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# Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

## PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS

Name:
Student Number:
Date:
Year:

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Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

## 3. Programming Techniques ( LO 3.2)

4. Ladder logic from process control descriptions ( LO 3.2 : M1, M2, M3)

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Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

## LAB SESSION 01: OPERATING A SIMPLE LOADS USING RELAYS, SWITCHES

AND PUSHBUTTONS
Objectives:-
After successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able to:
 Identify the basic components of the control board.
 Assemble and arrange a simple control board.
 Explain the operation of electromagnetically controlled circuits.
 Operate a simple loads using relays, switches and pushbuttons.

Equipments:-
 3x10A mcb.
 230V(coil), 50Hz, 10A Relay
 Green and red indicator lamp.
 NO and NC pushbuttons.
 ON-OFF switch.
 Toggle switch (1-0-2)
 Flexible wires.
 Single phase power source

Procedure:-

1. Assemble the components of the circuit shown in figure 1 on the control board and
make the required wiring and connections.

2. Once you are finished with the connections, call the instructor to check it for you and
make sure that it is correct.

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Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

3. Connect the circuit to the power source and try to change the position of the switch

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Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

## OBJECTIVE: Familiarize basic logic gates used in Digital Electronics

AIM: Using PLC ladder logic, verify the truth table for the logic gates given below.

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Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

## Scenario: Julphar Pharmaceutical Company uses Transistor-Transistor- Logic system to

automate their production. The entire system uses hardwired logic and obsolete HNL
semiconductor ICs to implement the logic. Recently company decided to replace the
existing logic system with modern modular PLCs. Your company, LAC has taken the
contract of this outsourced work. You are provided with the following tasks to prove your
knowledge.

## 1. Gate logic 3. PLC ladder logic

2. Functional block diagram 4. Statement list

## You may also use an appropriate software to support your results.

The bottles to which tablets are to be filled are kept on a conveyor belt. You are asked to
program the PLC control of conveyor belt in such a way that the Conveyor C is to run
when any one of the four inputs is ON. It is to stop when any one of the other four inputs
is ON.

A motor control circuit has two start and two stop buttons. When a start button is
depressed, the motor runs. By sealing it, it continues to run even when the start button is
released. Either stop buttons stop the motor when pressed.

A process fan is to run only when all the below conditions are met.

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Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

 Input 1 is OFF
 Input 2 is ON or input 3 is ON or both are ON
 Input 5 and 6, both are ON
 One or more of the inputs 7, 8 or 9 is ON.

Assume PLC is monitoring five tanks of liquid and must give a warning to the operator
when any three of them are empty.

Make a ladder diagram for 4 bit Binary to BCD conversion. This will be useful to display
the number of bottles dispensed in a box as the maximum number of bottles allowed per
box is 16.

A feeder drops material on the conveyor which sends material for further process through
one more conveyor. Conveyor must start automatically when material is dropped on it.
Feeder has a motor mounted to feed material on conveyor belts. Load cells are installed
at the bottom of conveyor belts to detect if material is present on the conveyor belt. When
material falls on conveyor belt 1, motor 1 should start, and when material in present on
conveyor belt 2, motor 2 remain ON.

## Fig: Load cells and conveyor belts

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Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

## SCENARIO: You got selected as Automation Engineer in a company that takes

control team wants to assess your level of knowledge and understanding in PLC systems.
You are given the following tasks and asked to convert the word descriptions to
appropriate ladder logic. You may use an appropriate software package to support your
results.

## Task 1: Automation of heating and transferring

When the START button is pressed and released, the valve 1 (V1) opens for 5 seconds,
so the water pass through the valve to the heating tank. And when the water level reaches
the float switch (FS), the valve should close and heating must begin and continue for 10
seconds. When the temperature reach the required level the thermostat disconnects the
heater and opens valve 2 (V2) for 5 seconds then the alarm bell is activated for 3 seconds.
You may use three timers for Valve1, Valve 2 and Alarm. Refer the figure shown below.

Fig: Heating of water from one tank and filling it in another tank

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Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

## TASK 2: Drive two motors with interlocking

Two Motors are running in a sequence one by one for a particular time. If the start button
is pressed Motors run in sequence such that 1st Motor stays ON for 5secs and then 2nd
Motor is turned ON and stays ON for 5secs. And the cycle is repeated until it is interrupted.
While motors are running in the sequence, if one motor is running and the button of other
motor is pressed, then the running Motor should stop and the other motor should run.
Implement this logic in PLC using Ladder Diagram programming language.

## TASK 3: Objects moving on a conveyor belt

Objects are on conveyor belt 1. When an empty box is detected, conveyor belt-1 starts
and 5pcs are packed in a box. When box is filled, it is carried to the storage area via
conveyor belt 2. Implement automation of this process in PLC using Ladder Diagram
programming language.

## TASK 4: Water Level Controller

Liquid level control is a basic and necessary process for all the process industry. Here
the level of liquid is to be maintained inside the tank to a specific height. Here there is a

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Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

water reservoir from which the water needs to be pumped out to the process tank. In the
process tank there are two sensors connected around the edges of the tank according to
the required heights i.e., one sensor is connected at the near bottom end of the tank
called as lower level sensor and another one on the near top edge of the tank called as
higher level tank. To let the water out of the tank there is a pipe connected at the bottom
of the tank with a valve. This valve is to be used by user for the process application. The
level sensor is a magnetic sensor and when the liquid level is above the high level sensor
a HL (high level) signal is send to the PLC. When the liquid level goes down the low level
sensor LL (low level) signal is send to the PLC. The PLC checks the signals send by
these sensors through its input port and give the proper signals through its output port as
per the ladder logic program. Sequence of process control actions done by the PLC:

1. When the water level in the tank is less than the lower level then the sensor senses
and turns the motor on to fill the tank.

2. Then the tank is filled up until it reaches the higher level where the higher level
sensor senses and makes the motor off and filling of water stops.

## Figure: Block level of Water level set up

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Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

Reference

## 1. & --- AND GATE

2. >=1 --- OR GATE
3. 1 --- NOT GATE
4. & and “not at output” --- NAND GATE
5. >=1 and “not at output” ---- NOR GATE
6. =1 --- XOR GATE

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Unit 22: Programmable Logic controllers Lab workbook

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