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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN2249–8974

Review Article
Harilal S. Sorathia, Hitesh J.Yadav

Address for Correspondence

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Government Engineering College, Bhuj – Kutch, Gujarat – 370 001
Affiliated With Gujarat Technological Univesity, Ahmedabad – Gujarat. India
In recent years, energy analysis method has been widely used in the design, simulation and performance assessment of
various types of engines for identifying losses and efficiencies. In this study, the first and second laws of thermodynamics
are employed to analyze the quantity and quality of energy in a single-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine using
petroleum diesel oil and biogas as fuel. The experimental data studied by various investigators using steady-state tests
which enable accurate measurements of air, fuel, engine load, and all the relevant temperatures. Balances of energy and
exergy rates for the engine were determined and then various performance parameters and energy and exergy efficiencies
were calculated for diesel oil and diesel-biogas dual fuel. The results of tested diesel-biogas dual fuel offer similar
energetic performance as petroleum diesel fuel. In addition to this, the exergetic performance parameters usually follow
similar trends according to the energetic performance parameters.
KEY WORDS Diesel engine, energy analysis, exergy analysis, biogas.
1. INTRODUCTION In India the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy
Energy is a basic requirement for economic Sources has been implementing comprehensive
development. Every sector of Indian economy – programmes for the development and utilization of
agriculture, industry, transport, commercial, and various renewable energy sources in the country. As a
domestic needs inputs of energy. The economic result of efforts made during the past quarter century,
development plans implemented since independence a number of technologies and devices have been
have necessarily required increasing amounts of developed and have become commercially available.
energy. As a result, consumption of energy in all These include biogas plants, improved wood stoves,
forms has been steadily rising all over the country. solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar lanterns,
This growing consumption of energy has also resulted street lights, pumps, wind electric generators, water-
in the country becoming increasingly dependent on pumping wind mills, biomass gasifiers, and small
fossil fuels such as coal and oil and gas. Rising prices hydro-electric generators [16]. Energy technologies
of oil and gas and potential shortages in future lead to for the future such as hydrogen, fuel cells, and bio-
concerns about the security of energy supply needed fuels are being actively developed. India is
to sustain our economic growth. Increased use of implementing one of the world’s largest programmes
fossil fuels also causes environmental problems both in renewable energy. The country ranks second in the
locally and globally [16]. It is common knowledge world in biogas utilization and fifth in wind power
that the world’s main energy resources will be and photovoltaic production. Renewable sources
depleted within the next several decades. The world already contribute to about 5% of the total power
is unavoidably faced with crises of fossil fuel generating capacity in the country. Among the many
shortage and environmental degradation as a direct different types of alternative fuels, biogas from
result of growth in population, urbanization and anaerobic digestion of animal manure appears to be
industrialization [1]. Most countries find themselves one of the most promising options [5].
under considerable energy constraints, while the Some studies show that almost 1/3 of the energy of a
growing demand for domestic energy use decreases fossil fuel is destroyed during the combustion process
fuel wood reserves and increases deforestation rates, in power generation. This has caused a renewed
foreign exchange earnings have to be spent on interest in exergy analyses, since effective
imported fuels. In India, energy demand for gasoline management and optimization of thermal systems is
and diesel fuels is as high as ever and imported emerging as a major modern technical problem. An
petroleum products account for a large proportion of exergy-based performance analysis is the
the country’s energy imports. India imports 70% of performance analysis of a system based on the second
the required fuel, spending 30% of her total foreign law of thermodynamics that overcomes the limit of an
exchange earnings on oil imports. This situation has energy-based analysis [12]. The maximum work
created a problem to increase the prices of these oils output obtainable from a certain heat input in a cyclic
more than two-folds in last 5 years [15]. As time heat engine is called the available energy or available
passes, this trend will be aggravated further causing part of the energy supplied. This available part of
greater scarcity and hardcity. The increasing energy energy is also known as exergy. The minimum energy
demand, reducing harmful emissions, and depletion that has to be rejected to the sink as per second law of
of fossil fuel resources inevitably necessitate for the thermodynamics is called the unavailable energy or
optimum utilization of exhaustible fossil fuel and the unavailable part of the energy supplied. This
non-renewable energy resources. Hence, the scientists unavailable part of energy is also known as anergy
are looking for alternative fuels and biogas is one of [14]. The equations for the second law analysis of a
best available sources to fulfill the energy demand of thermodynamic system are presented and discussed
the world [1-5]. thoroughly and are used to analyze the operation of

