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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

UNIAXIAL STRESS-STRAIN Uniaxial Loading and Deformation


Stress-Strain Curve for Mild Steel σ = P/A, where
♦ σ = stress on the cross section,
P = loading, and
A = cross-sectional area.
ε = δ/L, where
δ = elastic longitudinal deformation and
L = length of member.
P A
E=σ ε=
δL
PL
δ=
AE
THERMAL DEFORMATIONS
δt = αL (Τ – Τo), where
The slope of the linear portion of the curve equals the δt = deformation caused by a change in temperature,
modulus of elasticity.
α = temperature coefficient of expansion,
DEFINITIONS L = length of member,
Engineering Strain Τ = final temperature, and
ε = ∆L / L0, where Τo = initial temperature.

ε = engineering strain (units per unit), CYLINDRICAL PRESSURE VESSEL


∆L = change in length (units) of member, Cylindrical Pressure Vessel
L0 = original length (units) of member. For internal pressure only, the stresses at the inside wall are:
Percent Elongation ro2 + ri2
σ t = Pi and 0 > σ r > − Pi
⎛ ∆L ⎞ ro2 − ri2
% Elongation = ⎜ ⎟ × 100
⎝L ⎠
o For external pressure only, the stresses at the outside wall
are:
Percent Reduction in Area (RA)
ro2 + ri2
The % reduction in area from initial area, Ai, to final area, σ t = − Po and 0 > σ r > − Po , where
Af, is: ro2 − ri2
⎛ Ai − A f ⎞ σt = tangential (hoop) stress,
%RA =⎜ × 100
⎝ Ai ⎟⎠ σr = radial stress,
True Stress is load divided by actual cross-sectional area. Pi = internal pressure,
Shear Stress-Strain Po = external pressure,
γ = τ/G, where ri = inside radius, and
γ = shear strain, ro = outside radius.

τ = shear stress, and For vessels with end caps, the axial stress is:

G = shear modulus (constant in linear force-deformation ri2


σ a = Pi
relationship). ro2 − ri2
E These are principal stresses.
G= , where
2(1 + ν )
E = modulus of elasticity ♦ Flinn, Richard A. & Paul K. Trojan, Engineering Materials & Their Applications,
4th ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 1990.
v = Poisson's ratio, and
= – (lateral strain)/(longitudinal strain).

38
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS (continued)

When the thickness of the cylinder wall is about one-tenth The circle drawn with the center on the normal stress
or less, of inside radius, the cylinder can be considered as (horizontal) axis with center, C, and radius, R, where
thin-walled. In which case, the internal pressure is resisted
by the hoop stress and the axial stress.
2
Pr Pr σx + σ y ⎛ σx − σ y ⎞
σt = i and σa = i C= , R = ⎜⎜ ⎟ + τ 2xy

t 2t 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
where t = wall thickness. The two nonzero principal stresses are then:
STRESS AND STRAIN σa = C + R

Principal Stresses σb = C − R τin = R

(σy, τxy)
For the special case of a two-dimensional stress state, the
equations for principal stress reduce to
2
σx + σ y ⎛ σx − σ y ⎞
σ a ,σ b = ± ⎜⎜ ⎟ + τ 2xy

