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5. Elastic Properties

5. Elastic Properties APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Question

“How are mechanical properties of materials

related to their inter-atomic bonding?

Question “How are mechanical properties of materials related to their inter-atomic bonding? 2

2

Learning objectives

Describe how to perform a uni-axial tensile

test and what properties can be measured

Perform conversions of force and elongation to engineering and true stress and strain

Describe the atomistic basis for Young’s modulus

• Describe what Poisson’s ration and shear

modulus are and how they can be determined

basis for Young’s modulus • Describe what Poisson’s ration and shear modulus are and how they

3

Mechanical Properties of Materials

What do we mean by Mechanical Properties?

• Elastic (Young’s) Modulus, E

• Poisson’s Ratio, n

Shear Modulus, G

Yield Strength, s YS

Ultimate Tensile Strength, s UTS

Strain to Failure (Ductility), e UTS

Fracture Toughness, K IC

Hardness, R i

Fatigue Life

S • Fracture Toughness, K I C • Hardness, R i • Fatigue Life APSC278 by

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Elastic Deformation

Elastic deformation is defined to be the region

of deformation where the

material returns to original shape when a

load that is applied is

removed

The relationship between

force and elongation can

be linear (as shown) or non-linear.

FORCE (N)

elongation can be linear (as shown) or non-linear. FORCE (N) ELONGATION D L=L-L 0 (m) APSC278
elongation can be linear (as shown) or non-linear. FORCE (N) ELONGATION D L=L-L 0 (m) APSC278

ELONGATION DL=L-L 0 (m)

be linear (as shown) or non-linear. FORCE (N) ELONGATION D L=L-L 0 (m) APSC278 by Warren

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Uniaxial Tensile Test

This is the most common test used to determine the relationship between load and deformation in a material. Can be used to measure:

Elastic Properties (Elastic Modulus)

Plastic Properties (Yield Stress)

Failure Properties (Ultimate Tensile Stress)

Properties (Yield Stress) • Failure Properties (Ultimate Tensile Stress) APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

The Test Equipment

Need to Measure

Load

Displacement in Specimen

How does one measure load?

How does one measure

displacement? - If you are not careful, your measure

will include the

displacement in system

Load Frame

not careful, your measure will include the displacement in system Load Frame APSC278 by Warren Poole
not careful, your measure will include the displacement in system Load Frame APSC278 by Warren Poole

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Tensile Specimen

Circular cross-section

Tensile Specimen • Circular cross-section APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
Tensile Specimen • Circular cross-section APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Standardized Testing Procedures

ASTM (ASTM E-8), CSA, BS, DIN, JIS

American Society for Testing and Materials

Canadian Standards Association

British Standards

Deutsches Institut für Normung

Japanese Industrial Standards

Standards specify size and shape of sample

Standards require calibration of testing machines

Use of standards allows for material properties to be measured in the same manner at any test laboratory in the world

to be measured in the same manner at any test laboratory in the world APSC278 by

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Load-Displacement Curves

Load-Displacement Curves Load Change in length APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Load

Load-Displacement Curves Load Change in length APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Change in length

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Conversion of Load-Elongation to

Stress-Strain Curves

Must take specimen dimension into

account when testing

Convert load to stress:

s true = F

A

units

• Convert load to stress: s true = F A • units N 2  m

N

2

m

Pa

s eng =

F

A o

MN

N

2

m mm

2

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

MPa

Conversion of Load-Elongation to

Stress-Strain Curves

Convert elongation to strain:

e true =

L i

ò

L

0

Units

dL

L

m

m

e Eng = DL

L

o

dimensionless

L i ò L 0 • Units dL L m m e Eng = D L

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Slope of Elastic Region

• “Hooke’s Law”

1635-1702

D

s

D

e

E Young's Modulus

Robert Young

1773-1829

E is probably the most important material property in design

1773-1829 • E is probably the most important material property in design APSC278 by Warren Poole
1773-1829 • E is probably the most important material property in design APSC278 by Warren Poole

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Modulus of Elasticity or Young’s Modulus

E

210 MPa

210 GPa

 steel 0.001 D s E  D e
steel
0.001
D
s
E 
D
e

210 MPa

E aluminum

70

GPa

0.003

D s E  D e 210 MPa E aluminum   70 GPa 0.003 APSC278

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Atomic Basis of Modulus

dU F 
dU
F

dr

E

D

s

D

e

d

s

d

e

Atomic Basis of Modulus dU F  dr E  D s D e  d

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Atomic Basis of Modulus

Recall

and

substituting

E = Ds

De

s true = F

A

;

= ds

de

ds = dF

A

e true =

L i

ò

L 0

dL

L

;

de = dL

L

E

æ dF ö

ç

A è dr ø

= r 0

÷

r 0

= dr

r

at

L E æ dF ö ç A è dr ø = r 0 ÷ r 0

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

r = r 0

Atomic Basis of Modulus

Elastic modulus is a function of i) Bond Stiffness (dF/dr) ii) density of bonds (i.e.
Elastic modulus is a
function of
i) Bond Stiffness (dF/dr)
ii) density of bonds (i.e.
atomic packing)
of i) Bond Stiffness (dF/dr) ii) density of bonds (i.e. atomic packing) APSC278 by Warren Poole

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Significance of Modulus of Elasticity

Ceramics

Metals

Polymers

Glass

300-400 GPa

70 GPa

70-210 GPa

2-4 GPa

High E value for design to limit elastic deflection

Value of E depends on

bonding energy

design to limit elastic deflection • Value of E depends on bonding energy APSC278 by Warren
design to limit elastic deflection • Value of E depends on bonding energy APSC278 by Warren

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Relationship between E and T melt

Relationship between E and T m e l t • A stronger bond requires – a

A stronger bond

requires

a higher temperature to free the atoms from their positions within solids and

higher stresses to

produce a given strain.