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN2249–8974

power plants. However, during the last 20 years, it is Total exhaust heat (Qex), the overall heat in the
well known that using only the first law is inadequate exhaust gases expressed as a rate of energy flow is
for evaluating some features of energy resource given by Eq. (5).
utilization [7]. For this reason, the use of the second
law of thermodynamics has been intensified in Qex = mgwC pw (Tw 2 − Tw1 )
(Te1 − T0 ) (5)
internal combustion engines. Various investigators (Te 2 − Te3 )
were conducted some studies on exergy analysis of Where; mgw : mass flow rate of calorimeter cooling
ICEs at fixed dead state temperatures [8] using same water (kg/s); Cpw : specific heat of the calorimeter
characteristic engines using different fuels. Ertesvag cooling water (kJ/kgK); Tw1: cooling water inlet
was investigated the variations of chemical exergy for temperature (°C); Tw2: cooling water outlet
atmospheric gases and gaseous fuels to variations in temperature (°C); Te1: Exhaust gas temperature at
ambient conditions. In addition to this test conducted, engine (°C); Te2: Exhaust gas temperature at inlet to
the effects on exergy efficiencies of different dead calorimeter (°C); Te3:exhaust gas temperature at
state temperatures using alternative fuels in a four outlet from calorimeter (°C); T0: ambient air
strokes, single-cylinder, diesel engine [13]. The temperature (°C) [21,22].
results obtained were shown that exergetic efficiency Total heat loss to be consisting of cooling water and
increased as dead state temperature decreased. The radiation heat is determined by Eq. (6). Thermal
combustion process is the most important stage efficiency of the control volume (energy percentage),
during IC engine operation and modeling of ήth, is usually determined as the ratio of the power
combustion in a realistic way is very important for output (net work) to the fuel energy input and
exergetic computations. determined by Eq.(7).
In this study, the First and Second Laws of
Qth = Qf − ( Pe + Qex ) (6)
thermodynamics are employed to analyze the quantity
and quality of energy in a four-stroke, single-cylinder, Useful output Pe Pe
ηth = = = (7)
air cooled, 5 kW capacity direct injection diesel Energy input Qf mf LHV
engine using diesel oil fuel and bio-gas as biogas
2.2 Exergy Analysis
fuel. Performance parameters of the engine for each
Unlike energy, the value of exergy depends on the
fuel, namely the brake specific fuel consumption, fuel
state of the environment as well as the state of the
energy, brake thermal efficiency, heat and exhaust
system. Therefore, exergy is a combination property.
losses, fuel exergy, exergetic efficiency, exergy loss
The exergy analysis of thermal systems is performed
accompanying heat loss, exergy loss accompanying
to improve energy source utilization by determining
the exhaust gas, and exergy destroyed in the engine,
the order of exergy destructions and losses in the
were computed and compared with each other.
processes and components of the system and then by
reducing them. In principle, four different type of
2.1. Energy Analysis
exergy can be identified. These are denoted,
Most transient-flow processes can be modeled as a
respectively, as kinetic, potential, physical and
uniform flow process. With the purpose of
chemical exergy, viz.: The specific flow exergy of a
simplifying the first law calculations of the test
fluid stream (e) is obtained from this sum, Eq. (8).
engine, the following assumptions were made; the
However, exergy is the sum of the thermo
engine operates at steady-state, the whole engine
mechanical, (etm = ePot + ekin +ephy), and chemical
including the dynamometer, is selected as a control
exergies. etm and ech are thermo mechanical and
volume, the combustion air and the exhaust gas each
chemical exergies, respectively. Thermo mechanical
forms ideal gas mixtures and potential and kinetic
exergy is defined as Eq. (9)
energy effects of the incoming and outgoing fluid
streams are ignored. After these assumptions, fuel e = e pot + ekim + e phy + ech = etm + ech (8)
energy rate to the control volume is given by Esq. (1)
etm = h − h0 − T0 ( s − s0 ) (9)
Q = m f LHV (1)
Where h and s are flow enthalpy and flow entropy
Where LHV is the lower heating value (kJ/kg) and mf per unit mass at the relevant temperature and
is the mass flow rate of fuel (kg/s), respectively. pressure, respectively, while h0 and s0 stand for the
Effective power of the engine is determined by corresponding values of these properties when the
Equation 2 or 3. fluid comes to equilibrium with the reference
Pe = 200 z10−3 ( kW ) (2) environment. The specific chemical exergies of liquid
fuels can be evaluated from the following expression
2π nM e −3
Pe = 10 ( kW ) (3) on a unit mass basis. [18]
60  h o s h 
Where z is the number 200W bulbs and ω, Me and n f = 1.0401 + 0.1728
e ch + 0.0432 + 0.2169  1 − 2.0628   LHV
 c c c c 
represent to angular velocity (rad/s), engine torque (10)
(Nm), and engine speed (rpm), respectively. After h, c, o, and s are the mass fractions of H, C, O, and S,
that brake specific fuel consumption, bsfc, can be respectively. Chemical exergies of diesel fuel
calculated by following relation. (C16H34) and biogas (CH4+CO2 + H2S) were
mf computed using this equation.
bsfc = 3600 ( kWh ) (4)

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN2249–8974

Thermo mechanical exergy of an ideal gas mixture at can be evaluated from the ratio of the power output to
the temperature T and pressure p and containing n the fuel exergy input [19,20].
components is; E f = m f echf (Fuel exergy)
  0 p 
etm = ∑ai hi (T ) − hi (T ) − hi (T0 ) − T0 s (T ) − s (T0 ) R ln 
 T0 
i =1   p0  EQ = 1 −  Q
s  T 
∑(Heat exergy)
Where ai is the coefficient of the component i in the Ew = W = Pe (Work exergy) (14)
reaction equation, s0 is the absolute entropy at the W ork exergy E W xergy destroyed E
hII = = w = 1− = 1− d
standard pressure (kJ/kmol-K), and R is the universal W xergy spplied Ef fuel exergy Ef
gas constant (8.314 kJ/kmol-K). On the other hand, (15)
assuming the ideal solution assumption is valid; the 3. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
specific chemical exergy for a multi component The Bio-gas can be used in C.I. engine as a dual fuel
stream can be calculated as, and improves engine performance. The bio-gas can
y  be introduced in the engine with air during induction
ech = RT0 ∑ ai ln  ei  (12) stroke and small quantity of diesel oil (5-10%) is
i =1  yi  injected towards the end of compression, to initiate
where yi is the molar ratio of the ith component in the the combustion of the gas-air mixture [11]. The
exhaust gas and yi is the molar ratio of the ith reduction of diesel oil in the engine would reduce the
component in the reference environment. The exergy smoke in the engine exhaust and power would be
balance relation below can be stated as the rate of brought unto full rating by the introduction of gaseous
exergy change within the control volume during a fuel into the intake air.
process is equal to the rate of net exergy transfer When bio-gas is used as fuel, external means is
through the control volume boundary by heat, work, required to initiate combustion as the diesel engine
and mass flow minus the rate of exergy destruction compression ration will not be sufficient to ignite the
within the boundaries of the control volume. And mixture because of high ignition temperature of bio-
finaly, exergy rate balance relation is given by Eq. gas [15]. Therefore, this is achieved by retaining the
(13). diesel injection equipment on engine and bio-gas is
 T0  admitted into the engine along with air during suction
∑  1 −
s T
 Q cv − W cv +

e− ∑m
e − E d estro yed = ∆ E system
stroke. Bio-gas is also compressed along with air
(13) during compression stroke. At the end of compression
And Ed = T0 S gen stroke, small quantity of diesel is injected as pilot fuel
which initiates combustion of bio-gas [15]. The bio-
∑ me − ∑ me
in out
Energy transfer by mass gas as fuel enters the engine as gas. It displaces the
intake air which results in a lower volumetric
Wcv Energy transfer by work efficiency. As the gas mixes uniformly with air, there
is no starting problem.
 T0 
∑ 1 − T  Q
Energy transfer by heat The specific type of single cylinder diesel engine
used in this experiment. Setup of the experimental
T indicates the absolute temperature at the location engine is illustrated in Fig. 1 and its specifications are
on the boundary where the heat transfer occurs. The listed in Table 1. The test engine was completed with
its own cooling system. There was no modification of
terms of ∑m e and ∑m e show the rate of the engine, apart from installing a gas mixer upstream
in out of the air inlet duct. The test engine was coupled to an
exergy entering and leaving the control volume alternator acting as a variable load system. 200W
accompanying the fuel stream, respectively. Finally, bulbs series used as load on alternator ultimately on
Ed represents the rate of exergy destroyed in the engine. Various instrument and gauges were
control volume due to irreversibilities. When employed to obtain different measurements. The
computing the rate of exergy transfer accompanying engine speed was measured by a digital tachometer.
heat transfer, it was assumed that Qcv is rejected into Thermocouples and digital thermometers were used
the ambient air from the boundary having the same to measure inlet air and exhaust temperatures as well
temperature as the engine coolant exiting the engine as coolant and cylinder wall temperatures. Air and
block. Inserting values for the exergy transfers biogas flow rates were regulated and measured by
accompanying heat, mass flow, and power transfers, means of an orifice mass flow meter and a Chemed
the rate of exergy destruction in the engine can be biogas meter, respectively. The fuel consumption rate
determined by the Eq. (14). Also, exergetic was determined gravimetrically, and relative humidity
efficiencies are useful for distinguishing means for and ambient temperature were monitored by a Dwyer
utilizing energy resources that are thermodynamically humidity meter. Biogas used in the tests was supplied
effective from those that are less so. Exergetic from a local swine farm. It was stored in a closed,
efficiencies also can be used to evaluate the collapsible rubber dome from where it was fed to the
effectiveness of engineering measures taken to engine intake port. Prior to entering the engine,
improve the performance of a thermal system. biogas was passed through a condensation trap and a
Finally, the exergetic efficiency of the engine Eq.(15) gas treatment unit to remove moisture and react with
traces amounts of sulfur compounds present in

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN2249–8974

biogas. Its compositions were regularly monitored. was lower than the diesel oil by 30%. Due to these
They were 62% CH4, 30% CO2, 6% N2, 2% O2 with reasons, the bsfc for the diesel-biogas dual fuel
some traces of H2S. The biogas was also analyzed for engine were higher than that of diesel engine.
its properties along with diesel obtained from a local 4.3 Brake thermal efficiency (bthe)
commercial retailer. These are shown in Table 1. The bthe of diesel engine obtained for different
proportion of bio-gas, in general, reduced with the
increasing proportion of bio-gas. The maximum bthe
were 27.50% as compared to 28.25% for diesel oil.
The variations in bthe between various proportions of
bio-gas at full load conditions was less than those at
part loads due to the increased fuel burnt at higher
loads. Energy conversion efficiencies in both fuelling
modes were comparable. This may be a result of
higher heat release rate and shorter combustion
duration with duel fuel mode, making the in cylinder
peak pressure closer to TDC, a more effective cycle
leading to lower exhaust gas temperature especially at
lower speeds.
Fig.1. Setup of the engine test rig 4.4 Exhaust gas temperature (EGT)
Table1. Engine specifications In general the EGT increased with increase in engine
Engine Single Cylinder Diesel engine loading for all the fuels proportion tested. The mean
Type Inline, 4-stroke, naturally aspirated temperature increased linearly from 250 0C at no load
Combustion Direct injection, compression ignition
Number of cylinder 1
to 380 0C at full load conditions with an average
Bore 95 mm increase of 15% with every 25% increase in load.
Stroke 90 mm This increase in exhaust gas temperature with load is
Displacement 638 cm3 obvious from the simple fact that more amount of fuel
Rated power 5.0 kW at 1450 rpm was required in the engine to generate that extra
Maximum torque 33 nm at 1450 rpm
power needed to take up the additional loading. The
Compression ratio 18:1
Injection timing 150 BTDC exhaust gas temperature was found to increase with
Governor type Mechanical, variable speed the increasing proportion of bio-gas. The exhaust gas
Cooling system water cooled temperature was lower than that in diesel oil fuelling
Table2. Properties of tested fuels at all test speeds, especially at the low speed range.
Properties Diesel Bio-gas As the combustion takes place closer to TDC in low
Heating value (MJ/kg) 42.10 27.50 speed, a larger fraction of the fuel energy is converted
Cetane number 50 minimum -
to work. This leads to lower exhaust gas temperature
Specific gravity @ 150 C 0.830 0.0012
Viscosity @ 400 C (cSt) 3.34 - and hence the loss of energy brought by exhaust gas
Pour point (0C) 0 - decreased.
Sulfur content (% wt.) 0.037 0.12 4.5 Energy and loss energy values
Ash (%wt.) 0.001 <0.001 The fuel energy values, Qf, entering the engine with
4. RESULTS BASED ON PREVIOUS each fuel and losing energy values (heat transfer and
RESEARCH exhaust losses). The biogas fuel provided slightly less
4.1 Engine performance energy to the engine than diesel oil to give the same
The engine performance with bio-gas was evaluated power output of 5 kW. Because the Lower Heating
in terms of brake specific fuel consumption, brake Value, LHV, of the biogas (27500 kJ/m3) is 34.67%
thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature at lower than the LHV of diesel oil (42100 kJ/kg), a
different loading conditions of the engine. lower amount of fuel energy is required to produce
4.2 Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) this output power. Finally, fuel energy is directly
The brake specific fuel consumption for usage of bio- proportional with the lower heating value of the fuel
gas results in 34.67% higher than that of diesel fuel and thus the fuel energy entering the engine for the
engine at full load with 10% of pilot diesel fuel diesel-biogas dual fuel is lower than the diesel fuel.
injection. The bsfc, in general, was found to increase The operation with diesel-biogas dual fuel results in
with increasing proportion of bio-gas and decreases higher rate of heat transfer from the engine. When the
sharply with increase in load. The main reason for engine is fuelled with diesel-biogas dual fuel, it
this could be that percent increase in fuel required to rejects approximately 4.9% higher rate of heat into
operate the engine is lass than the percent increase in the atmosphere, compared to diesel oil. The use of
brake power due to relatively less portion of the heat diesel-biogas dual fuel yields lower CO and unburned
losses at higher loads. Brake specific fuel HC concentrations in the exhaust gas and this is also
consumption (bsfc) is the ratio between mass of fuel attributable to the promotion of better combustion
consumption and effective power. Specific fuel with biogas in combustion chamber in dual fuel
consumption when using a diesel-biogas dual fuel is mode. Therefore, a higher rate of total energy in the
expected to increase by around 35% in relation to the forms of heat and work is transferred from the engine
consumption with diesel fuel. In other words, the loss in the operation with diesel-biogas dual fuel mode.
of heating value of bio-gas must be compensated with Finally, because the engine power output is the same
higher fuel consumption. The heat content of bio-gas for the each fuel, the exhaust loss is a function of only
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN2249–8974

the difference between fuel energy input and the heat The first-law and second-law efficiencies are similar
loss energy from the engine and also this result in in characteristics but different in magnitude. The first-
higher heat transfer rates from the engine for diesel- law efficiency is higher for biogas because of same
biogas dual fuel mode [6]. Also, the variation in brake power and great fuel energy input with biogas.
exhaust temperatures can be attributed to the increase It is seen that the fuel exergy inputs of diesel and
in thermal efficiency and/or the decrease in the biogas fuels are 6.1% and 6.8% higher than the
combustion temperatures. The increase in thermal corresponding fuel energy inputs. At the same time,
efficiency means that a larger portion of combustion exergetic efficiencies of the engine also follow similar
heat has been converted into work and therefore trends with the brake thermal efficiencies. Since the
lower exhaust temperatures can be expected. In engine uses a higher amount of fuel exergy compared
addition to this, due to high concentrations of HC and to the fuel energy values for the same fuels, the
CO in the exhaust gas, the operation with diesel fuel exergetic efficiencies are 6.8% and 6.2% lower than
yields the higher exhaust energy loss (approximately the corresponding brake thermal efficiencies.
10%), compared to diesel-biogas fuel mode. 4.4 Energy and Exergy Distributions for the
This indicates the engine’s ability to convert chemical Tested Fuels
energy to mechanical energy. The engine operation Breakdown of the fuel energy for diesel, and biogas
diesel-biogas dual fuel yields approximately 2.4% fuels are presented in Fig. 1. In the diesel fuel
lower thermal efficiency compared to diesel fuel. operation, because of the higher exhaust temperature
Brake thermal efficiency is the ratio of brake power the energy loss accompanying the exhaust gas is
to the fuel energy input and because of same brake higher than in biogas fuel. Consequently, for the same
power and great fuel energy input with biogas. power output, operation with biogas yields higher rate
4.3 Fuel Exergy, Heat Loss Exergy, Exhaust of heat transfer from the engine. Breakdown of the
Exergy and Exergy Destruction fuel exergy belonging to the test fuels are seen in Fig.
Since the specific fuel exergy is aligned to the lower 2.
heating value, the fuel exergy values for the either
fuel are sustain a similarity to the fuel energy values.
However, it is seen that the fuel exergy inputs are
approximately 6.6% and 7.2% higher than the diesel Heat loss
Exhaust loss
and diesel-biogas dual fuel energy inputs, 37%

respectively. Since exergy loss accompanying heat

loss from the engine is proportional to the rate of heat
rejection. One item, which needs to be mentioned, is
the fact that heat transfers create all the more
irreversibilities, as the temperature difference of the Br ake loss
transferring surfaces is significant. So to maximize
exergy transfer during heat transfer, temperature gap
needs to be low. The higher the temperature of the
engine surface, higher the heat loss, the higher the
exergy loss accompanying it. For the diesel and
diesel-biogas dual fuels calculation results show that Exhaust
7.31% and 6.48% of the fuel exergy input is lost loss Heat l oss
34% 38%
manner the heat transfer from the engine,
respectively. The exergy loss due to the exhaust gas
and concentrations of CO and HC in the exhaust gas
can be decreased by reducing the exhaust gas Br ake l oss
temperature. There is some improvement in operation 28%

with biogas. Exergy is not conserved, and the

irreversible processes in the engine, such as
combustion, heat transfer, mixing, friction, etc., Fig.2. Energy distribution for the tested fuels.
destroy a significant fraction of the fuel exergy. Due
Exergy loss
to the rate of exergy destroyed in the engine increases due t o heat
with increasing the combustion temperature, this loss
exergy destruction can be reduced by preheating the Exhaust
Application of Energy and Exergy Analyses to a CI 16%

Engine combustion air and by reducing the amount Exer gy

Dist r ibut io
of excess air. However, the higher temperatures may 51%

result in higher heat transfer which will remove the

Br ake wor k
available energy. Also, if not utilized, the higher 26%

availability will be expelled with the exhaust gases.

Furthermore, another consideration would be the
potential for higher nitric oxide (NOx) formation rates
at these higher temperatures.
4.4. Exergetic Efficiency Values and Energy
Distributions for the Tested Fuels

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compression ignition engine operated with pilot diesel

loss due
fuel and natural gas. Energy Convers Mange
to heat
loss 9. Satbir S, Kong S.-C., Rolf DR, Sundar RK, Midkiff KC.
Exhaust 8% Modeling and experiments of dual-fuel engine
exergy Exergy
combustion and emissions. SAE 2004-01-0092; 2004.
17% Distributi 10. Selim, M. Y. E. (2004). Sensitivity of dual fuel engine
o combustion and knocking limits to gaseous fuel
47% composition. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol.
45, pp. 411-25.
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w ork
performances of a lean burn cogeneration biogas engine
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exergy analyses to a CI engine using biodiesel fuel”
The diesel-biogas dual fuel mode produced lower
14. A Text book on “Engineering Thermodynamics” by
energy conversion efficiency; which was offset by P.K.Nag
large replacement of diesel and induction air by 15. A Text book on “Internal Combustion Engine” by
biogas. In this study, test engine was operated at Domkunwar
steady-state without modifications to engine or 16. Report of Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy
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order. In addition to these results, this study reveals
that a combined energy and exergy analysis provides
a much better and more realistic answer. Bio-gas
premixed charge diesel-biogas dual fuelling for the
engine produced almost no performance deterioration
at all test speeds.
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