2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
σc = 0
(σx, τxy)
The two nonzero values calculated from this equation are
temporarily labeled σa and σb and the third value σc is
always zero in this case. Depending on their values, the
three roots are then labeled according to the convention:
algebraically largest = σ1, algebraically smallest = σ3, other The maximum inplane shear stress is τin = R. However, the
= σ2. A typical 2D stress element is shown below with all maximum shear stress considering three dimensions is
indicated components shown in their positive sense. always
σ1 − σ 3
♦ τ max = .
2
To construct a Mohr's circle, the following sign conventions
are used. Hooke's Law
Three-dimensional case:
εx = (1/E)[σx – v(σy + σz)] γxy = τxy /G
εy = (1/E)[σy – v(σz + σx)] γyz = τyz /G
εz = (1/E)[σz – v(σx + σy)] γzx = τzx /G
Plane stress case (σz = 0):
⎡ ⎤
εx = (1/E)(σx – vσy) ⎧σ x ⎫ ⎢1 v 0 ⎥ ⎧ε x ⎫
εy = (1/E)(σy – vσx) ⎪ ⎪ E ⎢v 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ε ⎪
⎨σ y ⎬ = 2 ⎢ ⎥⎨ y ⎬
εz = – (1/E)(vσx + vσy) ⎪τ ⎪ 1 − v ⎢0 0 1 − v ⎥ ⎪⎩γ xy ⎪⎭
⎩ xy ⎭
Mohr's Circle – Stress, 2D ⎣⎢ 2 ⎦⎥
To construct a Mohr's circle, the following sign conventions Uniaxial case (σy = σz = 0): σx = Eεx or σ = Eε, where
are used. εx, εy, εz = normal strain,
1. Tensile normal stress components are plotted on the σx, σy, σz = normal stress,
horizontal axis and are considered positive. γxy, γyz, γzx = shear strain,
Compressive normal stress components are negative.
τxy, τyz, τzx = shear stress,
2. For constructing Mohr's circle only, shearing stresses
are plotted above the normal stress axis when the pair of E = modulus of elasticity,
shearing stresses, acting on opposite and parallel faces G = shear modulus, and
of an element, forms a clockwise couple. Shearing v = Poisson's ratio.
stresses are plotted below the normal axis when the
shear stresses form a counterclockwise couple.
♦ Crandall, S.H. & N.C. Dahl, An Introduction to The Mechanics of Solids, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
Inc., 1959.

39
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS (continued)

The term on the left side of the inequality is known as the


STATIC LOADING FAILURE THEORIES effective or Von Mises stress. For a biaxial stress state the
Brittle Materials effective stress becomes
Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory
( )
12
σ ′ = σ 2A − σ Aσ B + σ 2B
The maximum-normal-stress theory states that failure occurs
when one of the three principal stresses equals the strength
or
of the material. If σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3, then the theory predicts that
failure occurs whenever σ1 ≥ Sut or σ3 ≤ – Suc where Sut and
( )
12
Suc are the tensile and compressive strengths, respectively. σ ′ = σ 2x − σ x σ y + σ 2y + 3τ 2xy

Coulomb-Mohr Theory where σ A and σ B are the two nonzero principal stresses and
The Coulomb-Mohr theory is based upon the results of σ x , σ y , and τ xy are the stresses in orthogonal directions.
tensile and compression tests. On the σ, τ coordinate system,
one circle is plotted for Sut and one for Suc . As shown in the VARIABLE LOADING FAILURE THEORIES
figure, lines are then drawn tangent to these circles. The
Modified Goodman Theory: The modified Goodman
Coulomb-Mohr theory then states that fracture will occur for
criterion states that a fatigue failure will occur whenever
any stress situation that produces a circle that is either
tangent to or crosses the envelope defined by the lines σa σm σ max
+ ≥1 or ≥ 1, σm ≥ 0 ,
tangent to the Sut and Suc circles. S e S ut Sy
τ
where
Se = fatigue strength,
Sut = ultimate strength,
σ1 Sut σ Sy = yield strength,
-Suc σ3
σa = alternating stress, and
σm = mean stress.
σmax = σm + σa
Soderberg Theory: The Soderberg theory states that a
If σ 1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3 and σ3 < 0, then the theory predicts that fatigue failure will occur whenever
yielding will occur whenever σa σm
σ1 σ3 + ≥1, σm ≥ 0
− ≥1 Se S y
Sut Suc

Endurance Limit for Steels: When test data is unavailable,


Ductile Materials the endurance limit for steels may be estimated as
Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory ⎧⎪ 0.5 Sut , Sut ≤ 1, 400 MPa ⎫⎪
The maximum-shear-stress theory states that yielding begins Se′ = ⎨ ⎬
when the maximum shear stress equals the maximum shear ⎩⎪ 700 MPa, Sut > 1, 400 MPa ⎭⎪
stress in a tension-test specimen of the same material when
that specimen begins to yield. If σ 1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3, then the
theory predicts that yielding will occur whenever τmax ≥ Sy /2
where Sy is the yield strength.
Distortion-Energy Theory
The distortion-energy theory states that yielding begins
whenever the distortion energy in a unit volume equals the
distortion energy in the same volume when uniaxially
stressed to the yield strength. The theory predicts that
yielding will occur whenever
12
⎡ (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ1 − σ 3 )2 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ≥ Sy
⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦

40
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS (continued)

Endurance Limit Modifying Factors: Endurance limit φ = total angle (radians) of twist,
modifying factors are used to account for the differences T = torque, and
between the endurance limit as determined from a rotating
L = length of shaft.
beam test, S e′ , and that which would result in the real part, Se.
T/φ gives the twisting moment per radian of twist. This is
Se = ka kb kc kd ke Se′ called the torsional stiffness and is often denoted by the
where symbol k or c.
b For Hollow, Thin-Walled Shafts
Surface Factor, ka = aSut
T
Surface Factor a Exponent τ= , where
2 Am t
Finish kpsi MPa b
Ground 1.34 1.58 –0.085 t = thickness of shaft wall and
Machined or 2.70 4.51 –0.265 Am = the total mean area enclosed by the shaft measured
CD to the midpoint of the wall.
Hot rolled 14.4 57.7 –0.718 BEAMS
As forged 39.9 272.0 –0.995 Shearing Force and Bending Moment Sign
Size Factor, kb: Conventions
For bending and torsion: 1. The bending moment is positive if it produces bending
of the beam concave upward (compression in top fibers
d ≤ 8 mm; kb = 1 and tension in bottom fibers).
−0.097
8 mm ≤ d ≤ 250 mm; kb = 1.189d eff 2. The shearing force is positive if the right portion of the
d > 250 mm; 0.6 ≤ kb ≤ 0.75 beam tends to shear downward with respect to the left.
For axial loading: kb = 1 ♦
Load Factor, kc:
kc = 0.923 axial loading, Sut ≤ 1,520 MPa
kc = 1 axial loading, Sut > 1,520 MPa
kc = 1 bending
Temperature Factor, kd:
for T ≤ 450°C, kd = 1
Miscellaneous Effects Factor, ke: Used to account for strength The relationship between the load (q), shear (V), and
reduction effects such as corrosion, plating, and residual moment (M) equations are:
stresses. In the absence of known effects, use ke = 1.
dV(x)
q ( x) = −
TORSION dx
Torsion stress in circular solid or thick-walled (t > 0.1 r) dM(x)
shafts: V =
dx
Tr
τ=
⎣ q ( x) ⎤⎦ dx
J x
V2 − V1 = ∫ x 2 ⎡−
1
where J = polar moment of inertia (see table at end of
M 2 − M1 = ∫ x 2 V ( x) dx
x
DYNAMICS section). 1

TORSIONAL STRAIN Stresses in Beams


γ φz = limit r (∆φ ∆z ) = r (dφ dz ) εx = – y/ρ, where
∆z → 0
ρ = the radius of curvature of the deflected axis of the
The shear strain varies in direct proportion to the radius,
beam, and
from zero strain at the center to the greatest strain at the
outside of the shaft. dφ/dz is the twist per unit length or the y = the distance from the neutral axis to the longitudinal
rate of twist. fiber in question.

τφz = G γφz = Gr (dφ/dz) ♦ Timoshenko, S. and Gleason H. MacCullough, Elements of Strengths of Materials, K. Van Nostrand
Co./Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1949.
2
T = G (dφ/dz) ∫A r dA = GJ(dφ/dz)
T TL
φ = ∫ oL dz = , where
GJ GJ

41
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS (continued)

Using the stress-strain relationship σ = Eε, COLUMNS


Axial Stress: σx = –Ey/ρ, where For long columns with pinned ends:
σx = the normal stress of the fiber located y-distance Euler's Formula
from the neutral axis.
π 2 EI
1/ρ = M/(EI), where Pcr = 2
, where
M = the moment at the section and
Pcr = critical axial loading,
I = the moment of inertia of the cross-section.
σx = – My/I, where = unbraced column length.
y = the distance from the neutral axis to the fiber substitute I = r2A:
location above or below the axis. Let y = c, where c
= distance from the neutral axis to the outermost Pcr π2 E
= , where
fiber of a symmetrical beam section. A ( r )2
σx = ± Mc/I r = radius of gyration and
/r = slenderness ratio for the column.
Let S = I/c: then, σx = ± M/S, where
S = the elastic section modulus of the beam member. For further column design theory, see the CIVIL
ENGINEERING and MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Transverse shear flow: q = VQ/I and sections.
Transverse shear stress: τxy = VQ/(Ib), where ELASTIC STRAIN ENERGY
q = shear flow, If the strain remains within the elastic limit, the work done
τxy = shear stress on the surface, during deflection (extension) of a member will be
V = shear force at the section, transformed into potential energy and can be recovered.
b = width or thickness of the cross-section, and If the final load is P and the corresponding elongation of a
Q = A′y ′ , where tension member is δ, then the total energy U stored is equal
to the work W done during loading.
A′ = area above the layer (or plane) upon which the
U = W = Pδ/2
desired transverse shear stress acts and
y′ = distance from neutral axis to area centroid.
Deflection of Beams
Using 1/ρ = M/(EI),
d2y
EI = M, differential equation of deflection curve The strain energy per unit volume is
dx 2 u = U/AL = σ2/2E (for tension)
3
d y
EI = dM(x)/dx = V MATERIAL PROPERTIES
dx 3

Wood (Fir)
Aluminum

d4y
Cast Iron

EI = dV(x)/dx = −q Material
dx 4
Units

Steel

Determine the deflection curve equation by double


integration (apply boundary conditions applicable to the Mpsi
Modulus of 29.0 10.0 14.5 1.6
deflection and/or slope).
Elasticity, E
GPa 200.0 69.0 100.0 11.0
EI (dy/dx) = ∫ M(x) dx
Modulus of Mpsi 11.5 3.8 6.0 0.6
EIy = ∫ [ ∫ M(x) dx] dx
Rigidity, G
The constants of integration can be determined from the GPa 80.0 26.0 41.4 4.1
physical geometry of the beam. Poisson's Ratio, v 0.30 0.33 0.21 0.33
Coefficient of 10−6 °F 6.5 13.1 6.7 1.7
Thermal
Expansion, α 10−6 °C 11.7 23.6 12.1 3.0

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Beam Deflection Formulas – Special Cases
(δ is positive downward)

y P
Pa 2
a b δmax δ= (3x − a ), for x > a Pa 2 Pa 2
6 EI δ max = (3L − a ) φ max =
x Px 2 6 EI 2 EI
δ= (− x + 3a ), for x ≤ a
L φmax 6 EI

y w
δmax
x
δ=
wo x 2 2
24 EI
(
x + 6 L2 − 4 Lx ) δ max =
wo L4
8EI
φ max =
wo L3
6 EI
L φmax

y
δmax M o x2 M o L2 MoL
δ= δ max = φ max =
x 2 EI 2 EI EI
M
L φmax

( )
43

P 32
y Pab(2 L − a )
a b δ=
Pb
6 LEI
⎡L
⎢ b (x − a ) − x + L − b
3 3 2 2
( )x⎤⎥ , for x > a δ max =
Pb L2 − b 2
φ1 =
⎣ ⎦ 9 3LEI 6 LEI
x Pab(2 L − b )
L δ=
Pb
6 LEI
[− x + (L
3 2 2
)]
− b x , for x ≤ a at x =
L2 − b 2 φ2 =
6 LEI
R1 = Pb/L R2 = Pa/L 3

y wo L3
w φ1 = φ 2 =
24 EI
x δ=
wo x 3
(
L − 2 Lx 2 + x 3 ) δ max =
5wo L4

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS (continued)


24 EI 384 EI
L
R1 = w0 L/2 R2 = w0 L/2
Wo LOAD PER UNIT
LENGTH
Ml Mr
δmax
φmax WO L3
2 4 φ Max = 0.008
WO x WO L l 24 EI
Note:
Rl Rr δ ( x) = ( L2 − 2 Lx + x 2 ) δ Max = at x =
24 EI 384 EI 2 l
at x = ±
l
2 2 12
WO L W L
Rl = Rr = and M l = M r = O
2 12
Crandall, S.H. & N.C. Dahl, An Introduction to The Mechanics of Solids, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1959.