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Yolume ll Issue 126

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Forthcoming issues feature:

I 950s Aircraftcarriers
Consultant Editor: Malor General Sir
F m work Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Comman- Pistols of Worid War I
der of British Land Forces during the Modern Tracked Prime Movers
Falklands campaign.
Light Aircraft of lVorld Wu II
Modern Underwater Weapon Systems
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From 1914 to 1918 submarines progressed frombeing short-
The major navies consistently
attempted to deslgn submarines
with long range and high surface
tange coastal craft to large ocean-going vessels capable of speed lo opera te in close support o!
extended cntises. Germany soon realized their value and the batUefleet, but experience
proved this to be unworkable.JT,
launched a submafine campaign against Great Brttain which seen right, was built for the Royal
came close to winning the war. Australian N avy in I I I 7.

1n the course of a Bntrsh naval exercise in the early years of the 2Oth knock out the Messoudjei, offset by ihe loss to submarine attack of the
century, a submarine informed the opposing admiral that he had just first battleship, HMS Formidabie, off Portland, In the Adriatrc, Austrran
been 'sunk'. The latter rephed to the effect that he 'would be damned rf boats dealt as harshly with the French and ltalians, and the long Bntrsh
he was', and carried on, Such entrenched attitudes were typical, despite tradition of close biockade came to a bloody finale when Hersing's U 21
the fact that similar evolutrons had consistentiy demonstrated the sub- sank two more battleships ofi Galhpoli, havrng made the long passage
marine's potential: the truth was unpalatable and was therefore best from Germany for the occasion. In a bare nine months, the submarine
ignored. (A current parallel exists in the average warship's totally in- had flrmly stated that war at sea would never again be the same. Under
adequate defences against a wide variety of aerial threats,) the German flag it went on to the controversial war against merchant
It is fair to say that by August 1914 submariners understood their craft's shipprng In srnktng nearly eight million gross registered tons of British
potential but had failed to convince those who mattered in the conduct of shtpping rt nearly won the war but, in the process, so outraged the
the surface war, This was the more strange in the UK, where the neutral Amerrcans that they flnally declared for the Allied cause, Ger
redoubtable Jacky' Frsher remained in close touch with submarine many's war-winnrng weapon ultimately worked against her own in
development: indeed, they were contemptuously drsmissed as 'Fisher's terests and brought about her downfall,
toys' by Admiral Lord Beresford, who really should have known better.
Wrthin weeks of the outbreak of war, the British E9 under Horton had Detail of one of the Royal Navy'E'class boats off theDardanelles with a French
submarine in the background.lt fell toELto make thelast patrol there in
sunk the crurser Hela near Heligoland, and Weddigen's U t had drs-
posed of three 'Cressy' class cruisers before breakJast, followed shortly January 1916 as theAllied evacuation was completed. The land campaign may
have been a disastrous failure, but the submarine operations were a credit to
by HMS Hawzke, The Bntish BJ J penetrated the Dardanelles defences to theRoyalNavy.

'UB' classes
Adriatic, and one of these, von Heim- tanks to be carried outboard, thus in- Specification
burgs UB J4, sank the troop transpofi creasrng space within. Thrs in turn per, 'UB I'class
Royal Edward near Kos in August 1915 mjtteo lwo 500-mrr t19,7-_n) tubes to Displacement: 127 tons surfaced and
with the loss of almost 1,000 lives, In the be carried forward, vertically drs- 142 tons dived
November he sank also the British sub- posed, together with four reloads, A Dimensions: lenqth 28. 10 m (92 ft
manne E20, wrrch was keeping a com- 50-mm (1.97-in) deck gun and a radio 2.5 in); beam 2,97 m (9 ft 9 in); draught
promised rendezvous, installation were also fitted in the class, 2,90 m (9 ft 6 in)
Though the 'UB Is' met their de- which ran to 30 boats (UB-|8 to UB 47). Propulsion: one diesel delivenng
signed aims, they rnevitably proved Beginning in 1917, the first ofBS IJB III' 44,7 kW (60 bhp) and one eiectric
inadequate with the war staiemated on class boats (UB 48 Io UB- I32) came into motor deliverinq 89 5 kW ( 120 hp) to
Iand and therefore, becominq of grea- service. Compared with the 263/292 one shaft
ter importance at sea. Their 1915-6 fol- tons of the 'UB IIs', these were of 516/ Speed: 6.5 kts surfaced and 5.5 kts
low-ons, the 'IJB II' class boats, were 651 tons and large enough for unres- dived
therefore considerably enlarged to tricted operations around the whole of Range: 3000 km ( I 864 miles) at 5 kts
allow for twin screw propulsion the UK. With five tubes and an BB-mm surfaced, and 85 km (53 mrles) at 4 ks
together with greater power and (3 46-rn) qun, they were comparable in dived
rangte. As there was no lonqer any srze to earlier sea-gotng U-boats. Eight Armament: one machrne-gun, and two
prospect of rarl transportation, they 'UB Is became wal losses, as did 21 'UB 450-mm (17,7-in) torpedo tubes (bow)
could be gdven saddle{anks, the dou- IIs and 40 'UB ills. with four torpedoes
ble-hulled consl ruc-ron aJiowrng some Complement: 14

S hort- r ange coas tal subm arines

originally intended to be transported
by rail to their area oI operations, the
little'UB I'class boats had only two
torpedo tubes and four torpedoes.
?ftr rs tIB-{ which operated in the
Channelbefore meeting its end at
the hands of the Q-shrb Inverlyon.


iiSJ ctasses
'-r:er 'UC I') class was built in
-.-,= UC
;.:.. =, ,'.--:i ihe 'UB I taking its hull as
- :-: ::*: stretchrnq rt for duty as a
: -:: :--:-:iayer, no torpedo tubes
- =-- : '-= i NI'ring the reeming coas-
.. - ,- : .=:.=s of rhe UK was a partrcu-
.:,. ::s.-:-ect-re form of warfare but
',';:j- problems in the narrow
=---r :- ,-:-::ed channels, and a small
: : :. :ssentrai. Something under

: .. ; - -. longter than the 'UB I', the

:-:=,=.-:: :nployed a new principle
,- :-:;--=,:: sx centreline minetubes
:':i-i--l :;:: ihrough the hull forward
-- := _:, :t:m the bottom these tubes
:,:;-r 1. :: about 30" and were free-
i-::-:; =acn could accommodate
- :-- :.j.: ,', r.:h. being regatrvely
:-:r'=:- '.'.-:::l attached to thetr sink-
,: j . ' -- r :: lropped our of rhe bor-
-:: :: .:-: j:es rvrth the boat movLnqt
. : ''.-, .- -:al Futeen of the class (UC-l
--l-,': ;'::e b'ult ior assembly else-
r':-=:= r-:i-j r915, and the hazards of
:' r:r: ','.=re such rhat only one
.,:.-,-.-:: .: ::e end of the war. Not the
,=..: !::i:-::: -;;as a boat's liability to
,-:- - :.:: : ,,:. rrunes nvO (and pOSS-
:. :- ^. : .- -'re, of the class berng
. --
-- ,-:- -l- --:-:er drawback was that
-ha min_os 66uld
---, := r:::i o:tce at sea

'C-l a-as stran ded and captured by

::"e Pc;a! Navy;sfie js seen fiere on
:j-r;-'a-r' al Temple B ar pier in I I I 6.
i-:: ga-'r'ied no torpedoes, iust 12
.:--: e,- , a un clr e d via six vertical tubes
;r.:-:: -:assed rtgrft t through the hull.
During 1915 foreign pubhc opinion Above :U C-7 4 was one of the longe s t-
obliged the Germans to restrict their rangedvessels of the'UC-ll' class
U-boar operarjons, and mrnelayrnq minelayers. Bigger boats than their
took on a greater signiflcance. Furillei predecessorg the class carried six
specialized boats were required and, 100-cm (39.4-in) mine tubes with I I
as in the 'UBs', the size was increased, UC 200- type mines. Her sisler UC-65
The resulting'UC II'class was of 49,4 m s ank H MS Aiadne off Beachy H ead in
(162.1 ft) overall length, had twin I 9 I 7, but was herself sunk by the
screws and was of 4171493 tons dis- British C-Il later in the year.
placement. Each of the sx tubes could
take an extra mine by virtue of a deep 'UE II' class, were also available with
casing forward and a wide and sub- capacities of 32 and 48 mines respec-
stantial keel. A further improvement tively, Iaid fuom a dry-storagTe cham-
was to include also three 500-mm ( 19.7- ber througrh two tubes aft,
in) torpedo tubes and an BB-mm (3,46-
in) gnrn to permir offensive operarions Specification
on the completron of the lay, T\ryo of the 'UC I'class
tubes were external to the pressure Displacement: l68 tons surfaced and
hull, flanking the tops of the mine 183 tons dived
chutes in the forward casing; the third Dimensions: length 34.00 m (111 ft
was inboard and right ail, cramprng 6,5 in); beam3,20 m (10 ft6 in); draught
the rudder and hydroplane gear. Sx- 3,00 m (9 ft 10 rn)
ty-four 'UC lis' were built (UC-16 to Propulsion: one diesel deliverrng
UC-79), 43 becomrng war losses, and 67 kw (90 bhp) and one electnc motor
these were followed by 25 'UC III' class delivering 130,5 kW (175 hp) to one
boats (UC-90 ro UC-ll4) which im- shaft
proved upon the poor surface sea- Speed: 6 kts surfaced and 5 kts dived
keeping qualities of the 'UC II' and had Range: 1400 km (870 mlles) at 5 kts
a 105-mm (4. 13-in) Wn. surfaced, and 95 km (59 mrles) at 4 kts SubmarineJaunched mines accounted for many Allied warships, including
Tfto types of ocean mrnelayer, the dived HMS Hampshire, mined byU-75 (Lord Kitchener was among the dead) ; the
l0 boats of the 655/830{on 'UE I' class Armament: 12mines I talian battleshrb Regina Margherita (mined by the Austro-HungarianUCl{) :
and the l0 boats of the 1,165/1,512{on Complement:16 and the French crur'serKl6ber (m ined at the entrance toBrestbyuc6t).

'U- 19' class

The U-19 was not a great technical The desigm contrnued the tried four- being stretched by 0,5 m (1.64 ft) to up- Specification
advance over the 14 U-boats that pre- tube layout, with two forward and two rate the dresels by a cylinder aprece. 'U-19'class
ceded her all of which were to play a in the cramped a-fter sections, but in- With only minor vanations, U-23 Io U Displacement: 650 tons suriaced
war role; what she did introduce when creased the calibre from 450 to 4l followed this arangement, account- 837 tons dived =:
completed in l9l3 was the diesel en- 500 mm (17 7 to 19,7 in). This arange- ing for sea-going U-boat deljverres un- Dimensions: Ienqth 64,20 m (2 iO :
grne, Earlier boats had been prop- ment was to be favoured for the major- til early 1915, Of the original gnoup 7 5 1n); beam 6. 10 m (20 ft 0 rn); dra:;::,
elled on the surface usually by Koting ity of the following war-builtclasses. U-21 become known under her com- 360m(1Ift10in)
engines which burned paraffin or An important innovatron was the adop- mander, Hersinq, who inflicted the first Propulsion: Lwo diesels dehver:;
heavy oil, deemed safer than the petrol tion of a deck gnrn, an BB-mm (3.46-in) loss on the Royal Navy by submarine 1268 kW (l 700 bhp) and ftvo eie::-:
enqine used rn earlier British boats weapon. The circular-section press- attack when, on 5 September 1914 he motors delivering 895 kW (i.20-l :r' :,
though, interestingly, the latter had ure hull was flanked by substantral sank the scout crurser HMS Pathfinder two shafts
stafied to use diesels in the 'D' class saddle tanks with flattened top sur- in the North Sea, On 29 January 1915 he Speed: 15,5 ktssurfacedalci9.c ks
boats some three years earlier. faces, usually awash, and the narrow cheekily surfaced off Walney Island to dived
Though the Germans had the diesel, centreline casing had a sheer forward bombard the Barrowworks of Vrckers, Range: 13900 km (8,637 mles) a : <-.
they were still proving its lonQi{erm to assist in better surface seakeeping, only to be chased off by a shore bat- surfaced, and 150 lan (93 mrlesl a-: -<:
reliability. Diesels, besides being saf- Light, folding masts were carried to tery. Survivinq the war, U-21 'found- dived
er, were far more economic, an impor- spread the wireless aenals. ered en route to surrender. Armament: one BB-mm (3.46-nl g'-::-
tant factor with respect to operational Only four 'U-19' class boats were and four 500-mm (19.7-in) tcr,ce::
radiLrs, One diesel per shaft could also built (U-79 Io U-22), the desrqn then l ubes (two bow and rwo srerl','; :..r
develop more power than the two torpedoes
K6rting engines previously used in Complement: 37
:andem, savinq qreatly on overall
i:nqth. U -23 to U-41 were stre tched versiotzs
of the'U - I I' class submarrnes. Of tft e
four builtin the class,U-Zl had an
ex cep tional re cor d, sinking H MS
Pathfinderin I I ) 4 - the firct Royal
Navy loss to submarine attack. She
went on to sink the French cntiser
Amiral Charner and later, offthe
Dardanelles, the British battleships
Goliath and TriumplL both on tfte

The Great lJllar benecffh fhe woves
In 19 I4 the submarine was regarded by many naval officers as
a short-range defensive weapon manied by'grubby engineer
types, and not even the Germans appreciated its potential as a
war-winner.In fact the development of underwaterweapons
revolutionized naval warfare; battleships remained thehnal
arbiters of war at sea, but the submarinewas evolvingrapidly.

It was f ortunate for the U K that pre-war German exercises had failed to highlight
tne great potenr a o' rhe J-boat. The -K nerself had slrs3iy 66rnritted co.r-
siderable resources to submarines, so that the r poss bil ties were more widely
apo'eciared. BLrt the man^er o- the.r waTt rne use a^d an accJ-ale oe'inition o' ffiffi d*6
the threat that they posed to indivrdualwarships, to the battlefleet and, equally
importantly, to nnerchant shipping, was far from formulated. Peacetime exer-
cises tended to be set-piece affairs, modifying established doctrine rather than
evolving new concepts, particularly any as ievblutionary as using submarines rn
an aggressively offensrve role.
Probabiv the submarine's greatest drawback was in its being vrewed as a
piece of machinery rather than a shrp, a device for engineers rather than seamen
at a tlme when 'oily rags'were viewed as an nf erior race. Submariners rnrere of a
closed order (known defensively rn the Royal Navy as 'The Trade'l anc tne:r craft
were looked upon as neaT-seas defensrve weapons wrth 1 111s i-6is,,i3nc: tc'leei
nnatters. Just'as the Germans had falled to'foresee their s'!ora'n3 e:ri's
offensrve qualitres, so had the Br + sh fa ted to deve op su tabie:i'e3r ,.'3 nsa::5
'or Lnei, oelec o- o o op:L -- o
Fven by 1914 Ine S-b',-:c <€| nao progrecseo .:--. eJ
'sp ndle' tVpe to larqer sadl e{ar<ed or double-hulled varier es .ra. l:ssessed U-8was the firstU-boat lost, being sunk byHMSMaorjand HMS Gurkha on 4
far greater usable nternal volunle and vastly improved sea<eei -g lie art-.r March 1915. The ramwas a favourite method of submarine destruction:IJ-2:
po nt was of great mpo.t3nce ior s'ubmarines (oi' 'sub.lers,c::s' ,.,,rr rherr was the unluckiest in this respect, being rammed by the t 8,A00-ton bulk of
poor submerged perfcrn-ance, ',rere expected to operate icr tr: g":a:er oart on HMS Dreadnou ght tw o w e e k i I a te r.
the surface, divinq for evas cn or attack. Little thouahi nac beer :e,,:rei to tne
problems posed by extenCed patrols or to equrpprng then :rr-use :ga nst therr weapons led 10 the introduction of 533-mm (21-in) and 5OO-mm 119
most likely targets. Thus, for rnstance, when the Germans d scc'e-=i 'Io tne,. caLibres. These, inevltably, demanded larger boats bu1 could strrke from a s:'-
own surprse as much as anybody's) that the U-boat's range and e rarraice ,"vas range. The extra srze brought about the abandoning of athwartships tubes bi,-.-.
considerably greater lhan ant c;pated, an rmmedrate rmitat,or v'ias IccseC by Brtish and iess stress on manoeuvrabilty for rapid disengagement.
the few torpedoes carr ed. Th s, wjth ex st ng boats, wolld res, , 1 iil irul As British boats would likely be operating against warships, -quns were I tt -
patrols being curtalled ano rnordinate t me spent rn transri I a i,a,. :a.' rct be evidence at the outset. lnadequaie 6-pdi g"uns were superteded by 12:,
'oJno lo 'es-po,\, 01 Slo o^ o, oevelop ot^e rooe) .. ,'. ' .'a.*et - weapons and jater boats carned one or two 102-mm (4 in) quns as the a=,
lorpeooes were rese'ved'or n.gr.vd ue o'o 'icu | 'o qi > .. ^' - I means of countering surtaced U boats As an alternative to ihe torpedoinc ,
the protection of which Germany rapidlydiscovered to ce t.e -( s ...::< pcrnt. merchantmen, the Germans found the gun indispensible, rts calibre jumi -.
could be sunk by gun or demolition charge. ln turn, ho'"\,e'!e,, rr s r:br,ed the -ro- 50 -m {" .97 in, p ogre:s vely ro 88 n'r ,3 46 ^ . ' 05 rr- 14.1J r
U-boatof itsareatestadvantage, stealth, and resu ied;n ccurte..reasrres such eventually 50 mm (5.9 in), with somelimes two guns fitted. Though airc-.'
as'O'shrps. Slow submergence had been seen n peacet'r:e as of l,ttle attacks were mounted on submannes, the latter's light automatic weap:-:
consequence, but proved gravely d sadvantageous wnen ihe 13ilis3 r,r'r-c1; 5si-
denly turned. lmprovements could often be made s n ply bv c"tt,irg 3xi5a l Tber Armed with a single torpedo tube and crewed by eight men, the I 13-ton HM
ho es ir I^e cas tg stTrlcIUre. SubmarineNo.2was the first submarine to enter service with the RovalNaw.'.
Torpedoes in general wor[ed we for their i rne, b ]t t1e ,ac o: rarce :nd N o. I foundered while on tow in I I I 3, only to be fou nd again in I I I I i s he is
krllrng power of the British 457 mm (18-in) and the Gei-rr'an 450-n-"' t';7 7 :at being restored at the submarine museum at Gosparl.




tF^ 1
Submarines of World War I

On e of the victims : s u bm arine a ttack accounted for the los s o f I I h e avy

;;;;;;;; a";i;; Wor\d War t. The I 4,000'ton cruiser I{MS Drake.w-as-^
t;;;;A;;J ;;A sunk bytJ -79 off Rathtin I sland, Northern I reland' U-79 was
iriiarity a minelayer but had two external tarpedo tubes'

were not viewed spectfically in an AA context. Large-calibre weapons, as tltted

planes were widely deployei, part cularly by the Br trsh, boli''':-- . - - -
in 'monitor' submaiines, w6re an aberration and contrlbuted nothlng to marn- and surface ship, but conti'buted tt e of note Perhaps sir-.-: i
days of 'towed arrays', hydrophones were being towed asie'- :' :' -.
stream submarine develoPmeni.
and multi unit arravs as earlyas 1 9'17, butthe blg breakthro;;. ?i'. : -: =
Minelaying was taken seriously by the Germans, who apprecrated rts cost-
effectivenesi far more than dld the'British. Where the latter converted a few byAsdic(laterSonar), achievedoperatona status usttoo a.: -'.:- :- :
itunaurO nou1u, the former built many coastal and ccean boats confrgured for
this time, neariv all submar nes weTe \'ery cluttered exte'n:' -. -"
propellers and were extreme y no sv blt detectjor si: ' -::::-- ' -
ir'.,u turt. Eoth sides used ioughly the same system, wth m nes la;d
irorn --
free-flooding stowage chules; it was hazardous,and slow' ho'A'ever, ano tne after thev had broken cover to attacf, leav ng tnel' i r:-:' " .- -:: i
g"t.h .h""-g"O to riru stowage tn the length of the casrng and laid over the Bamming and gunf re were both used against suira:-: s-:l..:'
5le r n.
these coull usudlly submerge quickly enougil ic 3''. -- ::--::-
- .:: : :
"'ifViietess charge rapidlycame into itsown. lnitiallY, British croc,i'-:
communication was, forthe most part, of unpred ctabie range and
sc' that the sort of centrallzed command exercised over the U-boats ol
quality,'War average of oniy 200 being expended each month :r',?'- : . :
Wortcj I
ll was not posiibl" in World War Aerials demanded that sub-
marlnes were encumbdred with two tall telescoplc or fold ng masts
Communications between a submerged boat and a suriace sh p were n tne
exoerimental Staqe rn 1g14 and mergeciwith research already being conducted
ini[ lf," O"iucfui ot submarines by*passive acoustic means. Dlrectional hyro-

i: :\ :it:t;t;:iil
"a,{t '1
The Great Warbeneaththe waves

Searnln resf in the cramped interior of aBiitish'sabmarine. As lfte.boafs

became/arger sodid thelrcrews, and spacewAs allways atapiemium.lt
became noticed that submarines invariably sme af stale cabbage, which has
remaraeda djsagreeable feature of submariners'lives ever since,

Periscope dep th abo ar d a R oy aI N avy s ubm ar ine. O nce atse a, Wo r Id W ar I Sear iere at,Sca p a F low among the pride of the Grand Fleet, Gl4 raras one of a
submarinecomnanderswerevesy much'Je{t ta their own devjces, srnce tie L4-strong class olsubmarines ardered heloyethewarin respo4se to
radia technologty which allowed lJre Germans lo control their U-boats from ex aggerated.rumours of the performance of G erman submarines. Royal N ar,
a s h ore dut ing Wa r Id W ar I I w as only in iti lnf ancy. suhm driners aequitted fiems eli€s very well in World Wat l .

lnrs number had increased tenfold. 1n the. end the U-boat was not so much
iefeated by hardware as {iustrated by tactics, for the tardy introdrct;on oi
:cnvoy reduced the horrif.y.ing 5.75 million gross regrstered ion mercantile loss
zf 1917 10 a,rnanageable 2.65 million fc,rthefirst 10 months oi 1918.
Eariy German research to produce.ar reliab'le diesel engine benefitteC their
3cats wrth €xcellent m.achinery, qnly a f ew cjf the very earliest hari:ng the smcky
(orting engine that burned high f lashpolnt fuel. Only with ihe 'D' ciass haci the
3!-itish switched from the more haza.rdous p.elrolengine though, rn ils Cefence, ii
:culd be pointed out that ii was more com.pact and had a signritcantly better
oower-to-weigh! ratio. Diesels were staried, arid often reversed, by lsing the
rrain propulsron nnotors. Storage balte.ry. technology of the iime permrtted
s;:bmerged ranges typically less than l85 km {100 rniles)
All tvpes of submarne grew considerably in size during the w'ar. Thev were
ess agrle as a resul.t and easier to detect; butboth endurance and nabltabilitv
,r.er-e greatly jmproved so that pairo.ls of
isix and seven weeks were possible.