Hence there is a correlation between

melting temperature

and modulus of elasticity

Note: comparison is valid only for materials with similar arrangements of atoms - i.e. metals, ionic solids etc.

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

with similar arrangements of atoms - i.e. metals, ionic solids etc. APSC278 by Warren Poole and

Poisson’s Ratio (v)

characterizes the contraction perpendicular

to the extension caused

by a tensile stress

defined as the negative of

the ratio between lateral

and axial strains

n



e

e

x y



e

z

e

z

lateral and axial strains n  e e x y  e z e z v

v values depend on atomic arrangements and bonding

e e x y  e z e z v values depend on atomic arrangements and

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Shear Modulus

shear stress = t = F/A o

shear strain = g = tan q

(or @ q for small strains)

Shear modulus

G =

t

g

= g = tan q (or @ q for small strains) • Shear modulus G =
= g = tan q (or @ q for small strains) • Shear modulus G =

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Relationship between G, E, and v

E 2G1n

Typically, v 0.3, therefore

G

E

0.38

2 G  1  n  • Typically, v  0.3, therefore G E 

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Measurement of Young’s Modulus: Tensile Test

Tensile test

of Young’s Modulus: Tensile Test • Tensile test – small strain values for a given force

small strain values for a

given force requires very precise extensometer and very accurate alignment

F= s x A o = 7500 N or 750 kg

consider loading a steel rod

which 5 mm x 5 mm in cross- section and is 800 mm long

the stress applied is 300 MPa

which is the maximum the

steel can endure without permanent deformation

DL

E

s FL

o

e

A

o

D

L

210 GPa

300

MPa

800

mm

210

10

3

MPa

12

.

mm

e A o D L  210 GPa  300 MPa  800 mm 210 

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Measurement of Young’s Modulus: Cantilever Test

Measurement of Young’s Modulus: Cantilever Test 3   F L 3 EI where I =

3

FL 3 EI

where I = moment of inertia, e.g. for rect. X-section

1

12

ab

3

Thus, with a load of only 5 N (as opposed to 7500 N)

5

800

3

12

3

210

10

3

5

4

= 79 mm

to 7500 N)   5  800 3  12 3  210  10

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Measurement of Young’s Modulus: Vibration

measure the natural

vibration frequency

materials with high E have high vibration

frequencies

E

materials with high E have high vibration frequencies E  16 3 ML f  2

16

3

ML f

2

3 d

4

with high E have high vibration frequencies E  16 3 ML f  2 3

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Measurement of Young’s Modulus: Velocity

of Sound

measure sound

velocity in materials

velocity of longitundinal waves

depends on E and r

V L

of longitundinal waves depends on E and r V L  APSC278 by Warren Poole and

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

E

r

1 2
1 2

The Complete Stress-Strain Curve

Remember that the elastic component is only the first (though very

important) part

of the whole

stress-strain

curve

only the first (though very important) part of the whole stress-strain curve APSC278 by Warren Poole
only the first (though very important) part of the whole stress-strain curve APSC278 by Warren Poole

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Question

“How are mechanical properties of materials

related to their inter-atomic bonding?

Question “How are mechanical properties of materials related to their inter-atomic bonding? 28

28

Learning objectives

Describe how to perform a uni-axial tensile

test and what properties can be measured

Perform conversions of force and elongation to engineering and true stress and strain

Describe the atomistic basis for Young’s modulus

• Describe what Poisson’s ration and shear

modulus are and how they can be determined

basis for Young’s modulus • Describe what Poisson’s ration and shear modulus are and how they

29

Example problem

6.7 For a brass alloy, the stress at which plastic deformation begins is 345 MPa (50,000 psi), and the modulus of elasticity is 103 GPa (15.0 × 10 6 psi). (a) What is the maximum load that can be applied to a specimen with a cross-sectional area of 130 mm 2 (0.2 in. 2 ) without plastic deformation? (b) If the original specimen length is 76 mm (3.0 in.), what is the maximum length to which it can be

stretched without causing plastic deformation?

length to which it can be stretched without causing plastic deformation? APSC278 by Warren Poole and

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

a)

b)

6.7 Solution

F y = s y A 0 =(345 ´ 10 6 N/m 2 )(133mm 2 )

æ

ç

è

1m

10 3 mm

ö

÷

ø

2

l i = el 0 + l 0 = l 0 (e + 1)

é

ë

l i = (76 mm) ê

ê

345 MPa

103

´ 10 3 MPa

l i = l 0

æ

ç

è

s E

+

1

ö

÷

ø

+ 1

ú ú ù = 76.25 mm (3.01 in.)
û

= 44,850 N

E + 1 ö ÷ ø + 1 ú ú ù = 76.25 mm (3.01 in.)

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip