuwait Indonesia Libya Algeria

Country

World Crude Oil Production

OPEC 29 million bbl/d

43%

OPEC Total
Non-OPEC Total

on-OPEC Crude Oil Production


on-OPEC Crude Oil Production

Country

avy Oil / Bitumen Reserves

Canada
Iran Others Kuwait

eutral Zone
donesia
Brazil
Soviet Union
Canada
Iran Others Kuwait

eutral Zone
donesia
Soviet Union
Brazil
Arabia Iraq
Venezuela
Algeria
Algeria

EC Total
-OPEC Total
Progressing Cavity Pumps (PCP's)

Definitions:

PCP's consist of 2 components:

1) metallic rotor
2) elastomer stator

When the rotor turns, the fluid moves


along pump axis inside the cavities between
the rotor and stator. The flow rate depends
on the rotor diameter, length of stator
pitch and pump eccentricity. The
eccentricity is the distance between the
centre-line of the rotor and the centre-
line of the stator.

The geometry of PCP's is defined by


the number of lobes of the rotor, then the
number of lobes of the stator. A 1-2 pump
would be a PCP with a single helical rotor
and a double helical stator.
A. Pump Displacement

Eccentricity of rotor/stator 5 mm
Number of rotations per minute 150 rpm
Rotor Diameter 40 mm
Stator Pitch, Ps 40 mm
Leak rate per minute 0.01 ml/min

Actual Pump Flow Rate 4800000 ml/min


or 6.91 m3/d

B. Pressure Drop Along Tubing/Resistant Torque

Tubing inside diameter 7.2 cm


Rod String Diameter 5.1 cm
Pumping Rate 10 m3/d
Viscosity at Perforations 5000 cp
Viscosity at Surface 4990 cp
Length of tubing 450 m
Rotating Speed 150 rpm
Drive String Diameter 5.1 cm

Pressure Drop due to Friction 13.91 kPa


Resistant Torque 35.14 daN-m

C. IPR Curve

Calculate IPR Curve

Input:
Bubble Point Pressure 1825 psia
Reservoir Pressure 3620 psia
Bottomhole Flowing Pressure 1980 psia
Measured Oil Rate 108 b/d

Output
Productivity Index J 0.0659 b/d/psi
Oil Rate at Bubble Point 118.2 b/d/psi
Maximum Oil Rate 178.3 b/d

Oil Rate b/d Pwf, psi


0.0 3620
23.8 3258
47.7 2896
71.5 2534
95.4 2172
119.2 1810
140.5 1448
157.0 1086
F lo w in g B o tto m h o le P re s s u re p s i

168.8 724
175.9 362
178.3 0

IPR

4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0 200.0
Oil Rate b/d

D Sucker Rod Pump

Input

Pump Speed, strokes per min 5 s/m


Plunger Area 50 in2
Effective Plunger Stroke 12 in
Volumetric Efficiency 0.7 fraction

Output
Pump Rate 311.64 b/d
Table of Contents
140.0 160.0 180.0 200.0
Steam Distribution System

Calculates number of expansion


loops, line size, pressure drop
and quality change from generator
to wellhead.

Input:

Distance between generator and wells 792.6


Loop height 6.09
Thermal expansion factor 1.08E-05
Assumed pipe diameter 220
Generator Output Pressure 14000
Wellhead Pressure 13560
Steam flow rate 200
Insulation Thickness 50
Ambient temperature 10
Answer "yes" to which present:
Long elbows yes
Mitre-weld elbows

Output:

Thermal expansion factor 3.527


Distance between expansion loops 39.83
Output generator steam temperature 336.6
Number of Loops Required 20
Actual Distance between loops 39.6
Length of pipe needed 1036.2
Equivalent length constant 0.0816
Equivalent length pipe 1395.2
B&W friction factor 0.0112
Average Pressure beteen generator and wellhead 13780
Pressure Correction Factor 0.339684
Pressure Drop for 7000 kPa steam 928
Table of Contents

m
m
mm/mm per deg K
mm
kPa
kPa
m3/d
mm
deg C

mm/m
m
deg C

m
m

kPa

kPa/1000m
Minimum Miscibility Pressure and VAPEX

A. MMP
Based on Glaso's Correlations
JPT Dec 1985

Input:

Reservoir Temperature 33.6


Specific gravity of C7+ in Stock tank oil 0.87
Methane Content in injection Gas 58
Molecular Weight C2 to C6 in Injection Gas 44

Output:

Corrected MW of C7+ in Stock Tank Oil 264

34 MMP for MW(C2-C6) of 34 13857


44 MMP for MW(C2-C6) of 44 9472
54 MMP for MW(C2-C6) of 54 7483

Interpolation

Intercept = 24293.0392297206
Slope = -318.6849787521

Interpolated MMP for MW (C2-C6) of


44
is 10271

B. Nitrogen Minimum Miscibility Pressure

Based on Lawrence-Sebastian Correlation


SPE 24134

Input:

Reservoir Temperature 33.6


Mol Fraction Methane in Oil 0.2393
Mol Fraction C2 to C6 including CO2 0.0231
Molecular Weight C7+ in oil 482.96
Output:

Nitrogen MMP 61880

Problem:

How does the Nitrogen MMP vary with


molecular weight C7+ in the oil? If the
concentration of the intermediates or
methane in the oil increase, does the
MMP increase or decrease?

C. CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressure

1) Based on Cronquist DOE 1978

Input:

Reservoir Temperature 32.2


Molecular Weight C5+ of oil 267
Mole Percent N2 and Methane in oil 10.4

Output:

CO2 MMP 12690

2) Alston Correlation (SPEJ April 1985, pg 268)

Input:
Reservoir Temperature 32
Molecular Weight C5+ 280
Volatile Oil fraction (C1+N2) 27.38
Intermediate fraction (C2,C3,C4,CO2,H2S) 7.47

Output:
CO2 MMP 12043

3) Based on Yellig-Metcalfe JPT Jan 1980

Input:

Reservoir Temperature 32
Bubble Point Pressure 10700
Output:

CO2 MMP 10700

4) Based on PRI

Input:

Reservoir Temperature 32.2

Output:

MMP 7562

5) Based on Yuan (2004), SPE 89359

Input:

Reservoir Temperature 93.3


Molecular weight C7+ fraction 148.9
Mole percent of C2-C6 14.11
Mole percent CO2 in injection gas (C1<40%) 60

Output

MMP for pure CO2 17333


MMP for impure CO2 25598

D. VAPEX Calculations
For binary mixtures, liquid & gas compositions if given mole fractions

Input:

Reservoir Temperature 33
Operating Pressure 8500
Convergence Pressure at reservoir temperature 1500
Mole fraction component A 0.7
Mole fraction component B 0.3
K value component A at res. Temp 1.8
K value component B at res. Temp 0.46

Output:

Total System that is vapor 0.921


Fraction Component A in Liquid Phase 0.403
Fraction Component B in Liquid Phase 0.597
Component A in Vapor Phase 0.725
Component B in Vapor Phase 0.275

Dewpoint Calculations For Binary System


Fill in 2 Pressure/K values from GPSA handbook

Input:

Pressure in kPa K for Component A


8500 1.8
5000 3.4
1000 15

Output:

Dewpoint Pressure 7465


Bubblepoint Pressure 9919

Recall that the dew point is the pressure at a given temperature at which an all vapor system begins to condense
while the bubble point is that pressure at a given temperature where an all liquid system begins to vaporize.

Vapor Pressure Curves for Pure Components GPSA Fig 16-21,16-22

Temperature deg C Vapor Pressure Methane


kPa
-125 1000
-100 3000
-50 11000
0
25
50
75
100
Vapor Pressure kPa

Vapor Pressure

12000

10000

8000
Methane Ethane
6000

4000
Vapor Pressu
Vapor Pressure

12000

10000

8000
Methane Ethane
6000

4000

2000

0
-150 -100 -50 0 50
Temperature deg C

Input

Enter Temperature 20
Vapor Pressure Methane above critical point, single phase
Vapor Pressure Ethane 4091
Vapor Pressure Propane 981
Vapor Pressure Butane

Multicomponent System
Assume
Find the dewpoint of a gas: Convergence Press=2000 psi

Component Mole Fraction


N2 0.003
C1 0.9163
C2 0.0572
C3 0.0163
iC4 0.0029
nC4 0.0031
iC5+ 0.0012

Total 1

As can be seen, the above gas dewpoint is


close to -40 deg F.
Assume
Find the dewpoint of a gas: Convergence Press=2000 psi

Component Mole Fraction


N2 0.1205
C1 0.8687
C2 0.01
C3 0.0003
iC4 0.0003
nC4 0
iC5+ 0.0002

Total 1

As can be seen, the above gas dewpoint is


close to -40 deg F.

Assume
Find the dewpoint of a gas: Convergence Press=1000 psi

Component Mole Fraction


N2 0.069
C1 0.916
C2 0.012
C3 0.0011
iC4 0.0014
nC4 0.0002
iC5+ 0.0003

Total 1

Assume
Convergence Press=800 psi
Find the dewpoint of a gas:

Component Mole Fraction


N2 0.0844
C1 0.9038
C2 0.0095
C3 0.0006
iC4 0.0009
nC4 0.0001
iC5+ 0.0007

Total 1
Total

E. Reduction in Viscosity Due to VAPEX


Uses Puttagunta Method JCPT vol 36 Jan 1997 pg 50

Puttagunta Constants:

C -3.002
b 5.081181246
S 3.5704134273
Bo 0.0322678939
d -0.0017686162
CH4
CO2
C2H6

Input:

Viscosity Measurement @ 101 kPa & 30 deg C 120


Table of Contents

Notes:

deg C For CO2 injection:


no units Use MW (C2-C6) = 44 kg/kmol
mol % & Methane Content = 58%
kg/kmol

kg/kmol

kPa
kPa
kPa

MMP for CO2 Flood by Glaso is:

kPa 9481 kPa

deg C
no units
no units
kg/kmol
kPa

deg C
kg/kmol
percent

kPa

deg C
g/g-mol
mol %
mol %

kPa

deg C
kPa
kPa

deg C

kPa

deg C
no units
percent
percent

kPa
kPa -0.0119208662

deg C
kPa GPSA Fig 18-2
psia (check Res. Temp and binary mixture)
fraction Use correct Convergence Press for bin mixture
fraction
no units (GPSA)
no units (GPSA)

fraction
fraction
fraction
fraction
fraction

K Compt B Za/Ka + Zb/Kb ZaKa+ZbKb


0.46 1.041 1.398
0.44 0.888 2.512
1.3 0.277 10.89
Sum

kPa at 33 deg C
kPa at 33 deg C

ll vapor system begins to condense,


uid system begins to vaporize.

Sum

Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure Propane Vap Press n-Butane


Ethane, kPa kPa kPa
8 0.22
52 2.6 0.8
550 65 10
2400 470 100
4300 950 240
7000 1775 500
3000 910
4500 1650

ressure

Ethane

Propane
ressure

Ethane

Propane

Butane

0 50 100 150
rature deg C

deg C
kPa Critical Temp Methane = -83 deg C
kPa Critical Temp Ethane = 32 deg C
kPa Critical Temp Propane = 97 deg C
kPa

Operating Press
1000 psi
K=0 deg F Y/K K=-20 deg F Y/K
4 0.001 4 0.001
2.3 0.398 2.25 0.407
0.46 0.124 0.45 0.127
0.17 0.096 0.15 0.109
0.081 0.036 0.07 0.041
0.06 0.052 0.048 0.065
0.025 0.048 0.018 0.067

(GPSA) 0.755 (GPSA) 0.816


Operating Press
1000 psi
K=0 deg F Y/K K=-20 deg F Y/K
4 0.030 4 0.030
2.3 0.378 2.25 0.386
0.46 0.022 0.45 0.022
0.17 0.002 0.15 0.002
0.081 0.004 0.07 0.004
0.06 0.000 0.048 0.000
0.025 0.008 0.018 0.011

(GPSA) 0.443 (GPSA) 0.456

Operating Press
800 psi
K=-20 deg F Y/K K=-40 deg F Y/K
2.8 0.025 2.7 0.026
1.5 0.611 1.6 0.573
0.56 0.021 0.48 0.025
0.24 0.005 0.14 0.008
0.1 0.014 0.08 0.018
0.075 0.003 0.06 0.003
0.05 0.006 0.035 0.009

(GPSA) 0.684 (GPSA) 0.660

Operating Press
800 psi
K=0 deg F Y/K K=-20 deg F Y/K
1.1 0.077 1.3 0.065
1.2 0.753 1.1 0.822
0.9 0.011 0.9 0.011
0.8 0.001 0.5 0.001
0.4 0.002 0.2 0.005
0.3 0.000 0.25 0.000
0.15 0.005 0.1 0.007

(GPSA) 0.848 (GPSA) 0.910

cp
Pressure kPa

Dewpoint Determination

9000
8000 f(x) = 21302.6111700543x^2 - 18265.9148901985x + 4427.9440824595
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
Pressure kPa
Dewpoint Determination

9000
8000 f(x) = 21302.6111700543x^2 - 18265.9148901985x + 4427.9440824595
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800 0.900 1.000 1.100
Za/Ka+Zb/Kb

Za/Ka +Zb/Kb P
x y x2 x3 x4 xy x2y
1.041 8500 1.083811758 1.12832 1.1746 8849.034 9212.40
0.888 5000 0.788012239 0.69952 0.6210 4438.503 3940.06
0.277 1000 0.076970677 0.02135 0.0059 277.4359 76.97
2.206 14500.000 1.949 1.849 1.802 13565.0 13229.4

Det 0.0051078
A 21302.611
B -18265.915
C 4427.9441

ZaKa+ZbKb P
x y x2 x3 x4 xy x2y
1.398 8500 1.954404 2.7 3.8 11883.0 16612.4
2.512 5000 6.310144 15.9 39.8 12560.0 31550.7
10.890 1000 118.5921 1291.5 14064.1 10890.0 118592.1
14.800 14500.000 126.857 1310.1 14107.7 35333.0 166755.3

Det 7848.1366
A 280.69852
B -4239.3624
C 13878.03
K=-40 deg F Y/K
3.9 0.001
2.1 0.436
0.325 0.176
0.12 0.136
0.042 0.069
0.035 0.089
0.012 0.100

(GPSA) 1.007
K=-40 deg F Y/K
3.9 0.031
2.1 0.414
0.325 0.031
0.12 0.003
0.042 0.007
0.035 0.000
0.012 0.017

(GPSA) 0.502

K=-60 deg F Y/K K=-80 deg F Y/K


2 0.035 2 0.035
1.3 0.705 1.3 0.705
0.35 0.034 0.33 0.036
0.15 0.007 0.1 0.011
0.07 0.020 0.04 0.035
0.05 0.004 0.04 0.005
0.035 0.009 0.035 0.009

(GPSA) 0.813 (GPSA) 0.835

K=-40 deg F Y/K K=-60 deg F Y/K


1.7 0.050 1.2 0.070
1.2 0.753 1.1 0.822
0.8 0.012 0.65 0.015
0.3 0.002 0.25 0.002
0.25 0.004 0.1 0.009
0.3 0.000 0.15 0.001
0.1 0.007 0.15 0.005

(GPSA) 0.828 (GPSA) 0.923


EOR Parameters

A. Residual Oil Saturation


for Gas Injection EOR

Based on Lange Correlation


SPE Reservoir Engineering April 1998

Input:

Critical Pressure of Injectant Gas 4604 kPa


Density of Injected Gas 300 kg/m3
Critical Density of Injected Gas 162.074 kg/m3
Oil Average Molecular Weight 300 kg/kmol
Reservoir Temperature 50 deg C

Output:

Reduced Density of Injectant 1.8510063304 no unit


Crude Oil Solubility Parameter 9.29 (cal/cm3)^0.5
Gas Solubility Parameter 5.8620840732 (cal/cm3)^0.5
Miscible Residual Oil Saturation 0.094 fraction

B. Critical Temperature, Critical


Pressure and Acentric Factor for
Heavy Undefined Fractions

Based on SPE 64996 by Stamataki


and Magoulas

Input:

Molecular Weight 595


Specific Gravity at 15 deg C 1.075

Output:

Critical Temperature 1086.30 deg K


Critical Pressure 203.61 kPa
Acentric factor 1.84 no units
Table of Contents

Physical Constants

Critical Critical
Compound Pressure, kPaa Density, kg/m3

Methane 4604 162.074


Ethane 4880 203.252
Propane 4249 217.391
CO2 7382 467.289
Nitrogen 3399 310.559

Bitumen Properties

Heavy Oil Molecular Weight Specific gravity


at 15 deg C

Athabasca 595 1.075


Cold Lake 533 1.024
Peace River 527.5 1.05
Wabasca 446.5 1.007
Cold Lake 568
EOR Royalty Calculations

Working Interest 100.00 percent


Crown interest 100.00 percent
T factor 0.75 fraction

Overhead Allowance 15 percent

Gas Processing Cost $10.00 $/e3 m3


Transportation cost $20,000.00
Fuel Gas Consumed 125 e3 m3

Capital Costs
Unamortized Balance Jan 1 $1,000,000.00
Capital addition $250,000.00
Total Capital $1,250,000.00
Amortization 30 percent

Effective Royalty Rate 20 percent

Price & Royalty Rate Assumptions

Reference Price Royalty Rate,%


per GJ/m3
Gas $2.00 25
Propane $75.00 30
Butane $90.00 30
Pentane $120.00 35
Crude oil $120.00 25

Injection and Production Volumes

Product Injection Production Injected Proprietary

Gas (GJ) 100000 70000 70000


Gas (e3 m3) 2500 1750 1750
Propane m3 5000 4000 4000
Butane m3 3000 2500 2500
Pentane m3 1000 1500 1000
Oil m3 40000
Net Breakthrough Volume e3 m3 2000
Table of Contents

Injected Purchased

30000
750
1000
500
0
A. Radionuclide Half-Life
Measurements

Radionuclide Half Life

Tritiated Water 12.25 yr


F
18
1.829 hr
Na
22
950.9 d
Na
24
14.95 hr
Co
57
272.1 d
Co
58
70.77 d
Fe
59
44.5 d
Co
60
1925.1 d
Kr
85
3934.4 d
Sr
85
64.85 d
123
I 13.2 hr
125
I 59.5 d
127
Xe 36.3 d
131
I 8.0 d
133
Xe 5.2 d
134
Cs 753.8 d
137
Cs 30.2 yr
139
Cs 137.7 d
Table of Contents
Characterization Of Heavy Undefined Fractions

Based on SPE 64996


by Stamataki & Magoulas
Houston Conf 2001 Bitumen

Athabasca
Input: Cold Lake
Peace River
Molecular Weight 595 no units Wabasca
Specific Gravity 1.07 no units

Output:

Acentric factor 1.843 no units


Critical Temperature 1082.53 deg K
Critical Pressure 746.50 kPa
Table of Contents

Properties of Bitumens

Specific
Molecular Weight Gravity @ 15 deg C

595 1.075
533 1.024
527.5 1.05
446.5 1.007
Mining Table of Contents

A. Ore Grade Bitumen Recovery


Based on Shell's Muskeg River

Input:

Ore Grade 10 wt %

Output:

Bitumen Recovery 88.51 % OOIP


A. Crude Oil Treating

Determines the Amount of Gas


Needed to Run Treater

Assumes Freewater has been knocked


out, and the water remaining is less
than 10% of the oil

Input:

Vessel Inlet Temperature 27 deg C


Vessel Outlet Temperature 31 deg C
Specific Gravity Oil 0.96 fraction
Oil Inlet Rate 8000 m3/d

Output:

Heat Input Required 3.15E+06 Btu/hr or 924


Natural Gas Required 3.17 MCF/hr or 2.14
Table of Contents

kW
e3 m3/d
Example: Minimum Catalyst for Metals Removal
What is the minimum catalyst consumption, based on metals removal, for a plant treating 50,000 bbl/day of raw bitumen?
Feed rate 50000 bbl/d
Density 14.6 API
or 968.5147 kg/m3
Feed rate 7699692 kg/d
Assume that the volume of metal sulfides can be approximated as V 2S3
Vanadium In 170 ppm
V out 23 ppm
Removal 147 ppm
(Ignore change in mass of oil through primary conversion stage)
Removal rate 1131.855 kg/d V
Mass V sulfide 2198.384 kg/d
Density of V2S3 4700 kg/m3 from CRC Handbook of Physics and Chemistry
Volume of V2S3 0.467741 m3/d

Assume that pores of spent catalyst are full of V sulfide (gives minimum catalyst needed)

Pore volume of catalyst 0.4 mL/g


0.4 L/kg
0.0004 m3/kg catalyst
Minimum catalyst required 1169 kg/d

80% pores filled 1462 kg/d


60% pores filled 1949 kg/d
(The last estimate is probably most reasonable)

Minimum requirement 1169 kg/d of fresh catalyst


bl/day of raw bitumen?

hysics and Chemistry


Date US Value Can Value
Jan-71 0.9883376 1.0118
Feb-71 0.9925558 1.0075
Mar-71 0.9936407 1.0064
Apr-71 0.9923588 1.0077 Canadian Dollar Value Comp
May-71 0.991375 1.0087
Jun-71 0.9791442 1.0213
Jul-71 0.9791442 1.0213 1.2
Aug-71 0.9871668 1.013
Sep-71 0.9871668 1.013
Oct-71 0.995322 1.0047
1

US Dollar
Nov-71 0.9961152 1.0039
Dec-71 1.0007005 0.9993
Jan-72 0.9941346 1.0059
Feb-72 0.995322 1.0047
Mar-72 1.0015023 0.9985 0.8
Apr-72 1.0043186 0.9957
May-72 1.0112246 0.9889
Jun-72 1.020929 0.9795
Jul-72 1.0162602 0.984 0.6
Aug-72 1.0179153 0.9824
Sep-72 1.017294 0.983
Oct-72 1.0176046 0.9827
Nov-72 1.0127608 0.9874
0.4
Dec-72 1.0032103 0.9968
Jan-73 1.0007005 0.9993
Feb-73 1.0044194 0.9956
Mar-73 1.0033109 0.9967
0.2
Apr-73 0.9993005 1.0007
May-73 0.9992006 1.0008
Jun-73 1.0016026 0.9984
Jul-73 1.0005003 0.9995
0
Aug-73 0.9961152 1.0039
Jan-71 Jan-76 Jan-81 Jan-86 Jan-91
Sep-73 0.9917683 1.0083 Date
Oct-73 0.9989012 1.0011
Nov-73 1.0009008 0.9991
Dec-73 1.0006004 0.9994
Jan-74 1.0085729 0.9915
Feb-74 1.0239607 0.9766
Mar-74 1.0288066 0.972
Apr-74 1.0334849 0.9676
May-74 1.039177 0.9623
Jun-74 1.0347682 0.9664
Jul-74 1.0242753 0.9763
Aug-74 1.0205123 0.9799
Sep-74 1.0137875 0.9864
Oct-74 1.017294 0.983
Nov-74 1.0127608 0.9874
Dec-74 1.0119409 0.9882
Jan-75 1.0052272 0.9948
Feb-75 0.9996002 1.0004
Mar-75 0.9995002 1.0005
Apr-75 0.9891197 1.011
May-75 0.9721952 1.0286
Jun-75 0.974279 1.0264
Jul-75 0.9700262 1.0309
Aug-75 0.9658103 1.0354
Sep-75 0.974374 1.0263
Oct-75 0.9755146 1.0251
Nov-75 0.9862906 1.0139
Dec-75 0.9862906 1.0139
Jan-76 0.993542 1.0065
Feb-76 1.0065425 0.9935
Mar-76 1.0143017 0.9859
Apr-76 1.0166734 0.9836
May-76 1.0202 0.9802
Jun-76 1.0271159 0.9736
Jul-76 1.0285949 0.9722
Aug-76 1.0148163 0.9854
Sep-76 1.0255358 0.9751
Oct-76 1.0280662 0.9727
Nov-76 1.0143017 0.9859
Dec-76 0.9820289 1.0183
Jan-77 0.989805 1.0103
Feb-77 0.9728573 1.0279
Mar-77 0.9512033 1.0513
Apr-77 0.9510223 1.0515
May-77 0.9536525 1.0486
Jun-77 0.9454477 1.0577
Jul-77 0.9423294 1.0612
Aug-77 0.9302326 1.075
Sep-77 0.931706 1.0733
Oct-77 0.9100009 1.0989
Nov-77 0.9014694 1.1093
Dec-77 0.9113278 1.0973
Jan-78 0.9081003 1.1012
Feb-78 0.8984726 1.113
Mar-78 0.8882572 1.1258
Apr-78 0.8758868 1.1417
May-78 0.8939746 1.1186
Jun-78 0.8914245 1.1218
Jul-78 0.8892051 1.1246
Aug-78 0.8768853 1.1404
Sep-78 0.8573388 1.1664
Oct-78 0.8454515 1.1828
Nov-78 0.8524422 1.1731
Dec-78 0.8476013 1.1798
Jan-79 0.8404068 1.1899
Feb-79 0.8364001 1.1956
Mar-79 0.8518613 1.1739
Apr-79 0.8722959 1.1464
May-79 0.8653513 1.1556
Jun-79 0.8529512 1.1724
Jul-79 0.8591803 1.1639
Aug-79 0.8542628 1.1706
Sep-79 0.8581481 1.1653
Oct-79 0.8507742 1.1754
Nov-79 0.8476731 1.1797
Dec-79 0.8547009 1.17
Jan-80 0.8591065 1.164
Feb-80 0.8654262 1.1555
Mar-80 0.8524422 1.1731
Apr-80 0.8430992 1.1861
May-80 0.8517162 1.1741
Jun-80 0.8683571 1.1516
Jul-80 0.8678296 1.1523
Aug-80 0.8626639 1.1592
Sep-80 0.8585902 1.1647
Oct-80 0.8553588 1.1691
Nov-80 0.842886 1.1864
Dec-80 0.8355615 1.1968
Jan-81 0.8397011 1.1909
Feb-81 0.8344459 1.1984
Mar-81 0.8393487 1.1914
Apr-81 0.8396306 1.191
May-81 0.8326395 1.201
Jun-81 0.8304958 1.2041
Jul-81 0.8259684 1.2107
Aug-81 0.8175278 1.2232
Sep-81 0.8327781 1.2008
Oct-81 0.8313243 1.2029
Nov-81 0.8423181 1.1872
Dec-81 0.8438106 1.1851
Jan-82 0.8385041 1.1926
Feb-82 0.8237232 1.214
Mar-82 0.8193363 1.2205
Apr-82 0.8161933 1.2252
May-82 0.8106355 1.2336
Jun-82 0.7839448 1.2756
Jul-82 0.7874016 1.27
Aug-82 0.8030838 1.2452
Sep-82 0.8098477 1.2348
Oct-82 0.812942 1.2301
Nov-82 0.8155276 1.2262
Dec-82 0.8074283 1.2385
Jan-83 0.8138683 1.2287
Feb-83 0.8145312 1.2277
Mar-83 0.8154611 1.2263
Apr-83 0.811359 1.2325
May-83 0.8135373 1.2292
Jun-83 0.8114907 1.2323
Jul-83 0.8114907 1.2323
Aug-83 0.8105041 1.2338
Sep-83 0.8112932 1.2326
Oct-83 0.8116883 1.232
Nov-83 0.8086035 1.2367
Dec-83 0.8019889 1.2469
Jan-84 0.8010253 1.2484
Feb-84 0.8012821 1.248
Mar-84 0.7875876 1.2697
Apr-84 0.7814942 1.2796
May-84 0.7725587 1.2944
Jun-84 0.7668712 1.304
Jul-84 0.7554011 1.3238
Aug-84 0.7671653 1.3035
Sep-84 0.7607455 1.3145
Oct-84 0.7581501 1.319
Nov-84 0.7594168 1.3168
Dec-84 0.7575184 1.3201
Jan-85 0.755287 1.324
Feb-85 0.7381708 1.3547
Mar-85 0.7225434 1.384
Apr-85 0.7321716 1.3658
May-85 0.7269555 1.3756
Jun-85 0.731208 1.3676
Jul-85 0.7393169 1.3526
Aug-85 0.7366483 1.3575
Sep-85 0.7297672 1.3703
Oct-85 0.7316895 1.3667
Nov-85 0.7264802 1.3765
Dec-85 0.716589 1.3955
Jan-86 0.7107321 1.407
Feb-86 0.7120986 1.4043
Mar-86 0.7138268 1.4009
Apr-86 0.720513 1.3879
May-86 0.7269027 1.3757
Jun-86 0.7194762 1.3899
Jul-86 0.7242178 1.3808
Aug-86 0.7202017 1.3885
Sep-86 0.7208246 1.3873
Oct-86 0.7202017 1.3885
Nov-86 0.7213446 1.3863
Dec-86 0.7245852 1.3801
Jan-87 0.7349699 1.3606
Feb-87 0.7496252 1.334
Mar-87 0.7579203 1.3194
Apr-87 0.7580352 1.3192
May-87 0.7456566 1.3411
Jun-87 0.7469934 1.3387
Jul-87 0.7540341 1.3262
Aug-87 0.7543754 1.3256
Sep-87 0.760225 1.3154
Oct-87 0.7635336 1.3097
Nov-87 0.7594744 1.3167
Dec-87 0.7648184 1.3075
Jan-88 0.7779074 1.2855
Feb-88 0.7885192 1.2682
Mar-88 0.8005123 1.2492
Apr-88 0.80952 1.2353
May-88 0.8082114 1.2373
Jun-88 0.8212878 1.2176
Jul-88 0.8281573 1.2075
Aug-88 0.8171938 1.2237
Sep-88 0.8151952 1.2267
Oct-88 0.8295313 1.2055
Nov-88 0.8206138 1.2186
Dec-88 0.8359806 1.1962
Jan-89 0.8394191 1.1913
Feb-89 0.8409722 1.1891
Mar-89 0.8365401 1.1954
Apr-89 0.8411844 1.1888
May-89 0.8385744 1.1925
Jun-89 0.8343067 1.1986
Jul-89 0.8409722 1.1891
Aug-89 0.8504848 1.1758
Sep-89 0.8454515 1.1828
Oct-89 0.8511363 1.1749
Nov-89 0.8549201 1.1697
Dec-89 0.8611039 1.1613
Jan-90 0.8532423 1.172
Feb-90 0.835771 1.1965
Mar-90 0.8474576 1.18
Apr-90 0.8590327 1.1641
May-90 0.8512812 1.1747
Jun-90 0.8525149 1.173
Jul-90 0.8643042 1.157
Aug-90 0.873515 1.1448
Sep-90 0.8633342 1.1583
Oct-90 0.862069 1.16
Nov-90 0.8594757 1.1635
Dec-90 0.8618461 1.1603
Jan-91 0.8650519 1.156
Feb-91 0.8658758 1.1549
Mar-91 0.8641549 1.1572
Apr-91 0.8669267 1.1535
May-91 0.8696408 1.1499
Jun-91 0.8742023 1.1439
Jul-91 0.8700948 1.1493
Aug-91 0.8732099 1.1452
Sep-91 0.8795075 1.137
Oct-91 0.8866034 1.1279
Nov-91 0.8847992 1.1302
Dec-91 0.8720677 1.1467
Jan-92 0.8642295 1.1571
Feb-92 0.845666 1.1825
Mar-92 0.8383635 1.1928
Apr-92 0.8421762 1.1874
May-92 0.8339588 1.1991
Jun-92 0.8361204 1.196
Jul-92 0.8386448 1.1924
Aug-92 0.8398421 1.1907
Sep-92 0.8179959 1.2225
Oct-92 0.8030194 1.2453
Nov-92 0.7890169 1.2674
Dec-92 0.7858546 1.2725
Jan-93 0.7825338 1.2779
Feb-93 0.7935248 1.2602
Mar-93 0.8018603 1.2471
Apr-93 0.7923302 1.2621
May-93 0.7875256 1.2698
Jun-93 0.781922 1.2789
Jul-93 0.7800312 1.282
Aug-93 0.764526 1.308
Sep-93 0.7567159 1.3215
Oct-93 0.7539772 1.3263
Nov-93 0.7590709 1.3174
Dec-93 0.7514277 1.3308
Jan-94 0.7591285 1.3173
Feb-94 0.7449344 1.3424
Mar-94 0.7329229 1.3644
Apr-94 0.7230658 1.383
May-94 0.7242178 1.3808
Jun-94 0.7227522 1.3836
Jul-94 0.723275 1.3826
Aug-94 0.7255315 1.3783
Sep-94 0.7385524 1.354
Oct-94 0.7405762 1.3503
Nov-94 0.7327618 1.3647
Dec-94 0.7197869 1.3893
Jan-95 0.7076139 1.4132
Feb-95 0.7140307 1.4005
Mar-95 0.7103786 1.4077
Apr-95 0.7266386 1.3762
May-95 0.7348078 1.3609
Jun-95 0.7259528 1.3775
Jul-95 0.7346459 1.3612
Aug-95 0.7378985 1.3552
Sep-95 0.7402472 1.3509
Oct-95 0.7430525 1.3458
Nov-95 0.7388799 1.3534
Dec-95 0.7303002 1.3693
Jan-96 0.7315824 1.3669
Feb-96 0.727167 1.3752
Mar-96 0.7322789 1.3656
Apr-96 0.7357269 1.3592
May-96 0.7303002 1.3693
Jun-96 0.7321716 1.3658
Jul-96 0.7300869 1.3697
Aug-96 0.7287567 1.3722
Sep-96 0.7302468 1.3694
Oct-96 0.740302 1.3508
Nov-96 0.7473283 1.3381
Dec-96 0.7341066 1.3622
Jan-97 0.7410701 1.3494
Feb-97 0.7376807 1.3556
Mar-97 0.7285974 1.3725
Apr-97 0.7172572 1.3942
May-97 0.7244277 1.3804
Jun-97 0.7223868 1.3843
Jul-97 0.7259528 1.3775
Aug-97 0.7191658 1.3905
Sep-97 0.7208766 1.3872
Oct-97 0.7210325 1.3869
Nov-97 0.7078143 1.4128
Dec-97 0.7007217 1.4271
Jan-98 0.6940107 1.4409
Feb-98 0.697642 1.4334
Mar-98 0.7059156 1.4166
Apr-98 0.6993985 1.4298
May-98 0.6919458 1.4452
Jun-98 0.682361 1.4655
Jul-98 0.6725402 1.4869
Aug-98 0.6516356 1.5346
Sep-98 0.6571166 1.5218
Oct-98 0.6471654 1.5452
Nov-98 0.649182 1.5404
Dec-98 0.6479622 1.5433
Jan-99 0.6581545 1.5194
Feb-99 0.6676905 1.4977
Mar-99 0.6589352 1.5176
Apr-99 0.6719978 1.4881
May-99 0.6844159 1.4611
Jun-99 0.6805036 1.4695
Jul-99 0.6715917 1.489
Aug-99 0.6697027 1.4932
Sep-99 0.6770022 1.4771
Oct-99 0.6767731 1.4776
Nov-99 0.6814774 1.4674
Dec-99 0.6792555 1.4722
Jan-00 0.6903217 1.4486
Feb-00 0.6890849 1.4512
Mar-00 0.6845564 1.4608
Apr-00 0.6807815 1.4689
May-00 0.6685833 1.4957
Jun-00 0.6770481 1.477
Jul-00 0.6766816 1.4778
Aug-00 0.6743998 1.4828
Sep-00 0.6727664 1.4864
Oct-00 0.661157 1.5125
Nov-00 0.6482562 1.5426
Dec-00 0.6570734 1.5219
Jan-01 0.6652475 1.5032
Feb-01 0.6572029 1.5216
Mar-01 0.6415603 1.5587
Apr-01 0.6419309 1.5578
May-01 0.6488872 1.5411
Jun-01 0.6559528 1.5245
Jul-01 0.6532532 1.5308
Aug-01 0.6493928 1.5399
Sep-01 0.6377958 1.5679
Oct-01 0.6362537 1.5717
Nov-01 0.6280618 1.5922
Dec-01 0.6333924 1.5788
Jan-02 0.6251172 1.5997
Feb-02 0.6264094 1.5964
Mar-02 0.6298419 1.5877
Apr-02 0.6323111 1.5815
May-02 0.6450781 1.5502
Jun-02 0.6528267 1.5318
Jul-02 0.6469979 1.5456
Aug-02 0.6371862 1.5694
Sep-02 0.6344775 1.5761
Oct-02 0.6337136 1.578
Nov-02 0.6363347 1.5715
Dec-02 0.6413545 1.5592
Jan-03 0.6487609 1.5414
Feb-03 0.6613319 1.5121
Mar-03 0.6774609 1.4761
Apr-03 0.685777 1.4582
May-03 0.7401925 1.351
Jun-03 0.7393715 1.3525
Jul-03 0.7235366 1.3821
Aug-03 0.7161785 1.3963
Sep-03 0.7334605 1.3634
Oct-03 0.7565441 1.3218
Nov-03 0.7618467 1.3126
Dec-03 0.7617307 1.3128
Jan-04 0.7716049 1.296
Feb-04 0.7524454 1.329
Mar-04 0.752672 1.3286
Apr-04 0.7451565 1.342
May-04 0.7252158 1.3789
Jun-04 0.7364855 1.3578
Jul-04 0.7561437 1.3225
Aug-04 0.7617887 1.3127
Sep-04 0.7763372 1.2881
Oct-04
Nov-04
Dec-04
Jan-05
Feb-05
Mar-05
Apr-05
May-05
ar Value Compared to US $

Jan-86 Jan-91 Jan-96 Jan-01 Jan-06 Jan-11


Date
References:
Books

Author

Abou-Kassem J, S Farouq-Ali, M Islam


Ahmed T
Boberg,T.C
Butler, R.M
Butler, R.M
CHOA
Cholet,H
Cholet,H
CIM
CIM
Dake L
Hong, K.C
Lake, L.W.
Latil M
Meyer, R.F.
Meyer, R.F.
Nickle Carl
Prats, M
SPE
SPE
SPE
SPE
SPE
SPE
Weiss, M

Websites
www.acr-alberta.com/
http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/index.html
www.arc.ab.ca
www.resdev.gov.ab.ca
aset.worldgate.com
www.api.org
www.apegga.org
www.petroleumplace.com
http://www.landman.ca/index2.html
www.capp.ca
www.choa.ab.ca
www.cnrl.com/
www.conrad.ab.ca/yildirim/
www.cspg.org
www.petsoc.org
www.dailyoilbulletin.com/
www.fe.doe.gov/
http://www.ercb.ca/portal/server.pt?
www.gastechnology.org
www.globeinvestor.com
www.hartenergy.com
www.hydrocarbononline.com
www.ifp.fr/
www.neb.gc.ca
www.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca
www.ornl.gov
www.oilandgasonline.com
www.ogj.pennnet.com/home.cfm
www.opec.org
www.pdvsa.com
www.ptac.org
www.ptrc.ca
http://www.gov.sk.ca/enermine/
www.src.sk.ca
http://www.sec.gov/
www.speca.org
www.spe.org
www.suncor.com
www.syncrude.com
www.landman.ca
www.unfccc.int/2860.php
www.worldoil.com/
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html

Relevant Software
Software
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Exodus
GCOMP
Geofluids
GeoScout
HYSIS
Imex and Gem
Landmark-Earthcube
OilWat
PANsystems
PC Pump
Portfolio
PRIZE
ResAssist
STARS
Therm
Value Navigator
Well Flo
Well Test
Wellview
Winprop

Relevant Products
Product
BOP's and wellheads
Buckets, Draglines, Shovels
Cogeneration Plant
Coiled Tubing
Compressors
Downhole Gauges
Downhole Oil-Water Separator
Oil - Water Separation
Pipeline Materials
Progressive Cavity Pumps
Progressive Cavity Pumps
Processing Equipment
Shovels, Trucks, Cats
Steam Generators
Sucker Rod Pumps
Trucks, Shovels, Loaders, Excavators
Tubular Goods
Wellheads

Further Courses & Education

Site
www.asp.adelaide.edu.au
programs.bcit.ca/
www.mines.edu
www.tudelft.nl
www.pet.hw.ac.uk
www.ic.ac.uk
www.ite.tu-clausthal.de/index.html
www.keyanoc.ab.ca
www.kfupm.edu.sa/
www.msu.ru
www.eng.lsu.edu
www.engr.mun.ca
wildcat.pete.metu.edu.tr/
www.mtech.edu/petroleum
www.nait.ab.ca
www.nmt.edu/
www.ntnu.no
www.engr.psu.edu
www.sait.ca/
ekofisk.stanford.edu
www.his.no
aggieengineer.tamu.edu
www.coe.ttu.edu
www.fkkksa.utm.my/
www.uaf.edu
www.civil.ualberta.ca
www.bath.ac.uk/chem-eng/undergrad/
www.eng.ucalgary.ca/Chemical/
www.agl.uh.edu
www.ku.edu
www.unileoben.ac.at/
www.kfgi.uni-miskolc.hu/
www.coe.ou.edu
www.pitt.edu
www.uregina.ca/engg/
www.utexas.edu
www.ipt.ntnu.no/english/
www.utulsa.edu
www.science.uwaterloo.ca/earth/
wwweng.uwyo.edu/petroleum/
www.uaeu.ac.ae
www.wvu.edu

Problem Sets
Problem Set #1
Problem Set #2
Table of Contents

Books, Websites, Relevant Software & Products,

Title
AOSTRA a 15 Year Portfolio of Achievement
Petroleum Reservoir Simulations: A Basic Approach
Reservoir Engineering Handbook
Thermal Methods of Oil Recovery
Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen
Horizontal Wells for the Recovery of Oil, Gas and Bitumen
Canadian Heavy Oil Association Reservoir Handbook
Progressing Cavity Pumps
Well Production Practical Handbook
Determination of Oil and Gas Reserves
Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
Practice of Reservoir Engineering
Steamflood Reservoir Management
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Seventh UNITAR Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, China
Exploration for Heavy Crude Oil and Natural Bitumen
Nickle's Daily Oil Bulletin
Thermal Recovery
International Heavy Oil Symposium Calgary June 19-21, 1995
Thermal Recovery, Bakersfield
Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering
International Thermal Operations & Heavy Oil Calgary Nov 2002
Heavy Oil Symposium Margarita Islands Venezuela
Journal of Petroleum Technology
Heavy Oil and Bitumen Recovery

Title

Alberta Chamber of Resources


Alberta Environment
Alberta Research Council
Alberta Resource Development
Alberta Society of Engineering Technologists
American Petroleum Institute
APEGGA
Calgary Oil and Gas Companies
Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen
Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers
Canadian Heavy oil Association
Canadian Natural Resources
Canadian Oilsands Network for Research and Development
Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists
CIM
Nickle's Daily Oil Bulletin
Department of Energy
ERCB
Gas technology Institute
Globe and Mail
Hart Energy
Hydrocarbon Processing
Institut Francais du Petrole
National Energy Board
Natural Resources Canada
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oil and Gas Industry News
Oil and Gas Journal Online
OPEC
Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A.
Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada
Petroleum Technology Research Centre
Saskatchewan Energy and Mines
Saskatchewan Research Council
US Security and exchange Commission
Society of Petroleum Engineers
Society of Petroleum Engineers
Suncor
Syncrude Canada
Petroleum Land Issues
United nations Kyoto Protocol
World Oil
World Energy Information

Vendor
Palisade
IHS Energy
Geoquest-Schlumberger
Fekete
Geoquest-Schlumberger
Petrosoft
Dynamic Graphics
Geoquest-Schlumberger
Petrostudies
PHH Petroleum Consultants Ltd
Rakhit Petroleum Consulting
geoLogic
Hyprotech
Computer Modelling Group
Landmark Graphics
IHS Energy
Edinburgh Petroleum Services
CFER
Geoquest-Schlumberger
Alberta Research Council
Epic Consulting Services Ltd
Computer Modelling Group
Smedvig Technologies
Energy Navigator
Neotech
Fekete
Pelleton
Computer Modelling Group

Vendor
Cooper Cameron
P&H Mining
Foster Wheeler
BJ Services Company Canada
Propak
Promore
Weatherford
Corlac
Prudential Steel
Weatherford
Baker Hughes
Natco Canada
Caterpillar
Babcock and Wilcox
Lufkin Industries
Hitachi Construction Machinery Canada Limited
Fedmet (Russel Metals)
Stream-Flo

Location
Australian School of Petroleum
British Columbia Institute of Technology
Colorado School of Mines
Delft University of Technology
Heriot Watt University - Edinburgh
Imperial College London
Institut fuer Erdoel und Erdgas - Clausthal, Germany
Keyano College
King Fahd University Saudi Arabia
Lomonsov Moscow State University
Louisana State University-Baton Rouge
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Middle East Technical University- Ankara
Montana Tech
NAIT
New Mexico Tech
Norwegian University of Science and technology
Penn State University-University Park
SAIT
Stanford University
Stavanger University
Texas A & M University-College Station
Texas Tech University- Lubbock
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
University of Alaska- Fairbanks
University of Alberta
University Of Bath
University of Calgary
University of Houston
University of Kansas
Universitat Leoben, Austria
University of Miskolc, Hungary
University of Oklahoma
University of Pittsburgh
University of Regina
University of Texas-Austin
University of Trondheim, Norway
University of Tulsa
University of Waterloo
University of Wyoming
United Arab Emirates University
West Virginia University

Worksheet Numbers
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7,14, 16, 17, 20, 22,24,25, 42
6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15,19, 21, plus steam generator problem

Examples of Previous Presentations


Statistical Analysis of PCP Failures
Developing a Thermal Simulator
Heavy Oil Development in Albania
Success of Mircobial Enhanced Recovery
Workovers in the Heavy Oil Industry
Results of the Surmont Decision on SAGD Projects
Reverse Osmosis vs Evaporation
Kyoto Protocol and Heavy Oil Development
SAGD Drilling Wastes
Monitoring CSS wells
Vapex vs SAP
4D seismic mapping for Steam Chamber Growth
Shell's Oil Shale Project
Example of Heavy Oil Upgrading
Fuel Cells-Current Status
Steam Generator Operating Conditions
Further Courses & Education

Publisher Year

Gulf Publishing 2006


Gulf Publishing 2000
John Wiley 1988
GravDran 1998
CIM 1994
CHOA 1991
Technip,Paris 1998
Technip 2000
CIM 1994
Petroleum Society monthly issue
Elsevier 1994
Pennwell 1994
Prentice Hall 1989
Gulf Publishing 1980
UNITAR 1998
AAPG, Tulsa Oklahoma 1987
Nickle's Energy Group Daily Issue
SPE Monographs 1986
SPE 1995
SPE 1999
SPE monthly issue
SPE 2002
SPE 2001
SPE monthly issue
CD 2006

Description

Oil Sands Royalties


EIA, land, water, air issues
Research in Oil Sands and Heavy Oil
Royalty Factors, oil sands leases etc
Publications, Salary Survey
Oil News, Tech Repository
Publications, Salary Survey
Careers, Business Developments
Land Issues
Subcommittees, Industry Rep.
Heavy Oil Meetings & Seminars
Project Horizon
Industry Oilsands Research
Seminars, Conferences in Geology
Heavy Oil Meetings & Seminars
Daily Oil News, New Well Locations
US Adminstrative Dept for Oil & Gas
Regulations, Applications & Decisions
Pipelines, CO2, gas supplies
Financial Oil and Gas News
Oil and Gas Developments
Refining and Upgrading
Oil and Gas research
Federal Regulatory Agency
Oil sands processing
R+D in heavy oil
Exploration News
Research Articles. Oil and Gas News
Policies, World Demand
Venezuelan Oil Development
Industry Research
Heavy Oil Research Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan Regulations
Heavy & Conventional Oil Research
Handles US Reserves
Canadian Division
Worldwide Division
Stewart Oil Shales, Project Millenium
Mildred Lake, Aurora Mines
Land Issues
Environmental Issues
Monthly oil news

Description
MonteCarlo Simulations for Reserves
Production, Log/Core Data for W. Canada
US, Western Canadian Full Cycle Economics
Simplified Economic Analysis
Reserve Calculations
Reserve Calculations
3D Seismic Modelling
Thermal Reservoir Simulation
Thermal, ASP Reservoir Models
EOR ASP Simulations
Oil, gas & water chemistry analysis
Well information System
EOR Calculations
Black Oil and Compositional Modeling
3d Seismic Modelling
Oil Material Balance
Well Testing Analysis
Optimize Progressive Cavity Pumps
Reserve Tracking
EOR Screening
Streamflow Waterfloods
Thermal Reservoir Simulation
Thermal Reservoir Simulation
Reserves
Well Flow Modelling
Horizontal/Vertical Well Test Analysis
Drilling+Completions+schematics
Equation of State

Description
Wellhead Equipment
Mining Equipment
Build and Operate Steam Cogen Unit
Drilling, Fracturing
Facility Construction
High Temperature Gauges
Separates oil,water,sand downhole
Skuds
Pipe, Welding
Surface, Electric drive PCPs
Centrilift ESPCP, DHOWS
Separators, Heaters, Treaters, Amine Units
Oil Sands Mining Equipment
Power and Steam Generation
Beam Pumps and various pumping units
Mining Equipment
Tubing, Casing
Wellheads and Christmas Trees

Details
South Australia, Degree Petroleum Eng.
Diploma in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Geoscience
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Petroleum Engineering Degree
Diplom in Petroleum Technology
Mining and Heavy Construction
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Geology, research
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Diploma in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Petroleum
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
BAPET Program
SUPRI, Heavy Oil Programs
Drilling, reservoir, Production technology
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Degree & Beyond in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum/Mining Engineering
Mining and Petroleum Engineering
Postgraduate EOR studies
Oil and Gas Degree
Petroleum and geophysics
CO2 Research
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Degree & Beyond in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
CO2 gelling, Petroleum engineering
Petroleum Systems Engineering
Degree & Beyond in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
PMRI, Degree Program
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Petroleum
Drilling, Natural Gas Engineering
51. Cold_Pumping

C-FER'S PC PUMP
Step #1

Equation (5.1)
Design Pumping Rate
Qact = Required Fluid Rate (m3/day) 20 input variable
N = Volumetric Pumping Efficiency (%) 55 input variable

Qdesign = Design Pumping Rate (m3/day) 36.4 calculation

Step #2

Equation (5.2)
Required Pump Displacement

N = Pump Rotational Speed (RPM) 120 input variable


Qdesign = Design Pumping Rate (m3/day) 36.4 carried forward

Vmin = Required Pump Displacement (m3/day/RPM) 0.303 calculation

Step #2a
Viscosities of Liquid mixture
Cragoes method

Water cut (frac) 0.10 input variable


Oil cut (frac) 0.90 input variable
Water density (kg/m3) 1000.00 input variable
Oil density (kg/m3) 974.00 input variable
U1= viscosity of water (cp) 1 input variable

Page 290
51. Cold_Pumping

U2= viscosity of oil (cp) 6000 input variable


L1 = liquidity -186.13532
L2 = liquidity -405.10986
Lm = liquidity -383.2124

Um= viscosity of mixture = (cp) 3932.217

Step #3
Equation (5.9)
Flow Regime

Q = Fluid Rate (m3/day) 20 carried forward


P = Fluid Density (kg/m3) 975 input variable
U = Fluid viscosity (cp) 3932.217 carried forward
Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm) 76 input variable
Dr = Rod outside diameter (mm) 25.4 input variable

REannular = Reynolds Number 0.71 calculation


Note: RE < 2100, flow is laminar
RE > 2100, flow is turbulent

Step #4

Flow losses
Rod
Equation (5.10 & 5.11) Body
Well Depth (m) 830 input variable
Sucker Rod length (m) 7.6 input variable
Sucker Rod coupling length (m) 0.1016 input variable Rod
Number of Sucker rods 109 calculation Coupler
Q = Fluid Rate (m3/day) 20 carried forward 20

Page 291
51. Cold_Pumping

L = Flow Length equivalent (m) (rod body or coupler only) 818.90 calculation 11.10
U = Fluid viscosity (cp) 3932.22 carried forward 3932.22
P = Fluid Density (kg/m3) 975 carried forward 975
Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm) 76 carried forward 76
Dr = Rod, coupling, Centralizer, Rod Guide outside diameter (mm) 25.4 carried forward 50.8

Ploss (laminar) = (kPa) Equation (5.1) 2601.0 calculation 182.5


Ploss (turbulent) = (kPa) Equation (5.11) 6.7 calculation 0.5

Step #5

Pump Lift Requirements

Equation (5.6)
GAS HEAD
Pgas Density (kg/m3) 0.7 input value
H = Vertical Column Heigth (m) 650 input value

Pgas column (kPa) 4.46 calculation

Equation (5.6a)
FLUID HEAD in ANNULUS
Pliquid Density (kg/m3) 975 carried forward
H = Vertical Column Heigth (m) 100 input value

Pliquid column (kPa) 956.48 calculation

Equation (5.6b)
FLUID HEAD in TUBING
Pliquid Density (kg/m3) 975 carried forward
H = Vertical Column Heigth (m) 830 carried forward

Page 292
51. Cold_Pumping

Pliquid Tubing column (kPa) 7938.74 calculation

Equation (5.4)
PUMP INTAKE PRESSURE
PCHP = Casing Head Pressure (kPa) 250 input value
Pgas column (kPa) 4.46 carried forward
Pliquid Annulus column (kPa) 956.5 carried forward
Ptail Pressure loss auxilary components (kPa) 0 input value

Pintake = Pump intake Pressure (kPa) 1210.9 calculation

Equation (5.5)
PUMP DISCHARGE PRESSURE
PTHP = Tubing Head Pressure (kPa) 2500 input value
Pliquid Tubing column (kPa) 7938.74 carried forward
Plosses Rod Body (kPa) 2600.98 carried forward Note: if then statement to choose laminar or turbulent flow
Plosses Coupler or Centalizer(kPa) 182.52 carried forward Note: if then statement to choose laminar or turbulent flow

Pdischarge = Pump discharge Pressure (kPa) 13222.2 calculation

Equation (5.3)
Pintake = Pump intake Pressure (kPa) 1210.9 carried forward
Pdischarge = Pump discharge Pressure (kPa) 13222.2 carried forward

Plift = Net Lift Required (kPa) 12011.31 calculation

Step #6

Sand handling (if you can obtain pump dimensions)

Page 293
51. Cold_Pumping

Equation (5.7)
Swept Rotor Angle
P = Stator Pitch Length (mm) 75 input value
e = Pump Eccentricity (mm) 13 input value
D = Nominal Rotor Diameter (mm) 50 input value

Thetaswept = Swept Rotor angle (o) 13.2 calculation

Equation (2.1)
Pump Displacement
P = Stator Pitch Length (mm) 75 carried forward
e = Pump Eccentricity (mm) 13 carried forward
D = Nominal Rotor Diameter (mm) 50 carried forward

V = Pump Displacement (m3/day/RPM) 0.28 calculation

Equation (5.8)
Cavity Flow Velocity
Q = Fluid Rate (m3/day) 20 carried forward
V = Pump Displacement (m3/day/RPM) 0.2808 carried forward
P = Stator Pitch Length (mm) 75 carried forward
e = Pump Eccentricity (mm) 13 carried forward
D = Nominal Rotor Diameter (mm) 50 carried forward

Vcavflowt = Pump Cavity Flow Velocity (m/s) 0.391 calculation

Equation (6.1)
Sand Settling Velocity
Dp = Sand Particle Size (mm) 0.25 input value
Ps = Sand Density (kg/m3) 2620 input value
Pf = Fluid Density (kg/m3) 975 carried forward
U = Fluid Viscosity (cp) 3932 carried forward

Page 294
51. Cold_Pumping

Vsettling = (m/s) 0.00001

Equation (6.2)
Fluid Transport Velocity
Q = Fluid Rate (m3/day) 20 carried forward
Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm) 76 carried forward
Dr = Rod outside diameter (mm) 25.4 carried forward

Vtransport = (m/s) 0.05746

Step #7

Area Uplift Forces


Equation (5.14)
Number of rods 109 carried forward
Delta pressure across rods ( pick from turbulent or laminar flow) 2600.98 input value Note: if then statement to choose laminar or turbulent f
Pdelta c = Pressure Difference across Coupling, Centralizer (kPa) 23.82 calculation
Dc = Coupler or Centralizer Outside Diameter (mm) 50.8 carried forward
Dr = Rod Body Outside Diameter (mm) 25.4 carried forward

Farea = Area Uplift Force (N) per coupling 36.20 calculation


Farea = Area Uplift Force (N) per rod string 3953.8 calculation

Surface Uplift Forces For Coupling


Equation (5.15)
L = Flow Length equivalent (m) (coupler only) 11.10 carried forward
Q = Fluid Rate (m /day)
3
20 carried forward
U = Fluid viscosity (cp) 3932.22 carried forward
Dr = Rod, coupling, Centralizer, Rod Guide outside diameter (mm) 50.8 carried forward
Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm) 76 carried forward

Fsurface =Surface Uplift Force (N) -198.08 calculation

Page 295
51. Cold_Pumping

Surface Uplift Forces For Rod Body


Equation (5.15a)
L = Flow Length equivalent (m) (rod body only) 818.90 carried forward
Q = Fluid Rate (m /day)
3
20 carried forward
U = Fluid viscosity (cp) 3932.2173836 carried forward
Dr = Rod, coupling, Centralizer, Rod Guide outside diameter (mm) 25.4 carried forward
Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm) 76 carried forward

Fsurface =Surface Uplift Force (N) -3398.58 calculation


Total Uplift Forces are (N) -3596.66 calculation

Step #8

Resistive Rod String Torque


Equation (5.13)
L = Length (m) 818.90 carried forward
U = Fluid viscosity (cp) 3932.2173836 carried forward
Dr = Rod, coupling, Centralizer, Rod Guide outside diameter (mm) 25.4 carried forward
Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm) 76 carried forward
N = Rotational Speed (RPM) 120 carried forward

Tresistive = Resistive Torque (N*M) 20.56 calculation 15.15 ft*lbs

Hydraulic Pump Torque


Equation (2.4)
V = Pump Displacement (m3/day/RPM) 0.281 carried forward
Plift = Differential Pump Pressure (kPa) 12011.31 carried forward

Thydraulic = Hydraulic Pump Torque (N*M) 374.38 calculation 275.92 ft*lbs

Rod String Torque


Equation (5.19)

Page 296
51. Cold_Pumping

Thydraulic = Hydraulic Pump Torque (N*M) 374.38 carried forward


Tfriction = Pump Friction Torque (N*M) 119 input value
Tresistive = Resistive Torque (N*M) 20.56 carried forward

Trodstring = Rod String Torque (N*M) 513.94 calculation 378.77 ft*lbs

Step #9

Total Rod Weight


Equation (5.18)
Wr = Rod String Weight (kg/m) 3.98 input value
Lv = Rod Vertical Length (m) 818.90 carried forward

Lweight = Rod String Weight (N) 31973.13 calculation

Pump Pressure Load


Equation (5.17)
Pdischarge = Pump discharge Pressure (kPa) 13222.2 carried forward
Pintake = Pump intake Pressure (kPa) 1210.9 carried forward
D = Nominal Rotor Diameter (mm) 50 carried forward
e = Pump Eccentricity (mm) 13 carried forward
Drod = Rod String Diameter (mm) 25.4 carried forward

Lpump = Pump Pressure Load (N) 85231.49 calculation

Rod String Axial Load


Equation (5.16)
Lpump = Pump Pressure Load (N) 85231.49 carried forward
Lweight = Rod String Weight (N) 31973.13 carried forward

Page 297
51. Cold_Pumping

Total Uplift Forces are (N) 3596.66 carried forward

Lrod string = Rod String Axial Load (N) 113607.97 calculation

Step #9 cont.

Combined Stress
Equation (5.20)
Lrod string = Rod String Axial Load (N) 113607.97 carried forward
Trodstring = Rod String Torque (N*M) 513.94 carried forward
Drod = Rod String Diameter (mm) 25.4 carried forward

Oe = Effective Stress (MPa) 356.10 calculation

Step #10

Rod String/Tubing Contact Loading

Standard Continuous
Equation (5.22 & 5.25) Rod Rod
Wr = Rod String Weight (kg/m) 4.4 input value 4
Lcs = Coupling Spacing (m) 7.6 input value
Theta = Hole Angle (o) 40 input value 40

Fgrav = Gracity Induced Contact Load (N) 210.86 calculation 25.22

Standard Continuous
Equation (5.23 & 5.26) Rod Rod
Lrodstring = Rod String Tension (N) 113607.97 carried forward 113607.97
Lcs = Coupling Spacing (m) 7.6 carried forward
Cwellbore = Wellbore Curvature (o/30m) 8 input value 8

Page 298
51. Cold_Pumping

Fcurv = Curvature Induced Contact Load (N) 4018.70 calculation 528.78

Equation (5.21 & 5.24)


Fcontact = Net contact Loads (N) 4229.57 calculation 554.00

Step #10 cont.

Equation (5.27)
Fcontact = Net contact Loads (Standard Rods) (N) 4229.57 carried forward
Llb = Coupling/Rod Guide Load Bearing Length (mm) 101.6 input value

Fcontact(dist) = Distributed Contact Load (Standard Rods) (N/m) 41629.61

Load Ratio = standard rod/continuous rod 75.1

Step #11

Power Transmission

Wellhead Drive Units


Equation (5.28)
Cr = Thrust Bearing Dynamic Load Rating (N) 408000 input value
Lpolishrod = Polish Rod Axial Load (N) 113607.97 carried forward

L10(mrevs) = L10 Life (million revolutions) 70.93 calculation

Equation (5.29)
Cr = Thrust Bearing Dynamic Load Rating (N) 408000 carried forward
Lpolishrod = Polish Rod Axial Load (N) 113607.97 carried forward
N = Polish Rod Rotational Speed (RPM) 120 carried forward

Page 299
51. Cold_Pumping

L10(years) = L10 Life (years) 1.1 calculation

Step #12

Prime Movers

Equation (5.30)
Tpolishrod = Polish Rod Torque (N*m) 513.94 carried forward
N = Polish Rod Rotational Speed (RPM) 120 carried forward
Npt = Power Transmission System Efficiency (%) 97 input value

Ppmo = Required Prime Mover Power Output (kW) 6.66 calculation 8.92 hp

Equation (5.31)
f = Supply Frequency (Hz) 60 input value
p = Number of Poles 6 input value

ns = Synchronous Speed (RPM) 1200 calculation

Equation (5.32)
Iline = Line Current (A) 70 input value
V = Line-to-Line Voltage (V) 480 input value

Papp = Apparent Motor Power (kW) 58.20 calculation 78.0 hp

Equation (5.33)
Papp = Apparent Motor Power (W) 58195 carried forward
pf = Motor Power Factor 0.85 input value

Pact = Active Motor Power (W) 49466 calculation

Equation (5.34)
Pact = Active Motor Power (kW) 49.5 carried forward

Page 300
51. Cold_Pumping

Nmotor = Nominal Motor Efficiency (%) 92 input value

Ppmo = Electric Motor Useful Power Output (kW) 46 calculation 61.0 hp

Step #13

Equation (5.35)
Iline = Line Current (A) 70 carried forward
V = Line-to-Line Voltage (V) 480 carried forward
Nmotor = Nominal Motor Efficiency (%) 92 carried forward
pf = Motor Power Factor 0.85 carried forward
Npt = Power Transmission System Efficiency (%) 97 input value
N = Polish Rod Rotational Speed (RPM) 120 carried forward

Tpolishrod = Polish Rod Torque (N*m) 3503 calculation 2582.00 ft*lbs

Page 301
51. Cold_Pumping

se laminar or turbulent flow


se laminar or turbulent flow

Page 302
51. Cold_Pumping

tement to choose laminar or turbulent flow

Page 303
Combustion Screening (in Oilfield Units)
Screening for Plover

Inputs

Ar = Air re 350 Input based on experience - light oil 150 - heavy oil up to 450 JPT Paper 97 - 100

AFR = air to 175 based on 11 cubic meters per kg (literature values range from 10.5 - 11.0)
(cubic m/kg x 35.31/2.2)
h = reservoi 25

phi = poros 0.3

Tres = rese 70

A = Area of 10

P = percent 0.55 Recommended by Moore and Mehta plus Ramey and Gates

Um = minimum flux (mscfd/ft


0.039 Per JPT Paper 97-100
(m/d x .00328)

API oil (AP 10

Soi = initia 0.7 Estimated

Pres = Initi 200

Kres = abso 2000


Bo = Form 1.02
Calculated
a = distanc 467 Inverted 5 spot pattern
.707 x (A x 43,560) 1/2
rm = maximu 330
a x .707
ar = actual 245
P0.5 x rm
iam = minimum air1512
injection rate (mscfd)
2 x pi x Um x ar x h
iamax = max 2190 Per JPY Paper 97-100
4.77 x Um x a x h
Fr = fuel re 2.0
Ar/AFR
Sof = satur 0.11
Fr/(phi*141.5/(131.5+API))/62.5
Som = mobil 0.59
Soi - Sof

Piw = Stabi 259 Nelson and McNeil 1961


Piw2 = Pw2 + (ia x visair x Tres) x (ln (a2/rw x vi x t1) - 1.238)
t1 = time to 110 Nelson and McNeil 1961 @ 0.5 ft/day burn rate
ia/(2 x pi x h x Ar x min vel ^2)
Air to Oil R 14.8
Total Oil R 202490 Nelson & McNeil 1961 (includes 40% in unburned volume)
Percentage 0.72
Production Time in mo Monthly VoTotal Volu Radius bur Oil moved Total Air In HC Pore volOil displac bopd
mmcf
1 32398 32398 20 1007 11 0.32 389 47
2 64795 97193 35 3022 34 0.97 1166 93
3 97193 194385 50 6044 68 1.93 2333 140
4 129590 323975 64 10073 113 3.22 3888 186
5 129590 453566 76 14103 159 4.51 5443 186
6 129590 583156 86 18132 204 5.79 6998 186
7 129590 712746 95 22161 249 7.08 8553 186
8 129590 842336 104 26191 295 8.37 10108 186
9 129590 971926 111 30220 340 9.65 11663 186
10 129590 1101516 118 34249 386 10.94 13218 186
11 129590 1231107 125 38279 431 12.23 14773 186
12 129590 1360697 132 42308 476 13.52 16328 186
13 129590 1490287 138 46338 522 14.80 17883 186
14 129590 1619877 144 50367 567 16.09 19438 186
15 129590 1749467 149 54396 612 17.38 20994 186
16 129590 1879057 155 58426 658 18.66 22549 186
17 129590 2008648 160 62455 703 19.95 24104 186
18 129590 2138238 165 66484 748 21.24 25659 186
19 129590 2267828 170 70514 794 22.53 27214 186
20 129590 2397418 175 74543 839 23.81 28769 186
21 129590 2527008 179 78572 884 25.10 30324 186
22 129590 2656598 184 82602 930 26.39 31879 186
23 129590 2786189 188 86631 975 27.67 33434 186
24 129590 2915779 193 90660 1021 28.96 34989 186
25 129590 3045369 197 94690 1066 30.25 36544 186
26 129590 3174959 201 98719 1111 31.54 38099 186
27 129590 3304549 205 102748 1157 32.82 39654 186
28 129590 3434140 209 106778 1202 34.11 41209 186
29 129590 3563730 213 110807 1247 35.40 42765 186
30 129590 3693320 217 114836 1293 36.68 44320 186
31 129590 3822910 221 118866 1338 37.97 45875 186
32 129590 3952500 224 122895 1383 39.26 47430 186
33 129590 4082090 228 126925 1429 40.55 48985 186
34 129590 4211681 232 130954 1474 41.83 50540 186
35 129590 4341271 235 134983 1519 43.12 52095 186
36 129590 4470861 239 139013 1565 44.41 53650 186
37 129590 4600451 242 143042 1610 45.69 55205 186
38 129590 4730041 245 147071 1656 46.98 56760 141
39 129590 4859631 249 0 0 0.00 0 0
40 129590 4989222 252 0 0 0.00 0 0
41 129590 5118812 255 0 0 0.00 0 0
42 129590 5248402 259 0 0 0.00 0 0
43 129590 5377992 262 0 0 0.00 0 0
44 129590 5507582 265 0 0 0.00 0 0
45 129590 5637172 268 0 0 0.00 0 0
46 129590 5766763 271 0 0 0.00 0 0
47 129590 5896353 274 0 0 0.00 0 0
48 129590 6025943 277 0 0 0.00 0 0
49 129590 6155533 280 0 0 0.00 0 0
50 129590 6285123 283 0 0 0.00 0 0
51 129590 6414713 286 0 0 0.00 0 0
52 129590 6544304 289 0 0 0.00 0 0
53 129590 6673894 292 0 0 0.00 0 0
54 129590 6803484 294 0 0 0.00 0 0
55 129590 6933074 297 0 0 0.00 0 0
56 129590 7062664 300 0 0 0.00 0 0
57 129590 7192254 303 0 0 0.00 0 0
58 129590 7321845 305 0 0 0.00 0 0
59 129590 7451435 308 0 0 0.00 0 0
60 129590 7581025 311 0 0 0.00 0 0
61 129590 7710615 313 0 0 0.00 0 0
62 129590 7840205 316 0 0 0.00 0 0
63 129590 7969795 319 0 0 0.00 0 0
64 129590 8099386 321 0 0 0.00 0 0
65 129590 8228976 324 0 0 0.00 0 0
66 129590 8358566 326 0 0 0.00 0 0
67 129590 8488156 329 0 0 0.00 0 0
68 129590 8617746 331 0 0 0.00 0 0
69 129590 8747336 334 0 0 0.00 0 0
70 129590 8876927 336 0 0 0.00 0 0
71 129590 9006517 339 0 0 0.00 0 0
72 129590 9136107 341 0 0 0.00 0 0
73 129590 9265697 344 0 0 0.00 0 0
74 129590 9395287 346 0 0 0.00 0 0
75 129590 9524878 348 0 0 0.00 0 0
76 129590 9654468 351 0 0 0.00 0 0
77 129590 9784058 353 0 0 0.00 0 0
78 129590 9913648 355 0 0 0.00 0 0
79 129590 10043238 358 0 0 0.00 0 0
80 129590 10172828 360 0 0 0.00 0 0
81 129590 10302419 362 0 0 0.00 0 0
82 129590 10432009 365 0 0 0.00 0 0
83 129590 10561599 367 0 0 0.00 0 0
84 129590 10691189 369 0 0 0.00 0 0
85 129590 10820779 371 0 0 0.00 0 0
86 129590 10950369 373 0 0 0.00 0 0
87 129590 11079960 376 0 0 0.00 0 0
88 129590 11209550 378 0 0 0.00 0 0
89 129590 11339140 380 0 0 0.00 0 0
90 129590 11468730 382 0 0 0.00 0 0
91 129590 11598320 384 0 0 0.00 0 0
92 129590 11727910 387 0 0 0.00 0 0
93 129590 11857501 389 0 0 0.00 0 0
94 129590 11987091 391 0 0 0.00 0 0
95 129590 12116681 393 0 0 0.00 0 0
96 129590 12246271 395 0 0 0.00 0 0
97 129590 12375861 397 0 0 0.00 0 0
98 129590 12505451 399 0 0 0.00 0 0
99 129590 12635042 401 0 0 0.00 0 0
100 129590 12764632 403 0 0 0.00 0 0
101 129590 12894222 405 0 0 0.00 0 0
102 129590 13023812 407 0 0 0.00 0 0
103 129590 13153402 409 0 0 0.00 0 0
104 129590 13282992 411 0 0 0.00 0 0
105 129590 13412583 413 0 0 0.00 0 0
106 129590 13542173 415 0 0 0.00 0 0
107 129590 13671763 417 0 0 0.00 0 0
108 129590 13801353 419 0 0 0.00 0 0
109 129590 13930943 421 0 0 0.00 0 0
110 129590 14060533 423 0 0 0.00 0 0
111 129590 14190124 425 0 0 0.00 0 0
112 129590 14319714 427 0 0 0.00 0 0
113 129590 14449304 429 0 0 0.00 0 0
114 129590 14578894 431 0 0 0.00 0 0
115 129590 14708484 433 0 0 0.00 0 0
116 129590 14838074 435 0 0 0.00 0 0
117 129590 14967665 437 0 0 0.00 0 0
118 129590 15097255 439 0 0 0.00 0 0
119 129590 15226845 440 0 0 0.00 0 0
120 129590 15356435 442 0 0 0.00 0 0
Paper 97 - 100
cum oil Rec Factor

1396 0
4188 1
8377 2
13961 3
19545 5
25130 6
30714 8
36299 9
41883 10
47468 12
53052 13
58636 14
64221 16
69805 17
75390 19
80974 20
86559 21
92143 23
97727 24
103312 25
108896 27
114481 28
120065 29
125650 31
131234 32
136818 34
142403 35
147987 36
153572 38
159156 39
164741 40
170325 42
175909 43
181494 45
187078 46
192663 47
198247 49
202490 50
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
DEEP CUT IN EFFECT "Y" OR "N" N
25-May-18
PLANT LIQUID EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY
SHALLOW CUT DEEP CUT

ETHANE 0% 0%
PROPANE 50% 75%
BUTANE 75% 97%
PENTANES PLUS 96% 99%
SULPHUR RECOVERY EFF 88% 99%

COMPONENT MOLE CONVERSION PLANT LIQUID LIQUID


% CONSTANT EXTRACT EFF YIELD YIELD
BBLS/MMCF/MF% EFFICIENCY % BBLS/MMCM3/E3M3
N2 0.00
He 1.00
H2S 1.00 88.00%
CO2 2.00
METHANE 85.00
ETHANE 2.00 6.34 0.00% 0.00 0.000
PROPANE 4.00 6.55 50.00% 13.10 0.074
BUTANE 2.00 7.63 75.00% 11.45 0.065
PENTANES+ 3.00 9.6 96.00% 27.65 0.156

TOTAL 100.00 52.19 0.294


87.3

REPORTED FUEL AND FLARE (IF ZERO IT WILL BE 1/3 OF PROCESS IN T


TOTAL SHRINKAGE

HEATING VALUE OF SALES GAS

SULPHUR YIELD

SHRINKAGE PROGRAM
BASED ON INLET AND PRODUCT VOLUMES
SALES GAS E3M3 0 NOT APPLICABLE

COMPONENT LIQUID CONVERSION EQUIVALENT PROCESS YIELD


PRODUCTCONSTANT GAS SHRINKAGE
VOLUME GAS TO LIQ
M3 E3M3/M3 E3M3 % M3/E3M3
METHANE
ETHANE 0.00 0.2813 0.00 #VALUE! #VALUE!
PROPANE 0.00 0.2723 0.00 #VALUE! #VALUE!
BUTANE 0.00 0.23335 0.00 #VALUE! #VALUE!
PENTANES+ 0.00 0.2057 0.00 #VALUE! #VALUE!
STAB COND 0.00 0.1463 0.00 #VALUE! #VALUE!
-------------- ------------------------- --------------
TOTAL 0.00 0.00 #VALUE! #VALUE!

ACID GAS CONTENT

REPORTED FUEL AND FLARE (IF ZERO IT WILL BE 1/3 OF PROCESS IN T


TOTAL SHRINKAGE (1/3 OF PROCESS IS FUEL GAS ALLOWANCE)
RAW GAS CRITICAL PROPERTY DET
FRACTION SALES
PROCESS OF RAW SALES GAHTG GAS HV COMPONE COMP
SHRINKAGE REMAININ COMP'N VALUE HV x MF MOLE
FRACTION
0.00 N2 0.00 #DIV/0! 0.0 #DIV/0! N2 0.0000
0.00 He 1.00 #DIV/0! 0.0 #DIV/0! He 0.0100
1.00 H2S 0.00 #DIV/0! 0.0 #DIV/0! H2S 0.0100
0.00 CO2 2.00 #DIV/0! 0.0 #DIV/0! CO2 0.0200
0.00 METHANE 85.00 #DIV/0! 1009.7 #DIV/0! METHANE 0.8500
0.00 ETHANE 2.00 #DIV/0! 1768.8 #DIV/0! ETHANE 0.0200
2.00 PROPANE 2.00 #DIV/0! 2517.5 #DIV/0! PROPANE 0.0400
1.50 BUTANE 0.50 #DIV/0! 3257.4 #DIV/0! BUTANE 0.0200
2.88 PENTANES 0.12 #DIV/0! 4005.0 #DIV/0! PENTANES 0.0300
HEXANE 0.0000
7.38% 92.62 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! HEPTANE 0.0000
#DIV/0! OCTANE 0.0000
1.0000
5.00%
12.38% RESERVOIR TEMP

#DIV/0! BTU/FT3 CORRECTED PC


#DIV/0! MJ/M3 CORRECTED TC
0.33 LT/MMCF

kPa
RES PRES 17225

20670
24115
27560
31005
YIELD 34450
37895

BBLS/MMCF
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
-----------------------
#VALUE!

0.00

3.02%
#VALUE! #VALUE!
S CRITICAL PROPERTY DETERMINATION

COMP CRITICAL CONSTANTS MF x MW MF x PC MF x TC


MW PC TC PSI DEG R
FRACTION
28.02 492.2 227 0.00 0.00 0.00
4.003 33.2 9.5 0.04 0.33 0.10
34.08 1306.5 672.4 0.34 13.07 6.72
44.01 1070.2 547.5 0.88 21.40 10.95
16.04 673.1 343.2 13.63 572.14 291.72
30.07 708.3 549.9 0.60 14.17 11.00
44.09 671.4 666 1.76 26.86 26.64
58.12 539.6 750.15 1.16 10.79 15.00
72.15 486.65 837.9 2.16 14.60 25.14
86.17 440.1 914.2 0.00 0.00 0.00
100.2 395.9 972.4 0.00 0.00 0.00
114.2 362.2 1024.9 0.00 0.00 0.00
20.59 673.35 387.27

557 SG = 0.711

Pc-N2x1.7+CO2x4.4+H2Sx6 = 688 PSIA 4741.35


Tc-N2x2.5+CO2x0.8+H2Sx1.3 = 390 DEG R 216.7594

CALC "Z"

psi CALC Pr CALC Tr FROM CH "P/Z" CUM PROD


2500.0 #VALUE! #VALUE! 0.76 3311

3000.0 #VALUE! #VALUE! 0.75 4000


3500.0 #VALUE! #VALUE! 0.77 4545
4000.0 #VALUE! #VALUE! 0.80 5000
4500.0 #VALUE! #VALUE! 0.83 5422
5000.0 #VALUE! #VALUE! 0.87 5747
5500.0 #VALUE! #VALUE! 0.91 6044
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE! #VALUE!
Sheet Value

0 12Mpa=1740 psi, 200 hp=149.1KW, 1000 GJ=1e12 J, 10kPa/m=0.442 psi/ft,


20 e3m3=0.7098 MMscf
Oil B, OIl B SG=0.934, visc B=10171 cp 6

1 Yes, for densities greater than 1.076 g/cc. API water =10 3

2 Higher temp, more tendency to scale 1

3 Heat capacity 2621 kJ/m3-K 5


Thermal Cond 1.91 W/m-K
Thermal Diff 0.72919 mm2/s
Graph k vs T, nonlinear decreasing with incr Temp

4 Enbridge specs 2
Cold Lake dead oil viscosity at 30 deg C is 6632 cp
Strachen condensate viscosity is 0.528 cs
Thus need 0.1035 mole fraction condensate

5 a) Cold lake Crude, 2


At 13 deg C, viscosity is 103,284 cp, graph mu vs T decr

5b Pb = 1598 kPa 1

5c Bo = 1.016 m3/m3 1

5d API vs live oil visc graph 2

5e GOR = 14.62 m3/m3 1

5f Cold Lake specific heat 1.7356 kJ/kg-deg K 1

6 2260 joules/gm water

7 Increasing S decr H 1

14a Pressure drop


Density = 0.9528 g/cc
Dead oil viscosity = 1760 cp
Live oil viscosity = 455 cp
Prod GOR = 22.34 m3/m3
Press drop = 4.77 kPa 2

14b Thicksilver Line


Min cost = 335 million
Max cost 373 million 1

16 Waterflood Diagram 9
Bo = 1.018
Bg = 0.0185
Bw = 0.998
Rs=10 m3/m3
13-1 229.55 m3/mo
15-1 321.45 m3/mon
5-1 281.3 m3/mo
7-1 560.25 m3/mo

17 BHP 4
18 API = 0.9465 g/cc
Den water = 0.9973 g/cc
Year 1 Datum Pressure = 4356 kPa
Year 2 Datum Pressure 3759 kPa
Delta P = 597 kPa

20 Reserves 5
40 acres = 16.187 Ha
3 b/d = 0.4767 m3/d
Bo=1.02
Reserves = 27,232 m3
Exp well Life 24 years
Hyperb well life 37 years
Harm well life 49 years
Diagram

22 Horizontal well 2
7" casing = 177.8 mm
Length = 3460 m

24 Tubing 89 mm, P=12 Mpa, D=450 m, C=178 mm, Tr=13 deg C 1


T=30 D, Heatloss=7x10^7 Btu/d

42 MMP 2
C7 mol weight increase MMP N2
Methane incr decre MMP N2

Pset2

9 water density at 200 deg C is 866.7 kg/m3 2


Water specific hear = 4.56 kJ/kg-K
Temp 30 m away is 148 deg C

10 k = 2.59 W/mK 2
Hob =Hf = 2532 kJ/m3K
radius=3m

11 thick=20m 2

12 pikes peak visc =5000 cp 2


OSR 1.61 m3/m3
13 combust m 14 12
n 1.5
R 1.34
Y .91
excess air 9.96%
fuel cont 17 kg/m3
air requr 210 m3/m3
water comb .000085
oil consumed .06
air-oil 1095 m3/m3
dist at 2 yr 129 m
vel 11 m3/d

15 choke .442 in 2

19 resid oil 0.056 2

steam distrb 10
alp 3.48 mm/m
L 968 m
L' 1139 m
D 150 mm
del p 2000 kPa
av p 14,000 kPa
del p* 4181 kPa/1000 m or 185 kPa per 1000 m at 7000 kPa
Fp 0.42
Fq 1.7
Q loss 0.06
Qwh 79.9%

21 h=32 m, phi=0.35, So=.7,Tr=12degC,Inj Press=2.8MPa


Oil Grav=10, perm=7.5D,Length=750m
Result SAGD q= 190m3/d

25 visc wat=0.9 implies Orecov=34.5%