Left: The 'K' class was desrgned as Above: The,short-range coastal C-

fleet.submarines capable of 24 kts ilassboats were lhe first cJass to be
surfaced; No contemparary diesels built in.]aige numbers for the Royal
were equal to tfie taskso steam Navy. Despite their short range and
turbmes were fitted together with a petrol engines, they saw extensive
diesel to drive the generator. Over a war service.
third of the hull was devoted ta ,


E= 'ffibg' class (Type uA or u-Kreuzer) Submarines of World War I
Resumption of unrestricted submarine
warfare by the Germans in February
1917 went far toward obliQring the USA
to declare war rn April 1917. Failing to
anticipate thls result, the Germans
were caugtht short of boats suitable to
carry the mercantile war to the Amer-
ican eastern seaboard, and the rearm-
rngt ofthe slow and vulnerable Handeis
U-Baote emphasized this predica-
ment, The construction of these large
boats had, however, yielded useful ex- ).rr'@rrrr::::.
perience and enabled a proqramme of
large cruising submarrnes to be
undertaken with confidence, Already
being built at the US declaration were
the big ocean minelayers and a pair of
cruiser classes, the larger by far of
which were the 'U- I39' class boats, De-
spite their size, these cruiser sub-
marines could still carry only 13 spare
iorpedoes. so much debate was given
to surface armament for the purpose of
despatchinq'soft' targets, Eventually reached the Western Atlantrc oper- The shape of things to come : a'U- I 39'
they were qiven two l5O-mm (5.9-in) It was then too late to build such ationally, Their success was limited type long-range cruiser submarine.
gmns and were fitted for, but not neces- submarines in any numbers, because but their nuisance value was consider- which displaced over 2,000 tons. The
sarily with, a further BB-mm (3.46-tn) of shortages of skilled labour and able, partrcularly in obliqinq the powerful gun armament of two I 5A-
prece abaft the fin. A low bulwark materials, and of conflicts of priorities, Amerrcans to adopt a convoy system, mm (5.9 - in) weapons w as impor tant.
around the amidships section was de- and the three boats were not commls- with its attendant delays. as despile ther'r size they could onJ';
sigrned to keep down the amount of sioned until 1918, A planned follow-on accommodate I 9 torpedoes.
free water that would otherwise have 'U-142' class was even Iarger at 2,160/ Specification
swilled about to hamper gunlaying, 2 7BS tons (dwarfing anythinq used in
and a retractable 4-m (13,]-ft) range- World War II), addins a second BB-mm 'U-I39'class
finder was housed in the after end of gmn, 1B reload torpedoes and a 40750- Displacement: I 930 tons surfaced and
the superstructure. A respectable sur- km (25,320-mile) cruisinq range. Only 2 483 tons dived
face speed was as important as long the lead ship of a planned nine was Dimensions: lenqth 92 00 m (301 ft
endurance, but diesels of high enough ever completed, Also planned, but lO ir) beam9 lO n 129 ft I0 25 rn):
power were only in the development never built, was an even larqer 110-m draught 5 30 m (17 ft 5 in)
stage. Steam propulsion was consl- (360,9-ft) boat with an armament of four Propulsion: two diesel-electric drives
dered but wisely rejected and a 150-mm and two BB-mm Enrns, with top- delivering 2946 kW (3,950 bhp) and
speed of kts had to be accepted,
16 sides armoured for surface combat two electric motors de[vering
though even thls was not achieved tn Only a handtul of corsairs ever 1268 kW (1,700 hp) to two shafts

F 'ilibl' class (Handels U-Boote) jects and were dellered late, This,
Germany blockadinq the UK with her large-drameter hull. About 350 tonnes
U-boats was, in turn, blockaded by the could be carried in total. Access to the together with the USA's entry into the
Royal Nalry, Only a short war had been inner carqto spaces was understand- war and possibly with doubts regrard-
planned by the Germans so, even by ably poor but, for such a venture, time- ing the structural strength following
1 9 1 5, shortages were appearing in vil- ly arrrval took precendence over the loss of the Bremen, resulted in a
al commodities, notably nickel and speed of handling, Surfaced, the hull changre of role, The'U-151'class boats
rubber both of whrch were freely had a hiqrh freeboard, double-ended were armed with two i50-mm (5.9-in)
available in the still-neutral USA. Of- appearance, the stern particularly gnrns and two torpedo tubes and used
ficial plans to bnnq across small quan- having a quite mercantile form with a as lonq-ranqe cruisers, Deutschland
tities in existinq submarines were re- deep skeg supporting a simplex{ype became the U 155 and alone took sx
placed by a commercial proposal to rudder separating the twin screws, tubes. These biqr boats had a two-
build speciahzed, unarmed, cargo- which were fully bossed. The first month endurance and operated large-
carrying U-boats (Handels U-Boote). boat, Deulsciland, made two success- ly in the central Atlantrc where, thouqh
Investment was underwrttten by the ful trips to the USA with grreat attendant their tally was small, they caused the
state and an operating company, the propaqanda value but the second, Bre- British much anxiety because of the
Deutsche-Ozean Red GmbH was men, disappeared on her maiden difficulty rn providrng countermea-
estdblrshed A degree of urgency voyage. Nevertheless, six more boats sures in so remote a reglon.
attended the construction of the flrst were ordered. By then (1916-7) they
two boats, the largest yet ordered: had to share prrorities with other pro-
hulls were built in one yard and frtted l
out in another; machinery was made I'
available from official sources in the The'U- 15I' class begran Me as
form of auxiliary machinery from capit- i:' submarine freighters (with names)
al ships then under construction; and built to carry vital cargo from the
completion took only 672 months, TWo neutral USA to G erm any. avoiding
internal cargo spaces were provided, $
the RoyalNavy blockade whichwas
and the free-flooding volume between slowly strangling the German
the pressure hull and the outer casinqf + economy. Atter their fellow
was uti[zed for further stowage for submarines had brought America
such as raw rubber while providing into the war, the'U- I5I s'were used
scope for further deep-framing of the as long-range submarine cnsisers.
Firsf of fheAces
U-35remarn s to this day the mostsuccessful submarine of alltime. She sank 224
ships, totalling 535,900 tons, mostof themwhileunder the command of Lothar von
Arnauld delaPeridre; bycomparison, themost successfulsubmarine of WorldWar
II (the GermanU-49) sank 52 ships totalling 310,000 tons. After two years in the
Mediterranean her commander returned to Germany and took over one of the latest
U-boats, but the war ended before he could substantially improve hjs score.
On 12 November 1915, the German submarine perishing, Her status allowed a submerged
U-35 returned to its forward base in the then attack with no warning but, in order to con-
Austro-Hungarian portof Cattaro, Her com- serve torpedoes, von Arnauld had wisely con-
mander, Kophamel, in a month ranging the scripted a good gunner from the fleet, Whrie, in
eastern Mediterranean, had sunk about 49,000 the next two days, two ships were sunk by
Jross tons of shrpping, He was now appointed gn-rnfire, a thlrd escaped because the boat's
:o command the new refitting base at Pola, movement made shooting dtfficult. On 29
being relieved by an unknown with an unlikely February four torpedoes were expended in U-35receires drspatches from a Friederikshafen
background, sinking the British sloop HMS Primula. The first seap/ane in the Mediterranean. The Kaiser once
Lothar Eugen George von Arnauld de la took her bows off, but the little ship went full used U-35 fo defiver a personal messagre to tie
Periere, not yet quite 30 years of age, had astern, not only evading two further shots but King of Spain" On hisway to andfrom Cartegena,
Von Arnauld expended over 500 rounds of
lrench aristocratic antecedenis traceable to also attempting to ram the submarine, Respect- ammunition against Allied merchantmen.
ie early 15th century, Hrs father was a State ing her two 102-mm (4-in) guns, the German
Audrtor in Potsdam but a great grandfather had drew off and sank her with his last torpedo, On 26 July he sailed again for the same area
earned a Pour le M6rite with Oakleaves while which obliged him to return to Cattaro after a on what was to be the wa'r's most productive
servrng as a Generalleutnant under Frederick patrol of only one week, U-boat patrol, In 25 days he destroyed 54 shrps
:he Great in 1757 Returning immediately, von Arnauld found totalling about 90,000 grt, all of which were
The lO-year-old Lothar was placed as a nav- the area almost devord of shipping, a month's attacked wrth the U-35 surfaced, Von Arnauld
al cadet at Wahlstatt, loimng the Kaiserliche patrol yieldlng only one respectable prize, the took consrderable risks to abide by the rules.
lv4arine seven years later, Specializing in tor- ]3,540-ton British transporl Minneapolis, which On 14 Augnrst, for instance, in sinkrng no less
oedoes, he served in the cruiser Emden in the took two days to founder. than I I small Italian traders roundrng northern
- ar East rn 1911-3 before berng drafted to the Following rectification of machinery defects, Corsica, he was jumped by the same number cl
sralf of Admrral von Pohl, soon to be C in-C ol U-35 appeared in the western Mediterranean French anti submarine ships. Next day, having
-ne Hrgh Seas Fleet, His next move was to the inJune 1916, Between 10 and 24 June he sank 40 stopped a small vessel, he was approached b;,-
t'-35 ships, mostly small French and Italtan traders, another, large and unmarked, whrch suddenl;.-
Ominously, Kophamel had reported the but aggregatlng 57,000 grt, With so many opened a hearry fire at '60 hectametres' (abou:
l'"'lediterranean eastern basin to be a good targets available, it was noteworthy that when
runting ground, r,vrth 'few patrols' and 'shipping the Brrtrsh ship Clodmoor made a spirited de- U-35 fies on the surface observing four warships
steaming over the horizon in April 19 17; von
.icilowing) prescribed courses', After a short fence, she survived. On 21 June von Arnauld
Arnauld had the mortifying experience of missing
refrt, U-35 sailed on 20 February 1916 to oper- entered Cartagena to deliver a letter frorn the the large French crujser Waideck Rousseau lfte
a.e between Malta and Creie, His first ktll, on Kaiser to King Alfonso of Spain and finally re- previous year. Most ofU-35's kils were achieved
25 February, was the French auxiliary Prore- turned only when 520 rounds of ammunition by surface action, whichwas notforgotten by the
:ce II, over half the 1,800 troops aboard had been expended veterans joining the inter-war Kriegsmarine-
Submarines of World War I

U-35makesa rendezvous with a later-model U-

boat. Lack of radio equipment meant that
'Wolfpack tactics'were notyetpossible, but on the
other hand surface vessels had few weapons or
sensors and the AIIied navies took a long time to
mount a serious ASW effort.
6,500 yards). Von Arnauld submerged raprdly hrs total, With the convoy system becoming Von Arnauld de la Peridre ended the war in
but the ship, the Italian decoy CittA dt Sassan, organized, however, lack of targets gradually command of U-I39, one of the large ocean-going
pulled away, On his return he had expended forced him to operate outside Gibraltar, cruiser submarines which could range right
over 900 rounds of 105-mm (4 13-1n) ammuni- Early in 1918, with 195 ships totalling over across the AUantic. Here his former commandU-31
grt to hrs credrt, von Arnauld returned lies amongst other surrendered boats at Harwich
tron but only four torpedoes, one of which had 500 000
in 1918.
missed the French armoured crurser Waldeck- to Germany to take command of the big U-
Rousseau. Kreuzer U-139 to spearhead the assault on and Stettin, There followed a year as navigatlng
His next patrol netted 22 shlps of oyer Amerrcan waters, Though others, includrng officer in the old battleshrp EJsass before being
70,000 qrt, Typlcal of the larger victims was the Kophmel's U-14a, anived rn the summer, von appointed to the Naval Staff rn Wilhelmshaven,
3,840-ton Benpark, on passaqe from North Arnauld was recalled and, operating subse- In 1931 as a Kowettenkapitan, he joined the
Amenca to Genoa, with a manifest including quently west of Spain, had little luck against new submarine command; still only 45 years of
5,000 tons of piece goods, manufactured steel, weil escorted convoys, and the new experi- age, his experience was grafted onto the root-
machine tools, 900 bars of copper and 1,000 ence oibeing heavily depth-charged, Thouqh stock ofa new generation olsubmarine heroes,
tons of coke, During thrs operation he again he had received the honour ofbeing personal-
called at Cartagena to pick up a party of Ger- ly received by the Kaiser, he returned to Kiel U-35 recejves vrsrtors in the shape of the crew of a
man officers engaged on an undisclosed mis- on 14 October 1918 to flnd the fleet in a state of small'UB' class submarine during a cruise in the
Mediterranean.The small size of the UB boat is
sion; among them, interestingly, was a 'Lt Cdr revolt, and shared in iis joint shame. obvious. The figure in British uniform onU-35
Canaris', later head of German miltiary rntelh- With no submarines in the postwar fleet, von forwardof the 88-mm gun is CaptainWilson,
gence, Von Arnauld was awarded the Pour le Arnauld found himself until 1925 commanding King's Messenger, taken prisoner by von Arnauld
Merite and, patrol by patrol, steadily added to the equivalent of naval brigades in Stralsund earlier in the patrol.
First of the Aces


U-boats increased in size and amament throughout thewar. Early boats

carried so few torpedoes that their offensive capacitywas severely limited,
whereas the later units of the'U-93'class could carry up to 16 torpedoes and
mounted a heavy gun armamenL
Submarines of World War I

Unterseeboof U-150
By 1 9 8 I U - boats had evolved to a s ize and s hape fores hadowing that of the
boats thatfoughtthe second battle of theAtlantic duringWorldWar II.
Displacing 820 tons surfaced and I ,000 tons submerged, the 'U- 160' group
was a logical development of the earlier U-boats. Like the 'U-87' class they
were fi tted with a heavy bow arm amen t of s ix 500 -mm ( I 9.7 -in) torpe do tu be s,
and ended the war mounting I 05-mm (4. l -in) and 88-mm (3.46-in) dual-
purpose guns. Commerce raiding was hedged with a series of restrictions
imposed by the Hagrue Convention to which both Great Britain and Germany
were signatories; for submarinet lftese conditions posed veryserjous
prohlems because of their vulnerability when surfaced. The conventionwas
violated early in thewar by theRoyalNavy aswell as by theGermans. Neutral
opinionwas upsetby the actions of both sides, theGermans achieving
greatest opprobrium only as their sink-on-sight policy gathered pace. The
U-boats soon inflicted terrible damage on the Allied merchant marine ; it is
often torgotten that fatal damage was already being done before the Germans
embarked on unrestricted submarine warfare. U-160 was n ot launched until
February 19lBwhenthe U-boats had been all but defeated, andunrestinthe
German fleet would soon lead to mutiny.

='l American submarines
l:=-,';ar emphasis in US submarine TheUS Navy developed its
:::-; had beert based largely on the submarine arm at a leisurely pace,
,-,:=is of coastal defence, with sub- and at the end of thewar was
::::;ed handiness and rapid diving surprised at the superiority of the U-
i:-!:nalit considerations This rather boats it inspected; close examination
-:-:=*ar approach was rudelY shaken ofU-l11revea/ed adrybridge and a
:::- i914 when German U-boats de- sound propulsion system. Many US
:--:--:lred rheir capabLlitres tn ocean vessels, Iike the'K' class, suffered
'i.':l::re. Until 1913, almost all boats fr om unr e li able diesels.
:--j been of Holland design, excepting
::-;:he three'G'class boats of 1911 3 consuming stowage in the pressure
ri: ro the desiqn of Simon Lake but hu]], The 'L' class boats were followed
:,=-d by the navy to be too complex) by an assortment of largteiy similar 'N',
=:-: a srngile Laurenti type, the G-4 of 'O' and 'R' class boats, all of the same
-:-2 (found to be unstable in practice, armament and constructed at Hol-
=:::blem discovered also by the Brit- land's successor, the Electric Boat
.:- ':l ther boats built to Laurenti de- Company. They were rated for opera-
.-;) The narry had little confidence in tions down to 6l-m (200-ft) submerg-
=:b:iarrnes in gTeneral but beinqt ence.
Specification motors deliverinq 597 kW (B0O hp) to
::-.-cusly so far behind EuroPean At the USA's entry into the war her
!riJlce, characteristically began to nalry had a respectable 50 boats in 'L'class two shafts
:- i. ihough increasrnq the size of service, but many of these were obso- Displacement: 456 tons surfaced and Speed: 14 kts surfaced and l0 kts
:r::essive classes with qreat caution, lete and little was to be achieved by 524 tons dived dived
-l-ll American submartnes after L9l0 them In October l9l7 a flotrlla of 'L' Dimensions: length 50 29 m (165 ft Range: not known
:.i dresels for surface propulsioni class boats was sent to the Azores and O in); beam4,50 m(14 ft9 in); draught Armament: one 76-mm (3-in) gun and
--,^:: burlt pre-war were typically of a further flotilla (labelled 'ALs' to void 4.04 m (13 ft 3 in) four 457-mm (18-in) torpedo tubes
:, - :cns or Iess but the excellent 'H' coniusion with the British 'L class) Propulsion: -wo diesels deliverin g (bow) with eight torpedoes
class ciabout 360 tons was available in operated in -western Irish waters 895 kW (1,200 bhp) andtwo electric Complement: 28
,: -: ihe British Admiralty havingt against U-boats, for German surface
::-::-; more built than the American's targets were by this time vrrtually The 'O' class were typical of the
:-:-:- Eleven 'L' class boats between nonexistent, They had no dlrect suc- submarines constructed in America
,:-: and l9i7 raised the sudace ton- cess, although the German I/B-65 poss- before the USA entered the war.
rr: :o beyond 450 and, for the first rbly torpedoed herself and was Displacingjustover 500 tons, they
-,,:-: :he boats mounted a 76-mm (3-in) while trying to sink the lZ-2 carried a crew of 28 and were fitted
:=:k giun, when not rn use this re- withfour 457-mm (19-in) torpedo
:-,-.:C barrel vertical, into a space- fubes.


'Dupuy de L6me' class

tradeoff for seaworthtness. Steam Their size enabled them to maintain expansion steam engines deliverinqt
propulsron in itself was a handicap in 17 kts on the surface but it must be 1305 kW (1,750 rhp) andtwo electric
drving, with the boiiers having to be doubtful if they ever reached therr motors deiiverinq 61 I kW (820 hp) to
shut down, funnels secured and blank- claimed 11 kts submerged After the two shafts
ed-ofl and electric propulsion run up. war they were re-engdned with 895- Speed: 17 kts surfaced and B kts dived
fhe early Pluviose type sea-going kW (1,200-bhp) diesels removed from Ranse:4250 km (2,640 miles) at 10 kts
boats of 1907-10 had two sets oftiple- ceded German boats, This gave them surfaced (after re-engineerlng) and
expansion steam engines, and all thelr a Qreatly increased radius and more 200 km ( 124 miles) at 5 kts dived
torpedoes were carried in the unsatis- internal space as a result of the com- Armament:one 75-mm (2.95-in) Wn,
factory external drop-collars rather pactness of the machinery, They also one 47-mm (1 B5-in) grun and 10450-
than tubes. They were followed bY received eight torpedo tubes and mm (17 7-rn) torpedoes
one-off larqter steam-propelled boats, served through until 1935. Complement: 43
the generally similar firc,hmdde of
1909 and the improved Gustave Z6d6 Specification Serving with the Morocco flotilla of
of 1913, The latter had two tubes for 'Dupuy de L6me' class (as built) the French navy in 1917-18, based at
lorpedoes bul retarned dropplng gear. Displacement: 833 tons surfaced and Gibraltar,Dupuy de L6me was an
as did the ultimate pair, the'Dupuy de l2BTtonsdived enlarged version of the successful
L6me'class boats, Dupuy de L6me and Dimensions: lenqth 75.00 m (246 ft 'Archimdde' design. S he reached
San6 of 1915-6. Like all French sub- 1 in); beam 6 40 m (2 I ft 0 in); draught I 9 kts on her reciprocating engines
marines, they were constructed in 4 60 m(15 ft I in) on trials. These engines were
state dockyards, in this case at Toulon Propulsion: two sets of lrrple- replaced after thewarby a 1200-bhp
Krupp diesel taken from an ex-
German submarine.
'C' class Submarines of World War I
-t - r3ngthened and improved 'B' A remarkable series of photos taken
-i-s -:.ie 'C' class submarines ran to
from one of Oberleutnant Friederich
::-iderable number of 38 boats C hristiansen's H ansa- Brandenburg
- -.- -.l:::.
rn the four years of therr con- atpl anes, which attacked C-
W. 2 9 flo
- :-'cn programme various im- 25 off Harwich on I J uly I 9 I B. The
-r:;3ments were rncorporated. In pressure hullwas pierced and the
=--::e ihere we'e rwo main groups. CO, Lieutenant B e11, was killed along
-' : CIB (completed 1906-8) and C19 withfiveof hiscrew.
J-38 (completed 1909'10), Costing
. -::rhing like f47,000 to S50,O0O each, Specification
=-- :xcept srx were built by Vickers, 'C' class (second series)
':-:h firm had the monopoly of con- Displacement: 290 tons surfaced and
-..:::tinq, in concert with the Royai 320 tons dived
-::kyards, any submarine for which Dimensions: length 43.36 m (142 ft
:-: company had provrded the major 3 in); beam 4 14 m (13 ft 7 in); drauqrht
::siqm input, The hull design was of 3,51m(ilft6in)
. :-role Iorm wrlh poor characle.r-slrcs Propulsion: one petrol engine
-: the surface (where the boats of the delivering 447 kW (600 bhp) and one
r-y spent the qreater part of their electric motor delivering 224 kW
.-:ne) It is interesting that the concept (300 hp) to one shaft
,, these early forms which were Speed: 13.5 ktssurfacedandB kts
-'rned at the best submergred perform- drved
:ilce, was gradually abandoned over Range:2414 km (1 500 miles) at B kts
:ie years to be readoptedand reflned surfaced, and 101 lcn (63 miles) at 5 kts
:nly in the high speed submarine de- dived
. elopments post-1950. Improvements Armament: two 457-mm ( I B-tn)
.c both casrnq and tower resulted not torpedo tubes (both bow) with two or
,-nly in better seakindliness but also in four torpedoes
ncreasing periscope lenqth from Complement:16
3 76m (12 it 4 in) to 6.40 m (21 ft 0 rn),
an important consideration with re Right: The figure by the periscope is
spect to depth-keeping in a sea. In the believed to be Leading Seaman
:arlier boats, two periscopes were Barge, who was mortally wounded
itted for the flrst time while firing a Lewis gun back at the
Reserve of buoyancy was greater aircraft. He shouted for the
:han in earlier boats but was still li- submarine to dive, unaware that she
mrted, decreasing further over the had already sustained prohibitive
years to the extent that eventually, the hulldamage.
choice often had to be nade between
:pare lorpedoes or fuel capaclly
Compared wrth that of the 'B' class
boats, battery power was increased by
50 per cent butthe submerged endur-
ance of 93 km (58 miles) at 4,5 kts still
needs to be compared with 37 km (23
mrles) at 5 kts for the earliest 'A'boats
A drawback to all these early cias-
ses was their total lack of marn internal
-.vatertrght bulkheads; to reduce the
Canger of raprd flooding a collisron
bulkhead was later fltted to some.
-{abitability was of a very low standard
and the adherence to the petrol en-
lme perpetuated the explosion risk
rom vapoul,
Despite thelr obvrous hmitations, the
l' boats were active in the war. Be
:ause of their small size four were ship
:ed to North Russia, broken into sec-
.-cns, transported overland and reas-
:=mbled for use in the Gulf of Frnland.
-:-. a time when smailer U boats were
;estering the Bntish North Sea flshing
--eet, 'C' boats rnrere occasionally
:'ved submerged by decoy trawlers
: ruse thal resulteo rn Lhe destructron
-: two of the enemy before detectron
ralsed rts abandonment. War iosses
::alled four, and the four boats rn the
l:lf of Frnland were all eventully
:-:wn up,

The'C'class of submarinewas the first type to Above: Bullets impact into thewater asC25
b producedinsubstantial numbers for the vainly tries tomanoeuvre. Shewas rescuedby
Royal Navy, 38 examples being built. Small the appearance of the minelaying submarine
coastal craftwith limited endurance and with ESI, which towed her back to Harwich despite
ptrol engines, theywere perhaps intended for the continued attentions of Christiansen's
)-defined harbour defence tasks butsaw aircraft. Christiansen added C25 to his kill total
;r':despread action, four sewing in the Baltic. nevertheless.
>K L'clars
-:e erght-boat 'D' class completed in ing the forward tubes.
-:-3-i2, rectrfied many of the short- The diesels frtted were of Vickers
::mlngs of the'C'class, Though 5,79 m own design, usually built under li-
: ft) longer, they were better sea- cence. They were srnqle-acting four-
::ats and they were also equipped stroke unrts with blast inlectron started
-,';-rh saddle tanks, which accommo- by erther compressed air or electrrc
rated most ballast capaclty outside the motor. In the 'D' class the enqnnes had
.ressure hull and rncreased the re- six cylinders and in the 'E class -^ight.
serve of buoyancy. They also had With their heavy operationai in
diesel propulsron on twrn shafts (so im- volvements, the 'E class boats had an
provinq manoeuvrabrlity), could carry impofiant yet extraordinanly varied
a 12-pdr g,un and shipped a third tor- surface armament. Early boats had no-
pedo tube aft. It was felt that whrle the ihing or one z-pdr, whiie later exam-
Cesrgn was successful, the 'D' class ples had both a 12- and 2-pdr One,
boats would experience difficulty in E20, was fitted with a 152-mm (6 in)
grettrng clear following an end-on tor- howitzer. Improvements necessary for t

pedo attack at close ranqe even longer range radro commurrrcauor re'
ihough fitted with an upper separate qurred some 'E' class boats to surren
rudder, TWo transverse tubes were der an amidships tube to make room
therefore added to a new design to I 193 kW ( I 600 bhp) and two eiectric In 191 1 the Admitalty ordercd six
for a wireless telegraphy cabinet.
permrt beam attacks, and it was the The class was active in the North motors deliverinq 626 kW (840 hp) to enlarged 'D' class submannes. Tftjs
length of these tubes, located Sea, Baltic and eastern Medlterra two shafts modified design became known as
amidships, that decided the main nean, Just before Jutland, E22 became Speed: 14 kts surfaced and 9 kts drved the R- l group; eightwere builtfor the
dimensions of what was to become the one ofthe earhest submarines to carry Range: 6035 km (3 750 mrles) at 10 kts Navyand twoforAusfralta. E1, seen
'E'ciass, arrcrall. ir 1ne coulse oiexpenmenting surfaced, and 121 km (75 miles) at 5 kts here,was shipped toMurmansk and
Completed from 1913 through to wrth Sopwrth seaplanes'or operatrons dived taken overland to operate in the Gulf
1916 the 'E'class ran to 55 hulls whose aqainst Zeppelins. Some 22 ofthe boats Armament: one 12-pdr gnrn, and five of Bothnia and the Baltic. She was
construction once war was declared were lost rn World War L 457-mm (18-in) torpedo tubes (two eventually scuttled at Helsingfors in
was shared between 13 private yards bow, two amidshlps and one stern) April 19 I 8 to avoid capture by the
They fell into flve major groups differ- Specification wrth L0torpedoes advancing Germans.
ences beinq prrmarily rn torpedo lay- 'E'class ('E2i'type) Complement: 30
out and the adaption of six boats to Displacement: 667 tons surfaced and E I I as slre appeared during her
carcy 20 mines in place of therr 807 tons drved operations in the Dardanelles; Iike
amrdships tubes. The stowage of the Dimenslons: lenqfih 55 17 m (18l ft the British boats in the
mmes 1n external vertical chutes antr- 0 in); beam6.9] m(22fIB in); draught Mediterranean in World W ar I I she
cipated later French practice T\ruo, 3.Bim(12ft6rn) adopted a blue camouflage to
sometrmes three, intemal bulkheads Propulsion: rwo d.esels dehverrng conceal her self in the shallow, clear
were added, increasrng the safety waters. The lack of a deck gun on the
margrn but griving problems in reload-

'K' class
Wlth HMSSr,vordfsi building but antl- mm (18-rn) tubes were fltted except in
crpated to reach nothing like her de the srngrle improved boat K26, com-
srgned surface speed, there came a pleted in 1923. Four fixed athwartships
requrrement direct from the Grand tubes were sited rn a torpedo room
Fleet for a class ol24-kt submarines to rmmediately forward of the boiler
,"riork tactically with surface forces. space and two further trainable tubes
Such a speed was qutckly demons- (later removed) were set behind
trated to need 7457 kW (10,000 shp) on screens in the large superstructure, for
a surface drsplacement of I 700 tons. use in surface actLon. TVro 102-mm (4-
No contemporary diesels could deliv in) guns were mounted at (usually)
er such power from anything less than lower casinq level with a 76-mm (3-in)
eight units and there was thus no hiqh-angle gun srted on the super
alternative to steam. With two botiers structure, but indrvrdual armament flts
and a turbine room the hull of the 'K' varied. Some 17 boats were com-
class needed to be of a grood stze but, pleted in 19l7 and 1918.
,mth the poor economy of steam plant The K' class boats met the fleet re-
and the need 10 provide power when qurrements for surface speed but
steam was shut down, a 597-kW (800- needed the addrtion of a flared and
bhp) diesel was also rnstalled to drive bulbous bow casing (known euphe
a generator. This could erther charge misncally as a swan bow; 'o md.nlarn
ihe batteries or power the marn drive speed in any sea. Such hard driving
motors for a surface speed of about 9 5 damageo bow shutters more crLtl
"nd, The boats
knots. Over one{hird of the huli was cally, funnel mechanrsms.
thus devoted to machrnery, The two complexrty made them extremely
funnels exhaustrng the borlers hinged troublesome, and they acquired an
downward rnto the casing before a evil name, not fully justified. In partlcu Above.'K6 is seen before the addition
drve was commenced their orifices lar, the so-called Battle of May lsland in of the ungainly bow casing, politely
being simultaneously shut off by sea- January 1918, when two were lost in termed the'swan bow'. Sealing the
ling plates. Diving took up to five mt- collisions, demonstrated the under- boat befo r e diving prcv e d diffi cu lt,
nutes. lying fallacy of operatinq large sub- asventilators could be jammed open
While 533-mm (21-in) torpedo tubes marines on the surface in higrh-speed by only a small obstruction. The
were specrfied for the class, they could fleet manoeuwes at niqht, not shofi- planned 21 -in torpedoes were
not be made available rn time and 457- comings rn the boats themselves, abandoned in favour of I 8-in ones.

ffi i'"lass Submarines of World War I
-:: i912 requrrements were framed for sttll incomplete when it became
-<ely future types of submarine, and known (rncorrectly) that the Germans
.:ese included an 'overseas craft, of an were burldrng a 22-kt class, and there
:ppropriate srze and habitabllity for was suddenly a pressing need to
-:rtended operations. It was hoped to match them. Existing machinery had to
:chreve a speed of 2l kts on the sur- be used and, with the largest available
=ce which in conjunction with a dou- dtesel beinq the 12 cylinder 895-kW
:le-hulled design (the outer of which (1,200-bhp) Vickers unit, three ofthese
:ould be given a suitable conflguration were rncorporated tn what became
:lrestncted by the pressure{ight re- the I class. These were the longest
Iiirements of the inner hull) would en- boats yet and could manage over
:ble rt to operate wiih the main body of i9 kts on the surface To attaln the
:e fleet. A prototype, HMS ly'autulus necessary flneness of line the seven
built by Vrckers and completed in boats (six compieted in 1916 and one in
317 rn slow time The company pro- 1917) were double-hulled over only
irced two new l3BO-kW (1,850-bhp) some 56 per cent of their length, This
:-escls ror rhe ourpose, but rt was length was determined largely by the
ipparent from model testing that the demands of the machrnery, though Specification The handful of 'J' class boats wx ot::e
.cat would never be able to exceed only the wingr shafts were driven when J'class of several attempts to produce a
-l kts For this reason, Scotts were submerged Their beam needed to Displacement: 1,204 tons surfaced and 'fleet submarine': that is. a
jr,'en the task of building a steam-pro- accommodate the two transverse 1,820 tons dived submarine capable of over 20 ks
pelled alternative in HMS Swordfish amtdshrps tubes and the pressure hull Dimensions: ienqth 83.97 m (275 ft able to operate in conjunctjon :lrik
3oth were very large boats compared itself needed to be locally bulged to 6 in); beam 7.0 t m (23 ft 0 in); draught the battlefleet.Jl was later Ettec. :c
-,'rth the 'E type but experrence wrth suit They were the flrst British sub- 4.27m(14ft0in) drop depth charges from her afte:
.:em was still lacking and, as longer- mannes wrth four tubes forward and a Propulsion: three dieseis deltvering casng.
:ange submarines were needed lt unlque arrangement aft allowed the/J 2685 kW (3,600 bhp) and two electric
'.',-as decrded to iollow (only) to release depth charqes. Only
German prac- motors deliverinq 1007 kW (1,350 hp)
.-ce and build a smaller double hulled one was lost and that by accrdent to the to three shafts
lesign without the requirement for a 'Q ship HMS Cymric just before the Speed: 19 5 ktssurfacedand9.S }cts
:,gh surface speed. Thrs was the 14, Armistice The remarnder were trans- dived
srrong 'G' class, ferred to the Royal Austrahan Nar,ry. Range: 9254 km (5,750 miles) at
The two, experimental boats were 10 (?) kts surfaced, and l0 I km (63

The steam turbine-powered 'K' class gained a reputation for bad luck and
bad design culminating in the so-called'battleof Maylsland'whenK! andK77
both sank in collisions while on manoeuvres. In fact they were tremendous
technical achievements, the problems stemming from the concept of afleet
su bm arine. not the actual des ign.

'vt ^1^^^
Modified 'K'class submarine cutaway drawing key
Displacement: 1,980 tons surfaced and Rudder T4 Superstructure 26 Conn ng tower 40 Douo e ^-
: 366 tons dived Tw n screws
T 5 Hlgh-pressure/ ow-pressur-6 27 Forced draft fan 41 Cren,res: :-:: :-:::-:
Dismentions: lenqth i03 32 m (339 ft steam turb ne
'16 Hngedfunnel
28 Search perlscope 42 Dertc<
Steerage compafiment 29 Attack periscope 43 Ballasi:.-<:
, rn); beam B. 10 m (26 ft 7 in); draught Trim tanks 17 Oi -fired boi er 30 Bridge wlth stream ined 44 10-to.:c-,..:-:.::,r: :-:
: 18m117fl0rn) Crew compaftment
tngine room
18 Hatches(cosedwhen screen 45 Auxilian c: :::::-! :
Propulsion: two sets ofgeared steam submerged) 31 Wheelhouse 46 Alr bofties
B Eight-cy inder dleset 19 Three-inchAAgun 32 Dome 47 Raiseds$:-::.1
*:bi res deliverr nq 7830 kW eng nes
r 20 Fourinch gun 33 Hatch 48 Buoyanc!:^:-::-
, ! 500 shp) or one dresel dehvenng Nlain motor 2l Hingedalrlntakes 34 Compasstube 49 Torpedo'c:-
TO N4otorcontrol room 22 Dinghy 35 Wire ess aerlal 50 18 lnch1c.c3::::
437 kW (800 bhp) vra a generator, and 11 lO-ton af t I ee werght lto 23 Detrickforboathandllng or 36 Retractab e wireless masl 51 Torpedo:u..:
.;'o electric motors deiiverrng bedropped nemergencV) stowing torpedoes 37 Periscopewel s
-174 kW (1,440 bhp) to two shafts 12 Gearbo\ 24 Batterycompartment 38 Batteries
Speed: 24 or 9.5 kts surfaced (steam or
13 Escape hatch 25 Control room 39 lnner pressure hull
r-esel) and B 5 kts dived
Range: 23175 km (14,400miIes) at
: i kts surfaced, and 56 km (35 miles)
i.4 kts dlved
Armament: two srngle 102-mm (4-in)
;::ns one 76-mm (3-in) qun, and l0
-..er erght (four bow, four amrdshrps /
:d two superstructure) 457-mm ( 18,
,:,) torpedo tubeswith 16 torpedoe
Complement: 59

:t: *
':i"1!. a!

Holbrook's BII opened the D ardanelles campaign

:r,,:in tremendous style, making the firstdeep-water
penetration of the strait on I3 December 1914 and
divingbeneath the Turkishmines. Finding the burld-up in the jornt fleets, the Brrttsh sub-
Turkish battleshrp Messoudieh lying at anchor, he marine force being boosted by the arrival of
hit her with a single torpedo at 800 m; she went modern 'E' class boats, As the Turkish land
downquite rapidly butopened a heavy fire onBII, communication system was vrrtually nonexis-
which had trouble submerging in the very shallow tent, supply and reinforcement of their front
water.Bl! escaped down the straits in an epic would clepend greatly on sea transport down
nine-hour submerged journey.When she finaL[y
surfaced in the open sea the air aboardwas so foul the Sea of Marmora and it was vital to disrupt
that the petrol engine refused to run. Holbrook the route, The first attempt to force the strait, by
received a well-earned VC. E/5, was disastrous: the submarine stranded
near Kephez and was finally destroyed only
after a heroic foray by boats from the bat-

Victorg intheStraits
tleshrps HMS MaTesfic and Tnumph.
It fell to the Australian boatAE2Io be the first
through the strait, on 25 April I 9 15, followed the
very next day by El4 whtch bored through
mainly on the surface, takrng advantage of
The Turkish fleet had good reason to feel safe in I9 l4; although it was committed to darkness, Strong nerves were required as the
war with the world's most powerful navy, jfs vesse/s sft eltered at the end of the Sea of boat was held by the cold fingers of the sear-
Marmora, ahundred milei of shallowwaterswith treacherous currents, sownwith chhghts and subjected to a continuous bom-
mines and protected by forts. Yet Allied submariners took up the challenge and bardment, Boyle, the commander, submerged
sajied their frail craft into the straits, one British boat entering Constantinople itself. when things became too hot but, finding the
scraping of mine cables along the hull even
on 30 October 1914 Turkey declared lor the little boat drved inside Cape Helles just more unpleasant, kept popping up, Like the
re Central Powers, business began in earnest before dayhght, Holbrook kept to the Euro- Australian, Stoker before hrm, Boyle found a
pean side to cheat the trde and (except when gmnboat to torpedo but, in the process, had a
-:r a small Anglo-French submartne force periscope shot through and the other Qrasped
iased on ihe Greek island ofTenedos Handi- taking frequent periscope checks) ran as far as
--.--olaced close to the entrance to the Dar- possible at 18 to 24 m (60 to B0 ft) to keep below rudely by a Turk in an open boatl
jaielles, the boats had been familiarizing the mines, Four hours after going down and
Australianvessel sunk
remselves with the approaches ever since the after various alarms and excursions, B1l had
3erman battle-cruiser Goeben and light cruis- negotiated the first mine barriers off Kephez Actrvity was intense, it being the thlrd day
Breslau had dtsappeared up the strait in the and was approaching the second, below the before Boyle could fully charge his batteries,
;:evious August, Together with the makeshift Chanak narrows, To his deltght, her comman- He was rewarded by being able to force
repot ship Hindu Kush were, initially, three der sighted the aged armoured cruiser Mes- aground one of two transports under destroyer
:rench boats and the British 89, BIA andBll soudieh lying unconcernedly at anchor. Con- escort. The same eveninq he met up wtth AE2,
fhe Dardanelles is a narrow strait about siderrng the date and conditions, his hitting her which was down to one torpedo, having had
:: l<rn (36 mrles) in length and leads to the wrth a sinqle torpedo at the range of 800 m (880 the cruel experience of firing six duds, On the
yards) was a fine feat. She settled rapidly but very next day the Austrahan was caught on the
-a::i-gart Sea of Marmora, about 160km (lO0
:-es) from end to end, At the far end of this opened a brisk flre on the submarine, which surface by a Turkish destroyer and sunk,
r, 1.er was the magnet of the Turkish capital, was experienclng difficulty in remaining hid- The British boat had a lean time, for the Turks
J.:rs:antinople, but to reach it a submarine had den in very shallow water, Wtth no compass, cut their sailings to a mhimum and put re-
.: :egotiate the stralt, whrch was heavily de- Holbrook bumped and bored his way back fugees on those that did move so that they could
its down the iron q-r1let of the strait, Successful, he not be sunk, Then, the first legitimate target
-::,ced by forts, batteries and searchlights, was hit by a torpedo that failed to explode, At
,';a:ers possessing
^^;-^ unpredictable
"-^v^/liafrl-rla arrrronf<
currents n{of surfaced in the open sea after nine hours sub-
last on 10 May Boyle sank a laden troopship
-:-r -^ lls at the
:c 5 ks ihe Narrows and also strewn with merged, the air in the boat so foul that his petrol
engine refused to run, The obsolete ltttle boat hard by Constantinople and, reduced to one
:-:= and mine barriers,
l: .ceen
:he Allied submarines, Holbrook's BiJ had opened unlimited prospects, and her com- faulty torpedo (he had no deck gun), he then
:-=l recently equipped with new batter- mander received a well-merited Victoria harassed local shipprng for a week with threats
and rifle fire until recalled on 17 May, Hunted
-:s ard was elected to make the first deep Cross,
persistently whrlst coming down the strait with
:::=:ation of the siralt, Thus on 13 December With the opening of the main Dardanelles
.--- eq,-upped with improvised mine gnrards, campaign eariy in 1915, there was a rapid the stream, he avoided much trouble by pas-
Submarines of World War I
sing the various barriers close astern of an a Turkish patrol craft which also succeeded in warhead, and several were thus beached. Sa--
enemy patrol. He returned after a 22-day abs- putting a 6-pdr shot through his perrscope, This rng craft were burned ln numbers. Not uni -
ence with much intelligence regarding the de- was followed by a couple of transports, the loss June did the condition of the Ell's machirer
fences and anti-submarine measures, to be of which caused traffic to cease, Nothing oblige withdrawal, the passage dovrrn the sra::
awarded the second Victoria Cross gained by daunted, Nasmlth took the EJI riqhl into the seeing another ship torpedoed and a rnre
the force. During his time away, two French Golden Horn, the harbour of Constantinople, towed for some distance, its cable caughl t a
submarines had attempted the passage; of and torpedoed a freighter alongside the arsen- hydroplane. Nasmith's extended cruise hai
these the Bemouilli was unable to stem the al. bagged seven large ships and earned a fiu-ier
cwrent and was forced to return while the The lack of a deck gun was keenly felt and Victoria Cross.
/ou1e was sunk in a minefield, Two more transports were sunk by demolition charge
French boats, the Saphir and Mariotte, werc whenever possible. Nasmith developed the British sub penetration
aiso to be lost, similarly or following technical technique of setting his torpedoes to float at the Despite the fact that the Twks and Germa:=
troubles. end ol their run, so that 'misses' could be later continuously lmproved the Dardanelles de-
Boyle was immediately relieved by Nasmith recovered, disarmed and manoeuvred care- fences, the Sea of Marmora was inhabited br a:
tn the E11 the latter already a veteran of North ful1y back into the bow tubes with the boat least one British submarine throughout :g-c
Sea operatlons, Proflting by the E,14's experi- suitably trimmed, a precarious business that Maritime traffic, though hard hit and often slcc-
ences, Nasmith negotiated the Dardanelles left them very vuinerabie for a time, Even when ped had, of necessity, always to resume be-
successfully and made for the eastern end of torpedoed, however, a large well-found ship cause of the endless needs of the front a:rd :e
ihe Sea of Marmora. He, too, began by sinking could survive the explosron of a 457-mm (18-in) dreadfui land communications. German e:--
gineers laboured on a new rail line but th:s ::,:<
time, Knowing the British boats' small :c=ej,:
Nasmith tookhis submarine EI I resewe it is surprisrng that the enem-,- :-=t::
rightinto the Golden Horn, the capilahzed more on therr reguueme:-.: :: s-:.
har bour of C onstan ti nople, and face to attack commerce by other nea- 31
torpedoed a freighter. During
this time the Q-ship stratagem was r,',.e_ :-:i_-
this patrolhe sethis torpedoes to
Iloat at the end of their run so that cized, and German 'UBs' were being :ssa:-
if he missed, he could surface and bted at Pola,
recover the torpedo fior re-use. The experiences of Bruce's EIZ -were _;c-:-
After sinking seven large enemy al, In passing up the strart rn June l9 - r :.=-:,:;:
vessels he lookEll back through was enmeshed in a newly-added ne: aij --::-
the straifs but sn agged a mine on vived only by flooding everythrng anC cr-.:._:_:
the way, towing it for some her motors alternately into ahead ani:e;e:=
distance. After some hairy thrust, All but burned out, they thereaie:;a;:
moments it floated free andEll
escaped. endless troubie, obliging Bruce :c 3cer::-
largely on the surface. In one encc-;:-::: ;e
tackled two merchantmen towinc i;e s::,-::

r:t:iitii: , .



Victory in the Straits

Above: The waterfront in Constantinople is seen

after the British submanne E I I , commanded by
Nasmith, entered the harbour and unleashed a
salvo of torpedoes, sinking a large merchantman
and shattering this section of dock. Nasmith even
took time to take a photograph through his
periscope to record his visit for posterity.

Right: The straits had dangerous currents and

were heavily mined by the Turks; passing through
on the surface meant braving the powerful forts.
Here the tiumphant crew celebrate their retutn'
Note the damage to the periscope.

Above:EIl returns from her mosfsuccessfu/

patrol, having sunk the Turkish battleship
HeireddinBarbarossaon SAugust I I I 5. The
battles hip (ex -G erman' Br andenburg' class,
Kurftust Friedrich Wiihelm)fta d had an active
career in Ottoman service, fighting the Greek fleet
in 1 9 I 2-3, when she was the Turkish flagship.

Left: The commander ofE2poses byhis gun after

returning from a successfulpa trol in the Sea of
Marmora.E2 began life with a l2-pdr weapon but
received a 4-in gun at Malta.

:raft. Spurning ihe aid of hrs toy 6 pdr he ran cularly fruitful patrol. Off Gallipolt town theEll with all but nine of her crew.
:.cngside one ship, only to have somebody sank the Turkish battleshtp Heireddin Barbar- Only Nasmith in the Ell was then left in the
above heave a bomb at him (rt bounced off the ossa, following which her first lieutenant, d'Oy- Sea of Marmora but, in a cruise of 47 days, he
-:redeck without explodrng) and direct a sus- ly Hughes, swam ashore one night and blew up created such mayhem that he was rewarded
::ined fusillade of rifle fire. In a very exposed a railway line. Hotiy pursued by the vengeful by promotion to captain's rank after only one
:--uation, Bruce had his gun crew put shots enemy, he was fortunate to survive the esca- year as a commander, In mid-December he
. :ng the length of the ship's hull at a range pade, was joined by Stock's E2, which was the ltnal
-.';:lere half bricks would have been more The Sea of Marmora rematned no sinecure, boat rn the area as the declsion to abandon the
=cpropriate, Simultaneously, othersof his crew In the September ET had to be scuttled after whole Dardanelles campaign had been taken,
rifles to fight off two of the tows, which having become hopelessly fouled by nets ofl When this boat returned down the strait on 2
-,',-ere endeavouring to snare his propellers Nagara, Of the French submarines, only the January 1916 some obstructions had already
,'. -.h a cable, After a Henty-type scrap the sub- Turquoise ever succeeded tn negotiating the been removed and the Allied evacuatton was
::-arine disposed of its tormentors and pursued strait, operating in the Sea of Marmora for a almost complete.
::= second ship until it ran under the protection short period in October 1915. Returning, For the loss of four Brrtish and four French
:, a shore battery. however, she stranded and was captured in boats, the force had proved that submarines
As the 'E' boats gained l2-pdr guns they tact, Not only did the Turks recommission her could sustain an effective campaign in dis
i=-,-eloped also a taste for annoying targets (as the Mustadteh ambashi) but her papers puted waters, In addition to drsruption ashore,
:.:3re, duelhngwith artillery and shelling such compromrsed a planned rendezvous wtth the they had sunk two armouted ships, six flott11a
r='.,rays as existed. During the August, Nas- Brr]rtsh E20, which was thus stmply ambushed ships, 37 merchantmen and nearly 200 assorted
.-:--.-:' and Boyle, inE/J andEl4, shared a partr by the German UB 14, torpedoed and sunk saihng craft,
'L' class Submarines of World War I
11'" benefil of war experrence was mtended to be 76-mm (3-in) q-uns, enabled the submarine to engage a
-:-e generally satisfactory 'E' class de-
but thrs idea was discarded in favour of target at longer range and with a lar-
7 in); beam7, i6 m (23 ft 6 rn) ::a*:::
s-gn was updated, the flrst pair of the a single 76-mm grm forward on a com- grer slavo. An extra pair of reload tor- Propulsion: two diesels de1_r,ie:-:-:
::ew type being frrst designated 857 plex 'disappearlng' mount that fitted pedoes was also accommodated. Most l790 kW (2,400 bh. .rd r,..:
ld ESB before officially becomingl1 :
into the brrdge front when housed, of the 36 'L' class boats were com- motorsdelivering 1193 kW(r =.=:-:
.__ :;
=rdtr2 of the new'L'class, There were Only three boats were so fitted before pleted from 1917, too late to have a to two shafts
rentually four major subgTroups: lJ to a 102-mm (4-in) guri was adopted on an significant impact on the 'rar; many Speed: 17 kts surfaced and li : -<.
,3 each had four 457-mm (18-in) tubes elevated platform extending forward were cancelled and others not dived
-: the bows and two more amidshrps, foom the bridge. This herght increased ordered, T\ro were lost: lJO to a Ger- Range:6679 km (4,150 mrles) a- :.''--_
,-r to 133 each had four 533-mm (2 1-rn) the silhouette but enabled the g,un to
ices forward and two 457-mm tubes be worked wrth the s.rbmarme in a
man destroyer off the Dutch coast and
.L55 to a Soviet anti-submarine ship rn
power'surfaced, and 12 t !rr-r ilj ::_=":
at 5 kls dived
-'nidships (for which they needed to low-buoyancy condition. the Baltic operations of 19i9-20, Three Armament: one 102-mm (4-rnl t::- -.',-:
:e 2.3rn/7,5 ft longer), six of them From L52 the design was refined (L23, L26 and L2l survived to World 457-mm (18-1n) torpedo tubes
:lnelayers whrch sacrificed beam fur1her, with six 533-mm bow tubes in- War II but were used for irarning. (amrdshrps) and fow 533-mm l2,-:_
::bes for mine chutes, and those from stead of the earlier mrx and with two lorpedo tubes (oow) wrlh I O ic:r::: ::
-52 with a heavier battery of tubes, all 102-mm gmns, both on the superstruc- Specification Complement:38
:rrward. h-lre (which needed to be consider- 'L'class ('L9'type)
Earlier classes had, almost invari- ably longer) and each served via its Dispiacement: 9l4 tons surfaced and
ai:ly, disappointed with their poor sur- own pressure-tight access trunk. The I,OB9 tons dived The' L' clas s was a subslar tal
:ace speed and the 'L' class boats were more potent forward torpedo battery Dimensions: lenglh72.72 m (238 ft funprovement over the stalwart 'E'
capable ofbetter than l7 kts,
rke the earlier 'E' class units, they 9!91s, the first pair being originalts
E57 andE58. From L9 tfteymountea a
."ere of saddle tank construction but powerful bow salvo of four 533-mr,
:ominaliy capable of diving to 76 m (2 1 -in) torpedoes. The bu Ik ot the
'250 ft) as opposed to 6 1 m (200 ft). This
second batch was ordered in
.-ras exceeded by at least 40 per cent
December I 9 I 6. There was no L I 3.
i] sewlce. forsuperstitiousreasor?s. I
Originally the surface armament

>K it{' ctas,

Submarines, more than any other type April 1918, but although she was in the
:. warshrp, spawn oddities from time to eastern Mediterranean by the Armrs-
.-me either as a counter to their con- tice was never used in her designed
.-derable limitations or in order to role. The M2 and M3 were completed
:apttahze on their strengths. The quar- in 1920 before the Limitations of the
.:t of 'M'class boats, known officrally as Washington Treaty came into force,
:,omtor submartnes' fal] into the for, but they had so iittle application that
:-er cateqory World War I sub- the former was converted to carry a
:-arines had relatively poor sub- small seaplane and the latrer inlo a
:--rqed performance which coupled minelayer Ln which the mines were
','.--.h the lack ol speed, range and hrt- stowed in the casing rather than as
-:g power of thetr torpedoes, made previously in chutes in the saddle
:: chances of a successful attack on a tanks. This method was carried on to
=.: moving and manoeuvrmg target be used in the Porpoise-class mine-
slim It was thougrht ihat by layers. The M4 was never completed.
jnting a large gmn on a submarine The MI was sunk rn collision rn 1925
.---: could surface unexpectedly and and M2 foundered in 1932.
-:::cbiiize a targret with a stngrie pro-
=:le before despatching the target at Specification
.:i-Je. 'M'ciass
rr.rs four hulls (Kl8 to K2l) were Displacement: l, 594 tons surfaced and
:= ::ed from the 'K class prog[amme 1,945 tons dived
---::eplaced by MJ IoM4, whrchwere Dimensions: length 90 14 m (295 ft Range: 4627 km (2,875 miles) at tS kts MI was the only one of the four-
-:-s-lucted to completely different 9 in)t beam 7.52 m (24 ft B in); draught and i6.7 m(10 4miles)atB ktsdived sfrongr c/ass to.see ryar serrice.
r-:-::slons. Thetr design was totally 4,80 m (15 ft 9 in) Armament: one 305-mm ( 12-in) gmn, although never firing her gan in
:::--:ated by the 4o-calibre 305-mm Propulsion: two dresels del ve rr rg
r one 76-mm (3-rn) gun, and four 452 mm anger. After the war the concept -rr-as
,--,:) gruns removed from pre- 1790 kW (2,400 bhp) and two electric (18-in) or (M3 only) 533-mm (2t-in) abandoned;M2 became a seiplatLe
,:==irouqrht battleships, and was motors deliverinq 1193 kW (1,600 hp) torpedo tubes (bow) with eight carrier, M3 a minelayer. aad M4',rras
- - :-:-huiled over about two-thirds of Speed: 15 ktssurfacedand9.S kts torpedoes not completed. Sad/y Mt was sun*:r
.. ,=:1h Trainrng of the guns was dived Complement:64 collision with SS Vidarrn I 9ZS and yJ
.,= =: ic +7.5", and the shrp's head foundered offPorUand.
-::r=tr io be used for coarse adjust-
-.=: :levation was +20' and, once The 'M' class of submarine morurc:s
.:=i cn the surface, the weapon werc a bold attempt to solve the
:, --r :: fired from pedscope depth. problems of early submarines. I t iras
I : -:::- (3-in) gun was carried aft for thought that the mounting of a 3A5-
i:: r-:: CLlpOSeS. mm ()2-in) gunwould overcome the
:..-::-class MI was completed in twin disadvantages of /owspeed a.ni
ligh t arm a m en t wh ich p \agru ed the
sabmarines of the Great War.
'R' class
they not arrived so late in the war,
:: 10 'R' class boats may well have
:ivarced the overall concept and use
:: submarines considerably. They
-,';:re desrgned from the outset as hun-
.:rs of U boats which, in these early
:ays of electronics, needed to be
:::acked on the surface It was, of
:r.rse, difflcult
to approach suriaced
--boats unseen and, once these had
:bserved an enemy and had sub-
::-erqted, it was virtually imposstble to
jerect them again The 'L' class boats
-:en (1918) entennq service, carried a
,i-mm (4-in) gnrn in the tower for the
p'xpose but what was needed was to
:ave the speed to approach U-boats
s::bmerged and it was with this in
:rrLnd that the 'R' class was designed.
Not larqe boats, they carried a
reasonable but not excessive battery
:apacrty. This was allied to a verY further lB 6-kW (25-hp) electric motor anced features were never fully The uncluttered appearance ofRT is
clean huil which itsell was largely re- riqht aft for 'creeping at low speed, appreciated and post-war construc- in sharp contrast to that of her
sponsible for their then-phenomenal repeated rn the 'L' class boats. tion reverted to the cluttered exterior contemporaries and gave her an
rnderwater speed of 15 kts. The de- In some, the amidships superstruc- that characterized the 'O ciass ou tstanding su bmerge d s pe e d.
srgnr was slngtle-hulled with casinq only ture was extended forward for the pur- Sadly. the 'R' class was only
ai ihe bows and as a fairing to the small poses of mounting a 102-mm gun, but Specification completed at the end of the war and
:cwer. They were the flrst sinqle shaft as this weapon would have done no- 'R'class their revolutionary desigm passed
boats since the 'C' class, the propeller thing for the streamllning, it is doubtful Displacement: 4 10 tons surfaced and unnoticed.
berng driven by either a single diesel tf it was ever fltted The boats rehed on 503 tons dived
lr lwo electric motors in tandem. The their powerful forward battery of six Dimensions: lenqth 49.91 m ( 163 ft 3.50m(11ft6in)
,:rque from the propeller was such as 457-mm (18-in) tubes, the first in the 9 in); beam4 BO m(15 ft9 rn)l draught Propulsion: one dtesei del.vertng
:: require horizontal stabilizers aft Royal Navy. An advanced feature was 179 kW (240 bhp) and lwo elect-rc
-:ese serving also to support the out- an array of five externaliy-mounted motors delivering 895 kW (1,200 hp) to
::ard ends ofthe hydroplanes, An in- hydrophones for oblarnrng the posttjon one shaft
:erestrnq feature was the provision of a of a submerged enemy. It was the Speed: 9.5 kts surfaced and 15 kts
tragedy of the 'R class boats that they dived
Far ahead of their time, the 'R' class began to commissron only weeks be- Range: 3701 km (2,300 mrles) at 9 kts
compnsed specialist hunter- killer fore the Armistice, so that their adv- surfaced and27 75 km ( 17,25 miles) at
submarines intended to overtake l5 kts dived
and torpedo enemy submarines. Armament: sx 457-mm ( 1B-in) torpedo
Thek streamlined hulland large tubes (all bow) with 12 torpedoes
ru d der g ave them good underw ate r ,-e:1. -...._ - .Complement: 12
performance and the bow
c om p ar tm ent con tained fiv e

'S' class
:- --s 'D' and 'E' classes, completed Laurenti from Scotts followed bY a
,::::: 1910, the British Admiraity further two in 19i3. They were known
::-a::ged from the earlier sprndle form as the 'S' class boats 51 to 53, the letter
, :e saddle-tanked submarine, Fore rndicatrnq the builder and with the
-;- _'ards had, in the meantime, bequn added imphcation of their being
:: ploduce another type with a double viewed as prototypes, They were only
:-j r.e. with the pressue hull entrrely marginally larger than the earlier Brlt
--:::culded by external tank spaces ish 'C class and were classed as coas
.:: -his outer hull could be given a tal submarines.
:::pe sympathetrc with sutface sea- Both tubes were sited forward and,
<.:prnq, the type was known at this to presewe the upper lines of the hull,
-.ir-e as a'submersible', to differentiate they were set very low, almost at keel
-: lcm the earlier 'submarine' rn which levei, the pressure hull adopting an
-:-: cuter form was more in harmony odd cross-section to suit. Indeed one
-.';r submerged operation. There was great failing of the desiqn was the num-
:,-cir to be said for the idea: ballast ber of discontinuities (and, therefore,
.--<s and frame could be sited exter- weaknesses) in the pressure hull.
-:. '.l rhe pressure hull jncreasrng There were no less than l0 internal Specification SI enlersBrindrsr in I 9 I 6. Built in
:-.::-r1 space within; with deeper fram- watertrqht bulkheads and the reserve 'S'class England to an ltalian design, she had
of buoyancy, at 47 per cent, was effec- Displacement: surfaced and s ewed for a year with the Royal N avy
-:-; strenqth was increased; and the 265 tons
before being transferred. Similar in
:=: :op of the casing allowed the crew tively double that of any previous Brit- 324 tons dived
-: :xercise away from the fetid condi- ish boat The machinery was of Fiat Dimensions:iength 45. 16 m (148 ft size to the British'C' class, the
::- within the hull, The rnherently desrgn and, being two-stroke, the en- 2 in); beam 4 39 m (14 ft 5 rn)t drauqht 'S'boats were slightly slower but had
gines were capable of dtrect reversal. 3,17 m (10 ft 5 rn) a high reserve of buoyancy.
;r:arer buoyancy reserve of the type
-..;.: CesLrable from the safety aspect An interesting feature was that both Propulsion: t wo d iesels del-vertng
:.^: :ad the drawback of sluggish di- forward and after Planes could be 485 kW (650 bhp; and two electrrc surfaced, and i6 km ( 10 miles) at
-.-:_j housed. The boats proved unpopular motors delivennq 298 kW (400 hp) to 8,5 kts drved
in !rance and Laurentt in and unsuitable for the Royal Navy and two shafts Armament: two 457-mm ( I B-in)
-':--;',riere were transferred to ltaly on the latter's Speed: 13 kts surfaced and B5 kts torpedo tubes (bow) with four
foremost rn this type of craft
a visit in 19I I to Fiat-San entry into the war in 1915 TheY were dived torpedoes
--r :bllowlng British ordered a stnqle discarded in Ranse: 2960 km ( 1,839 miles) at 8,5 kts Complement: lB
3-::9no. the 1919

-a: -
Armed Forces of the World

-^e most significant event in the developn-er-: c'
-e Canadian military forces slnce World War i ras
reg:rrrents, one infantry battalion and a support
'in t)
-:en their integration and unification in the n' C- :c Of these the airborne regiment provides an airmo-
960s. ln the place of the indlvidual seryces
':e-'1 bile battaLion for use by the United Nations if re-
l:nada opted for a single Canadian Armed Forces,
quired. ln war the Special Services Forces would
.. l ch have since undergone a senes of reorgan za- form the basis of the Canadian Combined Air/Sea
lrs, restructurings and changes of prlortv. To Transportable (CAST) brigade group which is tasked
"-:st outsiders this restructuring has apparenty
', ed since its impact (coupled with ln; at cn, ine with relnforcing NATO's northern flank in Norway
--. ng absolute costs of weapon systen's and along with a US Marine Corps amphibious force and
'n- the Britlsh/Netherlands Amphibious Force.
, -3ases in operating costs) has deg raded tne overa I

':'ce levels to about 65 per cent of the;r'orn"er

:,st-war high of 120,000 in the early T960s, and nas Europe
one mechanized brigade group (with one armoured,
:c stretched its demands on them bevond \ ",nai is
',:ssible one self-propeiled medium artllleryand one
."lechanized eng neer regiments, rwo Both regular and militia units of the Canadiar a:::.','
The equivalent of the army is what is now known use a modified version of the Swiss MOWAG
mechanized infantry battalions, a support unit and Piranha6x6 APC. Three models are now in
,s the Mobile Command. With a total strength of
a light aviation squadron with 1 1 CH-1 36 service; 261 basic APCs, I89 vehicles fitted w'i:. :.e
3,000 (plus an unknown number of the 48,000
observation hel icopters) same turret as the British Scorpion light tank. a:.a
-:nadran Armed Forces personnel that are not iden- 2 6 armour e d recove ry ve h icle s.
'ed by service) the Mobile Command has the ma- As part of Canada's Un ted Nations commitment
' responsibility of dealrng with any small-scale in- the Canadian-based infantry battalions rotate Starfighted aircraft, and a training squ.c-:- :r- :
--'sion or raid into Canada by hostile forces; of through the UN force in Cyprus, while smaller spe- ped forthe ECM role. ln warthetwo gr:--: . ._
. ntaining the internal security of the state as re, cialist units are deployed with UN detachments in squadrons would revert to NATO con::: ':- -.=
- red by the civil authorities; of providing the Cana- the various Middle East trouble spots. Eu rope.
and forces commitment to the NATO forces in To support the Mobile Command units in Canada, Underthe actual control of NATO's -1.- ---: -
-'ope; and of providing both in Canada itself and the 1Oth Tactical Air Group of the Air Command and based in West Germany is r ^e - . - ,' .: , -
:-oad such forces as are required by the United (1 5,300 men) is subordinated to it with six helicopter Group with three squadrons of 42 C?: l*- "- '. .
-: ons for the peacekeeping role.
-o undertake these various tasks the
squadronsrharflya toral of 31 cH-135 (Bell UH-1 N), being replaced by 54 CF-l BBs A tol: :' : l=
Mobile 36 CH-l 36 (Bell OH-58 Kiowa) and seven CH-147 1 BBA single-seat and 25 CF-1 88D t\'\,. s=: , ' :- .= -
-ard has Lhe tollowing units:
. ^. (CH-47D Chinook) helicopters. are being procured in the Air Con-:-:^: : :-_:::
The remaining continental Air Command ele- replacen'ent programre fo' a n-mo=- .' . =, .
Canada ments comprise two ground-attack squadrons and a
'. . : combat brigade groups (each with one training squadron equipped wilh 24 CF-1 16 (North-
.-'noured, one artillery, and one engineer rop F-5A) and 25 CF-l '1 6D (Northrop F-58) fighter- This Canadian Leopard tank has just 'capturea'
-=grments, three infantry battalions and support the American M 1 I 3 APC in the for eErou n d d u ru..g
bombers, three air-defence squadrons and a training an exercise in West Germany. C anada or cierel I l
_^ ts) squadron which are being re-equipped with the CF- Leopard 1A3s fitted with the Belgnan fire control
: - = Special Service Force (with one armoured, one 1BB (McDonnell Douglas F-18 Hornet) multi-role system, part-exchanging them for their a]d
'ro'ne, one artillery and one eng'neer fighters to replace CF-104 (Lockheed F-104G C enturion tanks with Kr auss- M aff e i.

Jt ,"lh

" **"
,.,, &,:'
. d., -31-- -e,@
-I : * X ; :9
,;11,:tl,rd1ttir,rit'!ryrrt%AC jlfii!{l#

Canada's three air-defence squadrons are and two reserve destroyers and one replenishment copyofUSMl0l)
currently re-equippingwith the CF-I II ship. Total manpower is about 5,500, and other (self-propelled) 1 55-mm (6.1-in) M1 0941
(MDonnellDouglas F-18 Hornet), as are theCF' assets are 12 smaller patrol vessels. (mortars) B1-mm (3. 1 9-in) (developed with the
1 04 S tarfighter units of the I s t C anad ian Air G r oup A civilian coast guard of about 6,500 men with 25 UK);
based in Germany. The false cockpit canopy icebreakers, 37 helicopters, 16 SAR vessels and anti-armou r weapons : B4-m m (3.3-in) Carl G ustav
painted on the belly is to confuse enemy tighter and 1 06-m m (4.17 -in) M40 recoilless rif les, 66-
pilots. three hovercraft provides valuable back-up. The old-
est destroyers are due to be replaced by a new mm (2.6-in) LAW rocket-launcher and TOW
For transport support and SAR duties for all the series of six ASW f rigates which have been planned ATGW;
service commands there exists the Air Transport for a number of years. The other major naval- air-def ence weapons : 40-mm L/60 Boff in (Canadian
Group of five fixed-wing transport squadrons, four orientated procurement programme is the mid-life copy of L/60 Bofors) and Blowpipe SAM; and
mixed fixed-wing/rotary-wing transport and SAR. refit and updating of the 'Oberon' class submarines small arms: 9-mm Brownlng pistol,5.56-mm
squadrons, four helicopter base flights and an inde- wlth new sonars, and new weapons in the form of M 1 641 and 7.62-mm C1 lC2 assault rif les, 7.62-
pendent SAR helicopter fllght. These f ly a total of 88 the Sub-Harpoon underwater-launched anti-ship mm M19'l 9 Browning medium machlne-gunand
missile and the long-range dual-role ASWanti-ship 1 2.-l -mm Browning heavy machine-gun.
aircraft, the most important of whlch are the 23
CC-130E/H (Lockheed Hercules) and 'l 1 CC-1 15 (de Mk 48 torpedo, The major procurement programmes of recent
Havilland Canada DHC-SA) transports, and '10 CH- As far as possible Canada has tried to build most years have been the purchase of 114 Leopard 1
13 (Boeing Vertol CH-46) helicopters. of her weapons and equipment in Canada, usually MBTs, eight Leopard ARVs and srx Leopard bridge-
All the training for these aircraft and the other under licence and modif ied specif ically to her needs. layer tanks from West Germany; and the licence
commands is undertaken by the Tralning Group, Exceptions to this are tanks, some towed and all production of 491 Cougar wheeled f ire-support vehi-
which has three air schools and an aerobatic display self-propelled artillery, which have been procured in cles with 76-mm (3-in) Alvis Scorpion turrets, Grizzly
team which mostly f ly some 1 11 examples of the such relatively small numbers that they would be wheeled APCs and Husky wheeled maintenance
locally-built Canadair CT-1 14 light jet trainer. too expensive if locally built. and recovery vehicles based on the Swiss MOWAG
For the specialist naval support role there is the The Mobile Command uses the following equip- Piranha 6x6 armoured vehicle.
Maritime Air Group which is under control of the ment:
Maritime Command (N/ARCOM). This operates armour: Leopard C-1 MBT, M1'13 C & R Lynx
three maritime patrol squadrons with 1B examples C anadian Continental Air C ommand includes two
armoured reconnlssance vehicle, CougarWFSV, ground-attack squadrons which use Northrop
of the Lockheed CP-l40 Aurora version of the P-3 GrizzlyWAPC and M1 1 3 APC; F-SAs andF-lBs under the desigrnationsCF-l16
Orion. and a maritime survey/pollution control artillery: (towed) 105-mm (4.13-in) C5 pack howitzer and CF - 1 1 6D. N ote the infl ight-r efuelling pr obe
squadron equipped with 15 elderly CP-121 (Grum- (ltalian M56), 105-mm C1 howitzer (Canadian forward of the cockpit.
man Tracked aircraft. A reserve squadron also flies
the CP-1 21 . For duty afloat and ashore training there
are three squadrons of 32 CH-124 (Sikorsky SH-3
Sea King) ASW helicopters, while for miscellaneous
duties there are two utility squadrons flying a mix of
helicopters, CP-121s and CT-133 (Lockheed T-33)
jets. The Sea Kings are deployed aboard the des-
troyers and the fast replenishment ships of MAR-
The Maritime Command is split into two fleets
based in the Atlantic and Pacific. The former, home-
ported at Hallfax, has three 'Oberon' class sub-
marines. '12 active and one reserve destroyers plus
two replenishment ships. The Pacific component,
based at Esquimault, has the remaining eight active